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The transmission of Buddhist canonical literature in Tibet.

The transmission of Buddhist scriptures in Tibet commenced sometime during the reign of King Srong btsan sgam po (629-649/50). During the reign of this king, translations of canonical literature from the original Sanskrit into Tibetan language began. This literature is well known in Tibetan as Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur. The vast treasure of manuscripts was preserved in different palaces of the ancient kings of Tibet such as Pho drang Ldan kar, (2) Chims phu, Phang thang (3) etc. Thus the listing of the profound manuscripts was started by the ancient kings of Tibet, although there are different opinions regarding the exact time when the Tibetan Buddhist scriptures preserved in the above palaces were catalogued. However, it was in the early 9th century that the first list was compiled during the reign of King Khri lde srong btsan (778-814) known to be Ldan kar ma or Lhan kar ma. The Ldan kar ma was said to be compiled in the Dragon year which corresponds to 812. Therefore it was most probably compiled in 812. (4) The listing of Chims phu ma was done during the reign of Sad na legs mjing yon and that of the 'Phang thang ma was possibly carried out in 878 AD?.

Hand written Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur

The first handwritten Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur appeared in the 14th century. It was in 1312 that the Yuan dynasty facilitated the compilation of all available Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur in central Tibet by bcom ldan rig ral, dbus pa blo gsal, lo tsa ba bsod nams 'od zer and rgyang ro byang chub 'bum. (5) This collection was produced and preserved in Snar thang monastery and is known as the Snar thang edition. The Tshal pa Bka' 'gyur was commissioned by Tshal pa Si tu kun dga' rdo rje or dge ba'i blo gros (13091364). This was copied in 1323 by gold and silver ink with the help of Bu ston rin po che (1290-1364). (6) This manuscript was prepared on the basis of the Snar thang edition. The handwritten Zha lu bstan 'gyur was commissioned by Zha lu sku zhang Kun dga' don grub in 1334. (7) The Third Karma pa Rang byung rdo rje (1284-1339) also commissioned a gold-written bstan 'gyur in 1331. A complete handwritten Bstan 'gyur was also commissioned for Rtse thang monastery in 1362 by Tai Situ Byang chub rgyal mtshan (1302-1339). This handwritten Bstan 'gyur was known as Sne gdong Bstan 'gyur. (8) The king of Rgyal rtse, Rab brtan kun bzang 'phags (1389-1442) commissioned a gold-written copy of Bka' 'gyur in 1431 known as the Rgyal rtse Them spang ma. (9) In 1432, the same king commissioned a handwritten copy of Bstan 'gyur. Four years later in 1436, he commissioned yet another gold-written Bka' 'gyur. In 1439, he commissioned a handwritten copy of tantric literature which was completed in 1441. King Bkra shis rab brtan dpal bzang, the younger brother of king Rab brtan kun bzang 'phags commissioned a gold-written copy of Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur in 1456 and completed both in 1481. In total, four copies of Bka' 'gyur and two copies of Bstan 'gyur were completed.

Based on the above versions, handwritten copies were prepared during the time of the Fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682). The Fifth Dalai Lama instructed Sde srid bsod nams chos 'phel (1595-1658) to copy a handwritten set of Bka' 'gyur at Thang po che gtsug lag khang. (10) The Fifth Dalai Lama also commissioned a handwritten Bstan 'gyur completed in 1628 (11) which later on became the master copy of the Snar thang and Peking edition of Bstan 'gyur. Many handwritten manuscripts were produced in Tibet and the neighbouring countries untill the early 18th century. Some were written with inks prepared from precious stones.

Other handwritten Bka' 'gyur

1. The Mustang Bka' 'gyur was copied between 1436 and 1447. (12)

2. Phu brag Bka' 'gyur manuscript was handwritten during the Sixth Dalai Lama's period between 1696-1706. (13)

3. The Golden manuscript of Bstan 'gyur from Dga' ldan monastery is said to have been prepared in 18th century that is later than 1733. (14)

4. The Stog Bka' 'gyur manuscript was copied in the 18th century and is preserved in the Stog palace of Ladakh. (15)

5. The fragments of canonical manuscripts in Tabo monastery (16) and other parts of Himalayan regions.

Xylograph printing of Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur

The first xylograph copies of Bka' 'gyur were made available in 1410 during the reign of Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty. The emperor offered complimentary copies to the Karma pa and Tsong kha pa. (17) The availability of this xylograph copy greatly influenced the introduction of the block printing tradition in Tibet. (18) The same engraved blocks were revised and used in the printing of more Bka' 'gyur copies in 1605 by Emperor Wanli of the Ming Dynasty. The Sixth Zhwa dmar Chos kyi dbang phyug (1584-1630) edited this redaction which is known as the Peking edition. (19) The Peking edition followed the Tshal pa tradition.

The 'Jang or Li thang Bka' 'gyur is considered to be the earliest xylograph print in Tibet. The printing of Li thang Bka' 'gyur was began in 1608 and was completed in 1621. The catalogue of this edition was compiled by Sixth Zhwa dmar Chos kyi dbang phyug in 1614. (20) The Li thang edition is more or less a revised version of the Tshal pa edition.

The Cone Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur was commissioned by Cone King Dmag zor mgon po and printed between 1721-1731. (21) Rin chen dpal 'dzom, wife of the eldest son of Cone King and her son Bstan srung tshe ring, commissioned the block printing of Cone Bstan 'gyur. The blocks were engraved between 1753-1772. (22)

Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty commissioned the block printing of Bka' 'gyur in 1684 and this task was completed in 1700. The same emperor carved the blocks for Bstan 'gyur in 1724.

The Sde dge Bka' 'gyur was commissioned by Sde dge king Bstan pa tshe ring (1678-1738). (23) The carving of Sde dge Bstan 'gyur blocks was initially started by Sde dge king Bstan pa tshe ring (1678-1738) in 1737. A complete set was carved between 1739-1742. (24) The Sde dge Bka' 'gyur is mainly based on 'Jang Sa tham and Thems spang ma edition.

The Peking edition reproduced between 1955-1958 in Tokyo is considered by many scholars as the reproduction of the 1684 edition of Emperor Kangxi. According to Prof. S. Sakai, however, it is a reproduction of the 1737 Bka' 'gyur print of Emperor Qianlong. According to Lcang skya Ngag dbang chos ldan (1642-1714), the Bka' 'gyur set is preserved in Dgon lung byams pa gling monastery, therefore it can be concluded that this is a reproduction of the edited version of the 1737 edition. The block prints for the Bstan 'gyur section of the Peking edition were carved in 1724 (the end of Emperor Kangxi and the beginning of Emperor Yongzheng's reign).

Rwa rgya Bka' 'gyur was commissioned and printed by the First Shing bza' Ho thog thu Blo bzang dar rgyas in 1814. (25) The Khu re or the Mongolian edition was printed between 1908 and 1910. This was printed under the guidance of the Eighth Khal kha rje btsun Dam pa Chos kyi nyi ma and Erti che tshang Noyon Don grub lha mo. (26) Both the Rwa rgya and Khu re Bka' 'gyur were prepared on the basis of the Sde dge edition. In 1934, the Lhasa Zhol Bka' 'gyur was printed during the rule of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. (27) The Lhasa Zhol edition was prepared on the basis of both Sde dge and Snar thang edition. The Wa ra ri khrod edition of Bka' 'gyur was printed sometime in the 1930s by Wa ra Dam chos bstan pa (c.1875-c.1945), the disciple of Ngor pa dpon slob 'Jam dbyangs blo gter dbang po (1847-1914). (28) The Wara Bka' 'gyur is based on the Sde dge edition. The blocks of Chab mdo Bka' 'gyur were carved between 1941 and 1950 under the patronage of Chab mdo yab tshang Blo bzang dkon mchog and Bde chen sgrol ma, the princess of Sde dge. This edition is said to be a reproduction of Zhol Bka' 'gyur. (29)

It was not only the tradition of carving blocks and printing on paper that flourished in Tibet, but carving on stone was also prevalent. For instance, between 1935 and 36 one complete set of Bka' 'gyur was carved on stone at Mkhar mdo pass in Amdo Rnga ba, and Jonang Bkra shis sgang monastery in Mdo smad mchog rtse. One set was carved in Sde dge between 1898 and 1962? by Bya rgod tshang stobs ldan, one of the prominent ministers of the Sde dge king's court. (30)

Canonical collection in LTWA

In the years following 1959, all Tibetan refugees were requested to donate scriptures brought from Tibet. Through this venture, LTWA was established on 11th June, 1970. It now houses Snar thang, Peking, Sde dge and Lha sa zhol edition of Bka' 'gyur, and, the Snar thang, Peking and Sde dge editions of Bstan 'gyur.

As far as the Snar thang edition is concerned, this library has preserved two sets of Snar thang Bka' 'gyur. One set belongs to Skyid grong Bsam gtan gling (1761) and the other to La stod Chu dbar dga' ldan 'gro phan gling monastery, both in western Tibet. According to the inventory of library one set of Snar thang Bstan 'gyur is mentioned as from La stod chu dbar 'gro phan gling monastery but Skyid grong monks claim it to be from their own monastery. The fact remains unknown to us. However, these were donated to this library in 1971. In fact, as all these manuscripts were brought from Tibet and donated to this library after the Chinese occupation there is no reliable record to confirm their origin. Many volumes and folios were found missing and damaged when they were first donated to this library.

Besides these canonical holdings, LTWA has housed the Phug brag Bka' 'gyur manuscript in 120 volumes, handwritten during the reign of the Sixth Dalai Lama between 1696 and 1706, as well as sixteen 'Bum texts commissioned by Tsagta, chieftain of eastern Kongpo region in the 15th century and sixteen handwritten 'Bum texts of the Phug drag edition. Cone Bstan 'gyur in microfiche form was donated by the IASWR, New Jersey, USA in 1980s. The Library also houses photoset edition of Bonpo Bka' 'gyur and Brten 'gyur in 178 volumes. (31) A set of this Bonpo Bka' brten was originally offered to His Holiness the Dalai Lama by Bonpo Abbot Sangs rgyas bstan 'dzin Jodong, and His Holiness the Dalai Lama donated it to this library in 2003.

Canonical literature after 1959

Many titles from the canonical works have been reproduced separately by Tibetan and non-Tibetan publishers in India in particular the 12 and 16 volumes of the 'Bum section of Bka' 'gyur. No major attempts were made to reproduce the whole canonical literature untill the 1970s. The 16th Karmapa Rang byung rig pa'i rdo rje (1924-1981) undertook this noble task and reprinted the old edition of Sde dge in India from 1976-1979. Darthang tulku Kun dga' rin po che also reprinted the new edition of Sde dge Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur in book form during the period from 1980-1982. The Stog palace edition of Bka' 'gyur was reproduced between 1975 and 1980. (32)

The Tibetan Cultural Printing Press reproduced the Zhol edition of Bka' 'gyur in 1988. The same press also reproduced the Sde dge Bstan 'gyur in 1994. In 1988, the China National Library published a photographic reprint of the Golden Manuscript Bstan 'gyur kept in Dga' ldan monastery. (33) Dr. Lokesh Chandra reproduced Urga Bka' 'gyur between 1990 and 1994 and Snar thang Bka' 'gyur during the years 1998 to 2000. The reproduction of the Snar thang Bstan 'gyur began in 1997 in Tibet. (34) In recent years, the Beijing Tibetology Institute has published a critical edition of Bstan 'gyur in 120 volumes. (35) The critical edition of Bka' 'gyur is, according to reliable sources, scheduled to be published in 2008.

Snar Thang monastery

Snar thang monastery was founded by Gtum ston blo gros grags in 1153, the disciple of dge bshes Sha ra ba. This monastery is situated in the chu mig locality of the gzhis ka rtse area of Gtsang, Central Tibet and belongs to the Bka' gdams pa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, known to have been a centre of learning from the 12th to the 14th century. Mchims Nam mkha' grags pa and many other studied in this monastery and became highly acclaimed scholars.

In the 12th century Bcom ldan Rig pa'i ral gri, dbus pa Blo gsal sangs rgyas 'bum and others collected Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur and compiled throughout Tibet. This compilation of Tibetan buddhist canonical literature was housed in this monastery. This was known as the old Snar thang edition. The wood blocks of 100 volumes of Bka' 'gyur were housed in 1731, and 225 volumes of wood blocks of Bstan 'gyur were housed in 1746 by Mi dbang Pho lha ba bsod nams stobs rgyas. Apart from the canonical repository the monastery has a holding of wood blocks such as 25 thankas of the Jataka mala story; 15 thankas of Rje tsongkha pa's life story and many handwritten manuscripts. (36)

Snar thang Bka' 'gyur

The first handwritten copies of Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur appeared in the 14th century during the Yuan dynasty from 1312 to 1320. One such collection was preserved in Snar thang monastery and is known as the Snar thang edition. The revision of Snar thang Bstan 'gyur was done by Bu ston Rin chen grub (1290-1364) and the Bka' 'gyur revision was made sometime before 1351. (37) The handwritten manuscript of Snar thang Bka' 'gyur consists of 111 volumes and Bstan 'gyur consists of 200 volumes.

Bcom ldan Rig pa'i ral gri (38) examined all the colophons of Bka' 'gyur texts and verified their identification by checking the number of verses and comparing them with the authoritative dkar chag. He also composed the dkar chag titled Bstan pa rgyas pa, the first attempt at classification of Indic literature that had been translated into the Tibetan language. (39)

The Sixth Dalai Lama Blo bzang rin chen tshangs dbyangs rgya mtsho (1683-1706) took the initiative to print the Snar thang edition but this could not be completed due to his untimely dethronement. Only 28 texts of the Perfection of Wisdom were printed during the first seven years. After the dethronement of the Sixth Dalai Lama, the printing work was carried out by Lha bzang khang, Stag rtse lha rgyal rab brtan and Daiqing badur bsod nams rgyal po but remained unfinished. Nevertheless during the period of Mi dbang Pho lha bsod nams stobs rgyas (1689-1747) all skilled engravers from Central Tibet were summoned to Shel dkar mi 'gyur district. Work on the blocks began in 1730 and finished in 1732, and resulted in 27,436 blocks. The blocks were carved according to the Tshal pa edition of Bka' 'gyur during the time of the Sixth Dalai Lama and later Mi dbang Pho lha also worked from the same edition as he had been offered the same edition by Chinese emperor. This edition consists of 100 volumes including the Dkar chag (40) and is also known as the Shel dkar edition.

After completing the woodblock carving of the Snar thang edition of Bka' 'gyur, Mi dbang pho lha offered the whole set to the second Panchen Blo bzang ye shes (1663-1737). The second Panchen preserved this set in the Snar thang printing house. (41) Originally it consisted of 102 volumes. The Panchen housed these blocks in Snar thang monastery and they became known as the Snar thang Bka' 'gyur. The Gtsug gtor dpa' bar 'gro ba'i sutra, attributed to Emperor Qianlong's translation, was initially not included in the dkar chag but later on was included in the last part of the sutra and added to the dkar chag. The same edition of Bka' 'gyur was reprinted by Tshe mchog gling yongs 'dzin Ye shes rgyal mtshan in 1761 and housed in Skyid grong bsam gtan gling monastery. This is now preserved in the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives (LTWA), Dharamsala. In this collection the Emperor Qianlong's translation was not included but later on added both in the sutra section and dkar chag. However, it is interesting to note that those doubtful titles were printed separately as a miscellaneous (kha skong) text of 314 folios. However, this Kha skong volume has been missing from the LTWA collection. (42) LTWA also has housed another edition of the Snar thang Bka' 'gyur brought from La stod chu dbar 'gro phan gling monastery in western Tibet. (43) Sde srid sangs rgyas mtsho's Be ser and LTWA's Oral History Series, Vol. 21 does discuss this monastery but surprisingly no word is mentioned about the collection of this Bka' 'gyur. Therefore, the printing date of this Bka' 'gyur is not known.

Snar thang Bstan 'gyur

The compilation of the first Bstan 'gyur is the product of three remarkable scholars of Snar thang namely Bcom ldan Rig pa'i ral gri, Mchims 'Jam dpal dbyangs II, and Dbus pa Blo gsal. (44) Bcom ldan Rig ral has compiled a dkar chag called Bstan pa rgyas pa rgyan gyi nyi 'od bzhugs so. This dkar chag was extant to us untill now but recently reproduced from Tibet. (45) All credit goes to the effort of Sprul sku Thub bstan nyi ma. The Snar thang was the nerve centre where Tibetan textual criticism was formulated. The second Mchims 'Jam dpal dbyangs, a disciple of Bcom ldan Rig ral became a court chaplain to Buyantu Khan (reign. 1311-1320) of the Yuan Dynasty and obtained imperial support and funding for the enormous task of copying, checking and arranging all the texts.

Copies of the Snar thang collection were subsequently prepared for the scholastic establishment like Sa skya, Mnga' ris Gung thang, Tshal Gung thang and Stag lung. Several decades later, Bu ston took the original Snar thang to Zhwa lu where he excluded all duplicate translations and doubtful texts and a thousand new works were added. The new redaction was preserved at Zhwa lu. This collection served as the basis for the manuscripts of Rtse thang, Mtshur phu, Byams pa gling (Yar rgyab), and several sets taken to Khams. (46) The detailed interrelationships between the Snar thang and Zhwa lu manuscripts on the one hand and the 'Phyong rgyas, Bo dong and perhaps other independent collection on the other hand still need further investigation. There is no doubt that Bu ston and his Zhwa lu redaction had an overwhelming influence on all of the xylographic editions.

The Fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682) commissioned a complete set of Bstan 'gyur mainly based on Zhwa lu Bstan 'gyur and collected texts from 'Bras spungs, Se ra, Ra sa 'phrul snang gtsug lag khang, 'Phyong rgyas ri bo bde chen and other monasteries. This collection was a handwritten copy and copied during 1627-1628. In this collection, 780 titles from the translation of the early diffusion period, commentaries authored by Tibetans, and translations from the Chinese language were added. The manuscripts was edited by Rnam gling Pan chen Dkon mchog chos grags and others. This Bstan 'gyur has 225 volumes and was housed in the Potala Palace. The dkar chag was compiled by the Fifth Dalai Lama himself in 1628. (47)

On the basis of this manuscript, blocks were carved between 1741 and 1742 under the patronage of Mi dbang Pho lha nas. During the process of engraving the blocks, 335 block carvers, 30 carpenters and 27 iron smiths were summoned, Dwags po and Kong po districts in Central Tibet. This edition including the dkar chag has 217 volumes. The dkar chag was compiled in 1742 by Phur lcog Ngag dbang byams pa (1682-1762) following the Fifth Dalai Lama's dkar chag. (48) Snarthang Bstan 'gyur was housed in Snar thang printing house by the third Panchen Dpal ldan ye shes (1737-1780). (49) According to the biography of Pan chen Dpal ldan ye shes, 226 volumes of wood blocks exist50 but it is generally known to have 225 volumes. Few titles from the sutras on arts and crafts, for instance Dus bstan pa'i me long of Bram ze dha ra ha mi and Lo drug bcu'i 'bras rtsis phur brtag of Drang srong phur pa, were listed in the dkar chag but not in the Bstan 'gyur collection. The same titles are also listed in the Fifth Dalai Lama's dkar chag. It is probable that these titles were missing in the manuscript which was written during the Fifth Dalai Lama.

Outside Tibet, copies of Snar thang Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur are preserved in different Monasteries/Temples/Libraries and Institutions. (51) The holding list is shown in the appendix I.

Digitisation process and some remarks

The present joint venture of reproducing Snar thang Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur in digitised format is a new attempt to keep Tibetan canonical literature alive. After a few years of consultation, Rev. Koshin Suzuki, the president of the Nor Shing project has agreed to join this joint venture in 2002. The funding of this project is sponsored by Rev. Koshin Suzuki, Nor Shing project.

The LTWA has procured the manuscript and other logistic support. LTWA has two set of Bka' 'gyur as mentioned above one is from La stod chu dbar dga' ldan 'gro phan gling monastery in 99 volumes52 and another is from Skyid grong bsam gtam gling monastery of western Tibet in 98 volumes.
La stod chu dbar dga' ldan 'gro phan gling monastery Bka' 'gyur

                                               No. of
Section              Volume                    volumes

'Dul ba              ka kha ga nga ca cha        13
                     ja nya ta tha da na pa

'Bum                 ka kha ga nga ca cha ja     12
                     nya ta tha da na

Nyi khri             ka kha ga                    3

Dkon brtsegs         Ka kha ga nga ca cha         6

Phal chen            Ka kha ga nga ca cha         6

Khri rgyad           ka kha ga                    3

Brgyad stong         ka                           1

Sher khri            ka                           1

Khri sna tshogs      ka                           1

Myang 'das           ka kha                       2

Mdo mang             ka-a                        30

Rgyud                ka-zha                      21

                     total =                     99

Skyid grong bsam gtam gling monastery Bka' 'gyur

Section                                           no. of
                    volume                        volumes

'Dul ba             ka kha ga nga ca cha ja         13
                    nya ta tha da na pa

'Bum                ka kha ga nga ca cha ja         12
                    nya ta tha da na

Nyi khri            ka kha ga                        3

Khri brgyad         ka kha ga                        3

Shes rab khri pa    ka                               1

Brgyad stong        ka                               1

Khri sna tshogs     ka                               1

Dkon brtsegs        ka kha ga nga ca cha             6

Phal chen           ka kha ga nga ca cha             6
                    (one copy of rdor gcod)

Mdo sde             ka kha ga nga ca cha ja nya
                    ta tha da na pa pha ba
                    ma tsa tsha dza wa zha za       30
                    'a ya ra la sha sa ha a

Myan 'das           ka kha                           2

Rgyud               ka kha ga nga ca cha ja         20
                    nya ta tha da na pa pha
                    ba ma tsa tsha dza wa zha

Total                                               98


(In some pothis, one copy of Rdo rje gcod pa (vajracede) is included. The reason is not known).

Among two set of Bka' 'gyur, mainly based on the La stod chu dbar 'gro phan gling monastery edition, however, some missing volumes and folios are substituted from the Skyid grong bsam gtan gling monastery edition which is marked as 'B'. According to the library's inventory list of 1971, one set of Bstan 'gyur it is mentioned to be from La stod chu dbar 'gro phan gling monastery. However, no evidence can be obtained from any record.
                      Snar thang Bstan 'gyur

Ka
(Bstod
tshogs)

                              Rgyud 'grel

Ka         Kha           Ga         Nga       missing    Cha
Ta         Tha           Da         Na        Pa         Pha
missing?   Tsha          Dza        Wa        Zha        Za
           A/B
missing?   missing?      Sha        Sa        Ha         A
Ki         Khi           Gi         Ngi       missing?   missing
Ti         Thi           Di         Ni        Pi         Phi
missing    missing       Dzi        Wi        Zhi        Zi?
Ri         Li            Shi        Si        Hi         E
Ku         Khu           Gu         Ngu?      Cu         Chu
Tu         Thu           missing?   Nu        Pu         Phu
missing    Tshu          Dzu        Wu        Zhu        Zu
Ru         Lu

                              Mdo 'grel

Ka A/B     Kha           Ga         Nga       Ca
missing    missing       Da         Na        Pa
Tsa        Tsha          Dza        Wa        Zha
Ra         La            Sha        Sa        Ha
Ki         Khi           Gi         Ngi       Ci
Ti         Thi           Di         Ni        Pi
Tsi        Tshi          Dzi        Wi        Zhi
Ri         Li            Shi        Si        Hi
Ku         Khu           Gu         Ngu       Cu
Tu         Thu           Du         Nu        Pu
Tsu        Tshu          Dzu        Wu        Zhu
Ru         Lu            Shu        Su        Hu
Ke         Khe           Ge         Nge       Ce
Te         The           De         Ne        Pe
Tse        Tshe          Dze        We        Zhe
Re         Le            She        Se        He
Ko         Kho           Go         Ngo       Co
To         Tho           Do         missing   Po
Tso(dkar
chag)

           Snar thang Bstan 'gyur

Ka
(Bstod
tshogs)

           Rgyud 'grel

Ka         Ja        Nya
Ta         Ba        Ma
missing?   'a        missing

missing?
Ki         Ji        Nyi
Ti         Bi        Mi
missing    'i        Yi
Ri
Ku         Ju        Nyu
Tu         missing   Mu
missing    'u        Yu
Ru

           Mdo 'grel

Ka A/B     Ja        Nya
missing    Ba        Ma
Tsa        a         Ya
Ra
Ki         Ji        Nyi
Ti         Bi        Mi
Tsi        'i        Yi
Ri
Ku         Ju        Nyu
Tu         Bu        Mu
Tsu        u         Yu
Ru
Ke         Je        Nye
Te         Be        Me
Tse        'e        Ye
Re
Ko         Jo        Nyo
To         Bo        Mo
Tso(dkar
chag)

Total 133 Volumes


Originally, there were 87 volumes of Rgyud 'grel and 136 volumes of Mdo 'grel, plus one volume each of Bstod tshogs (strotas) and Dkar chag (catalogue) becomes 225 volumes. However, in the present holdings of LTWA, there are 75 volumes of of Rgyud 'grel and 133 volumes of Mdo 'grel, plus one each volume of Bstod tshogs (strotas) and Dkar chag (catalogue) becomes 208 volumes.

Volumes missing from the Snar thang Bstan 'gyur collection are as follows: Rgyud 'grel- ca tsa ya ra la ci chi tsi tshi bu and tsu = 11 volumes Mdo 'grel--ta tha zu no = 4 volumes total 15 volumes are missing from this collection.

The missing volumes and folios in the above manuscript is shown in the above chart. Unfortunately some were lost during the transportation of these canonical texts from Tibet to India after the Chinese occupation.

The missing volumes and folios in the LTWA collection were digitised from the Bstan 'gyur set preserved in the main temple of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and one set of Bstan 'gyur collection in Tibet House, New Delhi. This two sets were also frequently used during the digitisation process. In the digitised format of the main text, the volumes and folios substituted from His Holiness the Dalai Lama's main temple collection is marked as 'X' and one from Tibet House is marked as 'H'. The Kha skong volume of Bka' 'gyur was filmed at Kanam monastery, Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh, India which is also marked as 'K'. We are thankful to all custodians of manuscripts for allowing us to access them during this digitisation process.

Appendix I
The holdings of Snar thang bka' 'gyur
and bstan 'gyur outside Tibet (54)

                 Library of Tibetan
                 Works & Archives       K (55)          T (56)

Dharamsala       Theg chen Chos
                 gling, HH The Dalai                    T
                 Lama's Temple

                 Nechung Monastery      K (57)

Kolkota          The Asiatic Society    K (58)          T (59)
                 of Bengal

                 Vishva Bharti          K               T
                 University
                 (Shantineketan) (60)

Gurupura,        Rdzong dkar Chos sde   K
Mysore           monastery

Gyume Tantric                                           T
University

Kinnaur          Bka' nam chos          K               T
                 'khor(Kanam Dharma
                 Chakra Centre) (61)

Nalanda          Nava Nalanda                           T
                 Mahavihara(Nalanda
                 Insittute of
                 Buddhist Studies and
                 Pali

Patna            Bihar Research         K               T (62)
                 Society

New Delhi        The International      K
                 Academy of Indian
                 Culture

                 Tibet House                            T (63)

Varanasi         Shantirakshita         K(microfiche)
                 Library(CIHTS)

                 Banaras Hindu          K               T (64)
                 University
                 Library(BHU)

                 Saraswati Bhawan       K(incomplete)
                 Library, Sampurnanda
                 Sanskrit
                 University(SSVV)

Tawang           Tawang Monastery                       T

Japan            Tokyo Daigaku,                         T
                 Institute of Tibetan
                 Studies

                 Taisho Daigaku         K (65)          T

                 Tokyo, Komazawa        K               T
                 Diagaku

                 Tokyo Kawaguchi        K               T
                 Toshokan

                 Kyoto Daigaku/Kyoto    K               T
                 University

                 Otani Daigaku/Otani    K               T
                 University

                 Naritasan Shinshoji    K               T
                 (66)

Italy            Instituto Italiano                     T (67)
                 Per L'Africa E
                 L'oriente(IsIAO)

                 The Library of the                     T (68)
                 Department of
                 Oriental Studies in
                 Rome (Universita "La
                 Sapienza" di Roma

                 The Library of         K (69)
                 Vatican (Biblioteca
                 Apostolica Vaticana,
                 Citta del Vaticano
                 Rome, Vatican
                 Library

Germany          Indologisches          K
                 Seminar, Bonn

                 Staatsbibliothek zu    K               T?
                 Berlin

                 The Bavarian State     K (70)          T71
                 Library

                 Staatsbibliothek/                      T(incomplete)?
                 State Library,
                 Marburg

London           The British Library    K               T

                 Cambridge University   K               T
                 Library

                 Bodleian Library       K(incomplete)
                 (72)

Copenhagen       Det Kongelige          K               T
                 Bibliotek/The Royal
                 Library

Norway           Oslo University        K (73)
                 Library

USA (74)         Harvard                K               T
                 Yenching/Houghton
                 Library

                 Joseph                 K
                 Regenstein/Newberry
                 Library (75),
                 Chicago

                 The Library of                         T (76)
                 Congress

                 Columbia University    K               T

                 IASWR(microfiche),     K
                 New York

                 Tashi Gemphel Ling,    K
                 New Jersy

Kathmandu        National Archives      K               T

St. Petersburg   Institute of the       K
                 Peoples of Asia

Paris            Bibliotheque           K
                 Nationale

Ulaanbaatar      Dga' ldan theg chen    K
                 gling

                 Ulan Ude               K

Bhutan           National Library of    K(?)            T(?)
                 Bhutan

Switzerland      Bibliotheque           K (77)
                 cantonale et
                 universitaire


I am grateful to Dr. Roberto Vitali for reading my paper and for his valuable suggestions. I am equally grateful to Catherine Anderson who has carefully improved my english, however, I take responsibility if there is any error found herein.

References:

Bu ston Rin chen grub, Bstan 'gyur gyi dkar chag yid bzhin nor bu dbang gi rgyal po'i phreng ba.

Bdag cag gi ston pa myam med sha kya'i rgyal po'i bka' 'gyur ro cog gi gsuf par 'dzam gling spyi nor gyi dkar chag legs bshad 'phrul gyi lde mig, Tibetan Cultural Printing Press 1989.

Dpal snar thang chos kyi sde chen po'i lo rgyus rags tsam bshad pa, Bkras lhun dgon gyi lo rgyus rtsom 'bri tshogs chung gis bsgrisg, Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrung khang, 1985

Dung dkar Blo bzang 'phrin las, Bod kyi dkar chag rig pa, Sbrang char, 1986, No. 2 &3., Collected Works, Vol.Kha, Beijing 2004

Eimer, Helmut and Germano, David (ed.), The Many Canons of Tibetan Buddhism. In 10th PIATS 2000, Vol. 2.

Eimer, Helmut, "A Note on the History of the Tibetan Kanjur", p.175-183. In Ein Jahrzehnt Studien zur Uberlieferung des Tibetischen Kanjur, Wien 1992

--"A Source for the First Narthang Kanjur: Two early Sa skya pa catalogues of the Tantra". In: Eimer (ed) 1997

--(ed.), Transmission of the Tibetan Canon. In Proceedings of the 7th Seminar of the IATS, Graz 1995. 3

--The Early Mustang Kanjur Catalogue, Wien 1999

'Gos lo tsa ba Gzhon nu dpal, Deb ther sngon po, Si Khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang 1984

Harrision, Paul, "A Brief History of the Tibetan Bka' 'gyur," p.70-94. In Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, Snow Lion, New York 1996

Jackson, David, "The old Ganden Editions: The earliest printings of Tsongkhapa's works", Tibetan Review, 1986 Vol XX1, No.3

Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 107, no. 1 (January 1987)

Karmay, Samten, "Two Eighteenth Century Xylographic Editions of the Gzi rjid." In Indo-Tibetan Studies. Edited by T. Skoruspski. Buddhica Britannica, Series

Continua 2. Tring: The Institute of Buddhist Studies 1990

Kvaerne, Per, The Literature of Bon. In Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, New York 1996

Kelsang, Tsultrim, Yul gangs can gyi Bka'bstan dkar chag dang bcas pa'i lo rgyus rags tsam brjod pa snar thang dran dbyangs, Kathmandu 2004

Krong go'i bod rig pa zhib 'jug lte gnas kyi bka' bstan dpe sdur khang, Bstan 'gyur, 2003

Miyake Shinichiro 1995

--"Comparative Table of the Golden Manuscript Tenjur in the dGa' ldan monastery with the Peking Edition of Tenjur", Annual Memoirs of Otani University, Shin Buddhist Comprehensive Research Institute, Kyoto, Vol. 17, 2000.

--"On the Date of the original Manuscript of the Golden Manuscript Tenjur in Ganden Monastery." In Annual Memoirs of the Otani University Shin Buddhist

Comprehensive Research Institute 13 (1995)

Rock, J.F., The Amnye Ma chen Range and adjacent regions, Roma 1956

Roerich, George, The Blue Annals, Motilal Banarsidass 1976

Samten, Jampa, "Origins of the Tibetan Canon with Special Reference to the Tshal pa Kanjur". In Buddhism and Science, Seoul: Tongguk University, 1987

--"Notes on the Lithang Edition of the Tibetan Bka' 'gyur". In: The Tibet Journal XII, No.3 (Autumn 1987)

Sgra Tshad pa Rin chen rnam rgyal, Chos rje thams cad mkyen pa bu ston lo tsa ba'i rnam par thar pa snyim pa'i me tog ces bya ba. In Buston's Collected Works, Vol.27, New Delhi 1971

Skilling, Peter, "From bka' bstan bcos to bka' 'gyur and bstan 'gyur." In: Eimer (ed.) 1997

Skoruspski, Tadeusz, A Catalogue of the Stog Palace Kanjur. Tokyo 1985. (Bibliographia Philologica Buddhica. Series Maior. 4).

Smith, E.G., Introduction, The Collected Works of Bo don Panchen 'Phyogs las rnam rgyal, Vol, Tibet House, New Delhi 1969

Si tu Chos kyi 'byung gnas, Bde bar gshegs pa'i bka' gangs can gyi brdas drangs pa'i phyi mo'i tshogs ji snyed pa dpar du bsgrubs pa'i tshul las nye bar brtsams pa'i gtam blo ldan mos pa'i kun da yongs su kha phye ba'i zla 'od gzhon nu'i 'khri shing, Collected works of Ta'i si tu pa kun mkhyen Chos kyi 'byung gnas bstan pa'i nyin byed, Vol.9, Sherab ling 1990

Tsering, Tashi, Introduction, A mdo rwa rgya'i bka' 'gyur dkar chag, LTWA, Dharamsala 1983

Von, Herausgegeben and Steinkellner, Ernest (ed), The brief catalogues to the Narthang and the Lhasa Kanjur, Wien 1998

Yar lungs 'phang thang ka med na bzhugs pa'i bka' bstan mdo phyogs gtso che ba'i dkar chag chos rgyal lo pan rnams kyis bsgrigs pa, Mi rigs dpe skrun khang 2003

Zhu chen Tshul khrims rin chen, Kun mkhyen pa chen po nyi ma'i gnyen gyi bka' lung spyi dang bye brag dgongs don rnams 'grel pa'i bstan bcos gangs can pa'i skad du 'gyur ro 'tshal gyi chos byin rgyun'chad pa'i ngo mtshar 'phrul gyi phyi mo rdzogs ldan bskal pa'i bsod nams kyi sprin phung rgyas par dkrigs pa'i tshul las nye bar brtsams pa'i gtam ngo mtshar chu gter 'phel pa'i zla ba gsar pa, Delhi 1974

Notes:

(1.) Pho brang stong thang ldan dkar gyi chos 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag ces pa bzhugs, Sde dge Bstan 'gyur, Vol. Jo, f. 294b: 6-310a:7. Si tu Panchen and Zhu chen Tsul khrims rin chen considered 'Phang thang ma as prior to Ldan kar ma where as Bu ston considered the later one. Dung dkar rin po che also believed that the 'phang thang ma as prior to Ldan dkar ma.

(2.) The 'Phang thag ma catalogue is presumed to be lost but it has been recently published by Bod ljongs rten rdzas bshams mdzod khang gi rtsa che'i dpe rnying gces bsgrigs dpe tshogs, Beijing 2003. The title of the dkar chag is Yar lungs 'phang thang ka med na bzhugs pa'i bka' bstan mdo phyogs gtso che ba'i dkar chag chos rgyal lo pan rnams kyis bsgrigs pa. The original manuscript was written in Dbu med script, 27 folios and was kept in the Lha sa gshom ston khang (See Tsultrim Kelsang 2004: p. 87)

(3.) Adelheid Hermann-Pfandt, The Lhan kar ma as source for the history of tantric Buddhism in 10th PIATS, Vol.2, p.129-149, 2002.

(4.) The Dkar chag was compiled by Bcom ldan rig ral, one is titled Bka' 'gyur dang bstan 'gyur gyi dkar chag bstan rgyas pa and other as Bka' 'gyur gyi dkar chag nyi ma'i 'od zer.

Because of the non-availability of Bcom ldan rig ral's live account, the dates of this scholar's life, in the past never appeared. However, recently Khams sprul Bsod nams don drub through his research finding has fixed the date as (1228-1305). See Legs par bshad pa gtam gyi tshogs utpal sngon po'i do shal dgyes pa'i mgul rgyan zhes bya ba by Khams sprul Bsod nams don grub, p.253-260.

The Bcom ldan rig ral's Dkar chag has not been available to date. However it is interesting to know that Khams sprul bsod nams don grub has recently been able to collect 63 title writings of this Bcom ldan rig ral (1228-1305). These were collected from the various parts of Tibet where they had been scattered. According to the list of Bcom ldan rig ral's writing prepared by him, the number 56 is listed as Bstan pa rgyas pa rgyan gyi nyin 'od. See more detail in Legs par bshad pa gtam gyi tshogs utpal sngon po'i do shal shes ldan dgyes pa'i mgul rgyan zhes bya ba bzhugs so by Khams sprul bsod nams don, p. 258-260.

It gives me immense pleasure to inform that the Bcom ldan rig ral's dkar chag has been recently reproduced by Dpal brtsegs bod yig dpe rnying zhib 'jug khang under the series of Bka' gdams gsung 'bum phyogs bsgrigs, vol. 51, p. 53-157, Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2007. I have no clue whether this is the same which was collected by Khams sprul.

(5.) The Dkar chag was compiled by Tshal pa si tu kun dga' rdo rje or dge ba'i blo gros (1309-1364) himself and titled as Rgyal ba'i bka' 'gyur rin po che gsar bzhengs kyis dkar chag deb ther dkar po. Later on this manuscript was edited by accomplished scholar such as Gzhon nu sha kya rgyal mtshan, 'Gos lo Gzhon nu dpal (1392-1482), the Fourth Zhwa dmar spyan snga Chos kyi grags pa (1453-1524), the Seventh Karmapa Chos grags rgya mtsho (14541506), and the Eighth Karmapa Mi bskyod rdo rje (1507-1544). This was housed in the palace of 'Phyong rgyas phying dbar stag rtse; it was also known as 'Phyong rgyas Bka' 'gyur. The 'Phyongs rgyas manuscript was copied at the order of Hor Rdo rje tshe brtan, one of the great ancestors of the Fifth Dalai Lama (Smith 1969: Introduction p. 3).

(6.) The dkar chag was compiled by Bu ston titled Bstan 'gyur gyi dkar chag yid bzhin nor bu dbang gi rgyal po'i phreng ba. This handwritten Bstan 'gyur has 124 volumes.

(7.) The dkar chag was compiled by Rin chen rnam rgyal, the disciple of Buston, titled as Bstan 'gyur 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag yid bzhin gyi nor bu rin po che'i za ma tog. This collection has 202 volumes.

(8.) The dkar chag of this gold-written Bka' 'gyur was according to the Fifth Dalai Lama compiled by Lo chen thugs rje dpal. The compiler of dkar chag in some sources has been attributed to Bu ston although he passed away in 1364. This Bka' 'gyur has 111 volumes. The Thems spang ma was copied in accordance with Snar thang. Two sets of manuscripts are preserved in Toyo Bunko library, one in Ulan Bator and one in the British Library known today as Shel dkar manuscript (See Eimer 1992: p. 179, n.18,19,20). The Stog manuscript is also considered to be an indirect production of Thems spang ma.

(9.) Tashi Tsering 1983: Introduction p. 2b

(10.) Bstan bcos 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag 'jig rten gsum gyi bde skyid pad tshal bzhad pa'i nyin byed zhes bya ba. This handwritten manuscript has 225 volumes. According to Dung dkar rin po che, this set of bstan 'gyur was written for the dedication of the deceased 5th Dalai Lama under the instruction of Sde srid sangs rgyas rgya mtsho and though the dkar chag is attributed to the 5th Dalai Lama but it was in fact compiled by Sde srid himself. See Mkhas dbang dung dkar blo bzang 'phrin las kyi gsung 'bum, deb kha pa, p. 20-21, Mi rigs dpe skrun khang 2004

(11.) The dkar chag was written by Ngor chen Kun dga' bzang po and titled Bka' 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag bstan pa gsal ba'i sgron me (See Eimer 1999: Wien)

(12.) Jampa Samten, A Catalogue of the Phug brag manuscript Kanjur, Preface, p. 4, LTWA, Dharamsala 1992

(13.) Miyake 1995: 16; Annual Memoirs of Otani University, Kyoto, Vol. 17, 2000.

(14.) Skoruspski. Tadeusz, A Catalogue of the Stog palace Kanjur, Tokyo 1985.

(15.) See C.A.Scherrer-Schaub's and Steinkellner, Tabo Studies II-Manuscripts, Texts, Inscriptions and the Arts, Series Orientale Roma, LXXXVII, Roma 1999; Cristina Scherrer-Schaub, Tibetan Manuscripts around the first millennium: A new chapter in the Buddhist text transmission, In Journal of the Interrnational College for Advanced Buddhist Studies, 2000., East and West, vol.44No.1(March 1994)

(16.) Byams chen chos rje Sha kya ye shes (1354-1435), the founder of Se ra monastery procured one set of this Bka' 'gyur from Peking and housed it in Se ra monastery. Unfortunately some of the volumes were destroyed during the cultural revolution in Tibet (See Tsultrim Kelsang 2004: p.99)

(17.) The Sgron gsal, commentary on the root text of Guhyasamaja tantra by Tsongkhapa was printed in 1419. Seven years after Tsongkhapa's death the complete writings of Tsongkhapa were printed by Dpon chen Nam mkha' bzang po, the rdzong dpon of Gong dkar Sne'u district under the initiative of Rgyal tshab dar ma rin chen (1364-1432) and Rtogs ldan 'Jam dpal rgya mtsho (1356-1428). The complete writing were housed in Zung 'jug college of Dga' ldan monastery. This block print(s) is known as the old Dga' ldan edition. (See David Jackson 1986: p.11-13 and Tsultrim Kelsang 2004: p. 99)

(18.) Dung dkar rin po che Blo bzang 'phrin las, Bod kyi dkar chag rig pa, p. 14. The article was first published in Sbrang char journal in 1986, p. 70-82; 1986, p. 72-98. Also see his collected writings, Vol.Kha, p.1-67.

(19.) Sixth Zhwa dmar Chos kyi dbang phyug, Bde bar gshegs pa'i bka' gangs can gyi brdas 'dren pa ji snyed pa'i phyi mo par gyi tshogs su 'khod pa'i byung pa gsal bar brjod pa legs byas kyi rang gzugs kun nas snang ba nor bu rin po che'i me long. This edition consists of 108 volumes. A complimentary copy of this edition is said to be housed in the Potala Palace.

(20.) The complete block print of this edition was burnt during the fighting between the Cone and Hos communities in 1929. One copy is now kept in the Library of Congress, Washington having been procured by Joseph Rock in 1925 (See National Geography, Vol.54). One copy is kept in the Toyo Bunko (See Taishun Mibu). This set was presented to Akai Kawaguchi by the Ninth Panchen Chos kyi nyi ma in 1937. One set is in Ri bo rtse lnga monastery in China and it is possible one or two copies exist in Outer Mongolia and Russia. The Bstan 'gyur section of this set was microfilmed by the Institute for Advanced Studies of World Religion. This collection consists of 209 volumes and has been distributed to institutions and libraries.

(21.) The arrangement of text is similar to that of Zhu chen Tshul khrims rin chen's dkar chag. The dkar chag was compiled by second 'Jam 'dbyangs bzhad pa Dkon mchog 'jigs med dbang po in 1773 and titled Bka'i dgongs pa 'grel ba'i bstan bcos 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag yin bzhin nor bu'i phreng ba. This collection has 209 volumes.

(22.) The dkar chag for this edition was compiled by Si tu Pan chen Bstan pa'i nyin byed or Chos kyi 'byung gnas in 1733. This collection consists of 103 volumes. The Sixteenth Karmapa Rang byung rig pa'i rdo rje (1924-1981) reprinted the old edition of Sde dge in India between 1976 and 1979. Tarthang Tulku Kun dga' rin po che also reprinted the new edition of Sde dge Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur in America between 1980 and 1982. The Cultural Printing Press, Dharamsala also reprinted a complete set of Sde dge Bstan 'gyur in 1994.

(23.) Sde dge Bstan 'gyur dkar chag was compiled by Zhu chen Tshul khrims rin chen and titled as Kun mkhyen pa chen po nyi ma'i gnyen gyi bka' lung spyi dang bye brag dgongs don rnams 'grel pa'i bstan bcos gangs can pa'i skad du 'gyur ro 'tshal gyi chos byin rgyun 'chad pa'i ngo mtshar 'phrul gyi phyi mo rdzogs ldan bskal pa'i bsod nams kyi sprin phung rgyas par dkrigs pa'i tshul las nye bar brtsams pa'i gtam ngo mtshar chu gter 'phel pa'i zla ba gsar pa, Delhi 1974.

(24.) The dkar char was compiled by the fourth Panchen Bstan pa'i nyi ma and was titled Bde bar gshegs pa'i gsung rab gangs can gyi skad du 'gyur ro cog gi phyi mo dpar du bskrun pa'i dkar chag mdo rgyud chos kyi sgo brgya cig car 'byed pa'i lde mig. LTWA reproduced this dkar chag text in 1983.

(25.) This edition consists of 105 volumes. The same edition was reproduced in India by Lokesh Candra in 1990.

(26.) The dkar chag for this edition was compiled by Co ne Dge bshes rin po che Blo bzang rgya mtsho, Bde yangs tshan zhabs Bstan 'dzin 'phrin las, Dge bshes Shes rab rgya mtsho, Pha bong kha rin po che Byams pa bstan 'dzin 'phrin las rgya mtsho, Mtshan zhabs rgyal dbang rin po. The dkar chag is titled as Bdag cag gi ston pa myam med sha kya'i rgyal po'i bka' 'gyur ro cog gi gsung par 'dzam gling spyi nor gyi dkar chag legs bshad 'phrul gyi lde mig. The same edition was reproduced in India by the Tibetan Cultural Printing Press in 1989.

(27.) This edition consists of 206 volumes (See Tashi Tsering 1983: Introduction p.5)

(28.) This edition consists of 101 volumes (See Tashi Tsering 1983: Introduction p. 5)

(29.) Tashi Tsering 1983: Introduction p. 5b-6a.

(30.) The Bonpo Bka' brten was hidden in the Nyag rong area of eastern Tibet untill the 1980s, the place of Gter ston gsang snags gling pa (b. 1864) and the photoset edition was printed in Chengdu in 1985 (See Kvaerne 1996: p.143 In Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre; Karmay 1990: p. 147)

(31.) 109 volumes

(32.) Shin'ichiro Miyake, On the date of the original manuscript of the Golden Manuscript Tenjur in Ganden Monastery : In Annual Memoirs of the Otani University Shin Buddhist Comprehensive Research Institute, 1995, Vol 13.

(33.) 125 volumes have been published and will culminate in a total of 225 volumes.

(34.) Krong go'i bod rig pa zhib 'jug lte gnas kyi bka' bstan dpe sdur khang, Bstan 'gyur in 120 volumes, 2003

(35.) For more details see Dpal snar thang chos sde'i lo rgyus, Bod ljong mi dmangs dpe skrun khang, 1985., Dung dkar tshigs mdzod chen mo, p. 1249-1251, 2002

(36.) Bu ston's Rnam thar, Vol. 27, p. 41; Eimer 1992: p.177, n.9

(37.) See note no.5

(38.) Deb ther sngon po, p. 410-412, Sikhron people's publishing house, 1984. Also see note no.5

(39.) There are two Dkar chag: a short one titled Bka' 'gyur rin po che'i mtshan tho bzhugs so, folios 14, and another fully-fledged dkar chag compiled by 'Ol kha rje drung sle lung rin po che Blo bzang 'phrin las(1697- ) and titled Rgyal ba'i bka' 'gyur ro ro cog gi gsung par rin po che srid gsum rgyan gcig rdzu 'phrul shing rta'i dkar chag ngo mtshar bkod pa rgya mtsho'i lde mig. LTWA collection of this dkar chag is incomplete and 123 folios. According to Klong rdol bla ma ngag dbang rgya mtsho(1719-1794), the snar thang bka' 'gyur consists of 101 volumes and 96 volumes as he received the oral transmission. See his collected writings, Vol.1&2, p. 1067-1102, New Delhi 1973

(40.) Mdo mkhar zhabs drung tshe ring dbang rgyal, Dpal mi'i dbang po'i rtogs pa brjod pa 'jig rten kun tu dga' ba'i gtam zhes bya ba, p. 593, Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2002; Snar thang chos sde'i lo rgyus, p.70

(41.) During this digitization process the Kha skong volume of bka' 'gyur was filmed at Kanam monastery, Kinnaur district in Himachal Pradesh, India on 12th October, 2007. This Kha skong volume has 317 folios.

La stod chu dbar dga' ldan 'gro phan gling monastery according to Be ser of Sde srid sangs rgyas mtsho, was established in the year of Iron-bird i.e. 1621/ 1681, Be ser, p. 408, Krong go'i bod kyi shes rig dpe skrun khang 1991. See also LTWA's Oral History Series, Vol. 21, p. 110-162. It is surprising that no wrod is mentioned about the collection of this Bka' 'gyur.

(43.) Deb ther sngon po, p. 410-412, 1984; The Blue Annals, p. 337-339

(44.) Bka' gdams gsung 'bum phyogs bsgrigs bzhugs so, p 53-156, Dpal brtsegs bod yig dpe rnying zhib 'jug khang, 2007

(45.) Deb ther sngon po, p. 410-412, Sikhron people's publishing house, 1984

(46.) Bstan bcos 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag 'jig rten gsum gyi bde skyid pad tshal bzhad pa'i nyin byed zhes bya ba.

(47.) Phur lcog Ngag dbang byams pa, Bka'i yi dgongs pa 'grel ba'i bstan bcos 'gyur ro cog gi dkar chag tshangs pa'i dbyangs (In the actual dkar chag text, the title is given as Bstan bcos 'gyur ro cog gsung par du bsgrubs pa'i dkar chag tshangs pa'i dbyangs zhes bya ba bzhugs so) , 144 folios, Snar thang edition.

(48.) Dkon mchog 'jigs med dbang po (1728-1791), Rje bla ma srid zhi'i gtsug rgyan pan chen thams cad mkhyen pa blo bzang dpal ldan ye shes dpal bzang po'i zhal snga nas kyi rnam par thar pa nyi ma'i 'od zer zhes bya ba, f. 42b4, In Collected writings of Pan chen dpal ldan ye shes, vol.Ka, Bkra shis lhun po edition; Snar thang chos sde'i lo rgyus, p.75

(49.) Dkon mchog 'jigs med dbang po (1728-1791), Rje bla ma srid zhi'i gtsug rgyan pan chen thams cad mkhyen pa blo bzang dpal ldan ye shes dpal bzang po'i zhal snga nas kyi rnam par thar pa nyi ma'i 'od zer zhes bya ba, f. 42b4, In Collected writtings of Pan chen dpal ldan ye shes, vol.Ka, Bkra shis lhun po edition.

(50.) The holding list in India is based on the survey conducted by Alpo Ratia in 1998. See his article "Tibetan Buddhist Canon Holdings in India: Preliminary Notes on Extant kanjur and Tanjur Colletion" In East and West, Vol. 48-Nos. 1-2 (June 1998), p. 135-149. Holdings in USA is based on Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107,no.1 (January 1987).

(51.) La stod chu dbar dga' ldan 'gro phan gling monastery according to Be dur ser po of Sde srid sangs rgyas mtsho, was established in the year of Iron-bird i.e. 1621/1681, Be ser, p. 408, Krong go'i bod kyi shes rig dpe skrun khang 1991. See also LTWA's Oral History Series, Vol. 21, p. 110-162. It is surprising that no word is mentioned about the collection of this Bka' 'gyur. However, in the Rten deb of Chu dbar 'gro phan gling monastery, it becomes clear that this monastery has a collection of whole set of Bka' 'gyur and Bstan 'gyur before the Gurkha war. Tshe mchog gling Ye shes rgyal mtshan restored the whole collection in 1735 or 1915?. Thereafter housed whole set of Bka' 'gyur and 201 volumes of Bstan 'gyur in this monastery (See Chu dbar dga' ldan 'gro phan gling gi rten gsum/ mchod rdzas/khang pa/'dzin chas/gtong rtsa/ dus mchod/yig rigs sogs kyi deb ther kun gsl me long dge//. LTWA old document no. 308).

(52.) Mistaken with rgyud 'grel in the Library's inventory list

(53.) K for Bka' 'gyur and T for Bstan 'gyur

(54.) 99 volumes of La stod chu dbar 'gro phan gling monastery and 98 volumes of Skyid grong bsam gtan gling monastery collection is preserved in LTWA.

(55.) According to 1971 inventory list of LTWA, this btan 'gyur set is mentioned to have been brought from La stod chu dbar 'gor phan gling monastery. Out of 225 volumes of this edition, 13 volumes are missing. The missing volumes from rgyud 'grel section of bstan 'gyur are vol.Ya, Ra, Chi, Tsi, Tshi, Du, Bu, Tsu. From the mdo 'grel section missing volumes are vol. Ta, Tha, Zi, Zu, No. Many volumes are badly damaged.

(56.) The incomplete set of Snar thang bka' 'gyur was presented to this monastery sometime between 1960 and 1968 by Ta bla ma Thub bstan nor bzang, the first minister of the Religious Council of the exile Tibetan government. This information has been communicated to me by Gen. Thupten Sherap, the senior monk of this monastery.

(57.) Volume A of mdo sde missing, legible, acquired in 1829. See Catalogue of Tibetan Manuscripts in the collection of the Asiatic Society, Vol.1 Narthang Tanjur edited by Lama Jumpa Ngawang, Calcutta 1990.

(58.) See Catalogue of Tibetan Manuscripts in the collection of The Asiatic Society, Vol.1 Narthang Tanjur, edited by Lama Jumpa Ngawang. The number of volumes is yet to be confirmed because a complete catalogue is not available to us.

(59.) Suniti Kumar Pathak (ed), Catalogue of the Tibetan Collection (Department of the Indo-Tibetan Studies, Vidya-Bhavana, Visva-Bharati), p.1, Santiniketan 1992. This is not listed in the Alpo's list of TBC in India.

(60.) It is said but unconfirmed that this monastery procured sets of Snar thang K and T in 1820. However, according to Fancke (1940:16-17; n.7) mentions that Dr. Gerard inspected it in 1829 and found a complete Snar thang K and T kept in the bka' 'gyur lha khang of the Kanam monastery.

(61.) From Tibet in the 1930s, procured by Rahula Sankrtyayana, most probabaly the Snar thang edition.

(62.) Missing volume numbers are: Rgyud 'grel Zha, A'i, Gu, Lu., Mdo 'grel Tsa, Ke, To, Tho, Do.

(63.) Xylograph., from Tibet, procured by Rahula Sankrtyayana.

(64.) See Shodo Nagashima, "Catalogue of the Tibetan Kanjur from Narthang, kept in Taisho University." In Memoirs of the Taisho University 61 (1975), p. 726760.

(65.) This set was presented by His Holiness the IVth Dalai Lama.

(66.) 224 volumes, catalogued by Dr. Fabrizio Torricelli See Ellena De Rossi Filibeck, Catalogue of the Tucci Tibetan Fund in the library of IsIAO, Vol. 2, Rome 2003. This set was donated by Prof. Tucci which was purchased from Sikkim. See G. Tucci, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, XII, 1949, p.480-81; Opera Minora, Rome 1971, p. 474.

(67.) This set was purchased from Rgyal rtse and donated by Prof. Tucci.

(68.) A posthumous work by P. Pelliot in 1922, revised and edited by Takata Tokio, Kyoto 1995. In this set two volumes are missing, Phal chen vol. Ka and Mdo vol. cha. This information has been intimated to me by Ellena De Rossi Filibeck.

(69.) 100 volumes. New Delhi 1998-2000.

(70.) Published in Lhasa from ca. 1997 onwards.

(71.) This was obtained during the Younghusband expedition and donated by L. A. Waddel. One set of bka' 'gyur and bstan 'gyur went to the British Library and another to Cambridge University Library.

(72.) See Per Kvaerne, A Norwegian Traveller in Tibet, Norway 1973, p. 63.

(73.) According to the list given in Tibetan Resources in North America. See Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 107, no. 1 (January 1987), p. 123-134.

(74.) This set was transferred from the Newberry Library to University of Chicago in 1943.. Berthold Laufer brought this set from Peking during his expedition to China and neighbouring countries in 1908-1910.

(75.) 226 volumes, See Susan Meinheit, A New Handlist of Tibetan Rare Book collections in the Library of Congress, paper presented at the IATS X, St Hugh's College, Oxford, September 2003.

(76.) Bka' 'gyur in Microforme, IASWR, 1974 and Bka' 'gyur of 101 volumes reproduced by Lokesh Chandra 1998
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Author:Shastri, Lobsang
Publication:The Tibet Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Sep 22, 2007
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