The yield response and quality of potato as aeroponics technology results towards methanol and gliricidia sepium leaf extract in medium plain.
Background: Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) development centers are located in the highlands (1000 m above sea level), however the potatoes planting in the highlands have some problems continually, such as erosion, limited area, and high production costs. Therefore, the extending steps of potatoes development directed to medium plain ([+ or -]500 m asl). Objective: The research objective was to study potato's production and quality response of granola varieties towards the concentration of methanol and gliricidia leaf extract in medium plain. Results: The results showed that the methanol concentration of 15% gave the best effect in increasing the production of potatoes, namely: an increase in the number of tubers/plant from 11.71 into 15.43 fruit, tuber weight/plant from 278.40 into 326.97 g, diameter of the bulb 3.84 to 3.97 cm, and tuber production from 18.56 tons/ha to 21.85 t/ha. Methanol concentration of 15% gave the best effect in improving the quality of bulbs, which the carbohydrate content from 17.91 into 19.54 g/100 g, tuber hardness 3.54 to 3.67 Psi and lowering the tuber water content of 76.37% tubers to 74.25%. Conclusion: Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 500 ml/l increase tuber/plant weight of 293.07 into 329.77 gram and tuber production of 19.57 into 21.85 tones/ ha. It is concluded that the application of methanol concentration of 15% and Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/1 increase the potato's production and quality of granola varieties. Methanol concentration level affects the yield parameters and the quality of potato tuber varieties of Granola as linear way.
KEYWORDS: Potato, Aeroponics, Methanol, Gliricidia sepium, Medium Plain
National potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) seed availability is far from adequate, only [+ or -]10% of 120,000 tons/ha needs (including imported), therefore the impact on productivity is only 12 tons/ha of 40 tons/ha potential . The weakness of seed systems, the high risk of failure due to Plant Pest Organisms (PPO) and low mastery of production technology are the main problems of the low national potato production . These cause the national potato seed demand depends largely on imports.
The strategies being developed to accelerate self-sufficiency of national potatoes seed is propagation by tissue culture methods with early detection system for pathogens, ELISA and PCR and rapid propagation of cuttings to the cuttings, and continued with the development of aeroponic technology. Aeroponic system superiorities are higher production, more continuous than the conventional planting, and does not depend on natural conditions or season [3,4].
Potato development centers in South Sulawesi are located in the highlands (above 1000 m asl). This is due to high production of potato if grown in environments with low temperatures about 17-20[degrees]C [5, 6] and the optimum temperature of tuber formation is 18[degrees]C [7,8]. Potatoes planting in the highlands have some problems continually, such as erosion, the decline of soil productivity, limited area, and high production costs. Therefore, the extending steps of potatoes development need to be directed to medium plain (300-800 m asl) which areas are larger than a plateau. However, potatoes planting in medium plain deal with the problem of high temperature because the potatoes are very sensitive to high temperature stress [6,9], causing the high photorespiration (high C[O.sub.2] release) which leads to the rate of photosynthesis is low , inhibiting the growth of bulbs (11, 12,13]. As a result, the formed tubers are few and small . The result of previous research showed that the potatoes which were developed in locations with high temperatures produce a lower number of tubers [15,16], and there is a change of morphological characters because of the plant metabolism process inhibition .
The issue was resolved by using methanol that can supply C[O.sub.2] into the leaf cells, therefore it can offset the loss of C[O.sub.2] in the process of photorespiration [17,18]. The result of initial research in medium plain (500 m above sea) which was conducted in a greenhouse by Muhibuddin et al. , showed that 10% methanol spraying every week on potato increased potato production by 30% compared with no methanol. Moreover, in order to stimulate the growth and overcome the problems of pests attack and potato diseases, natural ingredient from gliciride leaf extract is applied. For recent years, chemical substances were used to produce microtubers of potato, such as, CCC (Chlorocholine Chloride), BAP (Benzene Amino Purine) and Coumarin .
Gliricidia sepium (Leguminosae family) contains coumarin compounds that have potential as a material for inducing micro bulbs replace chemicals substance , as an organic fertilizer , containing nitrogen which are quite high . The preliminary research by Muhibuddin et al.  showed that the extract of Gliricidia sepium leaves 300 ml/l generated plants and potato tubers were free from pests and diseases with the highest tuber production (23.5 ton/ha). Besides, Gliricidia sepium leaves can be applied as a pesticide plant [24,25,26], inducing the tuber development [27,28], and nitrogen to the soil fertility [29,30]. However, the ability of methanol and gliricidia leaf extract increase the production and quality of potato tubers in the medium plain still needs to be tested further.
The purpose of the research is to study the potato yield and quality response of granola varieties towards methanol concentration and Gliricidia sepium leaf extract. The results of this study are expected to contribute in the development of Plant Physiology Sciences as well as to increase the yield and quality of potatoes in plain medium with the use of methanol and Gliricidia sepium leaf extract.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted from June until October 2016 at the location of Horticultural Seed Center, Ulu Ere District, Bantaeng Regency, South Sulawesi on medium plain ([+ or -]500 m asl), which is one of potato development centers in South Sulawesi. The study was conducted to test the aeroponic technology results of granola varieties in the field using a split plot design model. In the main plot, without Gliricidia sepium leaf extract (0 ml/l) and Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l. The second factor is the concentration of methanol which consists of: without methanol (0%), 5%, 10% and 15%). From both of these two factors obtained eight treatment combinations. Each combination treatment was repeated thrice, hence there are 24 units of study. The number of plants per unit of study is 100 plants, thus the total is 2400 plants. Each research unit was observed/measured 10 plants as sample, therefore the total number samples are 240.
The land was cultivated until depth loose (25-30) cm, then leveled, cleaned and made waterways with the width 30 cm. After cultivating, Basamid sterilization was done by sowing on the ground with dose 40 g/m, stirred with a hoe until be spread evenly. The plots research making were 24 plots. Each plot sizes (1.6 x 5) m which was repeated thrice, the seedbed height is 30 cm and 40 cm for the distance between plots. Then the ground was covered by tarpaulins for two weeks. While waiting for the land was ready for planting, the sterilization of manure with Basamid-G was conducted. When would be planted, tarpaulins were opened and the plots were sprinkled by sterilization manure with dose 2 kg/[m.sup.2]. After one week left, the fertilization was conducted those were 40 g ZA/m, 60 g SP-36/m, and 20 g KCl/m.
Tubers planting was done with a row spacing (50 x 30) cm. Harvesting was done after the plant was [+ or -] 90 days by plant stems trimmed as high as 5 cm from the ground and left for 10 days so that the tubers skin were not easily scratch at harvest.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Number of Tubers:
The application of Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l produced the number of tuber which are not significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table 1). 15% methanol produced the highest number of tubers (15.43 fruits) and significantly different than the concentration of 0% and 5%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 10%. In Figure 1a showed that the relationship between methanol concentration (x) and the number of tubers (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y= 1.227x +9.945;R(2)=0,9745 and 300ml/l, y=1.221x + 11.065; R(2)=0.9744. The enhancement of methanol concentration until 15% can increase number of tuber. It is happened because methanol got oxidation in increasing the photosynthesis rate of potato and suppressed the photorespiration due to an increased C[O.sub.2], leaves intern, which enable ribulose diphosphate-carboxylase compared with ribulose diphosphate-oxidase [17,18,]. The biomass improvement of C3 plant (including potatoes) through the mechanism in Figure 1 below:
According to  photorespiration occur because the concentration of C[O.sub.2] decreased and [O.sub.2] concentrations increased in the mesophyll leaf. Thus, the increase of C[O.sub.2] concentration and [O.sub.2] concentrations emphasizing in the mesophyll leaf caused [O.sub.2] is less able to compete with the C[O.sub.2] in obtaining Rubisco enzyme and substrate of RuBP thereby it was gainful for the Carboxylase of RuBP happened compared RuBP Oxygenase. The benefit of C[O.sub.2] increase on crop production is a combination from some of the effects processes that occur in plants that support the increase of crop production .
The Weight of tubers per plant:
The applications of Giricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l produced tuber weight per plant were higher and significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table1). 15% methanol produced the highest tuber weight (326.97 gram) and significantly different from the concentration of 0% and 5%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 10%. In Figure 1b showed that the relationship methanol concentration (x) and the number of tubers (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y= 15.089x +255.35; R(2)=0.968 and 300ml/l, y=16.575x +286.33; R(2)=0.6492. The high of tuber weight by Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l treatment due to gliricidia leaves contain nitrogen which are quite high . In plant tissues, nitrogen is an essential element of many important compounds in plant metabolism . Nitrogen deficiency will limit cell enlargement and cell division , Gliricidia sepium leaves containing N and P respectively about 3.5% and 0.3% [23,29].
The enhancement of methanol concentration until 15% can increase the weight of tubers per plant, it correlated with the resultant of the photosynthesis process, respiration, and translocations. Glucose that formed from the photosynthesis net is converted to fructose or combined to form sucrose, then sucrose next to the cell wall that is enlarging and in the cells it is transformed into structural components such as cellulose. Assimilate distribution that spread to every root causes the competition in obtaining assimilates from source to sink (tuber) higher, because the weight of tubers affected by the number and diameter of the bulbs during the generative growth of potato plants .
Diameter of Tuber:
The applications of Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l produced tubers diameter that was not significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table 1). 15% methanol produced the highest tuber diameter (3,97cm) and significantly different than the concentration of 0%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 5% and 10%. In Figure 1c showed that the concentration of methanol (x) and diameter tubers (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y=0,9846x +3.75; R(2)=0.9846 and 300ml/l, y=0.063x + 3.836; R(2)=0.9072. Tuber formation process is the establishment of a network storage activity at the bottom of the plant, namely stolon, while the tuber formation process is a continuation process of stolon formation, it was started since the tuber formation and followed by the storage of assimilate until it reached the number and specific size [32,33]. According to  tuber development begins with the increasing of C[O.sub.2] assimilation by up to threefold compared to when the tubers have not been established. Assimilation which is translocated into the bulbs can reach twofold from assimilates amount which were used by parts of the plant above the roots of potato plants .
Tuber formation process can be defined as the activity of the network storage establishment in the lower parts of plants called stolon, while the process of tuber development is a continuation of the stolon formation process, it started since tubers were formed and followed by the storage of foodstuffs through these tubers reach the number and specific size .
Yield of tubers per hectare:
The applications of gliricidia leaf extract 300 ml/l produced tubers yield per hectare higher and significantly different than 0 ml/l (Table 1). The 15% methanol produced the highest tuber yield (21.85 tons/ha) and significantly different than the concentration of 0%, but not significantly different from the concentration of 5% and 10%. In Figure 1d showed that the relationship between methanol concentration (x) and the yield of tubers per hectare (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y=1.038x +16.97; R(2)=0.9709 and 300ml/l, y=1.105x +19.09; R(2)=0.6495. The height of tuber yield per hectare with the treatment of 300 ml/l because Gliricidia sepium leaves contain 11.93% moisture, 9.50% ash, 33.00% crude protein, crude lipid 16.50%, 27.60% carbohydrate and 52.42% is the part that can be digested. According to , Gliricidia sepium leaves contain moisture 11.96%, ash 12.09%, 19.92% crude protein, crude lipid 2.34%, 42.65% carbohydrate and 69.69% is the part that can be digested. The leaves that fall to the ground can cause a foul odor caused by the presence of coumarin compounds.
The yield increase of potatoes per hectare in accordance with the increase of tubers number, tubers diameter, and tuber weight (Table 1) due to the high rate of photosynthesis in the treatment of methanol 15% because of the internal C[O.sub.2] increase within the mesophyll leaf. Potato yield increased parallel with the photosynthesis rate increase. This is in line with Salisbury and Ross's statement that the ability of plants to do photosynthesis will determine the amount of plant accumulated assimilate that stored as an assimilate backup in the form of tubers . The effect of 15% methanol and 300 ml/l Gliricidia sepium leaf extract showed the highest value on the number of tubers, tubers diameter, tubers weight and tubers production. Thus, there was an increase of assimilate that will be used as a source of energy for growth and production. The effects of various concentrations of methanol to potato production cannot be separated from the physiological activity of the potato plant, especially photosynthesis. Photosynthesis activity determines growth and yield of potato. The Mueller et al. research result  shows that the effect of nutrients on plant growth depends on both the concentration of C[O.sub.2] and plant species.
Correlation Analysis between the Yield and the Potato Tubers Quality Parameters:
In Table 3 showed that there was a real correlation between yield components and the quality of tubers, such as the number of tubers is positively correlated with tuber weight (r=0,981), the diameter of the bulbs (r=0.984), the yield of tubers per hectare (r=0.981) and negatively correlated to the water content of the tuber (r = -0.933 ), etc.
The applications of Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l produced carbohydrate content that was not significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table 1). 15% methanol produced the highest carbohydrate content tubers (19.54 g/100 g) and significantly different from the concentration of 0%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 5% and 10%. In Figure 2a showed that the relationship between methanol concentration (x) and the number of tubers (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y= 0.51x +16.95; R(2)=0.889 and 300ml/l, y=0.496x + 18.065; R(2)=0.9287. The enhancement of methanol concentration until 15% can increase the carbohydrate content of tubers compared with the other treatments (Table 2). The carbohydrate content increase due to the methanol concentration 15% was able to increase the carbohydrate metabolism process of potato plant, due to C[O.sub.2] internal increase as a result of the methanol treatment. C[O.sub.2] is the main raw material of photosynthesis that produces carbohydrates (starch, pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose) . In addition, C[O.sub.2] is an essential element because it is a part of the carbohydrate, protein and fat .
Tubers Water Content:
The applications of Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l produced tuber water content that was not significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table 1). Methanol 15% produced the lowest tuber water content (74.25%) and significantly different from the concentration of 0%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 5% and 10%. In Figure 2b showed that the relationship between methanol concentration (x) and the number of tubers (y) were negatively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y= -0.741x +76.4; R(2)=0.9419 and 300ml/l, y= -0.838x + 78.22; R(2)=0.907. The treatment of methanol 15% produced the lowest tuber water content (74.25%) and significantly different from 0%, and 5%. 15% methanol concentration resulted in the lowest water content than other treatments. The percentage of dry matter determines the content percentage of tubers water content. This is related to the accumulation of assimilates/dry matter in tubers that were determined by the accumulation total of dry matter assimilate in tubers. According to Moorby, , besides the light intensity factor and nutrient availability, the crucial factor which really determines physiology plant process is photosynthesis, respiration, and other metabolisms, which will affect the balance of source and sink on plants that will affect the content of water.
The applications of Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l produced bulbs hardness that was not significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table 2). 15% methanol produced the highest tuber hardness (3,67Psi) and significantly different from the concentration of 0%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 5% and 10%. In Figure 2c showed that the relationship between methanol concentration (x) and the number of tubers (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y= 0.032x +3.45; R(2)=0.9846 and 300ml/l, y= 0.063x + 3.535; R(2)=0.9072. The treatment of 15% methanol produced the highest tuber hardness (3,67Psi) and significantly different from 0%, but not significantly different from the 5% and 10%. 15% methanol application is able to produce the highest tuber hardness than other treatments. The high of tuber hardness is correlated with the increase of carbohydrate content in potato tubers. This is happened because carbohydrate is the main compiler of the cell wall which consist of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and other polysaccharides as reinforcement between the cells in the potato tubers .
Skin Thickness of Tubers:
The applications of gliricidia leaf extract 300 ml/l produced tuber skin thickness that was not significantly different from 0 ml/l (Table 2). 10% and 15% methanol produced the highest tuber skin thickness (0.30 mm) and significantly different from the concentration of 0%, but not significantly different from a concentration of 5%. In Figure 2d showed that the relationship between methanol concentration (x) and the number of tubers (y) were positively correlated linearly with the formula for the treatment of 0 ml/l, y= 0.008x +0.260; R(2)=0.8000 and 300ml/l, y= 0.011x + 0.265; R(2)=0.6914. The treatment of 10% and 15% methanol produced the highest tuber skin thickness (0.30 mm) and significantly different from 0%, but not significantly different from 10%. It is related with the increase of tubers carbohydrate content (Table 2) which carbohydrate is a cell wall compiler which consists of hemicellulose and cellulose that accumulates in the cell walls of the tubers skin of. According to permadi  tuber skin (periderm) of potato composed by 6-10 cell layers in the square shape without cavity between cell and the cell wall undergo suberisasi. The cells in the outer layers of the bulb (epidermis) slit towards the tubers, while the cells in a layer beneath the epidermis (hypodermic) divide outwards with increasing carbohydrate content of tubers, a layer of cells that divide is called phellogen [36,37]. The cells which newly formed (phellem) will become a compiler component of periderm (bark) and also experienced suberization .
The 15% methanol concentration showed the best effect in increasing the yield of potato tubers which include: the number of tubers, tuber weight, diameter of tubers and tuber yield/ha. The concentration of 15% methanol also improves the quality of tubers include: carbohydrate content, tubers hardness, and tubrs skin thickness and lower the water content of tubers. Gliricidia sepium leaf extract 300 ml/l showed the best effect in increasing the tuber weight in planting and tuber tuber per hectare. Methanol concentration level affects the yield parameters and the quality of potato tuber varieties of Granola as linear way.
The authors thank to the Directorate for Research and Community Services, the Directorate General of Education Strengthening Research and Development, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education on financial aid for research schemes National Strategic Research Fiscal Year 2016.
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(1)Andi Muhibuddin, (2)Suryawati Salam, (3)Zulkifli Razak, and (4)Jeferson Boling
(1,4) Agrotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bosowa University, Jl.Urip Sumohardjo Km. 4 Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
(2,3) Sosial Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bosowa University, Jl.Urip Sumohardjo Km.4 Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Address For Correspondence:
Andi Muhibuddin, Agrotechnology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bosowa University, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo Km.4 Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Received 3 October 2016; accepted 1 January 2017; published 3 January 2017
Table 1: Number of tubers per plant, weight of tubers per plant, diameter of the bulb, and tuber yield per hectare in the treatment of methanol and Gliricidia senium leaf extract. Parameters G. sepium Leaf Methanol Concentration Extract [M.sub.0] (0%) Number of Tuber [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 11,01 (fruit) [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 12,12 Average 11,71(c) Weight of Tuber (g) [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 267,50 [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 289,30 Average 278,40(c) Tuber Diameter(cm) [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 3,78 [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 3,90 Average 3,84(b) Tuber Yield (ton/ha) [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 17,83 [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 19,29 Average 18,56(b) Parameters Methanol Concentration [M.sub.1] (5%) [M.sub.2] (10%) Number of Tuber 12,75 13,41 (fruit) 13,86 14,52 13,60(b) 14,06(ab) Weight of Tuber (g) 290,65 299,19 333,05 349,73 311,85(b) 324,46(ab) Tuber Diameter(cm) 3,82 3,84 3,94 4,06 3,88(ab) 3,96(a) Tuber Yield (ton/ha) 19,38 19,95 22,20 23,32 20,79(ab) 21,64(a) Parameters Methanol Concentration [M.sub.3] (15%) Average Number of Tuber 14,88 - (fruit) 15,97 - 15,43(a) Weight of Tuber (g) 314,95 293,07y 338,99 327,77x 326,97(a) Tuber Diameter(cm) 3,88 - 4,07 - 3,97(a) Tuber Yield (ton/ha) 21,10 19,57y 22,60 21,85x 21,85(a) Note: Values followed by different letters in the same rows and same columns are significantly different at 5% DMRT. Table 2: Carbohydrate content, Water content of tubers, Tuber hardness, and Tuber skin thickness of potato plant in the treatment of methanol and Gliricidia sepium leaf extract. Parameters G. sepium Leaf Methanol Concentration Extract [M.sub.0] (0%) Carbohrydrate [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 17,30 Content (g/100g) [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 18,52 Average 17,91(b) 18,53(ab) Water Content [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 77,69 tubers (%) [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 75,44 Average 76,37(b) 75,(75ab) Tuber hardness [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 3,48 (Psi) [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 3,60 Average 3,54(b) 3,58(ab) Tuber skin [G.sub.0] (0 ml/l) 0,27 thickness(mm) [G.sub.1] (300 ml/l) 0,27 Average 0,27(b) 0,28(ab) Parameters Methanol Concentration [M.sub.1] (5%) [M.sub.2] (10%) [M.sub.3] (15%) Carbohrydrate 18,07 18,76 18,77 Content (g/100g) 18,99 19,81 19,90 19,29(a) 19,54(a) Water Content 76,24 75,42 75,17 tubers (%) 75,25 74,17 73,33 74,80(a) 74,25(a) Tuber hardness 3,52 3,54 3,58 (Psi) 3,64 3,76 3,77 3,66(a) 3,67(a) Tuber skin 0,27 0,29 0,29 thickness(mm) 0,29 0,31 0,30 0,30(a) 0,30(a) Note: Values followed by different letters in the same columns are significantly different at 5% DMRT Table 3: Correlation analysis matriks between yield and quality of tubers parameters Parameter NT TW DT YTH CC NT 1 0.981 (**) 0.984 (**) 0.981 (**) 0.979 (**) TW ...... 1 0.951 (**) 0.932 (**) 0.941 (**) DT ...... ...... 1 0.996 (**) 0.999 (**) YTH ...... ...... ...... 1 -0.997 (**) CC ...... ...... ...... ...... 1 WCT ..... ...... ...... ...... ...... TH ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... TST ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... Parameter WCT TH TST NT -0.933 (**) 0.964 (**) 0.962** TW -0.845 (*) 0.919 (**) 0.919** DT -0.953 (**) 0.923 (**) 0.919** YTH -0.976 (**) -0.941 (**) -0.936** CC -0.957 (**) 0.918 (**) 0.914** WCT 1 0.937 (**) 0.932** TH ...... 1 0.998** TST ...... ...... 1 Note: (*) = significant, (**) = highly significant, Number of Tubers (NT), Tuber Weight (TW), Diameter of Tuber (DT),Yield of Tubers per Hectare (YTH), Carbohydrate Content (CC), Water Content Tubers (WCT), Tuber Hardness (TH), and Tuber Skin Thickness (TST).
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|Author:||Muhibuddin, Andi; Salam, Suryawati; Razak, Zulkifli; Boling, Jeferson|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2017|
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