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The vascular flora of Brown County, Nebraska.

Brown County, located in north-central Nebraska contains several native vegetation types including sand hills mixed- grass prairie, gravelly mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forests/savannas, sand hills-borders/mixed-grass prairie, upland deciduous forest, and wet lands. The Nebraska Sand Hills, which make up approximately 80% of Brown County, cover about 20,000 square miles of the state. This study reports a total of 726 plant species, subspecies, and varieties for Brown County, representing 105 families and 358 genera. Fourteen new county records were collected. A list of the vascular flora for Brown County is given and an index of similarity is used to compare Brown County to Banner, Dixon, Keith, and Seward Counties. The Niobrara River, which begins in Wyoming and flows 800 km east through Nebraska before it joins with the Missouri River, forms the northern border of Brown County. The river valley contains a rich flora, including many species that are unique within Nebraska. A possible explanation for the relatively high plant diversity of the area is that postglacial forests in the valley serve as a transition zone that supports species with both western and eastern affinities.


The earliest records of plant collections in Nebraska date back to 1803, when Lewis and Clark explored the state. Since then, numerous floristic studies have been done for Nebraska, but most were completed during the 20th century. The first attempt to compile a comprehensive plant list for Nebraska was made by Samuel Aughey with the Catalogue of the Flora of Nebraska in 1876 (Kaul and Rolfsmeier 1994). The most recently published botanical treatment of Nebraska is The Flora of Nebraska by Kaul, Sutherland, and Rolfsmeier, 2006.

Brown County, Nebraska, is located in north-central Nebraska. Its land area is 316,238 Ha (1,221 square miles). Several native vegetation habitats exist in the county (Kaul and Rolfsmeier 1993). Sand Hills mixed-grass prairie makes up most of the vegetation. The Sand Hills' soil is made of fine, loosely consolidated sands forming large dunes. Forbs, bunchgrasses, and rhizomatous grasses are common, and vegetation is sparse compared to tall-grass and mixed-grass prairies (Kaul 1989). An area of gravelly mixed-grass prairie is found in the north-central part of the county. The soil is infertile, well drained, and a mixture of sand and gravel. Vegetation is very sparse. Ponderosa pine forests and savannas surround the Niobrara River Valley and Long Pine Canyon. Finally, there are a few pockets of Sand Hills-borders mixed-grass prairie located in the central and south central parts of the county, containing a mixture of sandhills and sandsage species (Kaul et al. 2006). Several lakes, marshes, and meadows, which are an important natural resource of the Sand Hills, are located throughout the county (Ducey 1991). The Niobrara River forms the north border of the county, while the Calamus River flows from Moon Lake, in western Brown County, to eventually empty into the Calamus Reservoir in Loup County (Bridge and Gabel 1992).

Because of Nebraska's size (200,357 [km.sup.2] [77358 [mi.sup.2]) and geography, many Nebraska counties have not been botanically explored in detail. Some counties have been well documented; especially those with nearby universities or colleges, but others have not been as well collected. Although there are many publications on the vascular plants of Nebraska, such as The Flora of Nebraska, fieldwork continues to reveal new species for Nebraska counties. The purpose of this study was to survey the vascular plant species of Brown County, Nebraska, and to generate a comprehensive species list for the county that compiles species collected by the authors and those that have previously been reported in the literature. Rare or unusual species are noted, as well as any previously unrecorded species.

The Nebraska Sand Hills, which comprise most of Brown County, cover about 20,000 square miles of the state, making them one of the largest grass-covered dune regions in the world (Bleed and Flowerday 1989, Converse et al. 2002, Kaul et al. 2006). These dunes have been stable for 1500-3000 years (Weller et al. 2000). Since the area is unsuitable for farming, much of it is unplowed and used for cattle grazing. About 600 species of native plants grow in the Sand Hills, which is a large number of plants for a sand dune region (Kantak 1995, Kaul et al. 2006). Warm-season grasses, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), and sand bluestem (Andropogon gerardii subsp, hallii) comprise between 60% and 90% of the primary productivity of the upland region. Cool-season grasses, such as orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) and smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and sedges such as short-beak sedge (Carex brevior) comprise between 10% and 40% (Volesky et al. 2005). Wet meadows, located in the broad, flat areas between sand dunes, make up 10% of the Sand Hills' area. Plants that dominate wet meadows include native sedges and rushes along with introduced cool-season grasses and legumes (Volesky et al. 2004). The eastern edge of the Sand Hills is subhumid, with a yearly average of 59 cm of precipitation, while the western edge is semiarid with a yearly average of 43 cm of yearly precipitation. Most precipitation occurs between April and September (Sridhar et al. 2006).

The Niobrara River, which begins in Wyoming and flows 800 km east through Nebraska before it joins with the Missouri River, forms the north border of Brown County (Gutzmer et al. 1996). The river valley is rich with plant species, many of which are unique for Nebraska (Tolstead 1942). The Pine Ridge, located in northwest Nebraska, and the Niobrara River Valley are the only locations across the modern grasslands where boreal, eastern deciduous, and non-riparian features of the Rocky Mountains come together. A possible reason for the plant distribution of the area is that it results from postglacial forests in the valley. Some species, such as dodder (Cuscuta gronovii), field grapefern (Botnychium campestre), and wild columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) may have migrated from the east after deglaciation. Others, such as pale evening primrose (Oenothera latifolia), sprangie-top (Scolochloa festucacea), and nothern gooseberry (Ribes oxyacanthoides subsp, setosum) may have migrated from the west as the climate became more arid (Kaul et al. 1988). The Niobrara River Valley introduces species to Brown County that are uncommon to most Sand Hills counties. Examples of some of these species include harebell (Campanula rotundifolia), large-flowered tick-clover (Desmodium glutinosum), Kentucky bluegrass, alkali bluegrass (Poa juncifolia), wild columbine, woods bedstraw (Galium circaezans var. hypomalacum), prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum), prairie alumroot (Heuchera richardsonii), and sedges, such as bristle-leaf sedge (Carex eburnea) and Rocky Mountain sedge (Carex saximontana), (Kaul et al. 2006). Paper birch (Betula papyrifera) is a very unusual Sand Hills county species. The bark of the mature trunk and branches is white, lending to its common name. It is a northern species and the next nearest populations are in the Black Hills and Pine Ridge (Johnsgard, 2001). Brown County is one of only four Nebraska counties in which the species has been recorded.

The Niobrara Valley Preserve covers 219 [km.sup.2] in Cherry, Keya Paha, and Brown County, along a 50km stretch of the Niobrara River (Kantak and Churchill 1993). Several plant communities are found within the preserve such as Rocky Mountain pine forest, eastern deciduous forest, paper-birch forest, tall-grass prairie, mixed-grass prairie, and Sand Hills prairie. Five hundred eighty-one species of vascular plants are found there, which is almost one-third of the total number of plants found in Nebraska. Two reasons for the unique plant communities in the preserve are: 1) hydrologic and pedologic conditions created by the surface and subsurface geology, which allow for plant richness; and 2) Pleistocene and post-Pleistocene climates that have made it possible for co-occurrence of several plant communities (Churchill et al. 1988, Reece et al. 2004).


Twenty-one sites in Brown County were used for plant collection (Table 1). These sites included 3 locations in Long Pine State Recreation Area, 4 locations at the Nature Conservancy's Niobrara Valley Preserve in the Niobrara River Valley, 2 locations in Keller State Recreation Area, 4 locations in hay meadows, 3 locations in sandhills mixed-grass prairies, and 5 locations in roadside ditches. A Global Positioning System ((c) Garmin) was used to identify the location of each site. Plants were collected throughout the 2008 growing season with collecting trips during the spring and summer (late May, early July, and the middle of September). Plants were collected to observe the overall diversity of the county, as well as to identify any rare or previously unrecorded species for the county. After plants were collected, photos were taken of each plant, and they were pressed and dried in a plant press. Nomenclature follows The Flora of Nebraska (Kaul et al. 2006). Books and botanical guides by Aichele and Golte-Bechtle (1976), Bare (1979), Brown (1979), Haddock (2005), McCoy (1981), and Owensby (1980) were used to assist in plant identification. A vascular plant species list was made for Brown County compiling species collected by the first author with species reported for Brown County in The Flora of Nebraska (Kaul et al. 2006). JACCARD's index of similarity (ISJ = common species/all species x 100) was used to compare Brown County to Banner, Dixon, Keith, and Seward Counties (Ellenberg and Mueller-Dombois 1974). These counties represent different geographical locations throughout Nebraska and contain different native vegetation types than Brown County (Kaul et al. 2006).


Results and Discussion

The number of plant species, subspecies, and varieties for Brown County totals 726 (Appendix). There are 105 families, with Poaceae as the largest (Table 2), and 358 genera. The Flora of Nebraska (2006) compiled all known species for Brown County from numerous botanical sources. Despite the increased botanical attention concentrated within the Niobrara River Valley, this study added 14 new county records to the list of plants known to Brown County. Most are common throughout Nebraska, but were overlooked in Brown County. One new species, blue scorpion grass (Myosotis stricta), is previously known for Nebraska only in Cass County (Kaul et al. 2006).

Brown County plant species were compared to four other counties using JACCARD's index of similarity. Keith County is located just east of the Nebraska panhandle (Figure 1). Cedar Point Biological Station is located there, which makes it of considerable interest to botanists. The land is divided mainly into rangeland and cropland (Rolfsmeier 1989). The North Platte and South Platte Rivers traverse the entire county from west to east. The northern third of the county is sandhills mixed-grass prairie.

Loess mixed-grass prairie and Sand Hills bordering mixed-grass prairie make up most of the southern part of the county, with a mosaic of mixedgrass and shortgrass prairie in between the North and South Platte Rivers (Kaul et al. 2006). The Flora of Nebraska (2006) reports 645 species for Keith County. The index of similarity (ISJ) between Keith County and Brown County (50.4%) was the highest of the representative counties that were compared to Brown County (Table 3).

Seward County, which is located in southeastern Nebraska, had a percentage of similarity with Brown County of 39.1% (Figure 1, Table 3). The Big Blue River and the west fork of the Big Blue River run through the county. It is almost entirely upland tallgrass prairie, with a few small pockets of upland deciduous forest (Kaul et al. 2006). The Flora of Nebraska (2006) reports 613 species for Seward County.

Dixon County is located in northeast Nebraska (Figure 1), where the Missouri River forms its northern border. Like Seward County, it is made up almost entirely of upland tallgrass prairie. Loess mixed-grass prairie, upland deciduous forest and riparian deciduous forest surround the Missouri River (Kaul et al. 2006). Its percentage of similarity with Brown County is 35.1% (Table 3). The Flora of Nebraska (2006) reports 439 species for the county.

Banner County is located in the southwestern part of Nebraska's panhandle (Figure 1). A mosaic of mixed-grass and shortgrass prairie make up most of the county, with an area of sandhills borders/mixedgrass prairie spreading across the northern part of the county. An area of ponderosa pine forests and savannas also occurs in the northern part of the county (Kaul et al. 2006). Its percentage of similarity with Brown County is 31.9 % (Table 3). The Flora of Nebraska (2006) reports 435 species for the county.


Brown County's rich plant diversity results from a combination of factors. These include the dissimilar plant communities that are represented in the county (Sand Hills mixed-prairie, mixed-grass prairie, ponderosa pine forests and savanna, riparian and upland hardwood deciduous forests and wet meadows), and the Niobrara Valley, which represents an east-west transition zone between montane forests of the west and eastern deciduous forests that enter the plains along the Missouri River. Plant and animal species with both northern and southern affinities are found here. With 726 reported plant species, the flora of Brown County has been comprehensively documented. This exceptional amount of botanical attention could be a result of extensive study and environmental impact statements that were completed for the region beginning in the 1970's (U.S. Department of the Interior 2005). While the flora of many Nebraska counties remains under-represented, this study reports 14 newly discovered species and additionally confirms the importance and significance of the flora of Brown County.
Appendix. A Complete List of Species for Brown

The Collection Site column indicates site(s) at which the species
was collected by the author [*N = new county record based on The
Flora of Nebraska (Kaul et al. 2006)]. The Flora column indicates
species not collected by the author, but reported by (Kaul et al.

                     Species                     Site(s)      Flora

    Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring                           X
  EQUISETACEAE (Horsetail Family)
    Equisetum arvense L.                            1
    Equisetum x ferrissii Clute                                 X
    Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine                            X
    (Engelm.) A. A. Eaton
    Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun                               X
    Athyrium filix femina (L.) Roth ex                          X
    Mert. subsp. cyclosorum (Rupr.) C.
    Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.                2
    Dryopteris carthusiana (Villars) H. P.                      X
    Onoclea sensibilis L.                                       X
    Woodsia oregano D. C. Eaton subsp.
    cathcartiana (B. L. Robins.) Windham
    Botrychium campestre W. H. Wagner                           X
    & D. R. Farrar
    Botrychium simplex E. Hitchcock                             X
    Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.                             X
    Thelypteris palustris Schott var.                           X
    pubescens (G. Laws.) Fernald
  CUPRESSACEAE (Cypress Family)
    Juniperus virginiana L.                                     X
  PINACEAE (Pine Family)
    Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Laws.                         X
    & C. Laws. Var. scopulorum Engelm.
  ACERACEAE (Maple Family)
    Acer negundo L.                                             X
    Acer saccharinum L.                                         X
  ADOXACEAE (Moschatel Family)
    Sambucus canadensis L.                                      X
  AGAVACEAE (Century-Plant Family)
    Yucca glauca Nutt.                              18
  ALISMATACEAE (Water-Plantain
    Alisma gramineum Lej                                        X
    Alisma triviale Pursh                                       X
    Sagittaria calycina Engelm.                                 X
    Sagittaria cuneata E. Sheld.                                X
    Sagittaria graminea Michx.                                  X
    Sagittaria latifolia Willd.                                 X
    Sagittaria rigida Pursh                                     X
    Amaranthus albus L.                                         X
    Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnston                         X
    Amaranthus blitoides S. Wotson                              X
    Amaranthus retroflexus L.                                   X
    Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Moq.                           X
    Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq.                20
  ANACARDIACEAE (Sumac Family)
    Rhus aromatica Aiton                            3
    Rhus glabra L.                                  1
    Toxicodendron radicans (L.) O.                  1
    Kuntze var. rydbergii (Small ex
    Rydb.) Erskine
  APIACEAE (Parsley Family)
    Berula erecta (Huds.) Cov. var. incisa                      X
    (Torr.) Cronq.
    Cicuta bulbifera L.                                         X
    Cicuta maculata L                                           X
    Conium maculatum L.                             6
    Cymopterus acaulis (Pursh) Raf.                             X
    Cymopterus montanus Torr. & A.                              X
    Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill.                                 X
    Heracleuni lanatum Michx.                                   X
    Lomatium orientale J. M. Coult. &                           X
    Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Nutt.                          X
    ex Torr. & A. Gray
    Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B.                          X
    Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC.                           X
    Pastinaca sativa L.                                         X
    Sanicula canadensis L.                                      X
    Sium suave Walt.                                            X
  APOCYNACEAE (Milkweed Family)
    Apocynum androsaemifolium L.                                X
    Apocynum cannabinum L.                          1
    Asclepias arenaria Torr.                                    X
    Asclepias incarnata L.                                      X
    Asclepias lanuginosa Nutt.                                  X
    Asclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail                             X
    Asclepias stenophylla A. Gray                   13
    Asclepias syriaca L.                            12
    Asclepias verticillata L.                                   X
    Asclepias viridiflora Raf.                                  X
  ARALIACEAE (Ginseng Family)
    Aralia nudicaulis L.                                        X
  ASTERACEAE (Sunflower Family)
    Achillea millefolium L.                         4
    Ageratina altissima (L.) R. King & H.                       X
    Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.                                  X
    Ambrosia psilostachya DC.                                   X
    Antennaria howellii Greene subsp.                           X
    neodioica (Greene) R. J. Bayer
    Antennaria neglecta Greene                   2, 3, 9
    Antennaria parvifolia Nutt.                                 X
    Anthemis cotula L.                                          X
    Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.                                 X
    Artemisia campestris subsp. caudata                         X
    (Michx.) H. M. Hall & Clem.
    Artemisia filifolia Torr.                                   X
    Artemisia frigida Willd.                      3, 12
    Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. var.           3, 9, 12, 19
    Aster borealis (Torr. & A. Gray) Prov.                      X
    Aster ericoides L. subsp. ericoides                         X
    Aster ericoides L. subsp. pansus (S. F.                     X
    Blake) A. G. Jones
    Aster falcatus Lindl. subsp.                                X
    commutatus (Torr. & A. Gray) A. G.
    Aster laevis L.                                             X
    Aster lanceolatus Willd. subsp.                             X
    hesperius (A. Gray) Semple &
    Aster novae-angliae L.                                      X
    Aster oblongifolius Nutt.                       20
    Aster praealtus Poir. var. nebraskensis                     X
    (Britton) Wiegand
    Bidens cemua L.                                 21
    Bidens frondosa L.                                          X
    Bidens trichosperma (Michx.) Britton                        X
    Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners                      X
    var. corymbulosa (Torr. & A. Gray)
    Centaurea cyanus L.                                         X
    Centaurea diffusa Lam.                                      X
    Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos                       X
    (S. Gmelin ex W. Gugler)
    Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng.                             X
    Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.                    19 *N
    Cirsium canescens Nutt.                                     X
    Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng.                           X
    Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist              13, 21
    Conyza ramosissima Cronquist                                X
    Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.                     13 *N
    Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt. var.                       X
    nebraskana (B. L. Turner) D. Morgan
    & R. L. Hartman
    Doellingeria umbellata (P. Mill.) Nees                      X
    var. pubens (A. Gray) Britton
    Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) A. S. Hitchc.                      X
    Echinacea angustifolia D.C.                     14
    Erigeron bellidiastrum Nutt.                                X
    Erigeron philadelphicus L.                     2, 5
    Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd.                          X
    Eupatorium maculatum L. subsp.                              X
    bruneri (A. Gray) G. W. Douglas
    Eupatorium perfoliatum L.                                   X
    Euthamia gymnospermoides Greene                             X
    Gnaphalium jaliscense Greenm.                               X
    Gnaphalium stramineum Kunth                                 X
    Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal               17
    var. squarrosa
    Helenium autumnale L.                           1
    Helianthus annuus L.                                        X
    Helianthus grosseserratus M. Martens                        X
    Helianthus maximiliani Sehrad.                              X
    Helianthus nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray                        X
    Helianthus pauciflorus Nutt. subsp.                         X
    subrhomboideus (Rydb.) O. Spring &
    E. Schilling
    Helianthus petiolaris Nutt.                     12
    Helianthus tuberosus L.                                     X
    Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet var.                     X
    scabra (Dunal) Fernald
    Heterotheca latifolia Buckley                               X
    Heterotheca stenophylla (A. Gray)                           X
    Shinners var. angustifolia (Rydb.)
    Heterotheca stenophylla (A. Gray)                           X
    Shinners var. stenophylla
    Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners            15
    var. villosa
    Hymenopappus tenuifolius Pursh                              X
    Iva xanthiifolia Nutt.                                      X
    Lactuca canadensis L.                                       X
    Lactuca ludoviciana (Nutt.) Riddell             17
    Lactuca pulchella (Pursh) DC.                               X
    Lactuca serriola L.                                         X
    Liatris aspera Michx.                                       X
    Liatris punctata Hook.                          20
    Liatris squarrosa (L.) Michx. var.                          X
    glabrata (Rydb.) F. C. Gates
    Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex                         X
    Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton             12
    & Standl.
    Rudbeckia hirta L. var. pulcherrima                         X
    Senecio integerrimus Nutt.                                  X
    Senecio plattensis Nutt.                                    X
    Senecio riddellii Torr. & A. Gray                           X
    Senecio tridenticulatus Rydb.                   11
    Shinnersoseris rostrata (A. Gray)                           X
    Solidago canadensis L.                          20
    Solidago gigantea Aiton                                     X
    Solidago missouriensis Nutt.                                X
    Solidago mollis Bartl.                                      X
    Solidago nemoralis Aiton subsp.                             X
    decemflora (DC.) Brammall ex
    Solidago rigida L.                              20
    Solidago speciosa Nutt. var.                                X
    rigidiuscula Torr. & A. Gray
    Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex              1
    F.H. Wigg
    Thelesperma filifolium (Hook.) A.                           X
    Gray var. intermedium (Rydb.)
    Thelesperma megapotamicum                       13
    (Spreng.) Kuntze
    Townsendia exscapa (Richardson)                             X
    Tragopogon dubius Scop.                        3, 4
    Vernonia fasciculata Michx.                                 X
    Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D.                 13
    Morgan & R.L. Hartm.
    Xanthium strumarium L. var.                                 X
    canadense (P. Mill.) Torr. & A. Gray
    Impatiens capensis Meerb.                                   X
  BERBERIDACEAE (Barberry Family)
    Berberis vulgares L.                                        X
  BETULACEAE (Birch Family)
    Betula papyrifera Marsh.                        6
    Corylus americana Walt.                                     X
    Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch                        X
  BORAGINACEAE (Borage Family)
    Cryptantha minima Rydb.                                     X
    Haekelia deflexa (Wahlenb.) Opiz var.                       X
    americana (A. Gray) Fernald & I. M.
    Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnst.                      X
    Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene                          X
    var. redowskii
    Lithospermum arvense L.                                     X
    Lithospermum caroliniense (Walter ex            9
    J.F. Gruel.) MacMill
    Lithospermum incisum Lehm.                   3, 4, 5
    Myosotis laxa Lehm.                                         X
    Myosotis stricta Link ex Roem. & J.            3 *N
    A. Schult
    Onosmodium molle Michx. var.                    19
    occidentale (Mack.) I.M. Johnst.
  BRASSICACEAE (Mustard Family)
    Arabes glabra (L.) Bernh.                                   X
    Arabes hirsuta (L.) Scop. var.                              X
    pycnocarpa (M. Hopkins) Rollins
    Berteroa incana (L.) DC.                     4, 12 *N
    Brassica juncea (L.) Czem.                                  X
    Camelina microcarpa DC.                         5
    Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.            3 *N
    Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.)                        X
    Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
    Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex                             X
    Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton                        X
    Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex                             X
    Draba nemorosa L.                                           X
    Draba reptans (Lam.) Fernald                                X
    Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC.                   5, 9
    Erysimum cheiranthoides L.                                  X
    Erysimum inconspicuum (S. Watson)                           X
    Erysimum repandum L.                                        X
    Lepidium densiflorum Schrader                 12, 4
    Nasturtium officinale R. Br.                    1
    Physaria ludoviciana (Nutt.) O'Kane            3, 8
    & Al-Shehbaz
    Rorippa palustres (L.) Besser var.                          X
    glabra (O. E. Schulz) Roy L. Taylor &
    Sinapis alba L.                                             X
    Sisymbrium altissimum L.                        12
    Sisymbrium loeselii L.                        4, 12
    Thlaspi arvense L.                             6 *N
  CACTACEAE (Cactus Family)
    Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet)                           X
    Britton & Rose
    Opuntia fragiles (Nutt.) Haw                    19
    Gleditsia triacanthos L.                       1 *N
    Campanula aparinoides Pursh                                 X
    Campanula rotundifolia L.                       2
    Lobelia siphilitica L.                          21
    Lobelia spicata Lam.                                        X
    Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.                           X
  CANNABACEAE (Hemp Family)
    Cannabis sativa L.                              6
    Symphoricarpos occidentales Hook.             5, 15
    Arenaria lateriflora L.                                     X
    Cerastium fontanum Baumg. subsp.                            X
    vulgare (Hartman) Greuter & Burdet
    Dianthus armeria L.                           13 *N
    Gypsophila paniculata L.                                    X
    Saponaria officinales L.                                    X
    Silene antirrhina L.                                        X
    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke                 17
    Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd.         1, 6, 15
    Stellaria media (L.) Villars                                X
  CELASTRACEAE (Bittersweet Family)
    Celastrus scandens L.                                       X
    Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.                                X
  CELTIDACEAE (Hackberry Family)
    Celtis occidentalis L.                                      X
    Ceratophyllum demersum L.                                   X
    A triplex hortenses L.                                      X
    Atriplex rosea L.                                           X
    Chenopodium album L.                            16
    Chenopodium fremontii S. Watson                             X
    Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf.                            X
    Chenopodium standleyanum Aellen                             X
    Chenopodium strictum A. W. Roth                             X
    Corispermum americanum (Nutt.)                              X
    Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng.)             20
    J.M. Coult
    Monolepis nuttalliana (Roem. &                              X
    Schult.) Greene
    Salsola collina Pallas                                      X
    Salsola tragus L.                                           X
  CISTACEAE (Rock-Rose Family)
    Helianthemum bicknellii Fernald                             X
    Lechea stricta Legg. ex Britton                             X
  CLEOMACEAE (Cleome Family)
    Cleome serrulata Pursh                                      X
    Polanisia jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray)                         X
  CLUSIACEAE (Mangosteen Family)
    Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britton                           X
    Hypericum perforatum L.                                     X
    Triadenum fraseri (Spath) Gleason                           X
    Commelina erecta L. var. angustifolia
    (Michx.) Fernald 18
    Tradescantia bracteata Small ex                 13
    Britton & Brown
    Tradescantia occidentalis (Britton)                         X
  Glory Family)
    Convolvulus arvenses L.                                     X
    Cuscuta campestres Yunck.                                   X
    Cuscuta cephalanthi Engelm.                                 X
    Cuscuta coryli Engelm.                                      X
    Cuscuta cuspidata Engelm.                                   X
    Cuscuta indecora Choisy                                     X
    Evolvulus nuttallianus J. A. Schultes                       X
    Ipomoea leptophylla Torrey                                  X
  CORNACEAE (Dogwood Family)
    Cornus sericea L.                                           X
  CRASSULACEAE (Stonecrop Family)
    Penthorum sedoides L.                                       X
  CYPERACEAE (Sedge Family)
    Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (Torrey)                          X
    Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C.                     X
    B. Clarke
    Carex atherodes Spreng.                                     X
    Carex aurea Nutt.                                           X
    Carex blanda C. Dewey                        1, 4, 5
    Carex brevior (C. Dewey) Mack. ex           4, 13, 15
    Carex comosa F. Boott                                       X
    Carex crawei C. Dewey                                       X
    Carex cristatella Britton                                   X
    Carex diandra Schrank                                       X
    Carex eburnea F. Boott                                      X
    Carex eleocharis L.H. Bailey                    9
    Carex emoryi C. Dewey                          1, 5
    Carex filifolia Nutt.                                       X
    Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd. var.                       X
    haleana (Olney) Porter
    Carex gravida L. H. Bailey                                  X
    Carex heliophila Mack.                                      X
    Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd.                           X
    Carex interior L. H. Bailey                                 X
    Carex lacustres Willd.                                      X
    Carex nebrascensis C. Dewey                                 X
    Carex oligocarpa Willd.                                     X
    Carex peckii Howe                                           X
    Carex pellita Willd.                            5
    Carex praegracilis W. Boott                     5
    Carex prairea C. Dewey                                      X
    Carex sartwellii C. Dewey                                   X
    Carex saximontana Mack.                                     X
    Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd.                            X
    Carex sprengelii C. Dewey ex Spreng.            6
    Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd.                   19
    Carex utriculata F. Boott                                   X
    Carex vulpinoidea Michx.                                    X
    Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook. ex                         X
    Cyperus bipartitus Torr.                                    X
    Cyperus diandrus Torr.                                      X
    Cyperus engelmannii Steud.                                  X
    Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl.                                 X
    Cyperus odoratus L.                             21
    Cyperus schweinitzii Torr.                    15, 18
    Cyperus squarrosus L.                                       X
    Cyperus strigosus L.                                        X
    Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton                         X
    Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. &                          X
    Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) J. Presl                    X
    & C. Presl
    Eleocharis compressa Sullivant                              X
    Eleocharis elliptica Kunth                                  X
    Eleocharis engelmannii Steud.                               X
    Eleocharis erythropoda Steud.                               X
    Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. &                           X
    Eleocharis wolfii (A. Gray) A. Gray                         X
    Lipocarpha aristulata (Coville) G. C.                       X
    Lipocarpha drummondii (Nees) G. C.                          X
    Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex                             X
    Bigelow) A. Love & D. Love
    Schoenoplectus hallii (A. Gray) S. G.                       X
    Schoenoplectus heterochaetus (Chase)                        X
    Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl) Palla             1
    Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C.                        X
    Gmel.) Palla 13
    Scirpus pallidus (Britton) Fernald                          X
  ELAEAGNACEAE (Oleaster Family)
    Shepherdia argentea (Pursh) Nutt.                           X
  ELATINACEAE (Waterwort Family)
    Elatine rubella Rydb.                                       X
  ERICACEAE (Heather Family)
    Pterospora andromedea Nutt.                                 X
    Pyrola elliptica Nutt.                                      X
  EUPHORBIACEAE (Spurge Family)
    Croton texensis (Klotzsch) Mull. Arg.                       X
    Euphorbia esula L. var. esula                   4
    Euphorbia geyeri Engelm.                                    X
    Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm.                              X
    Euphorbia hexagona Nutt. ex Spreng.                         X
    Euphorbia maculata L.                                       X
    Euphorbia missurica Raf. var.                               X
    petaloidea (Engelm.) L. C. Dorn
    Euphorbia nutans Lag.                                       X
  FABACEAE (Pea Family)
    Amorpha canescens Nutt. ex Pursh                            X
    Amorpha fruticosa L.                                        X
    Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald                         X
    Apios americana Medikus                                     X
    Astragalus canadensis L.                                    X
    Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt.                               X
    Astragalus laxmannii Jacq. var.                             X
    robustior (Hook.) Barneby & Welsh
    Astragalus lotiflorus Hook.                                 X
    Astragalus missouriensis Nutt.                              X
    Astragalus plattensis Nutt. ex Torr. &                      X
    A. Gray
    Dalea aurea Nutt. ex Pursh                                  X
    Dalea candida Michx. ex Willd. var.                         X
    oligophylla (Torr.) Shinners
    Dalea cylindriceps Barneby                                  X
    Dalea leporina (Aiton) Bullock                              X
    Dalea purpurea Venten. var. purpurea                        X
    Dalea villosa (Nutt.) Sprengel                              X
    Desmodium canadense (L.) DC.                    21
    Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl. ex                              X
    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh                      15
    Lathyrus polymorphus Nutt var.                  7
    Lespedeza capitata Michx.                                   X
    Lotus tenuis Walldst. & Kit. ex Willd.         1 *N
    Lotus purshianus (Benth.) F.                                X
    Clements & E. Clements ex Otley
    Medicago lupulina L.                            14
    Medicago sativa L. subsp. sativa                13
    Melilotus albus Medikus                                     X
    Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas               16
    Oxytropis lambertii Pursh                       10
    Pediomelum argophyllum (Pursh)                13, 19
    Pediomelum digitatum (Nutt. ex Torn                         X
    & A. Gray) Isley.
    Pediomelum hypogaeum (Nutt. ex                              X
    Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb.
    Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh)                             X
    Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh)                             X
    Robinia pseudoacacia L.                                     X
    Securigera varia (L.) Lassen                   1 *N
    Strophostyles helvola (L.) Elliott                          X
    Strophostyles leiosperma (Torr. & A.                        X
    Gray) Piper
    Trifolium hybridum L.                                       X
    Trifolium pratense L.                           14
    Trifolium repens L.                             1
    Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd. var.                        X
    minor Hook.
    Vicia villosa Roth                              12
  FAGACEAE (Oak Family)
    Quercus macrocarpa Michx.                       1
  FUMARIACEAE (Fumitory Family)
    Corydalis curvisiliqua Engelm. subsp.           9
    occidentalis (Engelm. ex A.Gray)
  GENTIANACEAE (Gentian Family)
    Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. var.                             X
    dakotica A. Nelson
    Gentiana puberulenta J. S. Pringle                          X
  GERANIACEAE (Geranium Family)
    Geranium carolinianum L.                                    X
    Geranium maculatum L.                                       X
    Geranium pusillum L.                                        X
    Ribes americanum P. Mill.                                   X
    Ribes missouriense Nutt.                       1, 2
    Ribes odoratum H. L. Wendl.                                 X
  HALORAGACEAE (Water-Milfoil
    Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov                              X
    Elodea canadenses Michx.                                    X
    Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John                      X
    Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. &                            X
    Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.)                               X
    Ellisia nyctelea (L.) L.                        1
  IRIDACEAE (Iris Family)
    Sisyrinchium montanum Greene                                X
  JUGLANDACEAE (Walnut Family)
    Juglans nigra L.                                            X
  JUNCACEAE (Rush Family)
    Juncas alpinoarticulatus Chaix                              X
    Juncas arcticus Willd. var. balticus                        X
    (Willd.) Trautv.
    Juncas brachyphyllus Wieg.                                  X
    Juncas bufonius L.                                          X
    Juncas canadenses J. Gay                                    X
    Juncas dudleyi Wieg.                            18
    Juncas interior Wieg.                           19
    Juncas longistylis Torr.                                    X
    Juncas marginatus Rostk.                                    X
    Juncas nodosus L.                                           X
    Juncas scirpoides Lam.                                      X
    Juncas torreyi Coville                                      X
    Triglochin maritima L.                                      X
    Triglochin palustris L.                                     X
  LAMIACEAE (Mint Family)
    Glechoma hederacea L.                          1, 3
    Hedeoma hispida Pursh                                       X
    Lycopus americanas Muhl. ex W.                              X
    Lycopus asper Greene                                        X
    Lycopus uniflorus Michx.                                    X
    Mentha arvensis L.                                          X
    Mentha xpiperita L.                                         X
    Monarda fistulosa L. var. mollis (L.)                       X
    Monarda pectinata Nutt.                                     X
    Nepeta cataria L.                               3
    Prunella vulgaris L. var. lanceolata                        X
    (W. Barton) Fernald
    Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) Dur.                          X
    & Jackson ex Robins. & Fernald
    Salvia nemorosa L.                                          X
    Scutellaria galericulata L.                                 X
    Scutellaria lateriflora L.                                  X
    Scutellaria parvula Michx. var.                             X
    missouriensis (Torr.) Goodman & C.
    A. Lawson
    Stachys pilosa Nutt. var. pilosa                            X
    Teucrium canadense L. var. occidentale                      X
    (A. Gray) McClint & Epling
  LEMNACEAE (Duckweed Family)
    Lemna trisulca L.                                           X
    Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.                          X
    Wolffia borealis (Engelm. ex Hegelm.)                       X
    Wolffia columbiana H. Karsten                               X
    Urticularia macrorhiza Leconte                              X
  LILIACEAE (Lily Family)
    Allium perdulce S.V. Fraser                     9
    Maianthemum canadense Desf. var.                            X
    interius Fernald
    Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott                       X
    Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf.                   1
  LINACEAE (Flax Family)
    Linum compactam A. Nelson                                   X
    Linum rigidum Pursh var. rigidum                18
    Linum sulcatum Riddell                                      X
  LOASACEAE (Stickleaf Family)
    Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A.                           X
    Gray var. stricta (Osterh.) H. D.
  LYTHRACEAE (Loosestrife Family)
    Ammannia robusta Heer & Regel                               X
    Lythrum alatum Pursh                                        X
    Lythrum salicaria L.                            21
    Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne var.                5
    interior Fernald & Grisc.
  MALVACEAE (Mallow Family)
    Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. & A.                           X
    Gray) A. Gray
    Malva neglecta Wallr.                                       X
    Malva pusilla J. E. Smith                                   X
    Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.                          X
  MARSILEACEAE (Pepperwort
    Marsilea vestita Hook. & Grev.                              X
    Menyanthes trifoliata L.                                    X
    Mollugo verticillata L.                                     X
  MORACEAE (Mulberry or Fig Family)
    Morus albs L.                                   1
  NYCTAGINACEAE (Four-o'clock
    Mirabilis hirsuta (Pursh) MacMill.                          X
    Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl                          X
  OLEACEAE (Olive Family)
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall               2, 19
  ONAGRACEAE (Evening-Primrose
    Calylophus serrulatus (Nutt.) P.H.              14
    Circaea lutetiana L. subsp. canadensis
    (L.) Asch.
    & Magnus                                                    X
    Epilobium ciliatum Raf.                                     X
    Epilobium coloratum Biehler                                 X
    Epilobium leptophyllum Raf.                                 X
    Gaura coccinea Pursh                            14
    Ludwigia polycarpa Short & R. Peter                         X
    Oenothera biennis L., sens. lat.                            X
    Oenothera laciniata Hill                        3
    Oenothera latifolia (Rydb.) Munz                            X
    Oenothera nuttallii Sweet                                   X
    Oenothera rhombipetala Nutt. ex Torr.           15
    & A. Gray
  ORCHIDACEAE (Orchid Family)
    Cypripedium candidum Muhl. ex                               X
    Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich.                                 X
    Platanthera aquilonis Sheviak                               X
    Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich.                                X
    Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak                            X
  OXALIDACEAE (Wood-Sorrel
    Oxalis dillenii Jacq.                           3
    Oxalis stricta L.                                           X
    Oxalis violacea L.                                          X
  PAPAVERACEAE (Poppy Family)
    Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.                18
  PHRYMACEAE (Lopseed Family)
    Phryma leptostachya L.                                      X
    Plantago major L.                                           X
    Plantago patagonica Jacq. var.              5, 11, 12
  POACEAE (Grass Family)
    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.                13
    Agrostis exarata Trin. subsp. minor                         X
    (Hook.) C. L. Hitchc.
    Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) Britton,                         X
    Sterns, & Poggenb.
    Agrostis scabra Willd.                                      X
    Agrostis stolonifera L.                         19
    Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.                                  X
    Alopecurus carolinianus Walter                              X
    Andropogon gerardii Vitman subsp.                           X
    Andropogon gerardii Vitman subsp.                           X
    halii (Hack.) J. Wipff
    Aristida basiramea Engelm. ex Vasey                         X
    Aristida curtissii (A. Gray ex S.                           X
    Watson & Coult.) Nash
    Aristida oligantha Michx.                                   X
    Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. longiseta                      X
    (Steud.) Vasey
    Aristida purpurea Nutt. var. robusta                        X
    (Merr.) A. H. Holmgren & N. H.
    Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.)                              X
    Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.                       X
    Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth)                        X
    Lag. ex Griffiths
    Bouteloua hirsuta Lag.                                      X
    Bromus ciliatus L.                                          X
    Bromus inermis Leyss.                      1, 4, 12, 13
    Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murr.                3
    Bromus latiglumis (Shear) A. S.                             X
    Bromus secalinus L.                                         X
    Bromus squarrosus L.                            12
    Bromus tectorum L.                            5, 12
    Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.                         X
    Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P.                        X
    Calamagrostis stricta (Timm.) Koeler                        X
    Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn.                      X
    Catabrosa aquatica (L.) P. Beauv.                           X
    Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald                        X
    Cinna arundinaceae L.                                       X
    Dactylis glomerata L.                          1, 4
    Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl.                         X
    Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.                            X
    Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene                              X
    Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv.                        X
    Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauv.)                            X
    Fernald var. microstachya Wiegand
    xElyhordeum macounii (Vasey)                                X
    Barkworth & D. R. Dewey
    Elymus canadensis L.                            1
    Elymus elongatus (Host) Runem.                13 *N
    Elymus smithii (Rydb.) Gould                    12
    Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex                         X
    Shinners subsp. trachycaulus
    Elymus villosus Muhl. ex Willd.                             X
    Elymus virginicus L.                                        X
    Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo                       X
    ex Janch.
    Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) Britton,                        X
    Sterns & Poggenb.
    Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees                         X
    ex Steud.
    Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. var.                       X
    perplexa (L. H. Harvey) S. D. Koch
    Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud.                       X
    Eragrostis trichodes (Nutt.) A. W.                          X
    Festuca subverticillata (Persoon) E.                        X
    Glyceria grandis S. Watson                                  X
    Glyceria striata (Lam.) A. S. Hitchc.                       X
    Hordeum jubatum L.                              13
    Hordeum pusillum Nutt.                          17
    Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult.           11, 14
    Leersia virginica Willd.                                    X
    Lolium perenne L. vac. perenne                              X
    Lolium pratense (Hudson) S. J.                              X
    Muhlenbergia cuspidata (Torr. ex                            X
    Hook.) Rydb.
    Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir.) Fernald                       X
    Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin.                       X
    Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.                            X
    Muhlenbergia pungens Thurb. ex A.                           X
    Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.)                              X
    Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb.
    Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr.                              X
    Oryzopsis macrantha (Trin. & Rupr.)                         X
    Panicum acuminatum Sw.                                      X
    Panicum capillare L.                                        X
    Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.                              X
    Panicum oligosanthes Schult. var.               9
    scribnerianum (Nash) Fernald
    Panicum virgatum L.                                         X
    Panicum wilcoxianum Vasey                                   X
    Paspalum setaceum Michx. var.                               X
    stramineum (Nash) D. J. Banks
    Phalaris arundinacea L.                         1
    Phleum pratense L.                            4, 17
    Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex                        X
    Poa acida Vasey                                             X
    Poa bulbosa L.                               1, 3 *N
    Poa compressa L.                                            X
    Poa interior Rydb.                              1
    Poa juncifolia Scribn.                                      X
    Poa pratensis L.                              4, 14
    Poa trivialis L.                                            X
    Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.                          X
    Puccinellia nu ttalliana (Schult.) A. S.                    X
    Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.)                           X
    Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.)                             X
    Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.)                20
    Scolochloa festucacea (Willd.) Link                         X
    Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. &                              X
    Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.                              X
    Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash                    21
    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench                                 X
    Spartina gracilis Trin.                                     X
    Spartina pectinata Link                                     X
    Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.)                              X
    Scribn. vac. obtusata
    Sporobolus composites (Poir.) Merr.                         X
    Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) A.                           X
    Sporobolus heterolepis (A. Gray) A.                         X
    Sporobolus neglectus Nash                                   X
    Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A.                        X
    Gray) A. W. Wood
    Stipa comata Trin. & Rupr.                      19
    Stipa hymenoides Roem. & Schult.                            X
    Stipa spartea Trin.                                         X
    Stipa viridula Trin.                                        X
    Triplasis pu rpurea (Walter) Chapm.                         X
    Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb.                 11
    Zizania palustris L.                                        X
  POLEMONIACEAE (Phlox Family)
    Collomia linearis Nutt.                                     X
    Ipomopsis longiflora (Torr.) V. E.                          X
  POLYGALACEAE (Milkwort Family)
    Polygala alba Nutt.                                         X
    Polygala verticillata L. var. isocycla                      X
    Eriogonum annuum Nutt.                          20
    Polygonum amphibium L.                                      X
    Polygonum bicorne Raf.                          21
    Polygonum coccineum Muhl. ex                                X
    Polygonum convolvulus L.                        16
    Polygonum hydropiper L.                                     X
    Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.                            X
    var. opelousanum (Ridd. ex J. K.
    Small) Ridd. ex W. Stone
    Polygonum lapathifolium L.                                  X
    Polygonum persicaria L.                                     X
    Polygonum punctatum Elliott                                 X
    Polygonum ramosissimum Michx.                               X
    Polygonum sagittatum L.                                     X
    Polygonum scandens L.                                       X
    Polygonum tenue Michx.                                      X
    Rumex acetosella L.                                         X
    Rumex altissimus Alph. Wood                                 X
    Rumex britannica L.                                         X
    Rumex crispus L.                                13
    Rumex fueginus Philippi                                     X
    Rumex obtusifolius L.                                       X
    Rumes triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech.                        X
    Rumex venosus Pursh                                         X
    Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) J. K. Small                        X
  PORTULACACEAE (Purslane Family)
    Phemeranthus calycinus (Engelm.)                            X
    Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nutt.)                            X
    Phemeranthus rugospermus Q. M.                              X
    Portulaca grandiflora Hook.                                 X
    Potamogeton diversifolius Raf.                              X
    Potamogeton foliosus Raf.                                   X
    Potamogeton gramineus L.                                    X
    Potamogeton illinoensis Morong                              X
    Potamogeton natans L.                                       X
    Potamogeton nodosus Poir.                                   X
    Potamogeton pectinatus L.                                   X
    Potamogeton praelongus Wulfen                               X
    Potamogeton pusillus L.                                     X
    Potamogeton richardsonii (A. Benn.)                         X
    Potamogeton strictifolius A. Benn.                          X
    Potamogeton zosteriformis Fernald                           X
  PRIMULACEAE (Primrose Family)
    Anagallis minima (L.) Krause                                X
    Androsace occidentalis Pursh                                X
    Lysimachia ciliata L.                                       X
    Lysimachia hybrida Michx.                                   X
    Lysimachia thyrsiflora L.                                   X
    Anemone caroliniana Walter                                  X
    Anemone cylindrica A. Gray                                  X
    Anemone patens L. var. multifida                            X
    Aquilegia canadensis L.                                     X
    Clematis virginiana L.                                      X
    Delphinium virescens Nutt.                      13
    Ranunculus abortivus L.                                     X
    Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh                                 X
    Ranunculus longirostris Godron                              X
    Ranunculus pensylvanicus L.                                 X
    Ranunculus sceleratus L. var.                               X
    Ranunculus testiculatus Crantz                 1 *N
    Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave-                         X
  RHAMNACEAE (Buckthorn Family)
    Ceanothus herbaceus Raf. var.                               X
    pubescens (Torr. & A. Gray)
  ROSACEAE (Rose Family)
    Agrimonia gryposepala Walk.                                 X
    Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex                      X
    M. Roemer
    Drymocallis arguta (Pursh) Rydb.                            X
    Fragaria vesca L. subsp. americana                          X
    (Porter) Staudt
    Fragaria virginiana P. Mill.                                X
    Geum canadense Jacq.                                        X
    Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.                         X
    var. intermedius (Rydb.) Robins.
    Potentilla norvegica L.                         15
    Potentilla paradoxa Nutt.                                   X
    Potentilla pensylvanica L.                                  X
    Potentilla recta L.                             12
    Prunus americana Marsh.                                     X
    Prunus pumila L. var. besseyi (L. H.                        X
    Bailey) Waugh
    Prunus virginiana L.                            1
    Pyrus ioensis (Wood) L. H. Bailey                           X
    Rosa arkansana Porter ex Porter &               12
    J.M. Coult.
    Rosa woodsii Lindl.                                         X
    Rubus occidentalis L.                           1
  RUBIACEAE (Coffee Family)
    Galium aparine L.                               15
    Galium circaezans Michx. var.                               X
    hypomalacum Fernald
    Galium obtusum Bigelow                                      X
    Galium tinctorium L.                                        X
    Galium trifidum L.                                          X
    Galium tri florum Michx.                                    X
  RUTACEAE (Citrus Family)
    Zanthoxylum americanum P. Mill.                             X
  SALICACEAE (Willow or Poplar
    Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.              5
    var. occidentalis Rydb.
    Salix amygdaloides N. J. Andersson              5
    Salix eriocephala Michx. var. famelica                      X
    (C. R. Ball) R. D. Dorn
    Salix exigus Nutt. subsp. interior           1, 5, 17
    (Rowlee) Cronquist
    Salix humilis Marsh.                                        X
    Salix petiolaris J. E. Smith                                X
    Salix xrubens Schrank (S. albs x                            X
  SANTALACEAE (Sandalwood
    Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. subsp.                        X
    pallida (A. DC.) Piehl
  SAXIFRAGACEAE (Saxifage Family)
    Heuchera richardsonii R. Br.                                X
    Agalinis aspera (Douglas ex Benth.)                         X
    Agalinis tenuifolia (M. Vahl.) Raf. var.        21
    parvif lora (Britton) Britton
    Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst.                        X
    Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh                               X
    Gratiola neglecta Torr.                                     X
    Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell                                X
    Mimulus glabratus Kunth var. jamesii                        X
    (Torr. & A. Gray ex Benth.) A. Gray
    Mimulus rigens L.                                           X
    Orobanche fasciculata Nutt.                                 X
    Orobanche ludoviciana Nutt.                                 X
    Pedicularis lanceolata Michx.                               X
    Penstemon albidus Nutt.                         10
    Penstemon angustifolius Nutt. ex           3, 8, 10, 13
    Pursh var. angustifolius
    Penstemon gracilis Nutt.                                    X
    Penstemon grandiflorus Nutt.                    13
    Verbascum thapsus L.                            1
    Veronica americana (Raf.) Schwein. ex                       X
    Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.                              X
    Veronica catenata Pennell                                   X
    Veronica peregrina L. var. peregrina                        X
    Veronica peregrina L. var. xalapensis                       X
    (Kunth) Pennell
  SMILACACEAE (Greenbriar Family)
    Smilax lasioneura Hook.                                     X
  SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family)
    Lycium barbarum L.                                          X
    Physalis heterophylla Nees                      15
    Physalis hispida (Waterfall)                                X
    Physalis longifolia Nutt.                                   X
    Solanum interius Rydb.                                      X
    Solanum rostratum Dunal                                     X
    Solanum triflorum Nutt.                         5
  SPARGANIACEAE (Bur-Reed Family)
    Sparganium emersum A. Rehmann                               X
    Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm.                               X
    TILIACEAE (Linden Family)
    Tilia americana L.                                          X
  TYPHACEAE (Cattail Family)
    Typha angustifolia L.                         17 *N
    Typha latifolia L.                                          X
  ULMACEAE (Elm Family)
    Ulmus americana L.                              2
    Ulmus pumila L.                               1, 16
  URTICACEAE (Nettle Family)
    Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Swartz                            X
    Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex                            X
    Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb.                                X
    Urtica dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton)        15
  VERBENACEAE (Vervain Family)
    Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt.                                 X
    Verbena bracteata Lag. & J.D.                   12
    Verbena hastata L.                                          X
    Verbena stricta Vent.                         13, 1
    Verbena urticifolia L.                                      X
  VIOLACEAE (Violet Family)
    Viola canadensis L. var. rugulosa                           X
    (Greene) C. L. Hitchc.
    Viola nephrophylla Greene                       5
    Viola pedatifida G. Don                                     X
    Viola pubescens Ait. var. eriocarpa                         X
    (Schwein.) Russell
    Viola sororia Willd.                            6
  VITACEAE (Grape Family)
    Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)                            X
    Parthenocissus vitacea (Knerr) A.               1
    Vitis riparia Michx.                            1
    Pondweed Family)
    Zannichellia palustris L.                                   X
    Tribulus terrestris L.                                      X


The authors wish to thank the Department of Biology at the University of Nebraska at Kearney for supporting this project. The cooperation of private landowners in Brown County was also essential to this work. We are extremely grateful to Robert B. Kaul, David M. Sutherland, and Steven B. Rolfsmeier for their landmark publication, The Flora of Nebraska, which has stimulated botanical interest and discovery statewide.

Literature Cited

Aichele, D., and M. Golte-Bechtle. 1976. A Field Guide in Color to Wild Flowers. London, Cathay Books. 399 pp.

Bare, J. E. 1979. Wildflowers and Weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas, The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 pp.

Bleed, A. and C. Flowerday (eds.). 1989. An Atlas of the Sand Hills. Conservation and Survey Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 238 pp.

Bridge, J. S., and S. L. Gabel. 1992. Flow and sediment dynamics in a low sinuosity, braided river: Calamus River, Nebraska Sandhills. Sedemen tology 39: 125-142.

Brown, L. 1979. Grasses, an Identification Guide. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company. 240 pp.

Churchill, S. P., C. C. Freeman, and G. E. Kantak. 1988. The vascular flora of the Niobrara Valley Preserve and adjacent areas in Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 16:1-15.

Converse, S. J., J. B. Iverson, and J. A. Savidge. 2002. Activity, reproduction, and overwintering behavior of Ornate Box Turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) in the Nebraska Sandhills. American Midland Naturalist 148:416-422.

Ducey, J. E. 1991. Ditching of wetlands in the Nebraska Sandhills: A case study of Grant County. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 18:1-9.

Ellenberg, H., and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, New York, USA. 213 pp.

Gutzmer, M. P., J. W. King, and D. P. Overhue. 1996. Environmental impacts in the vicinity of Spencer Hydropower Dam during sluicing activities in the Niobrara River, Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 23:1-8.

Haddock, M. J. 2005. Wildflowers & Grasses of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas, University Press of Kansas. 374 pp.

Johnsgard, P. A. 2001. The Nature of Nebraska: Ecology and Biodiversity. Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press. 402 pp.

Kantak, G. E. 1995. Terrestrial plant communities of the middle Niobrara Valley, Nebraska. The Southwestern Natu ralis t 40:129-138.

Kantak, G. E., and S. P. Churchill. 1993. The Niobrara Valley Preserve: An inventory of a biogeographical crossroads. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 20:1-12.

Kaul, R. B., G. E. Kantak, and S. P. Churchill. 1988. The Niobrara River Valley, a postglacial migration corridor and refugium of forest plants and animals in the grasslands of central North America. Botanical Review 54:44-81.

Kaul, R.B. 1989. Plants. Pages 127-142 In Bleed, A. and C. Flowerday (eds.). An Atlas of the Sand Hills. Conservation and Survey Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 338 pp.

Kaul, R. B., and S. B. Rolfsmeier. 1993. Native vegetation of Nebraska (map). Conservation and Service Division, IANR, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Lincoln, NE.

Kaul, R. B., and S. B. Rolfsmeier. 1994. Diversity of vascular plants and intensity of plant collecting in Nebraska.

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 21:13-20. Kaul, R. B., D. M. Sutherland, and S. B. Rolfsmeier. 2006.

The Flora of Nebraska. Conservation and Survey Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 966 pp.

McCoy, D. 1981. Roadside Trees and Shrubs of Oklahoma. Norman, Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma Press. 116 pp.

Owensby. C. E. 1980. Kansas Prairie Wildflowers. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press. 124 pp.

Reece, P. E., J. E. Brummer, B. K. Northup, A. E. Koehler, and L. E. Moser. 2004. Interactions among western ragweed and other Sandhills species after drought. Journal of Range Management 57:583-589.

Rolfsmeier, S. B. 1989. An annotated list of the vascular plants of Keith County, Nebraska. Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences 17:83-101.

Sridhar, V., K. G. Hubbard, and D. A. Wedin. 2006. Assessment of soil moisture dynamics of the Nebraska Sandhills using long-term measurements and a hydrology model. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 463-473.

Tolstead, W. L. 1942. Notes on unusual plants in the flora of northwestern Nebraska. American Midland Naturalist 28:475-481.

U.S. Department of the Interior. 2005. Niobrara National Scenic River--Nebraska. U.S. Department of the Interior: National Park Service Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, NPS D-32. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC. 186 pp

Volesky, J. D., W. H. Schacht, and D. M. Richardson. 2004. Stocking rate and grazing frequency effects on Nebraska Sandhills meadows. Journal of Range Management 57:553-560.

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Megan K. Killion and Steven J. Rothenberger

Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, Nebraska 68849-1140

Correspondence: Steven Rothenberger,
Table 1. A Key to Collection Sites in Brown County,

Site #   Location

1        Long Pine State Park--Long Pine Creek bank and
         surrounding wooded area. Elevation: 2609 ft., N:
         42.54425[degrees], W: 99.70957[degrees].

2        Long Pine State Park--Long Pine Creek riverbank and
         surrounding wooded area. Elevation: 2244 ft., N:
         42.54552[degrees], W: 99.70981[degrees].

3        Long Pine State Park--Wooded area and clearing.
         Elevation: 2337 ft., N: 42.54519[degrees],
         W: 99.71105[degrees].

4        Jansen Hay Meadow. Elevation: 2583 ft.,
         N: 42.52620[degrees], W: 99.93127[degrees].

5        Niobrara Valley Preserve--Niobrara River bank.
         Elevation: 2117 ft., N:42.78733[degrees],

6        Niobrara Valley Preserve--Wooded area. Elevation:
         2184 ft., N: 42.78289[degrees], W:100.02519[degrees].

7        Roadside ditch. Elevation: 2276 ft., N: 42.77975[degrees], W:

8        Roadside ditch. Elevation: 2380 ft., N: 42.77258[degrees], W:

9        Gilg Pasture. Elevation: 2377 ft., N: 42.60604[degrees], W:

10       Gilg Pasture. Elevation: 2369 ft., N: 42.60731[degrees], W:

11       Assarsson Pasture. Elevation: 2635 ft., N: 42.42215[degrees],
         W: 99.89744[degrees].

12       Hay Meadow. Elevation: 2569 ft., N: 42.54980[degrees], W:

13       Hay Meadow. Elevation: 2568 ft., N: 42.55104[degrees], W:

14       Hay Meadow. Elevation: 2628 ft., N: 42.55151[degrees], W:

15       Keller State Park--Wooded area and clearing. Elevation:
         2155 ft., N: 42.66659[degrees], W: 99.77802[degrees].

16       Roadside ditch. Elevation: 2572 ft., N: 42.54975[degrees], W:

17       Roadside ditch. Elevation: 2422 ft., N: 42.56453[degrees], W:

18       Roadside ditch. Elevation: 2314 ft., N: 42.66496[degrees], W:

19       Keller State Park--Bone Creek bank and surrounding
         wooded area. Elevation: 2072 ft., N: 42.66964[degrees], W:

20       Niobrara Valley Preserve--Wooded area. Elevation:
         2190 ft., N: 42.78286[degrees], W:100.02542[degrees].

21       Niobrara Valley Preserve--Niobrara River bank.
         Elevation: 2133 ft., N: 42.78383[degrees],

Table 2. The Ten Largest Vascular Plant Families in
Brown County

                   Number of   Percent of Total
Family              Species      County Flora

Poaceae              110            15.2
Asteraceae            92            12.7
Cyperaceae            59             8.1
Fabaceae              42             5.8
Brassicaceae          24             3.3
Polygonaceae          22             3.0
Scrophulariaceae      21             2.9
Lamiaceae             18             2.5
Rosaceae              18             2.5
Apiaceae              15             2.1

Table 3. The Number of Species in Common With
Brown County, and Indices of Similarity of
Species Between Brown County and Banner,
Dixon, Keith, and Seward Counties

                   Number of
                   Species in
County Compared   Common With
to Brown County   Brown County   Index of Similarity

Keith                 459               50.4%
Seward                376               39.1%
Dixon                 302               35.1%
Banner                280               31.9%
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Author:Killion, Megan K.; Rothenberger, Steven J.
Publication:Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2011
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