The study of anaemia & its related socio-demographic factors amongst pregnant women in rural community of Uttar Pradesh.
In India, Anaemia contribute directly to 20% material death and indirectly to further 20% (4, 5). The main causes of Anaemia in the developing countries includes deficiency of iron in-takes and poor absorption, hook worms infestation, infections such as Malaria, blood loss during delivery and heavy menstrual blood loss (6,7).
Iron deficiency & Anaemia during pregnancy are associated with low birth weight babies, premature birth, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inadequate iron store in new born. Anaemia increases the risk of maternal morbidity & mortality and adverse maternal outcome such as puerperal sepsis, ante partum haemorrhage and post-partum haemorrhage (8,9,10).
National Nutritional Anaemia prophylaxis programme (NNAPP) was initiated in 1970 during the fourth five year plan with the aim to reduce the prevalence of Anaemia to 25% (11). Subsequent evaluation has shown no change in the situation. Since 1992 the daily dosage of elemental iron for prophylaxis and therapy has been increased to 100 mg & 200 mg, respectively under Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme (CSSM Programme).
The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of the Anaemia in pregnant women and the socio demographic factorsb associated with anaemia in rural areas.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present cross sectional study was carried out at Rural Health Training Centre, khera, Rama Medical College Hospital & Research centre Ghaziabad, from October 2012 to June 2013. Total 321 pregnant women with gestational period 12-20 weeks, visiting Antenatal Clinic RHTC were registered for the study, as more Haemodilution occurs after this period. Pregnant women giving history of worms infestation, bleeding disorder, taking iron tablets in last 3 months and had bleeding in last pregnancy were excluded from the study.
The pregnant women were interviewed using pre structured, pretested schedule after taking their consent. Haemoglobin estimation was done by sahli's method. Anaemia was classified as per WHO criteria (12). Haemoglobin below 11 gm/dl is labeled as anaemia during Pregnancy. Typing of anaemia was done as per standard peripheral smear examination (13). Socioeconomic status was assessed according to modified B.G. Prasad Classification (14-15). Severely anaemic pregnant women were referred to Rama Medical College Hospital, Hapur for further management. Data was analyzed by using Chi-Square Test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered significant.
RESULTS: In the present study, 321 pregnant women were studied. The socio-demographic profile of the study population is shown in Table 1. Majority of them (47.35%) were below 20 years of age, 75.70% were Hindus, 47.97% & 39.25% were from joint & Nuclear family respectively and majority were from Class III (29.59%) and class IV (31.77%) socioeconomic class.
As shown in table no. 2, 79.75% subjects were found to have anemia. The prevalence of mild moderate and severe anaemia was observed as 20.56%, 44.21% & 14.98% respectively. Majority of the pregnant women were moderately anaemic (65.75%) below the age of 20 years of age, 17.77% were severely anaemic between 20-24 years age and 7.14% were severely anaemic above the age of 30 years. Mild anaemia was observed between 20-24 years age (26.66%), between 25 to 29 years of age (30.76%) and more than 30 years of the age (28.5%). The observed difference was found statistically significant (x2 = 35.35 P-value <0.05)
Amongst Primipara pregnant women, 58.38% were moderately anaemic and 24.27% were mildly anaemic . 37% of the Multipara pregnant women were found severely anaemic . Majority of the second Para pregnant women were moderately anaemic (39.58%). Significant difference was found--(x2 = 32.56 p-value <0.05) as shown in table no. 3.
The proportion of pregnant women suffering from anaemia in class I & II were less (27.77% & 55.55%) as compared to class III-V (85.26%, 90.19%, 92.30%) respectively. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the various social classes and anaemia (x2=261.06, p-value <0.05) as shown in table no. 4.
DISCUSSION: The high prevalence of Anaemia (79.75%) was observed in pregnant women in this study which is similar to earlier studies (2,3) Majority of them were less than 20 year of age and most of them had moderate anemia. The result was in contrast to the similar study in rural area of Delhi where maximum pregnant women were between 20-24 years of age group (16).
Majority of the primipara pregnant women had moderate Anaemia (58.58%) and most of them were less than 20 years of age which indicate haemoglobin deficient status of the Adolescent Girl's. Majority of the Multipara (37%) were severely anaemic and most of them were from joint family, indicate Nutritional (dietary) deficiency of the pregnant women.
It is obvious in this study that lower the socioeconomic status, higher the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy and vice versa. Anaemia in pregnant women is inversely related to the socioeconomic status as seen in earlier studies (17,18)
Normocytic hypochromic and Microcytic hypochromic type of Anaemia in pregnancy was predominantly present which is consistent with other studies except for dimorphic blood picture (19). It indicates deficient iron intake and absorption irrespective of age, type of family & parity.
CONCLUSION: High prevalence of Anaemia in less than 20 years of age between 12-20 weeks of gestation, calls for further studies of Anaemia in adolescent girls.
--Dietary counselling and Nutritional education to all the pregnant women is recommended at Rural Health Centre.
--Early detection of anaemia in pregnancy, effective and affordable management and supplement of iron to all pregnant women should be implemented.
Table No. 2 shows that 256 subjects (79.75%) were anaemic. Majority of the subjects were of moderate anaemia (44.21%), however 65.75% moderate anaemic pregnant women were below 20 yrs. of age. Severe anaemia was seen in 14.98% and majority of them were between 20-24 yrs. of age (17.77%). The chi-square test revealed significant association. (P <0.05)
Table No. 3 shows that amongst primipara pregnant women, 58.38% were of moderate anemia& 24.27% were mildly anaemic while 37% of multipara were severely anaemic. Second Para were moderatly anaemic (39.58%). Statistically significant difference was observed between different parity in the subject.(P <0.05)
Table No. 4 shows that in Class III-V subjects prevalence of anaemia was 85.26%, 90.19% and 92.30% respectively. Class III (52.63%) & Class IV (55.88%) subject were moderately anaemic and Class V (17.30%) subjects were severely anaemic . Significant association was seen in various classes of anaemic subjects. (P <0.05),
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study "The study of Anaemia and its related socio-demographic factors amongst pregnant women in rural community of Uttar Pradesh" is conducted at RHTC Rama Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Ghaziabad. I am thankful to the principal and professor, HOD department of community medicine for allowing me to the carry out this study. I am thankful to my colleagues, laboratory staff, nursing staff member, social workers and statistician for their coordination & co-operation during the study. Last but not the least I am thankful to all the subjects for their co-operation during the study.
(1.) World Health Organization. The prevalence of anaemia in women WHO/MCH/MSM/92.2. Geneva: WHO, 1992.
(2.) Luwang NC, Gupta VM, Khanna S. Anaemia in pregnancy in rural community of Varanasi, Ind J Prev Soc Med 1980; 11:83-8.
(3.) Agrawal V, Tejwani S. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in India antenatal women especially in rural area. Ind Med Gaz 1999, 900-3.
(4.) World Health Organization. Prevention and management of anaemia in pregnancy. WHO/FHE/MSM/93.5 Geneva: WHO, 1993.
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(11.) Agrawal DK, Agrawal KN, et al. Targets in National Anaemia prophylaxis programme pregnant women. Indian Paediatric 1988; 25: 319-22.
(12.) Preventing and controlling iron deficiency anaemia through primary health care, Geneva: WHO, 1989.
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(14.) The text book of preventive and social medicine. In: Mahajan, Gupta, editors. 3rd ed. 2003 P. 117-8.
(15.) Economic survey 2000-2001. Govt. of India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division.
(16.) Gautam VP, Bansal Y, et al. Prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women and its socio demographic associate is a rural area of Delhi. Ind J. community medicine Vol XXVII No. 4, oct dec, 2002.
(17.) Thangaleela T, Vijayalakshmi P. Prevalence of anaemia in Pregnancy. Ind J. Nutr Dietet 1994; 31: 26-4.
(18.) Shah SNA, Baksh Ali, Rauf A, Ahmad M et al. Incidence of iron deficiency anaemia in rural population of Kashmir. IJPH 1982; 26(3): 144-54.
(19.) Dass A, Bhatt, Dhaliwal B. Megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy (in Delhi). J. Obstet Gynae Ind 1967; 17.
M Shams Khan , Anupama Srivastav , Anil K. Dixit 
[1.] M Shams Khan
[2.] Anupama Srivastav
[3.] Anil K. Dixit
PARTICULARS OF CONTRIBUTORS:
[1.] Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Rama Medical College Hospital & RC, Gaziabad.
[2.] Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Rama Medical College Hospital & RC, Kanpur.
[3.] Professor & HOD, Department of Community Medicine, Rama Medical College Hospital & RC, Gaziabad.
NAME ADDRESS EMAIL ID OF THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Dr. M Shams Khan, 301, Utkarsh Shikhar Apart., Near Upvan Hotel, Mount Road, Sadar, Nagpur-440001.
Date of Submission: 14/12/2013.
Date of Peer Review: 16/12/2013.
Date of Acceptance: 19/12/2013.
Date of Publishing: 01/01/2014
M Shams Khan , Anupama Srivastav , Anil K. Dixit 
Table 1: Distribution of socio demographic profile of the subjects. (n = 321) Parameter Number Percentage 1. Age in group (yrs.) < 20 yrs. 152 47.35 20-24 yrs. 90 28.03 25-29 yrs. 65 20.24 > 30 yrs. 14 4.36 2. Religion Hindu 243 75.70 Muslim 39 12.14 Christian 12 3.73 Other 27 8.41 3. Type of family Nuclear 126 39.25 Joint 154 47.97 Extended Family 41 12.77 4. Socio economic class Class I 18 5.60 Class II 54 16.82 Class III 95 29.59 Class IV 102 31.77 Class V 52 16.19 Total 321 (n) 100 Table 2: Distribution of Anaemic pregnant women according to their age Age Normal Mild Moderate Severe Total Anemia Anemia Anemia < 20 yrs. 11 18 100 23 152 7.2% 11.84% 65.75% 15.13% 20 yrs-24 yrs. 28 24 22 16 90 31.11% 26.66% 24.4% 17.77% 25 yrs-29 yrs. 22 20 15 8 65 38.84% 30.76% 23.07% 12.30% > 30 yrs. 4 4 5 1 14 28.57% 28.5% 35.71% 7.14% Total 65 66 142 48 321 20.24% 20.56% 44.21% 14.98% (n = 321) Table 3: Distribution of Anaemic pregnant women according to parity Parity Normal Mild Moderate Severe Total Anemia Anemia Anemia 21 42 101 9 1 12.13% 24.27% 58.38% 5.25% 173 24 3 19 2 2 50% 6.25% 39.58% 4.16% 48 20 21 22 37 3 & above 100 20% 21% 22% 37% Total 65 66 142 48 321 (n = 321) Table 4: Distribution of the Anaemic subject according to their socioeconomic class Socioeconomic Anaemia n (%) Normal Total status Mild Moderate Sever Total Class I 3 2 0 5 13 18 16.66% 11.11% 0% 27.77% 72.22% Class II 8 15 7 30 24 54 14.81% 27.77% 12.96% 55.55% 44.44% Class III 15 50 16 81 14 95 15.78% 52.63% 16.84% 85.26% 14.75% Class IV 19 57 16 92 10 102 18.6% 55.88% 15.68% 90.19% 9.20% Class V 21 18 9 48 4 52 40.38% 34.61% 17.30% 92.30% 3.69% Total 66 142 48 256 65 321 (n = 321)
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|Author:||Khan, M. Shams; Srivastav, Anupama; Dixit, Anil K.|
|Publication:||Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences|
|Date:||Jan 6, 2014|
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