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Therapeutic Management of Ear Sores in Buffaloes.

Abstract

A total of 132 buffaloes with history of pruritis, ulceration and exudation from ears were examined for ear sores. Flies were seen on body of all animals. Lesions were more concentrated around ears (132/132) with papular or pustular eruptions, exudation, excoriation, incrustation, alopecia, de-pigmentation and nodules. Ear lesions were more unilateral (94/132) as compared to bilateral (38/132). Distribution of other lesions were around eyes (25/132), on wither (16/132), teat and udder (9/132) of affected buffaloes. Impression smears and scrapings were collected from ears and other body lesions for diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from 10 ear sores affected buffaloes and 6 healthy buffaloes for haemato-biochemical parameters. Impression smear revealed microfilaria, whereas scrapings revealed some microfilarial stages of Stephanofilaria. It was confirmed as filiaria by expert and suggested for further investigations. Hemogram showed absolute eosinophilia. Biochemical parameters showed significant increase in globulin, whereas TPP, albumin showed significant decrease as compared to healthy buffaloes.

Keywords: Buffalo; ear sore; filarial dermatitis; ivermectin; treatment

Introduction

Ear-sore in buffaloes is caused by filarids of genus Stephanofiliaria transmitted by vector flies Musca conducens (Srivastava and Dutt, 1963). There are more than 9 species of Stephanofiliaria across the world. Stephanofiliaria zaheeri is recognized as common species responsible for causing ear sores in buffaloes (Agrawal and Dutt, 1977). High morbidity of around 70-80% has been reported from endemic areas. Stephanofilariasis is responsible for huge economic losses in term of reduced draught power, delayed puberty and prolonged inter calving period (Rai et al., 2010). The present communication reports ear sores in buffaloes caused by filiaria.

History and Diagnosis

A total of 132 buffaloes (20 at university clinics and 112 from villages near to university) were examined for ear sores with history of pruritus, ulceration and exudation from ears. All animals had normal physiological parameters. Inspection revealed large number of flies on body and around eyes and scratching of ears and eyes with foot. Lesions were more concentrated around ears (132/132) with papular/pustular eruption, exudation, excoriation, incrustation, alopecia, de-pigmentation and nodules. Patnaik (1964) also reported similar type of lesions in ear sores affected buffaloes. Unilateral ear lesions were present in ninety four (94/132) buffaloes as compared to bilateral (38/132). Lesions were also noticed around eyes (25/132), on wither (16/132), teat and udder (9/132) of some animals. Skin lesions developed due to proliferation of mast cells and increase in chymase and tryptase activity in body of ear sore affected buffaloes (Noviana et al. 2004). Impression smears were collected from ear lesions and stained by Giemsa stain. Scrapings were collected from ears and other body lesions in 10% KOH and Normal saline solution for demonstration of any mange/mites and stages of Stephanofiliaria. Blood samples were collected from 10 ear sores affected buffaloes and 6 healthy buffaloes for haemato-biochemical parameters.

Impression smear revealed some microfilaria. Skin scraping in KOH found negative for mites whereas scrapings in normal saline on centrifugation and sediment revealed some microfilarial stages of Stephanofilaria.

Treatment and Discussion

All animals were treated with Ivermectin @ 200[micro]g/kg b.wt. S/C along with application of Povidone Iodine and fly repellants. Simultaneously, ear sores developed in form of outbreak in buffaloes of many villages were treated with ivermectin as it assured good results and complete recovery in earlier cases cases. Sathish et al., (2015) reported successful clinical management of ear sores in buffaloes of Tamil Nadu with Ivermectin.

Photos of clinical lesions, impression smears and skin scrapings were mailed to one of pioneer worker for confirmation of Stephanofilaria. Expert views revealed that it is definitely some filiaria but not Stephanofiliaria and needs further investigation. Unfortunately, further investigations could not be made due to disappearance of ear sores in buffaloes and no case of similar nature was detected and noticed later.

Hemogram of ear sores affected buffaloes revealed non significant difference in values of Hb, PCV and TEC, However, DLC showed absolute eosinophilia compared to healthy buffaloes. Biochemical parameters of ear sores affected buffaloes showed non-significant difference in values of BUN, AST, ALT and ALP as compared to healthy buffaloes. Globulin showed significant increase, whereas TPP, albumin showed significant decrease as compared to healthy buffaloes. Decrease in TPP and albumin could be attributed to loss of proteins in exudation from ears, eyes and other body lesions and increase catabolism of proteins (Radostitis et al., 2000). It seems to be first report of ear sores in buffaloes of Jammu.

References

Agrawal, M.C. and Dutt, S.C. (1977). Chemotherapy of Stephanofilaria zaheeri infection in dairy buffaloes.Indian Vet. J. 54: 77-79.

Noviana, D., Harjanti, D., Otsuka, Y. and Horii, Y. (2004). Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of racoon dogs. J.Compar. Patho. 131: 28-37.

Patnaik, M.M. (1964). A note on bubalin stephanofilariasis in Orissa. Indian Vet. J. 41: 462-66.

Radostits, O.M., Blood, D.C., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C. and Hinchkliff, K.W. (2000). Veterinary Medicine. 9th Edn., ELBS Bailliere Tindal, London, p. 563-18.

Rai, R.B., Srivastava, N., Jaisunder., Kundu, A. and Jeykumar, S. (2010). Stephanofilariasis in bovines: Prevalence, control and eradication in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Ind. J. Ani. Sci. 80: 500-05.

Sathish, G., Prabhu, M., Vedamanickam, C., Suresh, C. and Murugan, K. (2015). Clinical Management of ear sores infection in buffaloes. Indian Vet. J. 92: 88-90.

Srivastava, H.D. and Dutt, S.C. (1963). Studies on the life history of Stephanofilaria assamensis, the causative parasite of humpsore of Indian cattle. Indian J. Helmintho. 19: 81-86.

R.K. Bhardwaj (1) and R. Singh (2)

Division of Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (SKUAST) R.S. Pura Jammu - 181102 (Jammu and Kashmir)

(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail: sonu7800@gmail.com

(2.) Professor
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Bhardwaj, R.K.; Singh, R.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2016
Words:966
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