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Therapeutic and dietary management of colibacillosis in calves.

Introduction

Calf diarrhoea is a multi-factorial disease complex characterized by increased frequency, fluidity or increased volume of faecal excretion in calves caused by excessive osmotic pressure in intestine, intestinal damage caused by several organisms leading to malabsorption, toxins produced by organisms or excessive contractions of intestines (Lorenz, 2006). There are many infective causes of diarrhoea in calves which lead to progressive dehydration, electrolyte loss and metabolic acidosis (Mitchel et al., 1992). Microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, rotavirus, corona virus and Cryptosporidium spp. causes diarrhoea in neonates (Stoltenow and Vincent, 2003) which are collectively responsible for 75-95% of infection in neonatal calves world wide (Hansa et al., 2012). Escherichia coli are the most common causative agent of calf diarrhoea (Gyles, 1994) with possibility of cross infections in men, animals and birds (Baruah et al., 2011).

The treatment of infectious diarrhoea in calves with specific antimicrobial therapy alone offers limited efficacy, if supportive therapies for correction of fluid, electrolyte and acid base imbalances as well as energy deficits are not administered. The present study had been undertaken to evolve effective therapeutic and dietary measures against it.

Materials and Methods

Rectal swabs of diarrhoeic calves were subjected to cultural examination for E. coli (Fig 1-2). The detailed investigations of each diarrhoeic calf about clinical signs were recorded (Fig. 3-4). The clinical scores (0-3 basis) for faecal consistency, clinical depression and dehydration were recorded as per Walker et al. (1998). The diarrhoeic calves were divided in 5 groups (Six calves in each) for therapeutic trial (Table 1). Ciprofloxacin was given as an antimicrobial @ 3 mg/kg b wt parenterally (Inj. Cflox (a)) and /or 8 mg/ kg b wt orally (Tab. Cflox Tz (a)) for 3-5 days. Composition of ORS was based on wHo formula for humans and was modified for calves as per their therapeutic requirement keeping in the mind earlier reports. Ringers lactate was administered @ 25 ml/kg b wt i.v. alongwith the 7.5 % sodium bicarbonate 1 ml / kg b wt i.v. Rice bran was mixed with broken barleygrains in equal amount and boiled in water. After cooling, the mixture was fed @ 300 gm per calf in divided doses daily.

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Therapeutic trial was evaluated on basis of improvement in clinical profile. The statistical analysis of data was done using statistical methods described by Snedecor and Cochran (1994).

Results and Discussion

Diarrhoeic calves shown variable response to different therapeutic regimens in terms of period of recovery and achieving normal health. The clinical parameters viz. rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, faecal consistency, clinical depression and dehydration were recorded on 0 day (before treatment) 3rd, 5th and 7th day (after treatment).

1. Ciprofloxacin orally + ORS (Group I)

The clinical parameters viz. rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, faecal consistency, clinical depression and dehydration returned to almost normal on 7th day after treatment. Significant improvement was observed in faecal consistency score, clinical depression score and clinical dehydration score from 0 day to 7th day after treatment and these parameters could hardly returned to complete normalcy on 7th day after treatment. It was revealed that diarrhoeic calves in group I showed recovery only on 7th day after treatment.

2. Ciprofloxacin parenterally + Parenteral fluid with Sodium bicarbonate (Group II)

The increased values of clinical parameters returned to normal on 5th day post treatment. Significant improvement was observed in clinical depression score and clinical dehydration score from 0 day before treatment to 5th day after treatment but faecal consistency could hardly become normal on 7th day post treatment. Thus clinical recovery was achieved on 7th day after treatment.

3. Ciprofloxacin orally + ORS + Rice bran mixed with Barley broken grains (Group III)

There was non-significant variation in rectal temperature, heart rate and respiration rate of diarrhoeic calves under treatment in group III on 0 day (before treatment) and 5th day and 7th day (after treatment). There was marked improvement in faecal consistency score, clinical depression score and clinical dehydration score from 0 day (before treatment) to 7th day (after treatment). The faecal consistency became completely normal on 5th day post treatment whereas clinical depression and dehydration score were little bit elevated on 5th day and became normal on 7th day after treatment.

4. Ciprofloxacin parenterally + Parenteral fluid with sodium bicarbonate + Rice bran mixed with barley broken grains (Group IV)

Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, faecal consistency, clinical depression and dehydration showed significant differences before and after treatment. The elevated values of these parameters were completely normal on 5th day post treatment.

It was revealed that all clinical parameters returned to normal on 5th day after treatment in group IV in response to therapeutic and dietary management.

5. Ciprofloxacin orally + Ciprofloxacin parenterally + Parenteral fluid with Sodium bicarbonate + Rice bran mixed with broken barley grains (Group V)

There was significant difference in rectal temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, faecal consistency, clinical depression and dehydration before and 3rd day after treatment. The increased values of these parameters completely returned to normalcy on 3rd day after treatment in response to therapy with Ciprofloxacin orally, Ciprofloxacin parenterally, parenteral fluid with sodium bicarbonate and Rice bran mixed with broken barley grains.

The interpretation of results in respect to evaluation of five therapeutic and dietary regimens is based on analysis of data among different treatment groups. It was clearly indicated that recovery from diarrhoea was observed in all five treatment groups suggestive of effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin (Inj. Cflox and Tab Cflox Tz) in treatment of calf diarrhoea but there was variation in different groups as far as faster recovery was concern. Out of group I (Ciprofloxacin orally with ORS) and II (Ciprofloxacin parenterally and parenteral fluid with sodium bicarbonate), diarrhoeic calves in group II showed better recovery than group I. Like-wise in between group III (Ciprofloxacin, ORS and Rice bran mixed with barley broken grains) and IV (Ciprofloxacin parenterally, parenteral fluid with Sodium carbonate and rice bran mixed with barley broken grains), diarrhoeic calves in group IV showed complete recovery from disease on day 5th post treatment than group III. Better clinical recovery in group II diarrhoeic calves than group I diarrhoeic calves as well as group IV diarrhoeic calves than group III diarrhoeic calves, indicated that parenteral fluid therapy as supporting treatment was superior in terms of faster recovery than oral rehydration fluids. It is attributed due to the fact oral rehydration therapy provided slow rehydration as compared to parenteral fluid therapy.

Like-wise comparing the response of treatment in group II and IV as well as group I and III, faster recovery was observed in group IV and III, respectively. It was concluded that dietary management in the form of rice bran mixed with barley broken grains was responsible for faster recovery in respective groups.

The comparison of response of therapy in group II and III revealed that response of treatment was almost similar in both groups which again highlighted importance of rice bran mixed with barley broken grains as dietary management of diarrhoeic calves. The group III therapy had advantage of being easy and convenient in respect of administration.

The response of therapeutic regimen in group V diarrhoeic calves (Ciprofloxacin orally, Ciprofloxacin parenterally, Parenteral fluid with Sodium bicarbonate and rice bran mixed with barley broken grains) was found outstanding than any other groups.

It was concluded that best therapeutic response was evoked with the use of Ciprofloxacin orally, Ciprofloxacin parenterally, Parenteral fluid with sodium bicarbonate and rice bran mixed with barley broken grains. Complete clinical recovery was observed on 3rd day post therapy in this group and all clinical parameters returned to normal on 3rd day after treatment. Effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin in treatment of bacterial diarrhoea has also been reported by Tikoo and Soodan (2009) and Kumar et al. (2010). Antimicrobial treatment of diarrheic calves should be focused against E. coli in small intestine and blood, the two sites of infection by oral and parenteral administration, respectively. It revealed that use of Ciprofloxacin as an antibiotic, supportive therapy in form of parenteral fluid (Ringer's lactate with Sodium bicarbonate) and dietary management in form of feeding of rice bran mixed with barley broken grains was responsible for better therapeutic response in group V than other groups. The importance of correcting dehydration in diarrhoeic calves by supportive therapies comprising of intravenous fluid has also documented by Roy and Fernandes (2007), Tikoo and Soodan (2009), Kumar et al. (2010) and Mir et al. (2010). The fluid replacement as quickly as physiologically possible is required. Further resuscitation by use of oral electrolyte solution alone is slower than that achieved by intravenous administration of fluid because the gastrointestinal tract can accommodate only a limited fluid at a time. It was the reason for better therapeutic response in parenteral therapy than oral fluid therapy. Ringer's lactate solution has been used as a supportive therapy to treat associated acidosis and electrolyte imbalance in calf diarrhoea (Walker et al., 1998 and Alone et al., 2000). Ringer's lactate produced good effects due to instant replenishment of electrolytes and energy in body that has lost due to diarrhoea.

The bicarbonate in ORS as well as with Ringer's lactate has potential to immediately neutralize metabolic acidosis associated with diarrhoea. Booth and Naylor (1987) observed that electrolyte solution with bicarbonate helped in restoration of acid base balance and corrected depression better than electrolyte solution without bicarbonate. Geishauser and Thunker (1997) concluded that administration of 1.3 % Sodium bicarbonate solution was useful to help diarrhoeic calves regain suckling reflex and ability to stand.

The use of rice starch mixed with barley flour with good results in cases of diarrhoea in calves has been documented previously by Sena and Pandey (2005). The mechanism of action of rice bran with broken grains of barley is difficult to explain in view of scanty literature. The mode of action of barley feeding may be attributed to hypoxanthine available in barley grains which is reported to have demulcent, bitter tonic and astringent activity. The starch present in rice bran is also demulcent and refrigerant. This property of rice starch is utilized during convalescence from dysentery (Nadkarni, 2000).

References

Alone, S.A., Kolte, A.Y, Sadekar, R.D., Mode, S.G. and Joshi, M.V. (2000). Comparative efficacy of different rehydration therapies in restoring electrolyte imbalances in diarrhoeic dehydration. Indian Vet. J. 77: 124-26.

Baruah, S., Borah, P. and Sharma, R.K. (2011). Prevalence of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animals and man. Indian Vet. J. 88:9-10.

Booth, A.J. and Naylor, J.M. (1987). Correlation of metabolic acidosis in diarrhoeic calves by oral administration of electrolyte solutions with or without bicarbonates. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191:62-68.

Geishauser, T. and Thunker, B. (1997). Metabolic acidosis in diarrhoeic neonatal calves- treatment using isosmolar sodium bicarbonate solution. Praktische Tierarzt 78: 595-00.

Gyles, C.L. (1994). Escherichia coli. In: Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals. 2nd edition, International Book Distributing Co., p.164-87.

Hansa, A., Rai, R.B., Yaqoob Wani, M. and Dhama, K. (2012). ELISA and RT-PCR based detection of bovine coronavirus in northern India. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7:1120-29.

Kumar, B.K., Shekher, P. and Kumar, N. (2010). A clinical study on neonatal calf diarrhoea. Intas Polivet 11: 233-35.

Lorenz, I (2006). Diarrhoea of the young calf--An update. Paper presented in XXIV World Buiatrics Congress, Nice, France. http:/www.ivis.org.

Mir, N., Shukla, P.C., Baghel, R.P.S., Dixit, P. and Saroori, A.R. (2010). Haemato-biochemical profile of diarrhoeic calves. Vet. Pract. 11: 66-68.

Mitchel, A.R., Brooks, H.W., White, D.G. and Wagstaff, A.J. (1992). The comparative effectiveness of three commercial oral solutions in correcting fluid, electrolyte and acid base disturbances caused by calf diarrhoea, Br. Vet. J. 148: 507-22.

Nadkarni, K.M. (2000). Indian Materia Medica Vol. I Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India.

Roy, K. and Fernandes, C.E. (2007). Pathophysiological significance of variation in serum electrolyte concentration during clinical enterocolibacillosis and response to remedial therapy in bovine neonates. Intas Polivet 8:153-55.

Sena, D.S. and Pandey, N.N. (2005). Comparative therapeutic evaluation of oral electrolyte solutions in calf diarrhea. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 75: 511-12.

Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical methods, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.Stoltenow, C.L. and Vincent, L.L. (2003). Calf scours--causes, prevention and treatment. nDsU extension service, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota.

Tikoo, A. and Soodan, J.S. (2009). Colibacillosis in neonatal calves and its management. Intas Polivet 10: 212-13.

Walker, P.G., Constable, P.D., Morin, D.E., Foreman, J.H., Drackley, J.K. and Thurmon, J.C. (1998). Comparison of hypertonic saline-dextran solution and lactated ringer's solution for resuscitating severely dehydrated calves with diarrhoea. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 213:113-22.

S.K. Sharma (1) and Monika Joshi (2)

College of Veterinary and Animal Science

Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (RAJUVAS)

Vallabhnagar

Udaipur--313601 (Rajasthan)

(1.) Associate Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary Medicine and Corresponding author. E-mail: drshivsharmavet@rediffmail.com

(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Nutrition

(a) --Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
Table 1: Different therapeutic regimens

Group   Therapeutic / Dietary agent

I       Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole
        (Tab C-Flox Tz (a)) Orally + ORS

II      Ciprofloxacin parenterally+Parenteral
        fluid with Sodium bicarbonate

III     Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole
        (Tab C-Flox Tz (a)) orally + ORS + Rice bran
        mixed with broken barley grains

IV      Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole
        (Tab C-Flox Tz (a)) parenterally + Parenteral
        fluid with sodium bicarbonate + Rice
        bran mixed with broken barley grains

V       Ciprofloxacin orally + Ciprofloxacin
        parenterally + Parenteral fluid with sodium
        bicarbonate + Rice bran mixed with broken
        barley grains
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Sharma, S.K.; Joshi, Monika
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
Words:2258
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