Printer Friendly

The subfamily Mutisioideae (Asteraceae).

Wunderlichia Riedel ex Benth.

in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. pl. 2: 489. 1873. TYPE: Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel ex Baker (lectotype designated by Hind & Semir, 1998b). 76 of Figs. 75-76.

Etymology. Named in honor of Mr. Wunderlich, a collector of Russian and Asian flora in the 1830s (his main sets of duplicates are at K & LE), a contemporary of Riedel, and an author of one botanical paper in 1842.

Shrubs or small trees very stout, virgate, pyrrophytic. Leaves alternate, deciduous; commonly petiolate; blades ovate to orbicular, coriaceous, less commonly chartaceous, caducous, pinnately veined, margin entire, both surfaces densely tomentose to glabrate. Capitulescences monocephalous or two- to ten-headed, loosely to densely corymbose to racemose; capitula massive, short-pedunculate to sessile, homogamous, discoid; receptacle strongly paleate-setiferous to epaleate, paleae long-linear, flat; involucre multiseriate. Florets isomorphic, bisexual, corolla actinomorphic, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled; anthers exserted, apical appendages short-acuminate, tails smooth, free to often connate with the tails of adjacent stamens; style bilobed, dorsally papillose much below the bifurcation point. Cypselae glabrous, apically tomentose to densely tomentose throughout; pappus of many barbellate to plumose bristles, basally connate, deciduous as a ring, the innermost longer and flattened.

Pollen Description. Wunderlichia mirabilis (121 of Figs. 120-121) (Barroso & Maguire, 1973; Telleria et al., 2003). Pollen prolate, large size, tricolporate, exine Wunderlichia type. Pollen similar to that of Wunderlichia azulensis, Eurydochus bracteatus and Salcedoa mirabaliarum (see also Telleria, 2008).

Habitat and Distribution. The genus occurs in Brazil (states of Bahia, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro) and contains six species.

Species list

1. Wunderlichia azulensis Maguire & G. M. Barroso, Revista Brasil. Biol. 33: 402. 1973. TYPE: Brazil. State Minas Gerais: Pedra Azul, G. Mendes Magalhaes 12039 (holotype, NY!). Additional specimen examined: Brazil. State Minas Gerais: Mun. Pedra Azul, 10 km E da cidade na estrada para Almenara, R. M. Harley et al. 25209 (MO).

2. Wunderlichia bahiensis Maguire & G. M. Barroso, Revista Brasil. Biol. 33: 404. 1973. TYPE: Brazil. Bahia: entre Lencois e Itaberaba, E. Pereira 2063 (holotype, RB not seen). Additional specimen examined: Brazil. State Bahia: Rio das Contas, estrada para a cachoeira do Fraga, no Rio Brumado, a 3 km de Municipio de Rio de Contas, A. Furlan et al. 1703 (US).

3. Wunderlichia crulsiana Taub., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 21: 456. 1896. TYPE: Brazil. State Goias: Serra dos Veadeiros, Ule 28 (lectotype, designated by Barroso & Maguire, 1973: 403, PR not seen). Additional specimen examined: Brazil. State Goias: Chapada dos Veadeiros (near Alto Paraiso de Goias), J. A. Ratter et al. 2615 (MO).

4. Wunderlichia insignis Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 285. 1881. TYPE: Brazil. State Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo, A. F. M. Glaziou 12060 (lectotype, designated by Barroso & Maguire, 1973: 404, PR not seen; isotype, NY!).

5. Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel ex Baker, Fl. bras. 6: 343. 1884. TYPE: Brazil. State Minas Gerais: Serra da Caraya and Serra da Lapa, Riedel 493 (lectotype, designated by Hind & Semir, 1998b: 1011, K not seen). Additional specimens examined: Brazil. State Minas Gerais: Mun. Gouveia, Parauna, G. Hatschbach 26992 (LP*); State Goias: Municipio Goias, Morro D. Francisco, A. Macedo 3527 (MO).

6. Wunderlichia senaeii Glaz. ex Maguire & G. M. Barroso, Revista Brasil. Biol. 33: 405. 1973. TYPE: Brazil. State Minas Gerais: 3-5 km E of Serra, along road from Conceicao to Diamantina, B. Maguire et al. 49125 (lectotype, designated by Barroso & Maguire, 1973: 405, NY!).

[FIGURE 77 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 78 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 79 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 80-85 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 86-91 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 92-94 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 95-100 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 101-106 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 107-111 OMITTED]

Literature. Barroso and Maguire (1973), Roque and Pirani (1997), Roque (2001b), Freire et al. (2002).

[FIGURES 112-116 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 117-118 OMITTED]

Excluded Taxa

Barnadesiinae K. Bremer & R. K. Jansen

Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 415. 1992.

Barnadesiinae Benth., in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. pl. 2: 168. 1873.

Herbs, shrubs, subshrubs or little trees, usually with axillary spines, unique indumentum of long, two-celled, barnadesioid hairs on vegetative and reproductive organs. Corollas villose, central florets tubular-funnelform with equal to unequal segments, marginal florets bilabiate to sub-ligulate; anther apical appendages obtuse, tails long to short; style bifid to bilobed, branches smooth to dorsally papillose above or above and below the branch bifurcation point; pappus generally of plumose bristles, the bristles constituted by barnadesioid hairs, scaly, or rarely absent.

The Barnadesioideae comprise a small subfamily with 88 species in nine genera restricted to South America, ranging from the northern Andes in Venezuela south into Argentinian Patagonia.

Observation. Barnadesioideae with the genera Arnaldoa, Barnadesia, Chuquiraga, Dasyphyllum, Doniophyton, Fulcaldea, Huarpea Cabrera, and Schlechtendalia, were considered as a subtribe of Mutisieae by Cabrera (1961, 1977), following the ideas of Bentham. Later the genus Duseniella was added to this group of genera (see Duseniella below). Jansen and Palmer (1987) reported the presence of a 22 kb cpDNA inversion in several Asteraceae. The inversion was found to be absent in three genera of the, by that time, Mutisieae-Barnadesiinae and in other families close to Asteraceae suggesting a basal dichotomy between the Barnadesiinae and the rest of the family. The result was later confirmed by chloroplast DNA sequence data (Kim et al., 1992) and its taxonomic rank was subsequently elevated to subfamily by Bremer and Jansen (1992). From a morphological point of view, the members of the Barnadesioideae are characterized by unique, axillary spines (excepting Duseniella, Huarpea, Schlechtendalia, and some species of Chuquiraga and Dasyphyllum), and by a unique indumentum in vegetative and reproductive organs, the barnadesioid hairs (Bremer 8,: Jansen, 1992; Katinas & Stuessy, 1997). In addition, villose corollas are very common in the subfamily. The pollen of the Barnadesioideae differs from that of Mutisioideae because the exine is spongy, granulate, granulate--columellate or scarcely columellate and in some genera it is caveate (Urtubey & Telleria, 1998; Zao et al., 2000). Our results show that most members of Mutisioideae (tribes Mutisieae and Stifftieae) share the same type of style with those of Barnadesioideae, providing evidence of a strong morphological link between both subfamilies.

[FIGURE 119 OMITTED]

[FIGURES 120-121 OMITTED]

Brachylaena R. BR.

Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12:115. 1817. TYPE: Brachylaena neriifolia (L.) R. Br., based on Baccharis neriifolia L.

Oligocarpha Cass., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris: 151. 1817. TYPE: Oligocarpha nereifolia Cass., Dict. sci. nat. 34: 22. 1823 [= Brachylaena neriifolia (L.) R. Br.].

Trees or shrubs dioecious. Leaves alternate; petiolate to subsessile; blades elliptic to obovate, margin entire to dentate-spinose, glabrous to subglabrous above, tomentose beneath. Capitulescences racemose to paniculate; capitula unisexual, subsessile to pedunculate; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate, outermost phyllaries often extending into the stalk. Florets in male capitula with corollas tubular sub-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled; anther apical appendages apiculate, tails smooth; style bifid, widened below the branch bifurcation point, branches appressed, collector hairs above and somewhat below the bifurcation point, the hairs long and acute; florets in female capitula with corollas tubular-filiform, shallowly five-lobed, lobes erect; anthers absent or reduced to staminodes; style not widened, branches smooth. Cypselae pubescent; pappus of barbellate bristles, widened and plumose at the apex.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of ca. 15 species of Africa and Madagascar.

Observation. Brachylaena and its sister genus Tarchonanthus have been variously placed in the tribes Anthemideae, Astereae, Inuleae, Mutisieae, Vernonieae, and Tarchonantheae. The molecular study of Keeley and Jansen (1991) indicated that the two genera form a distinct clade at or near the base of Cichorioideae. Recent molecular studies indicate that Brachylaena and Tarchonanthus are sister to the African taxa Dicoma and Pasaccardoa (Kim et al., 2002) or sister to Cardueae and Oldenburgia (Funk et al., 2005), and thus are included in the Carduoideae. Our study shows that the widened styles covered by acute hairs is another character that supports the exclusion of Brachylaena from the Mutisioideae.

Literature. Paiva (1972), Pope (1992), Cilliers (1993), Kimball et al. (2004).

Cloiselia S. Moore

J. Bot. 44: 148. 1906. TYPE: Cloiselia carbonaria S. Moore.

Shrubs or little trees. Leaves alternate to fasciculate; short-pseudopetiolate; blades oblanceolate to spathulate. Capitulescences monocephalous or in cymes, terminal; capitula short-petiolate, homogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate, alveolate; involucre multiseriate. Florets bisexual, zygomorphic, transitional between actinomorphic and ligulate, often villous; anther apical appendages apiculate to caudate, tails laciniate, long, acute, tails connate; style bilobed, branches appressed, dorsally pubescent reaching the bifurcation point, hairs acute. Cypselae villose; pappus of scabrid, capillary bristles.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of four species endemic to Madagascar.

Observation. A cladistic analysis of the genus Dicoma based on morphological data (Ortiz, 2000) showed that some of its species constitute a well-supported monophyletic group, segregated from the remaining species of Dicoma. This group of species constitute the genus Cloiselia (Ortiz, 2006a), characterized by corollas much longer than the involucre, disc floret epidermal cell cuticle ornamentation "intestine-like," long simple (not twin) hairs on disc florets corolla, stamen insertion near the corolla base, and pollen echinate, among other characters. According to the cladistic analysis (Ortiz, 2000), Cloiselia is sister to a monophyletic group comprising the genera Macledium, Pasaccardoa and Dicoma s. str. An interesting aspect of Cloiselia is the presence of some characters that appear to be archaic within Asteraceae, as they are present in Barnadesioideae, such as zygomorphic corollas, marginal veins of the adjacent lobes separate from the corolla base, long eglandular hairs in corollas (but not barnadesioid hairs) (Ortiz, 2006a). However, molecular phylogenetic analyses (Kim et al., 2002) do not support a close relationship between Cloiselia and the Barnadesioideae.

Literature. Humbert (1963), Ortiz (2000, 2001, 2006a).

Dicoma Cass.

Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris: 12. 1817. TYPE: Dicoma tomentosa Cass.

Hochstetteria DC., Prodr. 7: 287. 1838. TYPE: Hochstetteria schimperi DC. [= Dicoma schimperi (DC.) Baill. ex O. Hoffm.].

Herbs annual or perennial, shrubs, or rarely small trees. Leaves alternate; sessile to subsessile, sometimes pseudopetiolate or clasping; blades usually ovate, margin entire to serrulate, pubescent in both surfaces. Capitulescences monocephalous or in cymes; capitula sessile to pedunculate, homogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets bisexual, corolla actinomorphic, deeply five-lobed, tube narrow, gradually dilated into a limb to sub-campanulate, lobes coiled; anther apical appendages acute to acuminate, tails papillose; style bifid, branches appressed, apically pubescent and also hairs in a subapical ring, hairs acute. Cypselae villose; pappus usually of scabrid bristles.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of ca. 35 species most from central and southern Africa and Madagascar, two species from Asia (Arabian Peninsula, India, and Pakistan).

Observation. Dicoma and its related genera Cloiselia, Erythrocephalum, Gladiopappus, Macledium, Pasaccardoa, Pleiotaxis, and the unpublished genus Dicomopsis (Ortiz, 2006b) have been included in the tribe Mutisieae (Jeffrey, 1967; Cabrera, 1977; Grau, 1980; Karis et al., 1992; Bremer, 1994; Ortiz, 2000, 2006a). Bremer (1994) called this complex, with the exception of the recently resurrected genera Cloiselia and Macledium, and Dicomopsis, the Dicoma group. The genera of the Dicoma group have been characterized by the presence of mostly actinomorphic corollas with narrow tubes and wide limbs, acuminate or apiculate anther appendages, papillose style branches with a ring of subapical hairs, and echinate pollen in some genera (Cloiselia, Erythrocephalum, Pleiotaxis). Hansen (1991a) suggested, based on a set of features in common (e.g., petal epidermis pattern, style branches with a tuft of hairs, corollas campanulate, cypselae turbinate--oblong) that Dicoma and relatives are more related to the tribe Cardueae or Arctoteae than to Mutisieae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Dicoma group and Cardueae have been supported by the molecular studies of Kim et al. (2002) and Funk et al. (2005). Based on molecular data, the genera of the Dicoma group have been segregated in the new tribe Dicomeae (Panero & Funk, 2002). According to Panero and Funk (2002), the Dicomeae is the sister group of the tribes Cardueae and Tarchonantheae, and the three tribes together constitute the subfamily Carduoideae. Further, Funk et al. (2005) included also Oldenburgia in this monophyletic group. Our observations of the styles of specimens of Dicoma show similarities to the carduoid style of the Cardueae, supporting the exclusion of this genus from Mutisioideae.

Literature. Wilson (1923), Jeffrey (1967), Pope (1991, 1992), Ortiz et al. (1998), Ortiz (2000), Ortiz and Pulgar (2002), Ortiz and Netnou (2005).

Duseniella K. Schum.

Just's Bot. Jahresber. 28: 475. 1902. TYPE: Duseniella patagonica (O. Hoffm.) K. Schum., based on Dusenia patagonica O. Hoffm.

Dusenia O. Hoffm., Wiss. Erg. Schwed. Exp. Magellansl. 3: 246. 1900, non C. A. Mull., 1897, nom. illeg. TYPE: Dusenia patagonica O. Hoffm. [= Duseniella patagonica (O. Hoffm.) K. Schum.].

Herbs dwarf, unarmed, annual, with barnadesioid hairs. Leaves apically alternate and basally opposite; sessile; blades linear-oblong, entire, pubescent to glabrous. Capitulescences monocephalous, terminal; capitula sessile, heterogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets with corolla actinomorphic, tubular-funnelform, five-lobed, lobes erect; marginal florets female; central florets bisexual; anther apical appendages acute, tails smooth; style bifid, branches dorsally papillose above and below the bifurcation point. Cypselae truncate at the apex, villose; pappus of ten scabrid, lanceolate scales.

Habitat and Distribution. Monotypic genus endemic to Patagonia in Argentina.

Observation. Although Duseniella had been already referred to the subtribe Barnadesiinae by Jeffrey (1967), Cabrera (1977) placed it in the Mutisieae Gochnatiinae, probably because some of its characters deviate from those typical of Barnadesiinae, e.g., unarmed branches, non villose florets, and scaly pappus. Morphology-based cladistic studies (Bremer, 1994; Stuessy et al., 1996) supported relationships between Duseniella and Doniophyton, a member of the subfamily Barnadesioideae, based on similar habit (short-lived herbs); basally opposite, linear leaves; female marginal florets with tubular corolla; and collapsed testa epidermis. In addition, we observed barnadesioid hairs in Duseniella, which are exclusive to the Barnadesioideae.

Literature. Cabrera (1971 b).

Erythroeephalum Benth.

in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. pl. 2: 488. 1873. TYPE: Erythrocephalum zambesianum Oliv. & Hiern, Fl. Trop. Aft. 3: 441. 1877.

Achyrothalamus O. Hoffm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 15: 541. 1893. TYPE: Achyrothalamus marginatus O. Hoffm. [= Erythrocephalum marginatum (O. Hoffm.) S. Ortiz & A. P. Cout.].

Herbs annual or subshrubs. Leaves alternate, often rosulate; sessile, often auriculate at the base; blades linear to elliptic, margin entire to denticulate, usually tomentose on the lower surface. Capitulescences monocephalous, terminal; capitula pedunculate, homogamous, radiate or discoid; receptacle paleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets bisexual, radiate capitula with marginal corollas bilabiate, outer lip expanded; central corollas actinomorphic, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, tube narrow, abruptly dilated into a limb, lobes erect; discoid capitula with florets actinomorphic, corollas tubular-campanulate; anther apical appendages acuminate to apiculate, tails papillose, long, subrounded; style bifid, branches separate, dorsally pubescent and also hairs in subapical ring, hairs acute. Cypselae glabrous to sparcely villose; pappus of scabrid, linear scales, or absent.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of ca. 13 species most from eastern Tropical Africa.

Observation. The genus Erythrocephalum was included in the Dicoma group (Bremer, 1994) (see the Observation in Dicoma). The exine with an Helianthoid pattern in the pollen of Erythrocephalum is completely absent in Mutisioideae (Ortiz & Coutinho, 2001; our own observations). Also, we observed that the style of Erythrocephalum has similarities to the carduoid style of the Cardueae, supporting the exclusion of this genus from Mutisioideae.

Literature. Jeffrey (1967), Pope (1992), Ortiz (2000), Ortiz and Coutinho (2001).

Gladiopappus Humbert

Bull. Soc. Bot. France 95: 181. 1948. TYPE: Gladiopappus vernonioides Humbert. Shrubs. Leaves alternate; petiolate; blades oblanceolate to obovate, entire. Capitulescences monocephalous, terminal to axillar; capitula sessile, homogamous, radiate; receptacle fimbriate; involucre multiseriate. Florets dimorphic, bisexual, marginal florets with corollas bilabiate, outer lip expanded; central florets with corollas actinomorphic, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, tube narrow, abruptly dilated into a limb, lobes coiled; anther apical appendages apiculate, tails papillose; styles bilobed, branches appressed, dorsally sparcely papillose, papillae reaching the bifurcation point. Cypselae papillose; pappus dimorphic, outer row of setae, inner row of scabrid scales and longer.

Habitat and Distribution. Monotypic genus endemic to Madagascar.

Observation. The genus Gladiopappus was included in the Dicoma group by Bremer (1994). It shares the typical corolla abruptly dilated into a tube with the genera of this group, but, according to the literature (Humbert, 1948, 1963), the style is sparsely papillose and lacks the typical subapical tuft of collector hairs (see the Observation in Dicoma), a feature that would approach Gladiopappus to Mutisieae. Until we can analyze the morphology of this rare genus, we maintain Gladiopappus excluded from Mutisioideae.

Literature. Humbert (1948, 1963).

Hesperomannia A. Gray

Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 6: 554. 1864-65. TYPE: Hesperomannia arborescens A. Gray. Trees to 5 m tall. Leaves' alternate; sessile to petiolate; blades linear-elliptic to ovate, entire, glabrous to pubescent. Capitulescences monocephalous or clusters of two to ten capitula; capitula pedunculate, homogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets" isomorphic, bisexual; corolla actinomorphic, tubular-funnelform, deeply five-lobed; anther apical appendages acute, tails smooth; style bifid, branches with collector hairs above and much below the bifurcation point, acute hairs. Cypselae trigonous, truncate, glabrescent; pappus of rigid, scabrid bristles, plumose to scabrid at the apex.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of three species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

Observation. Hesperomannia has longly been placed in the tribe Mutisieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (Kim et al., 1998) revealed that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae and is sister to African species of Vernonia Schreb. In addition, we observed vernonioid styles, although the branches are short. With respect to pollen morphology, Hesperomannia cannot be included in the Mutisioideae. The exine section in LM micrographs (Selling, 1947; Marticorena & Parra, 1975; our own observations) is similar to the modified Anthemoid pattern of pollen of Vemonieae and Liabeae (Skvarla et al., 1977). This pattern is characterized by having much broader columellae than noted for the Anthemoid pattern present in Mutisioideae (Skvarla et al., 1977; see also Wortley et al., 2007).

Literature. Degener (1946), Carlquist (1957a), Wagner et al. (1990).

Macledium Cass.

Dict. sci. nat. 34: 39. 1825. [- Dicoma subgen. Macledium (Cass.) Less., Syn. gen. Compos.: 169. 1832]. TYPE: Macledium burmanni Cass., nom. illeg.

Cullumiopsis Drake, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 5: 103. 1899. TYPE: Cullumiopsis grandidieri Drake [= Macledium grandidieri (Drake) S. Ortiz].

Nitelium Cass., Dict. sci. nat. 35: 11. 1825. TYPE: Nitelium rubescens Cass. [- Macledium spinosum (L.) S. Ortiz].

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves' alternate, sometimes rosulate; sessile to subsessile, subtending; blades ovate to oblanceolate, margin serrulate to entire, tomentose especially beneath. Capitulescences monocephalous, cymes terminal to axillar, or corymbose to paniculate; capitula subsessile, homogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets isomorphic, bisexual, corollas actinomorphic, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, tube narrow, gradually dilated into a limb to sub-campanulate, lobes erect; anther apical appendages acuminate, tails papillose; style bifid, branches appressed, dorsally pubescent and also with a basal ring of slightly longer hairs, almost reaching the bifurcation point, hairs acute. Cypselae pubescent; pappus of plumose, capillary bristles, often scales.

Habitat and distribution. Genus of 20 species of Central and South Africa.

Observation. The genus Macledium has been lately resurrected (Ortiz, 2001) to include some distinct species that constitute a monophyletic group within the genus Dicoma (Ortiz, 2000). Macledium is different from Dicoma by its phyllaries with inconspicuous midrib, central corollas with straight lobes, and dorsally pubescent style branches with a basal ring of short hairs reaching the bifurcation point (Ortiz, 2001) (see the Observation in Dicoma). Our observations confirm that the styles resemble to the carduoid style of the Cardueae, supporting the exclusion of this genus from Mutisioideae.

Literature. Ortiz (2000, 2001).

Moquinia DC., Nom. Cons.

Prodr. 7: 22. 1838, non Spreng. 1828, emend. Gamerro, Darwiniana 30: 132. 1990. TYPE: Moquinia racemosa (Spreng.) DC., based on Conyza racemosa Spreng.

Spadonia Less., Syn. gen. Compos.: 99. 1832. TYPE: Spadonia racemosa (Spreng.) Less., based on Conyza racemosa Spreng. [= Moquinia racemosa (Spreng.) DC.].

Trees or shrubs monoecious or gynodioecious. Leaves alternate; petiolate; blades obovate, cuneate, entire, glabrescent to tomentose beneath. Capitulescences racemose, corymbose, spicate to paniculate; capitula unisexual or bisexual, sessile to subsessile, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets actinomorphic, tubular sub-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled to erect. Bisexual capitula: anthers with acute apical appendages, tails short, smooth, style bifid, widened below the branch bifurcation point, branches with collector hairs above and below the bifurcation point; female capitula: florets without anthers or with staminodes; male capitula: florets with rudimentary ovaries. Cypselae villose; pappus of long and short, somewhat paleaceous, scabrid bristles.

Habitat and distribution. Genus of two species endemic to the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais in Brazil.

Observation. Moquinia was included in the synonymy of Gochnatia by Cabrera (1950) and further separated from this genus by the same author (Cabrera, 1969). Moquinia remained in the tribe Mutisieae until Gamerro (1990) performed a morphological and palynological study of the genus. In his work, the genus Pseudostifftia H. Rob. of the tribe Vernonieae (Robinson, 1979) was considered a synonym of Moquinia, and Moquinia was transferred to the Vernonieae. The main characters to justify the transference are: the short apical anther appendage; the glandular hairs in corolla, leaves, and fruits; the pollen morphology; the welldeveloped stylopodium; the widened style; and the endothecium characters

(Gamerro, 1990). Robinson (1994) separated the genera Pseudostifftia and Moquinia and placed them in their own tribe, the Moquinieae, because of differences in the style and pollen characters with the Vemonieae (see also Wortley et al., 2007).

Literature. Cabrera (1969), Gamerro (1990).

Pasaceardoa Kuntze

Revis. gen. pl. 1: 354. 1891. TYPE: Pasaccardoa grantii Kuntze.

Phyllactinia Benth., in Benth. & Hook. f., Gen. pl. 2: 488. 1873, non Lev., 1851, nom. illeg. TYPE: Phyllactinia grantii Benth.

Herbs or subshrubs. Leaves alternate; sessile to subsessile, subtending; blades elliptic to oblanceolate, usually denticulate, gland-dotted, pubescent in the lower surface, sometimes discolor. Capitulescences monocephalous, terminal to axillar; capitula subsessile, heterogamous, radiate; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Marginal florets neuter, corollas true ray, limb three-lobed; central florets bisexual, corollas actinomorphic, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, tube narrow, abruptly dilated into a limb, lobes usually coiled; anther apical appendages acuminate, tails papillose, long, acute; style bifid, branches appressed, dorsally pubescent and also hairs in subapical ring, hairs acute. Cypselae dimorphic; marginal cypselae rudimentary, rostrate at the apex, glabrous or pubescent; central cypselae ribbed, very hairy at the base or pubescent throughout; pappus of numerous, persistent scales.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of four species of Tropical Asia.

Observation. The genus Pasaccardoa was included in the Dicoma group (Bremer, 1994) (see the Observation in Dicoma). Our observations of the styles of specimens of Pasaccardoa show similarities to the carduoid style of the Cardueae, supporting the exclusion of this genus from Mutisioideae.

Literature. Jeffrey (1967), Pope (1992), Ortiz (2000).

Pleiotaxis Steetz

in Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6: 499. 1864. TYPE: Pleiotaxis pulcherrima Steetz.

Herbs or subshrubs. Leaves alternate to sometimes the basal rosulate; sessile to subsessile, often basally auriculate; blades linear to elliptic, margin denticulate, glabrous to pubescent. Capitulescences monocephalous or in cymes; capitula pedunculate, homogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets bisexual, corolla actinomorphic, tubular-campanulate, deeply five-lobed, tube narrow, abruptly dilated into a limb, lobes coiled, sometimes patent; anther apical appendages apiculate-bulbous, tails papillose, long, subrounded; style bilobed to bifid, branches separate, pubescent at the apex and also hairs in a subapical ring, hairs acute. Cypselae glabrous to pubescent; pappus of scabrid, capillary bristles.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of ca. 26 species of Tropical Africa.

Observation. The genus Pleiotaxis was included in the Dicoma group (Bremer, 1994) (see the Observation in Dicoma). Our observations of the styles of specimens of Pleiotaxis show similarities to the carduoid style of the Cardueae, supporting the exclusion of this genus from Mutisioideae. In addition, conspicuous, well-developed spines, different from those of Mutisioideae, were observed in the pollen of species of Pleiotaxis.

Literature. Moore (1925), Jeffrey (1967), Pope (1992), Ortiz and Rodriguez-Oubina (1998), Ortiz (2000), Freire et al. (2002).

Tarchonanthus L.

Sp. pl.: 842. 1753. TYPE: Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.

Trees or shrubs dioecious, often aromatic. Leaves alternate; short-petiolate to subsessile; blades ovate, elliptic to obovate, margin entire to lobed, usually tomentose beneath. Capitulescences paniculate, terminal; capitula unisexual, pedunculate, discoid; receptacle epaleate, glabrous or with silky hairs; involucre one- to two-seriate, phyllaries free to connate. Florets actinomorphic, tubularfunnelform, villose. Male capitula with actinomorphic, five-lobed corollas, anthers exserted, apical appendages acute, short, tails smooth; style bifid, branches dorsally papillose above and below the bifurcation point; female capitula with corollas actinomorphic, shorter than the male corollas, four- to five-lobed; anthers absent or reduced to staminodes; style bilobed, widened below the branch bifurcation point, branches flat, smooth. Cypselae flattened, pubescent; pappus absent.

Habitat and Distribution. Genus of five species ranging from Saudi Arabia through East Africa to the Cape Province of South Africa.

Observation. Tarchonanthus together with Brachylaena are currently placed in the tribe Tarchonantheae (Keeley & Jansen, 1991; Kim et al., 2002; Funk et al., 2005) (see Observation in Brachylaena). The pollen morphology of Tarchonanthus positions this genus close to Anthemideae, although more studies are needed (Skvarla et al., 1977).

Literature. Paiva (1972), Beentje (1998), Herman (2002).

Warionia Benth. & Coss.

Bull. Soc. Bot. France 19: 165. 1872. TYPE: Warionia saharae Benth. & Coss.

Shrubs aromatic, with latex. Leaves alternate; sessile; blades oblong to obovate, pinnately partite, margin sinuate to undulate, fleshy, glabrous. Capitulescences monocephalous or two- to five-headed, corymbose to paniculate; capitula pedunculate, homogamous, discoid; receptacle epaleate; involucre multiseriate. Florets isomorphic, bisexual, corolla actinomorphic, tubular, deeply five-lobed, lobes coiled; anther apical appendages acute, tails smooth; style bifid, branches with collector

hairs above and somewhat below the branch bifurcation point, hairs acute. Cypselae truncate at the apex, villose; pappus of paleaceous-setose, barbellate bristles.

Habitat and Distribution. Monotypic genus, endemic to the African Sahara desert.

Observation. Warionia was regarded as a member of the Mutisieae by Cabrera (1977) and excluded from the tribe by Hansen (1991a). In the morphology-based cladogram of Karis et al. (1992), Warionia appears as an independent branch between the Cardueae and the Vemonioid complex. Bremer (1994) placed it among the genera unassigned to a tribe in Cichorioideae. In a recent study of the tribe Arctoteae (Funk et al., 2004), Warionia is sister to the genus Gundelia L., and both are members of the tribe Gundelieae at the base of the Lactuceae. The style and pollen morphology of Warionia differs from that of the members of Mutisioideae (see also Wortley et al., 2007).

Literature. Ozenda (1991), Audissou (1999), Katinas et al. (in press).

Acknowledgments We are grateful to Jorge Crisci and Bob Kowal for critical reading of the manuscript, and to Peter Hoch and Vicki Funk for their assistance and constant support. Jorge Crisci also provided some unpublished SEM photographs of Nassauvieae. Anonymous reviewers are also acknowledged for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. Thanks are given to Susana Freire for helping with the Ainsliaea group, to Santiago Ortiz for comments and material on the African taxa, to Nicholas Hind for helping with material at Kew, to Melica Munoz Schick for helping with literature and specimens of Chilean taxa, and to Dan Nicolson and Daniel Giuliano for nomenclatural advice. We also thank the curators of hebaria for loans of specimens, all the persons and institutions that granted permission to redraw their illustrations, and Hugo Calvetti for the designing of the SEM plates. The John Simon Guggenbeim Memorial Foundation (LK), the Latin American, Caribbean, and Iberian Studies (LACIS) program (LK), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Argentina, Agencia de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Argentina, the Botany Department of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Missouri Botanical Garden are also acknowledged for their generous support.

Literature Cited

Anderberg, A. A. & S. E. Freire. 1990. Luciliopsis perpusilla Weddell is a species of Chaetanthera Ruiz & Pavon (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Taxon 39: 430-432.

Anderson, C. 1972. A monograph of the Mexican and Central American species of Trixis (Compositae). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 22: 1-68.

Aristeguieta, L. 1964. Compositae. Pp. 485-941. In: T. Lasser (ed.), Flora de Venezuela 10. Instituto Botanico, Direccion de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Ministerio de Agricultura, Caracas, Venezuela.

--. 1967. Compositae. Pp. 345 370. In: J. A. Steyermark (ed.), Flora of the Auyan-tepui. Acta Botanica Venezuelica 2. lnstituto Botanico, Direccion de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Ministerio de Agricultura, Caracas, Venezuela.

Ariza Espinar, L. 1973. Revision del genero Hyaloseris (Compositae). Kurtziana 7:195-211.

Arroyo, M. T. K., A. M. R. Davies & I. Till-Bottraud. 2004. Chaetanthera acheno-hirsuta (Tombesi) Arroyo, A. M. R. Davies & Till-Bottraud elevated to species, new for the flora of Chile. Gayana, Botanica 61 : 27-31.

Audissou, J.-A. 1999. Warionia saharae. British Cactus and Succulent Journal 3:124-126.

Baagae, J. 1977. Microcharacters in the ligules of the Compositae. Pp. 119-139. In: V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harbome & B. L. Turner (eds.), The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae, Vol. 1. Academic, London.

Bacigalupi, R. 1931. A monograph of the genus Perezia, section Acourtia, with a provisional key to the section Euperezia. Contributions of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 97: 1-81.

Badillo, V. M. 1988. Sobre la vigencia del genero Cardonaea Aristeg. et al. (Compositae-Mutisieae). Ernstia 46:8-10.

Baker, J. G. 1884. Compositae III. Mutisiaceae. Pp. 339-398. In: C. F. R Martius (ed.), Flora Brasiliensis 6(3). Monachii in typographia regia C. Wolf et ill. et in offic, lithograph. Keller, Munich. Barreda, V. D. 1993. Late Oligocene?--Miocene pollen of the families Compositae, Malvaceae, and Polygonaceae from the Chenque Formation, Golfo San Jorge Basin, southeastern Argentina. Palynology 17:169-186.

--, V. Barreda, L. Palazzesi & M. C. Telleria. 2008. Fossil pollen grains of Asteraceae from the Miocene of Patagonia: Nassauviinae affinity. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 151 : 51-58.

Barrie, F. R. 2006. Report of the General Committee: 9. Taxon 55: 795-800.

Barroso, G. M. & B. Maguire. 1973. A review of the genus Wunderlichio (Mutisieae, Compositae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 33: 379-406.

Beentje, H. J. 1998. The genus Tarchonanthus (Compositae-Mutisieae). Kew Bulletin 54: 81-95.

Bentham, G. & J. D. Hooker. 1873. Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definite, volume 2. Lovell, Reeve and Co., London.

Bittmann, M. 1990a. Die Gattung Adenocaulon (Compositae): I. Morphologie. Candollea 45: 389-420.

--. 1990b. Die Gattung Adenoeaulon (Compositae): II. Okologie, Verbreitung und Systematik. Candollea 45: 493-518.

Bolick, M. R. 1978. Taxonomic, evolutionary, and functional considerations of Compositae pollen ultrastructure and sculpture. Plant Systematics and Evolution 130: 209-218.

Bond, P. 1987. A revision of Oldenburgia. South African Journal of Botany 53: 493-500.

Bremer, K. 1987. Tribal interrelationships of the Asteraceae. Cladistics 3: 210-253.

--. 1992. Ancestral areas: A cladistic reinterpretation of the center of origin concept. Systematic Biology 41: 436-445.

--. 1993. Intercontinental relationships of African and South American Asteraceae: A cladistic biogeographic analysis. Pp. 104-135. In: R Goldblatt (ed.), Biological Relationships Between Africa and South America. Yale University Press, New Haven.

--. 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber, Portland, Oregon.

--. 1996. Major clades and grades of the Asteraceae. Pp. 1-7. In: D. J. N. Hind & H. J. Beentje (eds.), Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, Vol. 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

--& M. It. G. Gustafsson. 1997. East Gondwana ancestry of the sunflower alliance of families. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94: 9188-9190.

--& R. K. Jansen. 1992. A new subfamily of the Asteraceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 414-415.

Brummitt, R. K. 2005. Report of the Committee for Spermatophyta: 57. Taxon 54:1093-1103.

Burkart, A. 1944. Estudio del genero de Compuestas Chaptalia con especial referencia alas especies argentinas. Darwiniana 6:505-594.

Cabrera, A. L. 1936. Las especies argentinas y uruguayas del genero Trixis. Revista del Museo de La Plata, Seccion Botanica 2: 31-86.

--. 1937. Revision del genero Chaetanthera (Compositae). Revista del Museo de La Plata, Seccion Botanica 2: 87-210.

--. 1944. Vernonieas argentinas (Compositae). Darwiniana 6: 265-379.

--. 1950. Observaciones sobre los generos Gochnatia y Moquinia. Notas del Museo de La Plata, Botanica 15: 37-48.

--. 1951. Notas sobre compuestas de America Austral. Darwiniana 9: 363-386.

--. 1953a. Compuestas peruanas nuevas o criticas. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 5: 37-50.

--. 1953b. Las especies del genero Pamphalea (Compositae). Notas del Museo de La Plata, Botanica 16: 225-237.

--. 1954. Compuestas sudamericanas nuevas o criticas. II. Notas del Museo de La Plata, Botanica 17: 71-80.

--. 1959a. Compositae catarinenses novae. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 7: 187-200.

--. 1959b. Revision del genero Dasyphyllum (Compositae). Revista del Museo de La Plata, Seccion Botanica 9: 21-100.

--. 1961. Compuestas argentinas. Clave para la determinacion de los generos. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, "Bernardino Rivadavia" Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de las Ciencias Naturales, Botanica 2: 291-362.

--. 1965. Revision del genero Mutisia (Compositae). Opera Lilloana 13: 5-227.

--. 1968. Rehabilitacion del genero Holocheilus Cassini (Compositae). Revista del Museo de La Plata, Seccion Botanica 11: 1-15.

--. 1969. El genero Moquinia (Compositae). Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 11: 255-261.

--. 1970. Actinoseris, nuevo genero de compuestas. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 13: 45-52.

--. 1971a. Revision del genero Gochnatia (Compositae). Revista del Museo de La Plata, Seccion Botanica 12: 1-160.

--. 1971b. Compositae. Pp. 1-451. In: M. N. Correa (ed.), Flora Patagonica. Coleccion Cientifica del INTA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

--. 1974. Tres Compositae nuevas de Minas Gerais (Brasil). Boletim do Museu Botanico Municipal 15: 1-4.

--. 1975. Una nueva especie de Onoseris (Compositae) de Brasil. Boletim do Museu Botanico Municipal 19: 1-3.

--. 1976. Una nueva especie de Mutisia (Compositae) de Patagonia. Darwiniana 20: 210-212.

--. 1977. Mutisiea--Systematic review. Pp. 1039-1066. In: V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harbome & B. L. Turner (eds.), The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae, Vol. 2. Academic, London.

--. 1978. Compositae. Pp. 9-726. In: A. L. Cabrera (ed.), Flora de la Provincia de Jujuy, Republica Argentina. Coleccion Cientifica del INTA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

--. 1982. Revision del genero Nassauvia (Compositae). Darwiniana 24: 283-379.

--& A. Willink. 1973. Biogeografia de America Latina. O.E.A. Serie de Biologia, Monografia 13, Washington, DC.

Cabrera-Rodriguez, L. 1992. Systematic Study of the Genus Rzedowskiela R. Cabrera (Mutisieae, Compositae). Doctoral Thesis, The University of Texas, Austin.

--. 2001. Six new species of Acourtia (Asteraceae) and a historical account of Acourtia mexicana. Brittonia 53:416-429.

--& G. Dieringer. 2003. Pollen structure of Acourtia (Asteraceae): New findings and some taxonomic considerations. International Journal of Plant Sciences 164: 287-294. 0 Candia, R. & A. D. Dalmasso. 1995. Dicta del guanaco (Lama guanicoe) y productividad del pastizal en la Reserva La Payunia, Mendoza (Argentina). Multequina 4: 5-15.

Carlquist, S. 1957a. Systematic anatomy of Hesperomannia. Pacific Science 11: 207-215.

--. 1957b. Anatomy of Guayana Mutisieac. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 9: 441-475.

--. 1957c. Wood anatomy of Mutisieae (Compositae). Tropical Woods 106: 29-45.

--. 1958. Anatomy of the Guayana Mutisieae. Part II. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 10: 157-184.

--. 1961. Comparative Plant Anatomy. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.

--. 1976. Tribal interrelationships and phylogeny of the Asteraceae. Aliso 8: 465-492.

Cassini, H. 1816. Quatrieme memoire sur le famille des synantherees, contenant l'analyse de l'ovaire et de ses accesoires. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 85: 5-21.

--. 1819. Suit du sixieme memoire sur la familie des Synantherees, contenat les caracteres des tribus. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 88: 189-204.

--. 1824. Mutisiees. Pp. 462-465. In: G. Cuvier (ed.), Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 33. Le Normant, Paris.

--. 1825. Nassauviees. Pp. 204-208. In: G. Cuvier (ed.), Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 34. Le Normant, Paris.

Cilliers, S. S. 1993. Synopsis of the genus Brachylaena (Asteraceae) in southern Africa. Bothalia 23:175-184.

Crisci, J. V. 1971. Sobre una especie de Jungia (Compositae) del Peril. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 13: 341-346.

--. 1974a. A numerical taxonomic study of the subtribe Nassauviinae (Compositae, Mutisieae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 55: 568-610.

--. 1974b. Marticorenia: A new genus of Mutisieae (Compositae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 55: 38-45.

--. 1974c. Revision of the genus Moscharia (Compositae, Mutisieae) and a reinterpretation of its inflorescence. Contributions of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 205: 163-173.

--. 1976a. Burkartia: Nuevo genero de Mutisieae (Compositae). Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 17: 241-246.

--. 1976b. Revision del genero Leucheria (Compositae: Mutisieae). Darwiniana 20: 9-126.

--. 1980. Evolution in the subtribe Nassauviinae (Compositae, Mutisieae): A phylogenetic reconstruction. Taxon 29: 213-224.

--& S. E. Freire. 1986. El genero Calopappus (Compositae, Mutisieae). Caldasia 15: 57-69.

--& C. Marticorena. 1978. Transfer of the Brazilian Trixis eryngioides to Perezia (Compositae, Mutisieae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 59: 352-359. Cristobal, C. L. & A. L. Cabrera. 1982. Novedades en Hyaloseris Griseb. (Compositae). Hickenia 1: 255-257.

Davies, A. M. R. 2006. Chaetanthera kalinae (Mutisieae, Asteraceae), a new species from Chile. Novon 16: 51-55.

de Candolle, A. P. 1838. Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 7. Treuttel and Wurtz, Paris.

de Candolle, M. 1812. Observations sur les plantes Composees, ou Syngeneses, troisieme memoire: Sur

les Composees a corolles labiees ou Labiatiflores. Annales du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 19: 59-72.

Degener, O. 1946. Hesperomannia. In: Flora Hawaiiensis. New Illustrated Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Published by the author.

Diaz-Piedrahita, S. 2001. Tostimontia, un nuevo genero de Asteraceae (Mutisieae) originario de Colombia. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas 25: 7-10.

--& C. Velez-Nauer. 1993. Revision de las tribus Barnadesieae y Mutisieae (Asteraceae) para la 'Flora Colombiana. Monografias del Jardin Botanico Jose Celestino Mutis 1: 1-162.

Dimon, M. T. 1971. Problemes generaux souleves par l'etude pollinique de Composes Mediterraneennes. Naturalia Monspeleliensia, Serie Botanique 22:129-144.

Don, D. 1830. Descriptions of the new genera and species of the class Compositae belonging to the floras of Peru, Mexico, and Chile. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 16: 171-297.

Dormer, K. J. 1962. The fibrous layer in the anthers of the Compositae. New Phytologist 61: 150-163.

Egerod, K. & B. Stahl. 1991. Revision of Lycoseris (Compositae-Mutisieae). Nordic Journal of Botany 11: 549-574.

Elsik, W. C. & T. E. Yaneey. 2000. Palynomorph biozones in the context of changing paleoclimate, middle Eocene to lower Oligocene of the northwest Gulf of Mexico. Palynology 24: 177-186.

Erbar, C. & P. Leins. 1995. Portioned pollen release and the syndromes of secondary pollen presentation in the Campanulales--Asterales complex. Flora 190: 323-338.

Erdtman, G. 1960. The acetolysis method, a revised description. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift utgifven uf Svenska Botaniska Foreningen (Stockholm) 54: 561-564.

--. 1966. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy. Hafner, New York and London.

--. 1969. Handbook of Palynology: An Introduction to the Study of Pollen Grains and Spores. Hafner, Munksgaard, Copenhagen and New York.

Fabris, H. A. 1968. Revision del genero Proustia (Compositae). Revista del Museo de La Plata, Seccion Botanica 11 : 23-49.

Ferreyra, R. 1944. Revision del genero Onoseris. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 25: 349-395.

--. 1949. Una nueva especie de Onoseris procedente del Peril. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado," Serie B, Botanica 2: 1-4.

--. 1953. Las especies peruanas del genero Chaetanthera (Compositae). -Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado," Serie B, Botanica 6: 1-8.

--. 1959. Dos especies nuevas de Onoseris (Compositae) para la flora peruana. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado," Serie B, Botanica 11 : 1-6.

--. 1980. Especies nuevas de Compuestas peruanas. Boletin de la Sociedad Peruana de Botanica 8: 75-82.

--. 1995. Family Asteraceae: Part VI. Fieldiana, Botany 35: 1-101.

Franchet, M. A. 1888. Mutisiacees du Yun-nan. Journal de Botanique (Morot) 2: 1-7.

Freire, S. E. 1996. Asteraceae, Tribu XII. Mutisieae, Subtribu 2. Gochnatiinae (excepto Gochnatia). Pp. 1-8, 12-17. In: A. T. Hunkiker (ed.), Flora Fanerogamica Argentina, Fasciculo 28. PROFLORA, Cordoba, Argentina.

--. 2002. Two new species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) from China and Vietnam. Novon 12: 451-455.

--. 2007. Systematic revision and phylogeny of Ainsliaea DC. (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 94: 79-191.

--& L. Iharlegui. 2000. Ejemplares tipo de Asteraceae (= Compositae) de A. L. Cabrera. Darwiniana 38: 307-364.

--& L. Katinas. 1995. Morphology and ontogeny of the cypsela hairs of Nassauviinae (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Pp. 107-143. In: D. J. N. Hind, C. Jeffrey & G. V. Pope (eds.), Advances in Compositae Systematics. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

--, J. V. Crisei & L. Katinas. 1993. A cladistic analysis of Nassauvia Comm. ex Juss. (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) and related genera. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 112: 293-309.

--, L. Katinas & G. Sancho. 2002. Gochnatia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) and the Gochnatia complex: Taxonomic implications from morphology. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 525-550.

Funk, V. A., R. Chan & S. C. Keeley. 2004. Insights into the evolution of the tribe Arctoteae (Compositae: subfamily Cichorioideae s.s.) using trnL-F, ndhF, and ITS. Taxon 53: 637-655.

--, R. J. Bayer, S. Keeley, R. Chan, L. Watson, B. Gemeinholzer, E. Schilling, J. L. Panero, B. G. Baldwin, N. Garcia-Jacas, A. Susanna & R. K. Jansen. 2005. Everywhere but Antarctica: Using a supertree to understand the diversity and distribution of the Compositae. Biologiske Skrifter 55: 343-374.

Gamerro, J. C. 1990. Identidad de Pseudostifftia con Moquinia (Compositae) y consideraciones sobre la ubicacion tribal del taxon. Darwiniana 30: 123-136.

Garnatje, T. & J. Martin. 2007. Pollen studies in the genus Echinops L. and Xeranthemum group (Asteraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 549-557.

Gay, C. 1847. Historia fisica y politica de Chile. Tomo 3, Museo de Historia Natural de Santiago, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Gieason, H. A. 1931. The botanical results of the Tyler-Duida expedition. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 58: 277-501.

Gonzalez-Medrano, J., J. L. Villasenor & R. Medina. 2004. A new species of Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) from the desert srubland of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Novon 14: 434-436.

Graham, A. 1996. A contribution to the geologic history of the Compositae. Pp. 123-140. In: D. J. N. Hind & H. J. Beentje (eds.), Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, Vol. 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Grau, J. 1980. Die testa der Mutisieae und ihre systematische Bedeutung. Mitteilungen aus der Botanischen Staatssammlung Munchen 16: 269-332.

Greuter, W., J. McNeill, F. R. Barrie, H.-M. Burdet, V. Demoulin, T. S. Filgueiras, D. H. Nicolson, P. C. Silva, J. E. Skog, P. Trehane, N. J. Turland & D. L. Hawksworth (editors). 2000. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Saint Louis Code). Regnum Vegetabile 138.

Gustafsson, M. H. G., A. S.-R. Pepper, V. A. Albert & M. Kallersjo. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 21: 149-160.

Hansen, H. V. 1985a. A taxonomic revision of the genus Gerbera (Compositae Mutisieae) sections Gerbera, Parva, Piloselloides (in Africa) and Lasiopus. Opera Botanica a Societate Botanica Lundensi 78: 5-36.

--. 1985b. Notes on Gerbera sect. Pseudoseris (Compositae-Mutisieae). Nordic Journal of Botany 5: 451-453.

--. 1985c. A taxonomic revision of the genus Perdicium (Compositae-Mutisieae). Nordic Journal of Botany 5: 543-546.

--. 1988. A taxonomic revision of the genera Gerbera sect. Isanthus, Leibnitzia (in Asia), and Uechtritzia (Compositae, Mutisieae). Nordic Journal of Botany 8: 61-76.

--. 1990. Phylogenetic studies in the Gerbera-complex (Compositae, tribe Mutisieae, subtribe Mutisiinae). Nordic Journal of Botany 9: 469-485.

--1991a. Phylogenetic studies in Compositae tribe Mutisieae. Opera Botanica a Societate Botanica Lundensi 109: 1-50.

--. 1991b. SEM-studies and general comments on pollen in the tribe Mutisieae (Compositae) sensu Cabrera. Nordic Journal of Botany 10: 607-623.

Harling, G. 1991. Compositae-Mutisieae. Pp. 1-106. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 42. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Goteborg, Section of Botany, Riksmuseum, Stockholm, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito.

--. 1995. The genus Jungia L. ill. (Compositae-Mutisieae). Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarium Gothoburgensis, Botanica 4: 5-133.

--. 1997. A new species of Jungia (Compositae) from Bolivia. Novon 7: 246-248.

Harris, J. G. & M. Wolf Harris. 1994. Plant Identification Terminology. An Illustrated Glossary. Spring Lake, Spring Lake, Utah.

Hellwig, P. 1985. Bau der bluten und kopfchen von Moscharia und verwandten gattungen der Compositae-Mutisieae. Mitteilungen aus der Botanischen Staatssammlung Munchen 21: 1-47.

Heng, L. 1995. Discussion on floristic features of the rare and endangered Compositae plant of China: Nouelia insignis. Acta Botanica Yunnanica 17: 401-404. (In Chinese).

Herman, P. P. J. 2002. Revision of Tarchonanthus camphoratus complex (Asteraceae-Tarchonantheae) in southern Africa. Bothalia 32: 21-28.

Hershkovitz, M. A., M. T. K. Arroyo, C. Bell & L. F. Hinojosa. 2006. Phylogeny of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) reveals both ancient and recent origins of the high elevation lineages. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 594-605.

Heusser, C. J. 1971. Pollen and Spores of Chile: Modern Types of the Pteridophyta, Gynmospermae and Angiospermae. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Hickman, J. C. (editor) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Hind, D. J. N. 2000. A new species and a commentary on the genus Trixis (Compositae: Mutisieae) in Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 55: 381-386.

--. 2001a. Problems in Pertya Sch.Bip. Compositae Newsletter 36: 9-13.

-. 2001 b. A new combination in Amblysperma (Compositae: Mutisieae). Kew Bulletin 56:711-713.

--. 2004. A new species of Jungia (Compositae: Mutisieae: Nassauviinae) from Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 59:311-314.

--. 2007. Tribe Mutisieae. Pp. 90-123. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. 8. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg.

--& J. Semir. 1998a. A new combination in Stifftia (Compositae: Mutisieae). Kew Bulletin 53: 617-622.

--&--. 1998b. Typification of Wunderlichia (Compositae: Mutisieae). Kew Bulletin 53: 1011-1012.

Hoffmann, O. 1894. Compositae. Pp. 87-391. In: A. Engler & K. Prantl (eds.), Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Vol. 4(5). von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Humbert, H. 1948. Un genre nouveau remarquable de Mutisiees a Madagascar. Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France 95: 181-183.

--. 1963. 189e Famille Composees. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores. 3. Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Jansen, R. K. & K. -J. Kim. 1996. Implications of chloroplast DNA data for the classification and phylogeny of the Asteraceae. Pp. 317-339. In: D. J. N. Hind & H. Beentje (eds.), Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International CompositaeConference, Kew, 1994, Vol. 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

--& J. D. Palmer. 1987. A chloroplast DNA inversion marks an ancient evolutionary split in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84: 5818-5822.

--&--. 1988. Phylogenetic implications of chloroplast DNA restriction site variation in the Mutisieae (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 75: 753-766.

Jarvis, C. E. & N. J. Turland (editors). 1998. Typification of Linnean specific and varietal names in the Compositae (Asteraceae). Taxon 47: 347-370.

Jeffrey, C. 1967. Notes on Compositae iI. The Mutisieae in east tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 21:177-223.

--. 1977. Corolla forms in Compositae--Some evolutionary and taxonomic speculations. Pp. 111-118. In: V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne & B. L. Turner (eds.), The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae, Vol. 1. Academic, London.

--. 2004. Systema Compositarium (Asteraceum) nova. Botanical Journal 89: 1817-1822.

--. 2007. Introduction with key to tribes. Pp. 61-87. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. 8. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Jervis, R. N. 1954. A Summary of the Genus Gochnatia Including a Revision of the West Indian Species which Comprise the Section Anastraphioides. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Jimenez Rodrignez, F., L. Katinas, M. C. Telleria & J. V. Crisei. 2004. Salcedoa gen. nov., a biogeographic enigma in the Caribbean Mutisieae (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 29: 987-1002.

Johnston, I. M. 1929. Undescribed species from the Cordillera of Atacama. Contributions of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 85:164-172.

Kalin Arroyo, M. T. & C. Marticorena. 1988. A new species of the South American genus Nassauvia (Compositae: Mutisieae) from Chilean Patagonia. Brittonia 40: 332-334.

Karis, P. O., M. Kallersjo & K. Bremer. 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the Cichorioideae (Asteraceae), with emphasis on the Mutisieae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 416-427.

Katinas, L. 1994. Un nuevo genero de Nassauviinae (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) y sus relaciones cladisticas con los generos afines de la subtribu. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 30: 59-70.

--. 1995. Tribu XII. Mutisieae. Subtribu 4. Nassauviinae. Pp. 5-58. In: A. T. Hunziker (ed.), Flora Fanerogamica Argentina, Fasciculo 13. PROFLORA, Cordoba, Argentina.

--. 1996a. Tribu XII. Mutisieae. Subtribu 3. Mutisiinae. Pp. 140. In: A. T. Hunziker (ed.), Flora Fanerogamica Argentina, Fasciculo 4. PROFLORA, Cordoba, Argentina.

--. 1996b. Revision de las especies sudamericanas del genero Trixis (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Darwiniana 34: 27-108.

--. 1998. The Mexican Chaptalia hintonii is a Gerbera (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Novon 8: 380-385.

--. 2000. Implications of morphological phylogenetics for the placement of the genera Adenocaulon and Eriachaenium (Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 223: 229-250.

--. 2004a. The Gerbera-complex (Asteraceae, Mutisieae): To split or not to split. Sida 21: 935-940.

--. 2004b. Amblysperma should be retained under Trichocline. Taxon 53: 108-112.

--. 2008. The genus Pachylaena (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 157: 373-380.

--& J. V. Crisci. 2000. Cladistic and biogeographic analyses of the genera Moscharia and Polyachyrus (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Systematic Botany 25: 33-46.

--& J. V. Crisci. 2008. Reconstructing the biogeographical history of two plant genera with different dispersion capabilities. Journal of Biogeography 35: 1374-1384.

--& T. F. Stuessy. 1997. Revision of Doniophyton (Compositae, Barnadesioideae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 206: 33-45.

--, J. V. Crisei & S. E. Freire. 1992. Revision sistematica y analisis cladistico del genero Triptilion Ruiz et Pavon (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion 63: 101-132.

--, J. V. Crisci, M. C. Telleria, V. Barreda & L. Palazzesi. 2007. Early history of Asteraceae in Patagonia: Evidence from fossil pollen grains. New Zealand Journal of Botany 45: 605-610.

--, J. V. Crisci, R. Schmidt Jabaily, C. Williams, J. Walker, B. Drew, J. M. Bonifacino & K. J. Sytsma. 2008a. Evolution of secondary heads in Nassauviinae (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). American Journal of Botany 95: 229-240.

--, M. C. Telleria & J. V. Crisci. 2008b. A new species of Leucheria (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) from Chile. Novon 18: 366-369.

Katinas, L., M. C. Telleria, A. Susanna & S. Ortiz. Warionia (Asteraceae): A relict genus of Cichorioideac? Anales de1 Jardin Botanico de Madrid 65. In press.

Keeley, S. C. & R. K. Jansen. 1991. Evidence from chloroplast DNA for the recognition of a new tribe, the Tarchonantheae, and the tribal placement of Pluchea (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 16: 173-181.

Keighery, G. J. 2005. A new species of Amblysperma (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). Compositae Newsletter 42: 26-31.

Kim, H.-G., S. C. Keeley, P. S. Vroom & R. K. Jansen. 1998. Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95:15440-15445.

Kim, K.-J., R. K. Jansen, R. S. Wallace, It. J. Michaels & J. D. Palmer. 1992. Phylogenetic implications of rbcL sequence variation in the Asteraceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 428-445.

Kim, K.-J., D. J. Looekerman & R. K. Jansen. 2002. Systematic implications of ndhF sequence variation in the Mutisieae (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 27: 598-609.

--, K.-S. Choi & R. K. Jansen. 2005. Two chloroplast DNA inversions originated simultaneously during the early evolution of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Molecular Biology and Evolution 22: 1783-1792.

Kimball, R. T., D. J. Crawford & T. K. Lowrey. 2004. A molecular study of Brachylaena (Asteraceae): phylogenetic and biogeographic implications. Abstracts, Botany 2004, Snowbird, Utah.

Kitamura, S. 1937. Tribe Mutisieae. Memoirs of the College of Science, Kyoto Imperial University, Series B, Biology 13: 292-316.

Koch, M. F. 1930. Studies in the anatomy and morphology of the Compositae flower. II. The corollas of the Heliantheae and the Mutisieae. American Journal of Botany 17: 995-1010.

Koster, J. T. 1945. Chaetanthera. Blumea 5: 673-674.

Koyama, H. 1973. On the taxonomic characters of the genus Pertya. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Plant Taxonomists 3: 20-21.

--. 1975. Notes on Pertya hossei and its allies. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo 1: 49-58.

Lagasca, M. 1811. Disertacion sobre un nuevo orden de plantas de la clase de 1as Compuestas. Amenidades Naturales de las Espanas: 26-44.

Leins, P. 1968. Versuch einer Gliedemng der Inulinae und Buphtalminae nach den Pollenkorn typen. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, Berlin 81: 498-504.

Lessing, C. F. 1832. Synopsis Generum Compositamm. Duncker and Humblot, Berlin.

Lin, N. N., H. Wang, D. Li & S. Blackmore. 2005. Pollen morphology of eight genera of the subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) from Asia. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 47: 1036-1046.

Lindley, J. 1829. Mutisioideae. Pp. 1072-1074. In: J. Loudon (ed.), An Encyclopaedia of Plants. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, London.

Luan, S., T.-Y. Chiang & X. Gong. 2006. High genetic diversity vs. low genetic differentiation in Nouelia insignis (Asteraceae), a narrowly distributed endemic species in China, revealed by ISSR fingerprinting. Annals of Botany 98: 583-589.

Maguire, B. 1956. Distribution, endemicity, and evolution patterns among Compositae of the Guayana Highland of Venezuela. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 100: 467-475.

--. 1967. Compositae. The botany of the Guayana Highland--Part VII. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 17: 437--439.

--& J. J. Wurdack. 1958. New Guayana Compositae. Boletin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales, Caracas 20: 54-59.

--,--& collaborators. 1957a. The botany of the Guayana Highland--Part II. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 9: 235-392.

--, J. A. Steyermark, J. J. Wurdack & collaborators. 1957b. Botany of the Chimanta Massif-I. Gran Sabana, Venezuela. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 9: 393-439.

Markgraf, V. & H. L. D'Antooi. 1978. Pollen Flora of Argentina. Arizona, Tucson.

Marticorena, C. & O. Parra. 1975. Morfologia de Ins granos de polen de Hesperomannia Gray y Moquinia DC. (Compositae-Mutisieae). Estudio comparativo con generos afines. Gayana, Botanica 29: 1-22.

--& M. Quezada. 1974. Compuestas nuevas o interesantes para Chile. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion 48: 99-108.

Mattfeld, J. 1934. Compositae Novae Sinenses. Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 11: 103-110.

Mitsui, Y., S.-T. Chen, Z.-K. Zhou, C.-I.-Peng, Y. F. Deng & H. Segoguchi. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) in the Sino-Japanese region based on nuclear rDNA and plastid DNA sequence data. Annals of Botany 101: 111-124.

Molfino, J. F. 1953. Una nueva especie del genero Aphyllocladus. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 5: 30-34.

Mondin, C. A. 1995. Holocheilus monocephalus (Asteraceae-Mutisieae), nova especie do sul do Brasil. Napaea 11 : 31-34.

--& C. L. Vasques. 2004. O genero Holocheilus Cass. (Asteraceae-Mutisieae-Nassauviinae) no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia, Botanica 59: 161-172.

Moore, D. M. 1983. Flora of Tierra del Fuego. Anthony Nelson, Shropshire, England.

Moore, S. 1925. The genus Pleiotaxis Steetz (Compositae). Journal of Botany 63: 43-50.

Munoz Pizarro, C. 1966. Sinopsis de la Flora Chilena: Claves para la Identificacion de Familias y Generos. Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile, Santiago.

Nayar, M. P. & M. Ahmedullah. 1985. Catamixis baccharoides Thomson--An endemic chasmophyte of the W. Himalaya under threat. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 27: 248-250.

Nesom, G. L. 1983. Biology and taxonomy of American Leibnitzia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). Brittonia 35: 126-139.

--. 1984. Taxonomy and distribution of Chaptalia dentata and C. albicans (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). Brittonia 36: 396-401.

--. 1995. Revision of Chaptalia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) from North America and continental Central America. Phytologia 78: 153-188.

Nordenstam, B. & E. El-Ghazaly. 1977. Floral micromorphology and pollen ultrastructure in some Centaureinae (Compositae) mainly from Egypt. Publicatins of the Cairo University Herbarium N[degrees] 7 & 8.

Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan. National Science Museum, Tokyo; Smithsonian institution, Washington, DC.

Ortiz, S. 2000. A phylogenetic analysis of Dicoma Cass. and related genera (Asteraceae: Cichorioideae: Mutisieae) based on morphological and anatomic characters. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 87: 459-481.

--. 2001. Reinstatement of the genus Macledium Cass. (Asteraceae, Mutisieae): Morphological and phylogenetic arguments. Taxon 50: 733-744.

--. 2006a. Systematics of Cloiselia (Asteraceae, Mutisieae s. 1.), a reinstated Madagascan genus. Systematic Botany 31 : 421-431.

--. 2006b. African Mutisieae. R 14. In: Book of Abstracts. The International Compositae Alliance (TICA Deep Achene), Barcelona, Spain.

--& A. P. Coutinho. 2001. Achyrothalamus reduced to Erythrocephalum (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Taxon 50: 389-403.

--& N. C. Netnou. 2005. A new species of Dicoma (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) from South Africa. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 147: 509-513.

--& I. Pulgar. 2002. A new species of Dicoma Cass. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae) from Namibia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139: 317-322.

--& J. Rodriguez-Oubina. 1998. The infraspecific taxa of Pleiotaxis huillensis (Mutisieae, Asteraceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 19: 23-26.

--, J. Rodriguez--Oubina & M. Tadesse. 1998. A taxonomic revision of Dicoma (Asteraceae: Cichorioideae: Mutisieae) for the horn of Africa. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: 440-459.

Ozenda, P. 1991. Flore et Vegetation du Sahara, 3rd ed. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.

Paiva, J. A. R. 1972. New and little known species from the flora zambesiaca area. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana 46: 355-384.

Panero, J. L. 2007. Calorezia, a new genus of tribe Nassauvieae (Asteraceae, Mutisioideae). Phytologia 89: 198-201.

--& V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115: 909-922.

--&--. 2007. New infrafamilial taxa in Asteraceae. Phytologia 89: 356-360.

--&--. 2008. The value of sampling anomalous taxa in phylogenetic studies: Major clades of the Asteraceae revealed. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 757-782.

Parra, O. & C. Marticorena. 1972. Granos de polen de plantas chilenas, II. Composita--Mutisieae. Chile. Gayana, Bothnica 21: 1-107.

Pehlivan, S. 1995. Pollen morphology of some Turkish endemic Centaurea. Grana Palynologica 34: 29-38.

Poljakov, P. P. 1967. Systematika i proischozdenie sloznocvetnych. Alma-Ata, Nauka.

Pope, G. V. 1991. Notes on Dicoma Cass. (Compositae). Kew Bulletin 46: 699-709.

--. 1992. Flora Zambesiaca. Managing Commitee on Behalf of the Contributors to Flora Zambesiaca. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Pruski, J. F. 1989a. Notes on the Compositae of the Guayana Highland--I. A new species of Stomatochaeta and the reduction of Guaicaia to Glossarion (Compositae: Mutisieae). Brittonia 41: 35-40.

--. 1989b. Compositae of the Guayana Highland--II. Novelties in Gongylolepis and Stenopadus (Mutisieae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 76: 993-1003.

--. 1991. Compositae of the Guayana Highland V. The Mutisieae of the Lost World of Brazil, Colombia, and Guyana. Boletim do Museo Paraense de Historia Natural 7: 335-392.

--. 1997. Asteraceae. Pp. 177 393. In: J. A. Steyermark, P. E. Berry & B. K. Hoist (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, Vol. 3. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

--. 1998. Stenopadus andicola sp. nov. (Asteraceae: Mutisieae), a new generic record for Ecuador. Novon 8: 67-69.

--. 2004. Missouri Botanical Garden, Research: Asteraceae (Compositae). The Missouri Botanical Garden, Poster, St. Louis.

--& H. Beltran. 2003. Stenopadus andicola (Compositae: Mutisieae), a new generic record for Peru. Compositae Newsletter 39: 2-12.

--& G. Sancho. 2004. Asteraceae or Compositae (Aster or sunflower family). Pp. 33-39. In: N. P. Smith, S. V. Heald, A. Anderson, S. A. Mori & D. W. Stevenson (eds.), Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Punt, W., S. Blackmore, S. Nilsson & A. Le Thomas. 1994. Glossary of pollen and spores terminology. Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology. Contributions Series of the University of Utrech, ser. 1, 1 : 1-71.

Rao, R. R. 1995. Tribe Mutisieae Cass. Pp. 163-186. In: E K. Hajra, R. R. Rao, D. K. Singh & B. Uniyal (eds.), Flora of India, Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India. Vol. 13. Botanical Survey of India, India.

Reiche, C. 1905. Mutisieas. Pp. 288-460. In: Flora de Chile, Vol. 4. Imprenta Cervantes, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Reveal, J. L. & R. M. King. 1973. Re-establishment of Acourtia D. Don (Asteraceae). Phytologia 27: 228-232.

Ricardi, M. & E. Weldt. 1974. Revision del genero Polyachyrus (Compositae). Gayana, Botanica 26: 3-34.

Robinson, H. 1979. Two new genera of Vernonieae (Asteraceae) from Brazil: Heterocypsela and Pseudostifftia. Phytologia 44: 442-450.

--. 1980. Harthamnus, a new genus of Mutisieae from Bolivia. Phytologia 45: 451-455.

--. 1983. A generic review of the tribe Liabeae (Asteraceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 54: 1-69.

--. 1987. Some suggestions regarding the significance of chloroplast DNA variation in the Asteraceae. Phytologia 63: 316-324.

--. 1988. A new species of Trichocline from northern Peru. Phytologia 65: 47-49.

--. 1991. Two new species of Sti[/?ia with notes on relationships of the genus (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). Systematic Botany 16: 685-692.

--. 1994. Notes on the tribes Eremothamneae, Gundeliae, and Moquinieae, with comparisons of their pollen. Taxon 43: 33-44.

--. 1999. Generic and subtribal classification of American Vemonieae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 89: 1-116.

--& R. D. Brettell. 1973. Tribal revisions in Asteraceae. VI. The relationships of Eriachaenium. Phytologia 26: 71-72.

--& B. Kahn. 1985. A new species of Stifftia from Cayenne. Phytologia 58: 248-251.

--& C. Marticorena. 1986. A palynological study of the Liabeae (Asteraceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 64: 1-50.

Roque, N. 1997. A reassessment of Actinoseris polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Mutisieae-Compositae), with a new combination. Kew Bulletin 52: 197-204.

--. 2001a. Five new species of Richterago (Compositae, Mutisicae): A genus endemic to Brazil. Novon 11: 341-349.

--. 2001b. Fenologia de Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel ex Baker (Compositae Mutisieae) na Serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Sitientibus, Serie Ciencias Biologicas 1: 108-111.

--& D. J. N. Hind. 2001. Ianthopappus, a new genus of the tribe Mutisieae (Compositae). Novon 1l: 97-101.

--& N. Nakajima. 2001. Two new species of Richterago Kuntze (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) from Minas Gerais. Kew Bulletin 56: 697-703.

--& J. R. Pirani. 1997. Flora da Serra do Cipo, Minas Gerais: Compositae-Barnadesieae e Mutisieae. Boletim de Botanica da Universidade de Sao Paulo 16: 151-185.

--&--. 2001. Reinstatement of the name Richterago Kuntze and recircumscription of the genus to include species formerly treated as Actinoseris (Endl.) Cabrera (Compositae, Mutisieae). Taxon 50: 1155-1160.

--& M. S. F. Silvestre-Capelato. 2001. Generic delimitation of Gochnatia, Richterago and Ianthopappus (Compositae-Mutisieae) based on pollen morphology. Grana Palynologica 40: 197-204.

Rydberg, P. A. 1917. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and Adjacent Plains. Published by the author, New York.

Rzedowski, J. 1983. Algunas adiciones al genero Acourtia (Compositae Mutisieae). Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de Mexico 45: 97-109.

Sagastegui Alva, A. & M. O. Dillon. 1985. Four new species of Asteraceae from Peru. Brittonia 37: 6-13.

Salgado-Labouriau, M. L. 1982. Pollen morphology of the Compositae of the northern Andes. Pollen and Spores 24: 397-452.

Sancho, G. 1996. Asteraceae, Tribu XII. Mutisieae, Subtribu 2. Gochnatia. Pp. 9-11. In: A. T. Hunziker (ed.), Flora Fanerogamica Argentina, Fasciculo 28. PROFLORA, Cordoba, Argentina.

--. 1999. Gochnatia calophylla: A synonym of Gochnatia oligocephala (Gardner) Cabrera (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Willdenowia 29: 235-237.

--. 2000. Revision y filogenia de la seccion Moquiniastrum Cabrera del genero Gochnatia Kunth (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Fontqueria 54: 61-122.

--. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Onoseris (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) inferred form morphology. Systematic Botany 29: 432-447.

--, S. E. Freire, L. Katinas & M. C. Telleria. 2005. A new species and a new combination in Andean Mutisieae (Asteraceae). Taxon 54: 85-90.

Scott, L., A. Cadman & I. McMillan. 2006. Early history of Cainozoic Asteraceae along the southern African west coast. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 142: 47-52.

Selling, O. H. 1947. Studies in Hawaiian Pollen Statistics. Part III. The Pollen of the Hawaiian Phanerogams. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 38: 1-430.

Simpson, B. B. 1973. Contrasting modes of evolution in two groups of Perezia (Mutisieae, Compositae) of southern South America. Taxon 22: 525-536.

--. 1978. Compositae, tribe Mutisieae (except Trixis). Pp. 1-10. In: C. T. Rogerson ed.), North American Flora 2. The New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Simpson Vuillenmier, B. 1969. The systematics and evolution of Perezia section Perezia (Compositae). Contributions of the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 199: 1-163.

Skvaria, J. J. & B. L. Turner. 1966. Systematic implications from electron microscopic studies of Compositae pollen: A review. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 53: 220-256.

--, B. L. Turner, V. C. Patel & A. S. Tomb. 1977. Pollen morphology in the Compositae and in morphologically related families. Pp. 141 248. In: V. H. Heywood, J. 13. Harborne & B. L. Turner (eds.), The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae, Vol. 1. Academic, London.

Small, J. 1919. The origin and development of the Compositae. New Phytologist 11: 1-333.

Southworth, D. 1983. Exine development in Gerbera jamesonii (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). American Journal of Botany 70: 1038-1047.

Stearn, W. T. 1996. Botanical Latin: History, Grammar, Syntax, Terminology and Vocabulary. Timber, Portland, Oregon.

Steyermark, J. A., B. Maguire & collaborators. 1972. The Flora of Meseta del Cerro Jaua. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 23: 833-892.

Stix, E. 1960. Pollenmorphologische Untersuchungen an Compositeu. Grana Palynologica 2: 41-107.

Stuessy, T. F., T. Sang & M. L. Devore. 1996. Phylogeny and biogeography of the subfamily Barnadesioideae with implications for early evolution of the Compositae. Pp. 463-490. In: D. J. N. Hind & H. J. Beentje (eds.), Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, Vol. 1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Teeri, T. H., P. Elomaa, M. Kotilainen & V. A. Albert. 2006. Mining plant diversity: Gerbera as a model system for plant developmental and biosynthetic research. BioEssays 28: 756-767.

Telleria, M. C. 2008. Taxonomic significance of pollen types in the Guyana Highland-centred composite genera of Mutisioideae (Asteraceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 156: 327-340.

--& A. Foreone. 2002. Morfologia del polen de las mieles del valle de Rio Negro, valle inferior del rio Chubut y llanura del rio Senguerr (Patagonia Argentina). Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 37: 235-250.

--& L. Katinas. 2004. A Comparative palynologic study of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae, Mutisieae) and allied genera. Systematic Botany 29: 752-773.

--&--. 2005. The unusual occurrence of tricolpate pollen within Mutisieae (Asteraceae). Grana Palynologica 44: 91-97.

Telleria, M. C. & L. Katinas. New insights into the pollen morphology of the genus Mutisia (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). Plant Systematics and Evolution. In press.

--, E. Urtubey & L. Katinas. 2003. Proustia and Lophopappus (Asteraceae, Mutisieae): Generic and subtribal relationships based on pollen morphology. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 123: 237-246.

Thomson, T. 1865. On two new genera of Compositae Mutisiaceae from India. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 9: 342-344.

Tormo-Molina, R. & J. L. Ubera-Jimenez. 1995. Tipos polinicos de la Tribu Cardueae en la peninsula Iberica. Monografias del Jardin Botanico de Cordoba 2: 1-52.

Tseng, Y. C. 1985. Materials for Chinese Pertya (Compositae). Guihaia 5: 327-335.

Turner, B. L. 1986. A new species of Hyaloseris (Asteraceae-Mutisieae) from Bolivia. Phytologia 59: 317-318.

--. 1993a. New taxa, new combinations, and nomenclatural comments on the genus Acourtia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae). Phytologia 74: 385-413.

--. 1993b. Berylsimpsonia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae), a new genus of the Greater Antilles. Phytologia 74: 349-355. Ulloa Ulloa, C. & P. M. Jorgensen. 1996. A new species of Mutisia (Compositae-Mutisieae) from Ecuador. Novon 6: 131-133.

Urtubey, E. 1999. Revision del genero Barnadesia (Asteraceae: Barnadesioideae, Barnadesieae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86: 57-117.

--& T. F. Stuessy. 2001. New hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships in Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) based on morphology. Taxon 50: 1043-1063.

--& M. C. Telleria. 1998. Pollen morphology of the subfamily Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) and its phylogenetic and taxonomic implications. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 104: 19-37.

Vezey, E. L., L. E. Watson, J. J. Skvarla & R. Estes. 1994. Plesiomorphic and apomorphic pollen structure characteristics of Anthemideae (Asteroideae: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 81: 648-657.

Von Bunge, A. A. 1835. Myripnois. Memoires presentes a 1' Academie Imperiale des Sciences de St.Petersbourg par Divers Savans et Lus dans ses Assemblres 2: 112.

Wagenitz, G. 1955. Pollenmorphologie and Systematick in der Gattung Centaurea L. s. 1. Flora 142: 213-279.

Wagner, W. L., D. R. Herbst & S. H. Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

Wilson, F. C. 1923. Revision of the genus Dicoma. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information 1923: 377-388.

Wingenroth, M. & C. J. Heusser. 1983. Pollen of the high Andean Flora. Instituto Argentino de Nivologia y Glaciologia, IANIGLA, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Wodehouse, R. P. 1929a. Pollen grains in the identification and classification of plants, III. The Nassauviinae. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 56: 123-138.

--. 1929b. Pollen grains in the identification and classification of plants, IV. The Mutisieae. American Journal of Botany 16: 297-313.

--. 1935. Pollen Grains. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Wortley, A. H., V. A. Funk, It. Robinson, J. J. Skvarla & S. Blackmore. 2007. A search for pollen morphological synapomorphies to classify rogue genera in Compositae (Asteraceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 146: 169-181.

Zardini, E. M. 1974. Sobre la presencia del genero Gerbera en America. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 16: 103-108.

--. 1975. Revision del genero Trichocline (Compositae). Darwiniana 19: 618-733.

--. 1980. Lulia: Un nuevo genero de Compuestas. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica 19: 255-258. Zao, Z., J. J. Skvarla, R. K. Jansen & M. De Vore. 2000. Phylogenetic implications of pollen morphology and ultrastructure in the Barnadesioideae(Asteraceae). Lundellia 3: 26-40.

--, --, & --. 2006. Mutisieae (Asteraceae) pollen ultrastructure atlas. Lundellia 9: 57-76. Zavada, M. S. & S. E. De Villiers. 2000. Pollen of the Asteraceae from the Paleocene Eocene of South Africa. Grana Palynologica 39: 39-45.

Liliana Katinas (1,4) John Pruski (2) Gisela Sancho (1) Maria Cristina Telleria (3)

(1) Division Plantas Vasculares, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

(2) Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA

(3) Laboratorio de Sistematica y Biologia Evolutiva (LASBE), Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

(4) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: katinas@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar

Published online: 9 December 2008
COPYRIGHT 2008 New York Botanical Garden
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Part 5
Author:Katinas, Liliana; Pruski, John; Sancho, Gisela; Telleria, Maria Cristina
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2008
Words:11175
Previous Article:The subfamily Mutisioideae (Asteraceae).
Next Article:Foreword.
Topics:


Related Articles
Flora of North America north of Mexico; v.21: Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 8: Asteraceae, part 3.
Diversity and distribution of floral scent: appendix I: distribution of floral scent compounds at the level of plant family.
An updated classification of the class Magnoliopsida ("Angiospermae").
The subfamily Mutisioideae (Asteraceae).
The subfamily Mutisioideae (Asteraceae).
The subfamily Mutisioideae (Asteraceae).
The subfamily Mutisioideae (Asteraceae).

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters