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The study of social effect on forming the hidden curriculum in high schools for male students (case study: Tehran High Schools for Male Students).

INTRODUCTION

Statement of the problem: Educational systems in line with performing the official tasks have a collection of other functions which although are not considered in formal instructions and frames but have a significant and profound effect on different personal and behavioral dimension of learns and this type of functions are called hidden curriculum in the literature of educational and training science. There create an indirect educational and training experience for the learners. In the field of the effects and results of these informal experiences of educational systems, this point should be mentioned that their effect is much more than the direct and clear experiences. The scholars of education and training have used the term hidden education to refer to the learning and attitudes affected by these factors.

Since the most important and effective factor on learning and educational improvement is the informal, elicit and invisible learning, the most of the scholars including Jackson [18,19], Schneider, Liocy and Lowson, Chinking [9,10] and Dagani studied the retention, development, stability and penetration of these experiences and considered them as more significant than the other curriculum. But most of the studies and researches have been in the realm of educational curriculum and a few researches are done based on the hidden curriculum. So, it is necessary to find and think about the effect of this curriculum to scrutinize the curriculum. So, the present research tries to study the social factors effective on forming the hidden curriculum in high schools of male students.

Hidden Curriculum:

Hidden curriculum is given at schools and is formed due to the experiences inside the classrooms, libraries, festivals and social environment of schools [5]. Considering the number and variety of the hidden curriculums, most of the scholars defined them as unconscious and not intended and distinguished it from indirect teaching of values that are intentional [24]. In categorizing different curriculum, most of the scholars considered the experiences and learning of the students as a result of their dynamic interaction with the educational and social environment of the school [4].

Bayan far and colleagues [7] classified the curriculum into two categories. The first one emphasize on one aspect of hidden curriculum (cognitive, social and physical) and the second category is based on intentional or non-intentional curriculum. Some of others believe in directness or indirectness of curriculum [27].

Ausbrooks [5] considers the hidden curriculum as the tacit messages in the social context of the educational environment which although is not written but can be felt. According to him the curriculum is the knowledge but that is easily accepted by the learners [22]. Dekle [12] defined the hidden curriculum as the knowledge of beliefs, attitudes, behaviors and rules that students internalize intentionally and unintentionally. Furthermore, Skelton [28] believes that the hidden curriculum includes the messages related to the knowledge, values, behavioral norms and attitudes that leaner indirectly experiences during education. These messages can be controversial, asymmetrical and emphasizing and every learner obtains it in a specific way.

Qourchian in his research introduced a framework for categorizing [6] as below:

Objective attitude: in this approach the power elements, and the crowd and cheering are defined as powerful mechanisms, transmit values and beliefs to provide students.

B. Functional theory: schools are preparing students for active participation in adult society and their norms, independence, achievement and distinguished public and learn from others.

C. Adaptive theory: learning from current experiences in schools, about social classes, and learn the order and hierarchy of legitimate work.

D. Critical theory or resistance: reinterpretation of the learners about the school is seen as an essential feature and schools have resistance, acquisition of power, understand and conveying the concepts and values with respect to the entire community.

Skelton [28] referred to four perspectives of functional liberal, critical and postmodern and noted that each of these perspectives provides insights into the hidden curriculum.

In the postmodern view, he uses Foucault's critique to mention the limitations of the three approaches above and rejects them and provides a new definition this application [2,3] The authors considered each of the aspect of the hidden curriculum.

Ahola [1] defines the hidden curriculum consisted of four basic dimensions of learning how to learn, learning professionals, learning to be and learning to play.

Alikhani [2] considers the dimensions of the hidden curriculum as follows: 1. the way people interact at school 2. The organizational structure of the school and 3.Physical structure of the school and classroom. Silverstein and colleagues stated the three components of the essential elements of the hidden curriculum which have greater depth, including the school, social atmosphere and interaction of teachers and students.

Also looking at the sociological theory of action by Parsons hidden dimensions of learning have been perceived. In this view the school is defined as a social system with, cultural, social subsystem with physical and social structures.

Cultural subsystem is related to learners' perceived value of education, their success in school, and the criteria for being a good student. In the social subsystem, communication and interaction patterns in the classroom are considered and include models of teacher - student, student - student and student - homework interaction.

Personality subsystem also includes the beliefs and norms of inquiry, curiosity and criticism which is related to the quality and type of questions asked and the classroom learners and teachers reactions to respond to questions. In the vehicle subsystem, the physical and social environment of arrangement of seats to a variety of classroom management, teaching methods and learning and content of textbooks, teaching and learning interactions are affected.

Research hypotheses:

1. Disciplinary rules affect the appearance of the hidden curriculum.

2. The way of dealing with the principal and school staff and students influences the shaping of the hidden curriculum.

3. The relationship between teacher and student will have an influence in shaping the hidden curriculum.

4. Interpersonal relationships with other students are effective in the creation of the hidden curriculum.

Methodology:

In this respect the approach is eclectic qualitative and quantitative approaches, in the sense that the process is done in two consecutive steps and in the first step (based on small studies) it has been studied as a way of cross-sectional surveys and questionnaires.

The population includes all 9400 high school students in Tehran and given that there are two school district, researchers first took economic and cultural characteristics of different regions in and 380 cases as sample size were determined by the Cochrane and then through random sampling, participants were selected from governmental and non-profit community high school students.

Assumptions described in the statistical analysis and qualitative research interviews were conducted with respondents. After interviewing 30 respondents, the coding and analysis of answers was performed.

Statistical Analysis of Results:
Table 1: Correlation.

                                     Regulations    hidden
                                                   curriculum

product        Pearson Correlation        1         .797 **
satisfaction           sig                            .000
                     number              164          164

relation       Pearson Correlation     .797 **         1
satisfaction           sig              .000
                     number              164          164


Pearson's test was used to examine the relationship between disciplinary regulations and the hidden curriculum of. Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, resulting in a 99% probability significant relationship between these two variables.

Since the correlation value is equal to (0.7970) and positive, it directly reflects the relationship between the two variables. In this case, the disciplinary regulations will affect the appearance of the hidden curriculum and thus hypothesis one is approved and null hypothesis is rejected.

A regression test was used to evaluate the strength of the relationship between two variables. Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, it follows that the intensity of the relationship between two variables disciplinary regulations is statistically significant at appearance of the hidden curriculum with the 99% probability.

To investigate the relationship between manager and staff dealing with students in shaping the hidden curriculum, the Pearson test was used and since the significance level is equal to 0 and less than 1%, as a result, the relationship between these two variables is significant with probability of 99 percent.

Since the correlation value equal to (0.623) is positive and indicates a direct relationship between the two variables that is how to deal with the school principal and staff affects the shaping of the hidden curriculum students. As a result, the first hypothesis is approved and the null hypothesis is rejected.

The strength of the relationship between two variables were examined using regression tests Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, we conclude that the intensity of the relationship between two variables of the principal and school staff dealing with to students in the form of hidden curriculum is 99% significant.

Pearson test was used to examine the relationship between teacher and student relationships in shaping the hidden curriculum. Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, it results in a significant relationship between these two variables with 99% probability.

Since the correlation value is equal to (0.654) and a positive relationship between these two variables directly represents the case where mutual relationships of teachers and students influences shaping the hidden curriculum. As a result, the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis one is approved.

The strength of the relationship between two variables were examined using regression tests. Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, we conclude that the intensity of the relationship between two variables is effective in shaping the relationship between teacher and student hidden curriculum with 99 percent probability.

Pearson test was used to examine the interpersonal relationships in shaping the hidden curriculum. Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, it results in a significant relationship between these two variables with 99% probability. Since the correlation value is equal to (0.474) and a positive relationship between these two variables directly represents the case where mutual relationships of teachers and students influences shaping the hidden curriculum. As a result, the null hypothesis is rejected and the hypothesis one is approved.

The strength of the relationship between two variables were examined using regression tests Since the significance level of the test is equal to 0 and less than 1%, we conclude that the intensity of the relationship between two variables, interpersonal relationships with other students was effective in the creation of the hidden curriculum with 99 percent significance.

Conclusions:

Correlation test results showed that the disciplinary regulations will affect the appearance of the hidden curriculum and how to deal with the school principal and administrative staff, students, Interpersonal relationships between teachers and students and between students with 99 percent significant is more likely to be effective in shaping the hidden curriculum.

In other words, due to the lack of interpersonal communication with the students instead of teachers, learners call for greater collaboration with their peers and their friends at school.

The analysis of the interviews in relation to the first hypothesis, a large number of interviewees did not understand and reject laws, regulations or other words knowledge about the school rules.

Considering the results of the questionnaires and interviews, it can be concluded that the school's rules and regulations affects shaping the hidden curriculum and such effects or rather negative consequences include lack of real understanding and consensus of enforcement and implementation of school rules by students is superficial.

The findings of the study were compatible with the findings of Thornburg. Thornburg in his study showed that the correct implementation of laws and regulations is to enhance the school's academic performance.

The second hypothesis was confirmed in the analysis of the interviews because being passive of students in implementation of collaborative business applications and secondary schools and the lack of propensity is clearly stated.

In other words, in the latter case in this field can be one of the causes of this kind of negative attitude towards collaboration with school officials. Negative attitude towards the relationship with the school principal and a weak relationship with the fear was confirmed in questionnaire results. This is due to the lack of enthusiasm of students to cooperate with teachers. These results were emphatically confirmed from interviews with students and therefore can be considered as a factor in this area.

The relationship between obedience and fear considered punishment and humiliation in front of other students as effective in reducing the communication between students and the principals.

Findings were compatible with the research findings of Pace and colleagues [25]. Pace and colleagues showed in their study interactions with other school staff, level of responsibility, expectations and their willingness to get involved in school activities has a direct correlation with student learning. Kamp Hall (2006) in their study showed a positive increase in students and staff to express concerns, needs and preferences about the course that will enhance learning and academic achievement. Blach Ford and colleagues [8] showed in their study that student support staff causes commitment that led to students learning and more active role in interactions with adults.

Also, the results of the interviews made clear that the relationship between teacher and student interaction influences shaping the hidden curriculum. The results of the analysis of the interviews were compatible with the findings obtained from the research of Cox and his colleagues

Cox, Heir and Havis, in this study showed positive interactions of teachers and other school staff outside of the classroom increases current achievement and interest rates and academic progress of students.

Leslie, their study analyzed the patterns of interaction between learners and their teachers. They considered the cloning patterns, navigation, and teacher participation in the learning process and cooperation. The findings showed that the patterns of interaction guidance and the platform level of student achievement are higher than other methods.

He and colleagues, reviewed the relationship between interpersonal behavior of teachers and students in learning the English language in southwest China. Their findings indicated that authoritarian and domineering behavior of teachers has a negative correlation with student participation in classroom and academic achievement.

Also, the results of interviews about interpersonal relationships with other students are effective in the creation of the hidden curriculum to identify adolescents at this age because of pro-have upon each other deep inordinate together permeability. The adoption of the school's partnership with parents is heavily influenced by the opinions of peers and can contribute to an increase or decrease this problem. The reaction of the type and method of application and comments by teachers are important on how well students behave.

As can be seen in the results of the questionnaire, students preferred companionship and sitting with friends to talk with teachers. The practical creations school officials should recognize and respect the differences in the individual characteristics of students transferring some responsibilities to the school, the students mind.

The findings of the research were consistent with the findings of many scholars, including Cox and Erie [11].

Cox and Heir [11] have demonstrated the implicit and informal interactions outside the classroom is highly effective in students choose of an academic major, top universities and career choices of students.

In another study, White-Hall, considered the interaction with other students in distance education courses. His findings showed the possibility to interact with each other to provide students with learning material can be increase their interest in learning and achievement scores of the students.

Chang and Smith, in another study evaluated the efficacy of personal interaction in distance learning courses and satisfaction of students from these courses. The findings showed that students interact with each other not only to enhance academic achievement scores, but also lead to greater satisfaction of material.

Due to the high sensitivity of the interactions in adolescence and forming attitudes and personal beliefs in this age, adhering to administrative and enforcement authorities with respect to how to react schools also provided the necessary feedback regarding the accuracy of the students. So, they can express their desires freely and express their opinions regarding various topics. The lack of this issue in the school environment due to the formation of large parts of the unintended consequences that may still remain in the school for many years and can lead to behavioral and ethical problems.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 15 April 2014

Received in revised form 22 May

2014

Accepted 25 May 2014

Available online 15 June 2014

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Tahoora Babaei

Shiraz University International Divicion, Shiraz, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Tahoora Babaei, Shiraz University_International Divicion, Shiraz, Iran
Table 2: ANOVA

Model         total sq    df    Mean Sq.       F      sig

regression   87643.679     1    87643.679   372.159   .000
residuals    50397.136    162    235.501
total        138040.815   163

Table 3: Correlation test.

                                      principal and      hidden
                                      staff behavior   curriculum

understanding   Pearson Correlation         1           .623 **
generosity              sig                               .000
                      number               164            164

relation        Pearson Correlation      .623 **           1
satisfaction            sig                .000
                      number               164            164

Table 4: ANOVA.

Model         total sq    df    Mean Sq.       F      sig

regression   53576.830     1    53576.830   135.744   .000
residuals    84463.985    162    394.692
total        138040.815   163

Table 5: Correlation test.

                                         understanding       relation
                                        supporter credit   satisfaction

understanding     Pearson Correlation          1             .654 **
supporter                 sig                                  .000
credit                  number                164              164

relation          Pearson Correlation       .654 **             1
satisfaction              sig                 .000
                        number                164              164

Table 6: ANOVA

Model         total sq    df    Mean Sq.       F        sig

regression   59002.407     1    59002.407   159.752   .000 (a)
residuals    79038.408    162    369.338
total        138040.815   163

Table 7: Correlational test.

                                      commitment    understanding
                                                   supporter credit

commitment      Pearson Correlation       1            .474 **
                        sig                              .000
                      number             164             164

understanding   Pearson Correlation    .474 **            1
supporter               sig              .000
credit                number             164             164

Table 8: ANOVA

Model         total sq    df    Mean Sq.      F        sig

regression   30966.571     1    30966.571   61.890   .000 (a)
residuals    107074.244   162    500.347
total        138040.815   163
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Author:Babaei, Tahoora
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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