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The students of Sanayi-i Nefise School and the position of women in the Turkish society at the beginning of 20th century in view of new documents/ Yeni veriler isiginda Inas Sanayi-i Nefise ogrencileri ve kadinin toplumdaki yeri.

Abstract

Various evaluations have been made about the women artists of today who have demonstrated their creativity in the plastic arts in the Republic of Turkey in which the woman was designated as a person who produced in an artistic world. In the discussion of woman's place in the artistic world in Turkey prior to the Republic, it is commonly held that the 15-year-period that extends from the Second Constitutional Period (1908) to the proclamation of the Republic (1923) was both an important era for westernizing efforts and a preparatory time for women artists. The development of the subject is generally seen as connected with the social and political events of the period and the education system.

Examining the infrastructure that provided for its formation shows that the "first" step in fine arts education for women, aside from private education, supports the genesis, was taken nearly 90 years ago in 1914 with the founding of the Girls' School of Fine Arts. It is essential that the importance of this first step and its place in education from the institutional point of view as well as student potential at the beginning and the individuals who had potential be scrutinized. However we have only limited information about the students of the Girls' School of Fine Arts. The information is limited since today that generation is no longer alive and an important part of the registrations connected with the school were destroyed in a fire. Just as we couldn't get complete fists related to registrations, we can't say that we have comprehensive information about the professional lives of the students whose names could be obtained through their education institution. So it is possible that a small detail that could be added to what is still not known about these students will be able to play a part in ensuing analyses.

Our purpose is to offer new biographic information not previously known about the students to the academic world and with this data determine the place that the students at the Girls' School of Fine Arts obtained in the women's art world; it will also shed light through a number of new evaluations related to the Turkish woman's socio-cultural evolution and place in society.

Key Words: plastic arts, Girls' School of Fine Arts, Turkish women artists, art education, girls 'school, Galatasaray Exhibitions.

Introduction: New Schools for Girls in the Ottoman Education System in the Second Half of the 19th Century

Information related to efforts to modernize the education of Turkish women came on the agenda as the westernization movements in the Tanzimat (Reformation) Period (1839-1876) gained speed. Ottoman intellectuals and high-level bureaucrats of the Tanzimat re-evaluated the education of women in terms of creating a desirable new society as part of preparatory education, and consequently place was provided for the establishment of the Ebe Mektebi (Midwife's School) (1842), the Rusdhiye (Girls' Grammar School) (1858) and the Kiz Sanayi (Girls' Arts School) and Darulmuallimat (Girls' Teacher Training School) (1870) (Tekeli, 1985, p. 468). It is understood that despite all the innovative thoughts from the Tanzimat to the II. Mesrutiyet (Second Constitutional Period)(1908), girls' education was restricted to girls' teaching training schools and girls' art schools. Establishing a higher-level educational institution for girls was only achieved in the Second Constitutional Period. On this topic the first initiative occurred with the opening of the Inas Idadisi (Girls' Preparatory School) in Istanbul in 1911. The school began continuing education under the name of the Inas Sultanisi/Bezmialem Valide Sultanisi (Girls' Secondary School) in 1913-1914. Following that first step, the Erenkoy, Camlica and Kandilli Sultanisi were founded. (1) From the point of view of the secondary schools established in the capital, as well as the other schools mentioned, there was continuity; however, in the provinces outside the capital, they weren't widespread. The period of education at the girls' secondary schools was specified as ten years. The girls' secondary education institutions opened in the provinces became five-year Girls' Teaching Schools.

For girls the possibility of higher education began with the opening of the Inas Darulfunun (Girls' High School) in the 1914-1915 educational years. Given this new undertaking at the same time as the Balkan War, the lectures and private classes established in the Darulfunun for girls must have played an important role (Dolen 1985, p. 476). When the Inas Darulfunun began providing education in a separate building, the old Law School in Cagaloglu, there were a total of 25 students in the three main sections which included literature, mathematics and the natural sciences (Tekeli--Ilkin, 1993, p. 98). The first graduates of the school, that had a three-year educational program, emerged in 1917. The Inas Darulfunun was eliminated in 1921 when the girls took their own initiative and boycotted their own classrooms and started to work the boys' classes.

Inas Sanayi-i Nefise (The Girls' School of Fine Arts) and the Circumstances Surrounding the Establishments

November 1, 1914 is accepted as the date for the establishment of the Girls' School of Fine Arts (Halil Edhem, 1970, p. 43). The school began 31 years (1883) after the School of Fine Arts offered Turkey's first official fine arts education for male students. A long time after its founding, it merged with School of Fine Arts/ Academy of Fine Arts in 1925. (2) Therefore, a long time passed during which the need for fine arts education for women was considered and action taken. A situation similar to this delay was experienced in the development of the Academie Beaux Art in Paris, France; it was only in 1897 before girl students were accepted at this school which has a long history (Goren, 1996, p. 100).

The year 1914, when the Girls' School of Fine Arts opened, political history in the Ottoman Empire is taken into account; it was a quite complex period when freedom movements were alive and well and the Empire had entered World War One (October 16, 1914). On the other hand one learns from publications of the time that women of the Second Constitutional period (1908) frequently used such concepts as "freedom and equality" vis-a-vis men. These stirrings continued during the year the Girls' School of Fine Arts was founded and over the ensuing years. Within this process in which political and economic relations were drawn together with the artistic and culture relations between the Ottomans and the West, one understands that reverberations of the women's rights, written into law in Britain and France, were gaining importance (Beykal, 1983, p. 6).

In the artistic world in 1914 Turkey, an interesting intersection occurred and a period began during which an important departure point would be experienced. This period is known today as the "Generation of 1914" or the "Calli Generation." When the Turkish artists who were being educated in Europe returned home upon the outbreak of World War One, they contributed to the educational and artistic atmosphere. Among these artists who had been sent to Paris in 1910 after winning the "Europe Examination", that had been opened at the School of Fine Arts were, Ali Sami (Boyar), Hikmet (Onat), Ibrahim Calli, Nazmi Ziya (Guran) and Mehmet Ruhi (Arel) (Tansug, 1986, p. 120). Avni (Lifij) and Feyhaman (Duran) who were supported by Prince Abdulmecid and Abbas Hilmi Pascha and Namik Ismail who acquired an art education by his own means were all members of the same artistic group.

An important event, a short time before the date mentioned, is that the Turkish painter artists had united within the framework of a professional association, "Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyeti" (The Ottoman Artist Assocciation). In the formation of this new organization in 1909 were names like Avni (Lifij), Feyhaman (Duran) and Namik Ismail who would later have places in the Generation of 1914. Mihri (Musfik) Hanim who would take up a position in the Inas Sanayi-i Nefise cadre and Mufide Kadri who was one of her students also were among the members of this association (Baskan, 1994, p. 27).

Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyeti's magazine was the publication of the association; it first appeared on January 20, 1911 and was closed on July 14, 1914. Negative circumstances resulting from the war was one of the reasons for discontinuing the publishing of the magazine. The magazine that was to have appeared with the important endeavors and contributions of the Generation of 1914 is informative about the different formations in the artistic world.

The Girls' School of Fine Arts' Teaching Cadre and Lessons

After Salih Zeki Bey held the position of director of the Girls' School of Fine Arts that had been established in the middle of the war for a short time, Mihri Hanim was appointed to the position. (3) She had received a private art education in Turkey (4) and then was educated in Rome and Paris; prior to this position she had been the painting teacher at the Darulmuallimat (Girls' Teacher Training School) (Toros, 1988, p. 43). Omer Adil took over the directorship of the Girls' School after Mihri Musfik, an experimental educator. (5) Then later this duty was carried out by Feyhaman Bey (Zeytinoglu, 2003, p. 15).

The school's teaching cadre was created with the support and contributions of the School of Fine Arts. In the first years students were only accepted in the Painting Department, and the students continued their education in different locations. (6)

Mihri Hanim (Fig. 1&2) as the workshop teacher and Ali Sami (Boyar) were among the educators (7). The course on perspective was given by Ahmet Ziya (Akbulut), the art history and aesthetics course by Vahit Bey (8)--after Ahmet Hasim- and the anatomy course by Dr. Nurettin Ali (Berkol). Aznif Hanim also was in the teaching cadre in the first years (Zeytinoglu, 2003, p. 15). Sources show that Omer Adil, Cem, Ibrahim Calli, Hikmet (Onat), Nazmi Ziya (Guran), Namik Ismail and Feyhaman (Duran) were in the expanding cadre. As noted, the Generation of 1914 artists who were educators made important contributions here.

[FIGURES 1-2 OMITTED]

In the school workshop, studies were held until noon so it is to be understood that theoretical courses were held in the afternoon. According to sources that give information on the educational program, (9) in the year 1330/1914-1915 the first-year students took courses in painting, pastels, history and perspective; in 1332/ 1916-1917 the courses of the second-year students consisted of painting, nudes, anatomy, perspective, clay and history. The sources are quite specific in saying that on the subject of design Mihri Hanim was totally disciplined as the workshop teacher (Beykal, 1988, p. 9). In the first years the topic of still life received importance. Some practice occurred outdoors in nature even though this approach curried a reaction and seemed strange. (10) While they had limited number of nude models and were useing statues in their classes, their problem was solved with Russian immigrants who came to the country in 1917 and posed as live models.

Girls' School of Fine Arts Students

The information about the first students at the Girls' School of Fine Arts is extremely limited. The reasons why the sources and the information are limited are the following: that particular generation is no longer alive and an important portion of the Girls' School of Fine Arts registrations were destroyed in a fire in 1948, years after it merged with the School of Fine Arts. In the research done on this subject and using publications as sources, the notebook of artist Belkis Mustafa Hanim, one of the first students at the school, has been used. The source noted and, the information that Taha Toros who lived through the period, shows that a total of 33 people including six minority students were taken in during the first year of the school (Mutlu,1987, 13; Toros, 1988, p. 42). Registration for the male students at the School of Fine Arts was held at the Museum of the Ancient Orient (Beykal, 1988, p. 9).

According to Taha Toros, in 1330/1914-1915 among the 33 people whose names are noted as being among the students who first applied, number one was Muzdan Sait, number 2 Muide Esat, number 3 Belkis Mustafa, number 4 Nazire Osman, number 7 Nevzat (Drago), number 21 Mediha Suleyman (Gezgin) and number 24 Nazli Emin (Ecevit) (Toros, 1988, pp. 44-45; Pasalioglu, 1996, p. 66).

According to Belkis Mustafa's notebook the other students in the first class were Nazide, Sidika, Efraz, Muhterem, Taciser, Nedime, Ahmet, Munire, Rabia, Naciye, Madlen, Nevvare, Rukiye, Bakiye, Rana, Nimet, Ruhiye, Sukufe, Fatma, Melek, Refika, Seniye, Behice, Sabiha, Nihal, Zehra Sait and Sabriye Hanims. One person's name among these was illegible.

In the second year class in Belkis Mustafa's list for 1332/1916-1917 there are only 11 people. These are Belkis, Nazire/Nazide, Nazli, Leyla, Naside, Muhterem, Rukiye, Nevzat, Muide, Cemile and Efraz Hanims. On this list Cemile, Leyla and Naside Hanims names are additions to the names in the first-year course.

According to research, in addition to the school's first students the other members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts members who could be identified (Pasalioglu, 1996, pp. 66-67) are: Saime Rezan Ramiz (Oker) who registered in 1919, Nermin (Faruki) who registered in 1920 and Sabiha Ziya (Bengutas) and students whose dates of registration could not be determined: Afet, Bedia (Guleryuz), Edibe, Emine, Eser, Fahr0nnisa (Zeid), Fatma Remziye, GOzin (Duran), Hamide (Cizen), Hatice, Iffet Ihsan, Ihsan Riza, Muhsine, Mukbile, Nushet, Nuveyre (Faik), Refik (Yalman), Reside, Rezzan, Safiye Mehmet Emin (Karaduman) and Sevkat Adil. Of these students, Melek, Rezan, Edibe, Muhsine, Sabiha Ziya (Bengutas) and Nermin (Faruki) were students in the sculpture workshop.

According to what could be ascertained from memoirs and photographs of the period, the minorities among the students either wore hats or were bareheaded. The Turkish girls however continued with the outdoor over- garment (carsaf) or scarves (Fig. 3).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

The Members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts and Galatasaray Exhibitions

Because official registrations no longer exist, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to arrive at correct figures for students who continued at the school between 1914 and 1925 or who graduated. However, to approximate those figures on the basis of possible clues, one of the sources that have to be considered, are the exhibitions in which the students or graduates participated. The Galatasaray Exhibitions, that include the teaching sessions of the Girls' School of Fine Arts, are among the sources that can be used in this regard. The students of the Girls' School as students or graduates had their place next to the women artists who were educated privately or in Europe. Women artists from the minorities also took part.

The first art festivals in which women participated during the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz's reign (1861-1876) were collective exhibitions in 1870-1873 of sewing-embroidery, calligraphy and painting by graduates of the Darulmuallimat and Kiz Rusdiyeleri that had opened at the Darulfunun (Hasbora, 1994, p. 8). In the painting exhibition, the first opened to the public in 1873 and organized by Ahmet Ali, there were only works by some Western women and from the minorities. In the ABC/Elifba Exhibition in 1880 the name of the first Turkish woman painter, Princess Nazli, is evaluated among the artists who participated in the show (Cezar, 1995, p. 437).

As we pointed out above, with the first graduates of the Girls' School of Fine Arts student works were a part of the Galatasaray Exhibitions and there was broad participation. This continued at Galatasaray during the Turkish Republic period and as time went on it increased in importance, forming a sequence between 1916 and 1951. (11)

According to the catalogue information for the Galatasaray Exhibitions between 1916 and 1951, the artists from the Girls' School of Fine Arts who participated in these exhibitions were (12) Maide Esat (1916-1917, 1922-1923) (13) Muzdan Sait (Arel) (1916), Nevzat (1919-1923), Nazli (1920, 1922) (Fig. 4), Efraz (1923, 1925, 1926), Melek Feyzi (1920, 1922-1923), Muhterem Omer (1920), Guzin (1920-1923, 1925, 1926), Belkis (1922-1923), Naciye (1922), Sabiha Ziya (1922-1923), Melek Ahmet (1922), Bedia (Guleryuz) (1923), Emine Nuzhet (1923), Makbule/Mukbile Resad (1923) and Nermin Faruki (1923).

The other women artists for whom there is as yet no source for their education but who participated in the exhibitions are as follows: Ruben Zamir (1917-1918), Bakiye (1920, 1923), Ihsan Riza (14) (1920, 1922, 1925, 1926), Mediha (1920, 1921), Melek (15) (1920-1921, 1924), Feride, Mezdad/Muzdad (?) (1921), lhsan (1921, 1923), Melek Celal (1922), Zahide (Ozar) (1922-1923), Melek Ahmet, Meliha, Sabiha Nezahat (1923, 1924, 1926), Edibe, Muhsine Ahmet, Rezzan (1924), Sabiha Ziya (1924-1925), Efser Ismail, Sukriye Cafer, Nuzhet Emin (1925), Bedia, Kutsiye Edip (1925-1926) and Hamide Riza (1926).

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Among the artists who had their work in the Galatasaray Exhibitions and who had had a private education were Harika Sazi (Lifij) (1916-1917), Celile Hikmet (1916, 1917, 1923) and Sabiha Rustu (Bozcah) (1921 ?, 1924-1926)(Fig. 5). Melek Celal (Melek Ziya) (1917, 1925, 1926) (Fig. 6) was educated as a guest student at the Girls' School of Fine Arts. One must not forget that there could be other Girls' School of Arts members among the artists who participated in the exhibitions but for whom we still do not have information on their education.

[FIGURES 5-6 OMITTED]

The Artistic Identities of the Girls' School of Fine Arts Members through their Participating in Education and Through Other Initiatives

We have the most detailed information about those whose names we know from those who first registered at the Girls' School of Fine Arts and these are the artists who participated much more actively in the artistic world. The case is similar for later students.

The data shows that some students were only active in the field in which they received their education but others were to be evaluated for their accumulative artistic identity in the field of education.

Nazli Emin (Ecevit) (1914) (16) was at the Ankara Girl's Lycee and the Music Teachers' School; Mediha Suleyman (Gezgin) (1914) was the painting and music teacher in Istanbul at the Camlica, Kandilli and Istanbul Girls' Lycees; Nevzat (Drago) (1914-1916) was the painting teacher at the Istanbul Cumhuriyet and Fatih Lycees; and Bakiye Ismail Sirvanzade (Koray) (prior to 1922) was the painting teacher at Istanbul Aksam, Bursa Necatibey Institute, Bursa Girls Technical Teachers' School and the Nisantasi Girls' Institute. Hale (Asaf) (1924) taught at the Bursa Girls' Teachers' school and Bursa Necati Bey Institute.

Just as there were among the artists some who belonged to various associations there were those also who participated in professional unions. Among these artists Mediha Suleyman (Gezgin) (1914) was a member of the Modern Women's Society and the Muslim Women's Union and she held the chairmanship of the First Women's Union. She established the Women's Rights Protection Association. Saime Rezzan (Oker) (1919) worked as an honorary member of the Children's Protection Association and the Republican People's Party (CHP).

Nazli Hanim who was among the administrators of the Fine Arts Union; Hale (Asaf) who was one of the founders of the Independent Artists and Sculptors Union; Nermin (Faruk) who was one of the founders of the Turkish High Sculptors Society; and Ihsan Riza, Sabiha Rustu, Guzin (Duran) and Hale (Asaf) who were members of the Turkish Artists Society are among the artists who participated in the work of the professional unions.

Some New Information on the Students

Obtaining new information, aside from what is known, about the members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts, it seemed essential to research family archives and meet with family members. Evaluating these types of family archives today can be done by second or third generation family members. To ensure that some of this information remains permanently in this regard, here is a short biography of Fatma Remziye Hanim (Coksezen, later Gultekin), one of the members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts.

Fatma Remziye was born in Istanbul in 1319/1903-4. Her mother was Saniye (Uzdilek) Harem and her father, Salih Sefik Bey, was a captain in the Maritime Engineering branch in the Army. (17) Her elder brothers were Senior Professor Salih Murad Uzdilek (18) and Cevdet Guldurucu. Her childhood was spent in Heybeli Island.

After finishing grammar school, she began her life work in Sehremaneti. While continuing to work, she registered at the Girls' School of Fine Arts. In what she related while still alive, she was in the same class as Nazli Hanim (Ecevit) (19) (Fig. 7) and she was one of the students of Mihri Hanim. (20) It must have been during the years 1917 to 1922 when Nazh Harem and Mihri Musfik were at the school. Otherwise the date of birth of Remziye Harem is an important point on this subject. From the memoirs we see that the students in the classes were of various age groups and Remziye Hanim was among the youngest, in the workshop. The figurative work that Remziye Hanim did with pencil and charcoal exist (Fig. 8). (21) In her figurative work she benefited from torsos and busts as models. At school she used the name Hale instead of her real name and there is a pencil drawing entitled Bust and signed Hale among her workshop studies (Fig. 9). In Pericles' Busts and in other examples on the front of the paper officially or, on the back, one can read the sentence "Achievement for perfection" or "carry on" that is considered to be the instructor's appreciation (Fig. 10). There are no oil or watercolor paintings in the family archives. During her life, she noted that the reason she used a name other than her own was because it was seen as the fashion of the day and many classmates had made the same choice and behaved accordingly. In the advanced years of her life when she was 80-82 she communicated with Nazli Hanim. When Nazh Hanlm was in Istanbul they wanted to get together and talk. But that didn't happen because the latter died in Ankara in 1985 although she died in 10 November 1990.

[FIGURES 7-10 OMITTED]

Remziye Hanim played the piano from an early age as it was considered to be the widespread model for cultured young women of the period.

Remziye Hanim didn't participate actively in the artistic world following her education at the Girls' School of Fine Arts. She used her accumulated knowledge in a different field, drafting. In the first years of the Turkish Republic from 1937 she shared her accumulated knowledge with her friends who were engaged in architectural work with a sensitive approach brought about by her education. She was probably the only member of the Girls' School of Fine Arts who worked on drafting designs for the construction of buildings. (22)

Through her efforts she contributed to production and a life work despite the difficulties of being a Turkish woman. Apartment buildings, for which she made drafts, are to be found in Mataraci Street--Cihangir, Samanyolu Street--Sisli and Sanguzel Fatih in Istanbul.

Conclusion

When the Girls' School of Fine Arts was opened, the difficult conditions and many different straits created by the war atmosphere led to an infrastructure for the new steps and development of a young Turkey. One of the most important steps in this infrastructure was undoubtedly the opening of a new school for girls who previously had not had a chance to acquire preparatory art education. The Girls' School of Fine Arts showed how effective its students and graduates could be between the years 1914-1925, considering the courses at the School of Fine Arts and its existence as a part of total education. The woman artist phenomenon has been documented in the last days of the Empire when ideas of freedom grew stronger and this achieved the place it deserved under the Republic. This phenomenon is identified with the artist Mihri Hanlm who was administering the school.

Urban woman, whose place within the whole was restricted and whose numbers were rather few, were directed towards the creation of items in the plastic arts rather than the production of handicrafts. On the other hand woman as an official subject, vis-a-vis the existence of conservative circles, began to be discussed as a woman who painted and these measures became an important indicator of civilization and the contemporariness.

The information connected with the families and those around the students of the Girls' School of Fine Arts shows that generally they were children whose circle was attached to the military, bureaucracy or palace; that was cultured, educated and closely interested in art. Some of the initiatives that suited the necessity of the time and were part of efforts that fit contemporary fashion resulted from members of innovative families at the time. Some of those who wanted a systematic educational process, but with the sensitivity of the artistic approach, chose fine arts for their education. As a result of this choice, conditions, political and historical development and change, because of the difficult pressure of the historic period and women participating directly in artistic events, must have a share in the conscious approach.

As an educator Mihri Musfik's and the school's students were involved in professional organizations and as time went by it shows that whatever the innovation that passed from teacher to student among the members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts, it was a step towards the future.

Meanwhile there were those for whom existing education wasn't enough so artists continued their education in Europe and strengthened their relations with art circles in Europe. This shows that they were pushing on the boundaries for opportunities for artists. Belkis Mustafa, Hale (Asaf), Bedia (Guleryuz) and Nermin (Faruki) after their education at the Girls' School continued at the Berlin State Fine Arts Academy while Sabiha Ziya (Benguitas) went to the Rome Fine Arts Academy. As for Fahrunnisa (Zeid) she was among the artists who worked at the Ranson Academy in Paris.

On the other hand the participation of artists, who were educated or being educated at the Girl's School as well as other women artists who had been educated by different means, in exhibitions that were open to the public and stressed continuity created an atmosphere for young Turkish women who emphasized their existence as artists. It achieved an important artistic breakthrough and became the reason why such women artists continued to have a place in art at the exhibition level. The acceptance of development and recognition through criticism in the press speeded up the process of growing closer to society.

After the members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts completed their education, the existence of those who were sharing their accumulated knowledge with the younger generation as educators carries a separate importance.

Remziye Hanlm was in a field that was necessarily sensitive to the accumulation of knowledge and connected with art; she may not have participated actively in the art world but she brought her artistic sensitivity with her. Finding special examples evaluated in terms of urban aesthetics brings forth the necessity of evaluating contributions over a very broad spectrum in terms of social, economic and socio-cultural contributions as the members of the Girls' School of Fine Arts did from the artistic point of view. So for detailed examination and evaluation, finding increasing amounts of information related to the artists within the period denoted, although difficult, awaits the discovery of what isn't known. In solving these concerns, such difficulties as the artists no longer being alive and the great effort required to accumulate knowledge means one has to be sensible where the second and third generations are sensitive.

With our study the importance of oral history studies once again comes on the agenda. In addition, reexamining the information accumulated within an academic and interdisciplinary framework of academic relations will achieve a multilateral evaluation and clarification of the students of the Girls' School of Fine Arts and the place and limits of the Turkish woman during the years leading up to the founding of the young Turkish Republic.

Notes

(1) Ilhan Tekeli & Selim Ilkin (1993). p. 87; Alongside the secondary schools whose names are cited in the text are the Selcuk Hatun and Uskudar Girls' Art Secondary Schools that were based on a six-year primary education and had a four-year special program opened in Istanbul but their graduates did not have the right to go to higher education.

(2) If there are different dates given for the merger of the two school, 1926 is accepted as the result of the latest research. See Emre Zeytinoglu (2003). p. 16; Mustafa Cezar (1983). p. 14 the merging was occured nearly the end of the directorate of Cemil Bey, the Director of School of Fine Arts in 1925; Taha Toros (1988). p. 42 information gave 1920 as the date for the merger of two schools.

(3) Mustafa Cezar (1983). p. 54 given Salih Zeki Bey as the first director of the Girls' School of Fine Arts.

(4) Ottoman Court Painter Fausto Zonaro gave art lessons to Mihri Hanim in Istanbul.

(5) Mustafa Cezar (1983). p. 54. Omer Adil is shown as Being in the Girls' School of Fine Arts cadre in 1921-1925.

(6) For the various locations where the school's education continued, see Banu Pasalioglu (1996). pp.50-51.

(7) Ali Sami Bey was on duty at the Girls' School of Fine Arts between 4.10.1914-13.10.1915. For detailed information, see Canan Beykal (1983). p. 9; Mustafa Cezar (1983). p. 54. Accordingly Ali Sami was the director of the School of Fine Arts from 9.5.1921 to 12.9.1921.

(8) Vahit Bey was the son-in-law of Osman Hamdi Bey. See Canan Beykal (1983). p. 9.

(9) Asim Mutlu (1987). pp. 10-13. It has been quoted from Belkis Mustafa's notebook.

(10) Mihri Hanim and her students worked in Gulhane Park, Topkapi Palace and Scutari in Istanbul and sometimes Hoca Ali Riza participated in this group.

(11) Although it is known that the earliest exhibitions open to the public was started by the initiative of Seker Ahmet Pasa in 1867, the continuiy of these exhibitions were achieved after 1901-1903 with the exhibitions of Istanbul Salons as they gained much attraction by the public and art circles.

(12) The first two years Galatasaray Exhibitions were organized under the name" The Galatasaray Dormitory Painting Exhibitions" and later under different names. For detailed information see Omer Faruk Serifoglu (ed) (2003). pp. 24-115.

(13) It is the date of participation in the Galatasaray Exhibition.

(14) Ihsan Riza could be the same person as Ihsan.

(15) It could be Melek Ahmet or Melek Celal.

(16) It is the year that the artist registered at the Girls' School of Fine Arts.

(17) According to Deniz Harb Okulu's registrers he died on 30.9.1908. See Fahri Coker (1994). Deniz Harb Okulumuz 1773, Ankara, p. 27.

(18) In 1908 he graduated from the Deniz Harb Okulu (Maritime Military School) as a deck officier and while captain in rank in 1925 he left the military for health reasons and got a scholarship to study at London University in England. Beginning the Academic career at ITU in the physcs field, he retired as a senior professor from the university at which he taught for many years. See Fahri Coker (1994). Deniz Harb Okulumuz 1773, Ankara, p. 74.

(19) Nazh Ecevit left the school in 1922. See, Anonim(1983). Nazh Ecevit ile Gorusme, p. 14.

(20) The information was collected from her daughters Nurten Coksezen and Armagan Oner. Remziye Hanim was the grand mother of Sema Oner.

(21) I would like to thank to Assoc. Nilgun Sim Suldur, the chair of Photogtraph and Video Programme, YTU, the Faculty of Art and Design and Assist. Serap Sahan for providing the photographs of the works that lost their net quality because of the material used at the time.

(22) One of the architects that she worked with was Burhan Caglar.

References

Anonim (1983). Nazh Ecevit ile Gorusme, Yeni Boyut, No. 16, p. 14.

Baskan, Seyfi (1994). Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyeti, Ankara: Cardas Basim Yayin Ltd.

Beykal, Canan (1983). Yeni Kadin ve Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi, Yeni Boyut, No. 16, pp. 6-13.

Cezar, Mustafa (1983). Guzel Sanatlar Akademisi'nden 100. Yilda Mimar Sinan Universitesi'ne, Guzel Sanatlar Egitiminde 100 Yil, Istanbul: Mimar Sinan Universitesi Matbaasi.

Cezar, Mustafa (1995). Sanatta Batiya Acilis ve Osman Hamdi, C.II, Istanbul: Erol-Kerim Aksoy, Kultur, Egitim, Saglik ve Spor Vakfi, 2nd ed.

Coker, Fahri (1994). Deniz Harp Okulumuz 1773, Ankara: Dz. K. K. Karargah Basimevi.

Dolen, Emre (1985). Darulfunun, Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyete Tirkiye Ansiklopedisi, C.II, Istanbul, pp. 476-477.

Halil Edhem (1970). Elvah-i Naksiye Koleksiyonu, Istanbul.

Goksoy, Cavidan (1985). Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebinde Yetisen Kadin Ressamlarimiz, Istanbul, MSU, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitisu, Unpublished Master's Degree Thesis.

Hasbora, Hatice (1994). Baslangicindan Gunumuze Turk Kadin Ressamlari, Istanbul, MSU, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Unpublished Master's Degree Thesis.

Goren, Ahmet Kamil (1996). 19. Yuzyilda Paris'te Resim Egitimi, Antik-Dekor, No. 35, pp. 93-100.

Goren Ahmet Kamil (1999). Mihri (Musfik) Hanim(1886-1954). Turkiye'de Sanat, No. 39, pp. 24-31.

Mutlu, Asim (1987). Ressam Belkis Mustafa'nin Yasami ve Onun Desenleri ile Yakin Cevresinden Bir Kesit, Sanat Cevresi, No. 101, pp. 10-13.

Pasalioglu, Banu (1996). Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi ve Mezunlari, Istanbul, Marmara Universitesi, Turkiyat Arastirmalari Enstitisu, Unpublished Master's Degree Thesis.

Serifogllu, Omer Faruk (ed) (2003). Resim Tarihimizden, Galatasaray Sergileri, Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Kultur Sanat Yayincilik A.S.

Tansug, Sezer (1986). Caddas Turk Sanati Istanbul: Evrim Matbaacilik Ltd.

Tekeli, Ilhan (1985). Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyet'e Egitim Sistemindeki Degisimler, Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyet'e Turkiye Ansiklopedisi, Vol. 2, Istanbul, pp. 456-475.

Tekeli, Ilhan & Selim, Ilkin (1993). Osmanli Imparatodurlugun'da Egitim ve Bilgi Uretim Sisteminin Olusumu ve Donusumu, Ankara.

Toros, Taha (1988). Ilk Kadin Ressamlarimiz, Istanbul: Ak Yayinlari, Sayili Matbaa.

Toros, Taha (1999). Bebeklikleri-Cocukluklari Donemlerinde Ressamlarimiz, Antik-Dekor, No. 52, pp. 118-123.

Toros, Taha (2000). O Guzel Insanlar, Istanbul: Aksoy Yaymahk San. ve Tic. A.S.

Zeytinoglu, Emre (2003). Sanayi-i Nefise'den Gunumuze, Akademiye Taniklik 1, Istanbul: Baglam Yayincilik, pp. 15-19.

Sema Oner, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sema Oner, Faculty of Arts and Design, Yildiz Technical University, Besiktas, Istanbul--Turkey. e-mail: soner@yildiz.edu.tr

Ozet

Kadinin, sanat ortaminda ureten bir kisi olarak belirginlestigi Cumhuriyet Tirkiyesi'nde, plastik sanatlar alaninda yaratilarini ortaya koyan gunumuz kadin sanatcilariyla ilgili cesitli degerlendirmeler yapilmaktadir. Turkiye'de kadinin sanat ortamindaki yeri tartisilirken Cumhuriyet oncesinde Batililasma cabalarini onemli bir donemini olusturan II. Mesrutiyet (1908) ile Cumhuriyet'in ilani (1923) arasindaki on bes yillik surecin kadin sanatcilar acisindan bir on hazirlik donemi olarak degerlendirilmesi, paylasilan bir gorus acididir. Konunun gelisimi, genellikle donemin toplumsal ve siyasal olaylari ve egitim sistemiyle ilgili gorumlmektedir.

Olusumu saglayan alt yapi incelendiginde; ozel egitim disinda, kadinlar icin guzel sanatlar egitiminde 'ilk' adimin yaklasik 90 yil once, 1914'de Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebinin (Kiz Guzel Sanatlar Okulunun) kurulusu ile atildigi belirginlesmektedir. Bu ilk adimin kurumsal acidan oneminin ve egitimdeki yerinin yanisira, baslangictaki ogrenci potansiyeli ile potansiyeli olusturan bireylerin de irdelenmesi gerekmektedir. Ancak Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin ogrencileri hakkinda oldukca sinirli bilgiye sahip bulunmaktayiz. Bilginin sinirli olma nedenleri belirtilen kusagin bugun artik hayatta olmamasi, diger taraftan okul ile ilgili kayitlarin onemli bir bolumunun kurulustan uzunca bir sure sonra Inas Sanayi-i Nefise ile birlestirilen Sanayi-i Nefisedeki (Guzel Sanatlar Okulu) 1948 yili yangini sonucunda yok olmasidir. Kayitlara iliskin tam listelere ulasamadigimiz gibi, adlari saptanabilen ogrencilerin yasamlari ve egitimlerinin sonrasinda aldiklari yol acisindan da ayrinntili, bilgilere sahip oldugumuz soylenemez. Bu nedenle ogrenciler hakkinda bugune dek bilinmeyenlere eklenebilecek kucuk bir ayrintinin dahi birbirini izleyen cozumlemelere neden olabilecegi bir gercektir.

Amacimiz, ogrencilere ait bilinmeyen yeni biyografik verilerin bilim ortamina kazandirilmasi ve bu verilerle Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi ogrencilerinin kadinin sanat ortaminda aldigi yerin yanisira Turk kadinin sosyo-kulturel evrimine ve toplumdaki yerine iliskin yapilabilecek bazi yeni degerlendirmelere isik tutabilmektir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Plastik sanatlar, Inas Sanayi-i Nefise, Turk kadin sanatcilar, sanat egitimi, okullari, Galatasaray Sergileri.

Giris: 19. Yuzyilin Ikinci Yarisinda Osmanli Egitim Sisteminde Kizlar Icin Yeni Okullar

Turk kadinin egitiminde cagdaslasma yolundaki cabalara iliskin veriler, Batilisma hareketlerinin ivme kazandigi Tanzimat doneminde (1839-1876) gundeme gelmistir. Tanzimat'in Osmanli aydini ve ust duzey burokratlari, istendik yeni bir toplumun yaratilmasinda kadinin egitimini orgun egitim icinde yeniden degerlendirmis, bu calisma icinde Ebe Mektebi (1842), Kiz Rustiyeleri (1858) ile Kiz Sanayi ve Darulmuallimatinin (1870) kuruluslarina yer vermistir (Tekeli, 1985, s. 468). Tum yenilikci dusuncelere karsin Tanzimat'tan II. Mesrutiyet'e (1908) degin kizlarin egitiminin kiz rustiyeleri ve kiz sanat okullari ile sinirli kaldigi anlasilmaktadir. Egitimde kizlar icin daha ust kademede egitim kurumlarinin orgutlenmeye baslamasi ancak II. Mesrutiyet donemi ile birlikte gerceklesmistir. Bu konuda ilk girisim 1911'de Istanbul'da Inas (Kiz) Idadisinin acilmasi ile yapilmistir. Okul, 1913-1914 yillarinda Inas Sultanisi (Bezmialem Valide Sultanisi) adi ile egitime baslamistir. Ilk adimin ardindan Istanbul'daki Erenkoy, Camlica, Kandilli Inas Sultanileri kurulmustur. (1) Belirtilen okullar ile baskentte inas sultanilerinin kuruluslari acisindari bir sureklilik saglanmis, ancak baskent disindaki vilayetlerde yayginlastirilamamislardir. Kiz sultanilerinin egitim sureleri 10 yil olarak belirlenmistir. Vilayetlerde acilan kiz orta egitim kurumlari ise 5 yillik muallim mektepleri olmustur.

Kizlar icin yuksek ogretim olanagi, Inas Darulfununun 1914-1915 egitim-ogretim yilinda acilmasi ile baslamistir. Bu yeni yapilanmada Balkan Savasi ile birlikte Darulfununda kadinlar icin duzenlenen konferanslarin ve kizlar icin kurulan ozel siniflarin onemli rolu olmalidir (Dolen, 1985, 476). Inas Darulfununu, ayri bir binada, Cagaloglu'nda eski Hukuk Mektebi binasinda, egitim vermeye basladiginda, Edebiyat, Riyaziyat ve Tabiat subeleri olmak uzere uc ana bolumu ile toplam 25 ogrencisi bulunmaktaydi (Tekeli-Ilkin, 1993, s. 98). Uc yillik bir egitim programi uygulayan okulun ilk mezunlari 1917 yilinda verilmistir. Inas Darulfununu, kizlarin kendi dersanelerini boykot edip erkeklerin dersanelerine girmeleriyle 1921'de kaldirilmistir.

Belirtilen girisimlerle 19. yuzyilin sonlari ile 20. yuzyilin baslarinda kizlarin egitiminde onemli asamalar kaydedilirken, kiz ogrenciler icin Darulfununun acildigi yil, yine kizlar icin guzel sanatlar egitimi veren Inas Sanayi-i Nefise kurulmustur.

Inas Sanayi-i Nefise ve Kurulus Ortami

Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin kurulus tarihi olarak 1 Kasim 1914 kabul edilmektedir (Halil Edhem, 1970, s. 43). Okul, Turkiye'deki ilk resmi Guzel Sanatlar egitimi veren ve erkek ogrenciler icin igitim veren Sanayi-i Nefise Mekteb-i Alisinden (1883) 31 yil sonra gundeme gelerek islerlik kazanmistir. Kurulustan uzunca bir sure sonra, 1925'te Sanayi-i Nefise ile birlestirilmistir (2). Anlasilacagi gibi, kadinlarin guzel sanatlar egitimine gereksinimlerinin dusunulmesi ve uygulanmasi icin oldukca uzun bir sure gecmistir. Bu gecikmenin benzeri bir durum da Fransa'da Paris, Academie Beaux Art'in gelisiminde yasanmis, kiz ogrencilerin bu koklu sanat okuluna kabulu ancak 1897'de geceklesebilmistir (Goren, 1996, s. 100).

Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin egitime basladigi 1914 yili, Osmanli Imparatorlugu'nda siyasal tarih acisindan da oldukca karmasik, ozgurluklerle ilgili hareketlerin yasandigi ve Imparatorlugun I.Dunya Savasi'na girdigi (16 Ekim 1914) bir donem icindedir. Diger taraftan, donemin yayin organlarindan, II. Mesrutiyet'le (1908) birlikte kadinlari 'hurriyet ve esitlik' kavramlarini erkeklere karsi yogun bir bicimde kullandiklari da ogrenilmektedir. Bu kipirdanislar Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin kurulus ve onu izleyen yillarda da devam etmistir. Belirtilen surec, icinde Osmanlilarin Bati ile sanatsal ve kulturel iliskileri ile birlikte siyasal, ekonomik iliskileri de dikkate alindiginda, Ingiltere ve Fransa'da yasallasan kadin haklarinin Osmanli kadini uzerindeki yansimalarinin da onem kazandigi anlasilmaktadir (Beykal, 1983, s. 6).

1914'te Turkiye'deki sanat ortaminda ise Turk resim tarihinde ilginc, bir kesisme ve onemli bir noktasinin yasanacagi donem baslamaktadir. Bu donem, gunumuzde '1914 Kusagi' veya 'Calli Kusagi' adi ile taninan, Avrupa' da egitim gormekteyken I. Dunya Savasi nin baslamasi uzerine yurda donen Turk ressamlarinin egitim ve sanat ortamina katilimlaridir. Sanayi-i Nefisede acilan 'Avrupa Smaw'ni kazanarak 1910'da Paris'e gonderilmis olan bu sanatcilar arasinda Ali Sami (Boyar), Hikmet (Onat), Ibrahim Calli, Nazmi Ziya (Guran), Mehmet Ruhi (Arel) bulunmaktadir (Tansug, 1986, s. 120). 1914 kusagi icinde degerlendirilen Avni (Lifij), Sehzade Abdulmecid'in; Feyhaman (Duran), Abbas Halim Pasa'nin destekleriyle Namik Ismail ise kendi olanaklariyla Paris'teki resim egitimlerini surdumuslerdir.

Belirtilen tarihten kisa bir sure once yasanan onemli bir olgu da Turk resim sanatcilarinin ilk kez bir meslek birligi cercevesinde biraraya gelmeleridir. 1909'da gerceklesen bu yeni organizasyonun, 'Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyeti'nin olusumunda, daha sonra 1914 kusagi icinde yer alacak olan Avni (Lifij), Feyhaman (Duran), Namik Ismail gibi isimler bulunmaktadir. Ileride Inas Sanayi-i Nefise kadrosunda gorev yapacak olan Mihri (Musfik) ve ogrencilerden Mufide Kadri Hanimlar da bu dernegin uyeleri arasindadir (Baskan,1994, s. 27).

Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyetinin 20 Ocak 1911'de cikarmaya basladigi yayin organi Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyeti Mecmuasi'nin 14 Temmuz 1914'te kapandigi gorulmektedir. Savasin etken oldugu olumsuz kosullar derginin yayimini surdurememesinin baslica nedenleri arasindadir.'1914 Kusagi'nin onemli caba ve katkilariyla ciktigi anlasilan dergi, sanat ortamindaki farkli olusumlarin da habercisidir.

Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebinin Ogretim Kadrosu ve Dersleri

Savas ortaminda kurulan Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin mudurlugune Salih Zeki Bey'in kisa sureli yoneticiliginden sonra Mihri (Musfik) Hanim getirilmistir. (3) Mihri Hanim, Turkiye'de aldigi ozel (4) resim egitiminin yanisira, Roma ve Paris'te de resim egiitimini surdurmus ve bu gorevden once de Istanbul Darulmuallimatinda (Kiz Ogretmen Okulu) resim ogretmenligi yapmistir (Toros, 1988, s. 43; Goren, 1996, s. 24-31). Deneyimli bir egitimci oldugu anlasilan Mihri Hanim'in ardindan, Omer Adil, Inas Sanayi-i Nefisede yoneticiligi devr almistir. (5) Daha sonra bu gorev Feyhaman Bey tarafindan surdurulmustur (Zeytinoglu, 2003, s. 15).

Okulun ogretim kadrosu Sanayi-i Nefise ogretmenlerinin destegi ve katilimlariyla olusturulmustur. Ilk yillarda sadece Resim Bolumune ogrenci kabul edilmis, ogrenciler egitimlerini degisen mekanlarda surdurmuslerdir. (6)

Egitimcilerin icinde atolye hocasi olarak Mihri Hanim (Fig. 1&2) ve Ali Sami (Boyar) bulunmaktadir. (7) Perspektif dersi Ahmet Ziya (Akbulut), Sanat Tarihi ve Estetik dersi onceleri Vahit Bey (8) daha sonra Ahmet Hasim tarafindan, Anatomi dersi ise Dr. Nurettin Ali (Berkol) tarafindan verilmistir. Aznif Hanim da ilk yillarin ogretim kadrosundadir (Zeytinoglu, 2003, s. 15). Kaynaklar, Omer Adil, Cem, Ibrahim Calli, Hikmet (Onat), Nazmi Ziya (Guran), Namik Ismail ve Feyhaman (Duran)'i da genisleyen kadro icinde gostermektedir. Goruldugu gibi 1914 kusagi ressamlarinin burada da egitimci olarak onemli katkilari bulunmaktadir.

Atolye calismalarinin ogleye kadar yapildigi okulda, ogleden sonra teorik derslerin verildigi anlasilmaktadir. Ders programl hakkinda bilgi veren kaynaklara gore, (9) 1330 / 1914-1915 yilinda 1. sinif ogrencilerinin resim, pastel, tarih, menazir (perspektif); 1332/1916-1917 de 2. sinif ogrencilerinin resim, vucut (nu), tesrih (anatomi), menazir, camur, tarih dersleri gordukleri anlasilmaktadir. Atolye hocasi olarak Mihri Hanim'in desen konusunda son derece disiplinli oldugu kaynaklarda belirtilmektedir (Beykal, 1988, s. 9). Ilk yillar derslerde agirlikli olarak oludoga konusu yer almistir. Kimi zaman uygulamalar sirasinda yadirgansalar ve tepki alsalar da doga karsisinda uygulamalar gerceklestirmislerdir. (10) Ciplak modelden calismalar icin onceleri kisitli sayida canli modelden, daha cok heykel ve torsolardan yararlanirlarken, 1917'de ulkeye gelen Rus gocmenlerle model bulmakta yasanan sorun cozulmustur (Beykal, 1983, s. 10; Hasbora, 1999, s. 10).

Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Ogrencileri

Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin ilk ogrencileri hakkinda son derece sinirli bilgiler bulunmaktadir. Kaynaklarin ve bilginin sinirli olma nedenleri, belirtilen kusagin bugun artik hayatta olmamasi ve Inas Sanayi-i Nefise kayitlarinin onemli bir bolumunun Sanayi-i Nefise ile birlestikten sonra, 1948'de okulda cikan yangin nedeniyle yok olmasidir. Bu konuda yapilan arastirmalar ve yayinlarda kaynak olarak okulun ilk ogrencilerinden ressam Belkis Mustafa Hanim'in not defterinden yararlanilmistir. Belirtilen kaynak ile doneminin yasayan kaynagi Taha Toros'un verdigi bilgiler, okula ilk yil 6'si azinliklardan olmak uzere toplam 33 kasinin alindigini gostermektedir (Mutlu, 1987,13; Toros, 1988, s. 42). Kayit islemlerinin, Sanayi-i Nefise erkek ogrencilerinin o gunlerde egitimini surdurmekte oldugu Eski Sark Eserleri Muzesinde yapildigi bilinmektedir (Beykal, 1988, s. 9). Taha Toros'a gore 1330/1914-15'te okula ilk basvuran ogrencilerden adlari belirlenebilen 33 kisi icinde, 1 numarali Muzdan Sait, 2 numarali Muide Esat, 3 Numarali Belkis Mustafa, 4 numarali Nazire Osman, 7 Numarali Nevzat (Drago), 21 Numarali Mediha Suleyman (Gezgin) ve 24 numarali Nazli Emin (Ecevit) Hanimlar bulunmaktadir (Toros, 1988, s. 44-45; Pasalioglu, 1996, s. 66).

Belkis Mustafa'nin not defterindeki siralamaya gore gore 1. sinifin diger ogrencileri: Nazide, Sidika, Efraz, Muhterem, Taciser, Nedime, Ahmet, Munire, Rabia, Naciye, Madlen, Nevvare, Rukiye, Bakiye, Rana, Nimet, Ruhiye, Sukufe, Fatma, Melek, Refika, Seniye, Behice, Sabiha, Nihal, Zehra Sait ve Sabriye Hanimlardir. Bu kayitlarda bir kasinin adi okunamamistir.

Belkis Mustafa'nin 1332/1916-17 tarihli 2. sinif not listesinde ise sadece 11 kisi bulunmaktadir. Bunlar Belkis, Nazire, Nazli, Leyla, Naside, Muhterem, Rukiye, Nevzat, Muide, Cemile ve Efraz Hanimlardir. Bu listede 1. siniftaki adlara ek olarak Cemile ve Leyla Hanimlarin adlari gorulmektedir. Okulun ilk ogrencileri hakkinda elde edilen bu bilgilerin yanisira arastirmalara gore belirlenebilen diger Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler (Pasalioglu, 1996, s. 66-67): 1919 kayitli Saime Rezan Ramiz (Oker), 1920 kayitli Nermin (Faruki), Sabiha Ziya (Bengutas) ile kayit tarihleri saptanamayan ogrenciler; Afet, Bedia (Guleryuz), Edibe, Emine, Eser, Fahrunnisa (Zeid), Fatma Remziye, Guzin (Duran), Hamide (Cizen), Hatice, Iffet Ihsan, Ihsan Riza, Muhsine, Mukbile, Nushet, Nuveyre (Faik), Refik (Yalman), Reside, Rezzan, Safiye Mehmet Emin (Karaduman), Sevkat Adil Hanimlardlr. Bu ogrencilerden Melek, Rezan, Edibe, Muhsine, Sabiha Ziya (Bengutas), Nermin (Faruki) okulun heykel atolyesi ogrencileridir.

Anilarda belirtildigi ve donemin fotograflarindan saptabildigine gore ogrencilerden azinliklar okula sapkali veya basortulu veya basi, Turk kizlari ise carsafli veya basortulu olarak devam etmislerdir (Fig. 3).

Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler ve Galatasaray Sergileri

Resmi kayitlarin gunumuze ulasamamasi nedeniyle 1914-1926 yillari arasinda okula devam eden veya mezun ogrenciler hakkinda dogru sayilara ulasmak son derece zordur. Ancak dogruya yakin degerlere ulasabilmek icin verebilecegi ipuclari acisindan uzerinde dusunulmesi gereken kaynaklardan birisi de ogrenci veya mezunlarin katildiklari sergilerdir. Inas Sanayi-i Nefiselilerin ogrenim donemlerini iceren Galatasaray Sergileri, konuyla ilgili olarak yararlanilabilecek kaynaklar arasindadli. Bu sergilerde ogrenci veya mezun olarak Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler, ozel derslerle ya da Avrupa'da aldiklan egiitimle yetkinlesen kadin sanatcilarin yaninda yer almislardir. Sergilere azinliklardan kadin sanatcilar da katilmislardir.

Bilindigi gibi kadinlarin yer aldigi ilk sanat etkinlikleri Sultan Abdulaziz doneminde (1861-1876), 1870-1873 yillarinda Darulfununda acilan ve kiz rustiyeleri ile Darulmuallimat mezunlarinin dikis-nakis, yazi ve resimlerinin yer aldigi toplu sergilerdir (Hasbora, 1994, s. 8). Ahmet Ali'nin duzenledigi 1873 tarihli ilk kamuya acik resim sergisinde ise sadece Batili ve azinhklardan bazi kadin sanatcilarin eserleri yer almaktadir. 1880 yilindaki ABC/Elifba Sergisine katilan Prenses Nazli, boyle bir etkinlige katilan ilk Turk kadini olarak degerlendirilmektedir (Cezar, 1995, s. 437).

Yukarida belirtildigi gibi Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin ilk mezunlariyla ogrencilerinin eserlerinin de yer aldigi Galatasaray Sergileri, bir baska deyisle Galatasaray'da duzenlenen sergiler ise genis katilimli, Cumhuriyet'le birlikte surekliligi korunan 1916-1951 yillari arasindaki zincirleme bir sanat etkinligidir. (11) Galatasaray Sergilerinin 1916-1926 yillarina ait katalog bilgilerine gore Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseli olarak Galatasaray Sergilerine katildigi belirlenen sanatcilar (12): Maide Esat (1916-1917, 1922-1923) (13) Muzdan Sait (Arel) (1916), Nevzat (1919-1923), Nazli (1920, 1922) (Fig. 4), Efraz (1923, 1925, 1926), Melek Feyzi/Fevzi (1920,1922-1923), Muhterem Omer (1920), Guzin (1920-1923, 1925, 1926), Belkis (1922-1923), Naciye (1922), Sabiha Ziya (1922-1923), Melek Ahmet (1922), Bedia (Guleryuz) (1923), Emine Nuzhet (1923), Makbule/Mukbile Resad (1923), Nermin Faruki (1923)'dir.

Sergilere katildigi saptanan ancak yetistikleri egitim kurumlari henuz belirlenemeyen diger kadin sanatcilar: Ruben Zamir (1917-1918), Bakiye (1920, 1923), Ihsan Riza (14) (1920, 1922, 1925, 1926), Mediha (1920-1921), Melek (15) (1920-1921, 1924), Feride, Mezdad (1921), Ihsan (1921, 1923), Melek Celal (1922), Zahide (Ozar)(1922-1923), Melek Ahmet, Meliha, Sabiha Nezahat (1923, 1924, 1926), Edibe, Muhsine Ahmet, Rezzan (1924), Sabiha Ziya (1924-1925), Efser Ismail, Sukriye Cafer, Nuzhet Emin (1925), Bedia, Kutsiye Edip (1925-1926), Hamide Riza (1926)'dir.

Galatasaray Sergileri'nde yapitlari yer alan Harika Sazi (Lifij) (1916-1917), Celile Hikmet (1916, 1917, 1923), Sabiha Rustu (Bozcali) (1921-?, 1924-1926) (Fig. 5) ozel egitim aldigi bilinen sanatcilar arasindadirlar. Melek Celal (Melek Ziya) (1917, 1925, 1926) (Fig. 6) ise Inas Sanayi-i Nefisede konuk ogrenci olarak egitim almistir. Sergilere katildigi saptanan, ancak egitimleri hakkinda henuz bilgi sahibi olamadigimiz diger sanatcilar arasinda Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler olabilecegi de gozardi edilmemelidir.

Sanatci Kimliklerinin Yanisira Egitime Katkilari ve Diger Girisimleriyle Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler

Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseye ilk kaydolanlar icinde adlari kesinlik kazanmis olanlardan en fazla ayrintili bilgiye sahip olduklarimiz, daha cok sanat ortamina aktif olarak katilmis sanatcilardir. Benzer durum daha sonraki ogrenciler icin de gecerlidir.

Verilerden kimi ogrencilerin sadece egitim aldiklari alanda etkinlik gosterdikleri, kimi ogrencilerin ise sanatci kimliklerinin yanisira, birikimlerini egitim alaninda da degerlendirdikleri anlasilmaktadir. Nazli Emin (Ecevit)(1914), (16) Ankara Kiz Lisesi ve Musiki Ogretmen Okulunda; Mediha Suleyman (Gezgin), (1914) Istanbul'da Camlica, Kandilli ve Istanbul Kiz Liselerinde resim ve muzik ogretmenligi; Nevzat (Drago), (1914-1916) Istanbul Cumhuriyet ve Fatih Liselerinde resim ogretmenligi; Bakiye Ismail Sirvanzade (Koray), (1922 oncesi) Istanbul Aksam, Bursa Necatibey Enstitusu, Bursa Kiz Teknik Ogretmen Okulu, Nisantasi Kiz Enstitusunde resim ogretmenligi yapmislardlr. Hale (Asaf) (1924) Bursa Kiz Ogretmen Okulu ve Bursa Necatibey Kiz Enstitusunde ogretmenlik yapmistir.

Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler icinde cesitli dernek uyelikleri yapanlar oldugu gibi meslek birliklerine de katilanlar bulunmaktadir. Bu sanatcilar arasinda Mediha Suleyman (Gezgin), (1914) Asri Kadin Cemiyeti uyeligi, Musluman Kadinlar Birligi ve Birinci Kadinlar Birligi Baskanligi yapmistir. Kadin Haklarini Koruma Dernegini kurmustur. Saime Rezzan (Oker), (1919) Cocuk Esirgeme Kurumu ve CHP'de fahri olarak calismistir.

Guzel Sanatlar Birliginin yonetiminde bulunan Nazli Hanim, Mustakil Ressamlar ve Heykeltraslar Birligi kurucularindan Hale (Asaf), Turkiye Yuksek Heykeltraslar Cemiyetinin kurucularindan Nermin (Faruki), Turk Ressamlar Cemiyeti uyeleri Ihsan Riza, Sabiha Rustu, Guzin (Duran), Hale (Asaf) meslek birliklerinin calismalarina katilan sanatcilardandir.

Ogrenciler Hakkinda Bazi Yeni Veriler

Inas Sanayi-i Nefiselilere iliskin bilinenler disinda yeni bilgilere ulasmak icin aile arsivlerinin arastirilmasi ve aile bireyleriyle gorusmelere gereksinim duyulmaktadir. Gunumuzde bu tur aile arsivlerinin degerlendirmesi, ancak ailelerin 2. kusak veya 3. kusak bireyleri tarafindan yapilabilmektedir. Bu baglamdaki bazi verileri kalici kilmak amaciyla kisa biyografisi sunulacak bir Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseli de Fatma Remziye Hanim'dir (Coksezen, daha sonra Gultekin).

Fatma Remziye Hanim, 1319/1903-4 Istanbul dogumludur. Annesi, Saniye (Uzdilek) Hanim, Babasi Deniz Makine Kidemli Yuzbasi Salih Sefik Bey, (17) agabeyleri Ord. Prof. Salih Murad Uzdilek (18) ve Cevdet Guldurucu'dur. Cocuklugu Heybeli Ada'da gecmistir.

Rustiyeyi bitirdikten sonra calisma hayatina Sehremanetinde baslamistir. Calismaya devam ederken diger taraftan da Inas Sanayi-i Nefisede egitim gormustur. Hayatta iken anlatimlarinda Nazli Hanim (Ecevit) ile ayni atolyede oldugunu (19) (Fig. 7)Mihri Hanim'in ogrencileri arasinda bulundugunu belirtmistir. (20) Nazli ve Mihri Hanimlarin okuldaki surecleri, Remziye Hanim'in dogum tarihi de dikkate alindiginda, 1917-1922 yillari arasinda olmalidir. Yine anilardan, siniflarin cesitli gruplarindaki ogrencilerden olustugu, Remziye Hanim'in atolyenin yasca en kucukleri arasinda oldugu bilinmektedir. Remziye Hanim'in atolyede yapilmis karakalem ve fuzen ile figur calismalari bulunmaktadir (Fig.8). (21) Figur calismalarinda model olarak torso ve bustlerden yararlanilmistir. Okulda, asil adi disinda Hale ismini kullanmistir. Atolye calismalarindan karakalem bir Bust Hale imzalidir (Fig. 9). Perikles Bustleri ve dicker bazi orneklerde resim kagidi uzerinde veya arkasinda ders ogretmeninin 'Takdire sayandir.' cumlesi veya 'devam' ibaresi okunabilmektedir (F.g. 10). Aile arsivinde yagliboya veya suluboya eseri yoktur. Remziye Hanim verdigi bilgilerde, okulda kendi ismi disinda bir isim kullanma nedenini, gunun modasi olarak degerlendirmekte ve pek cok sinif arkadasinin da ayni secim ve davranis icinde bulundugunu belirtmekteydi. Yasaminin ilerleyen yillarinda, 80-82 yaslarindayken Nazli Hanim ile irtibatlari olmustur. Nazli Hanim'in Istanbul'da bulundugu donemlerde biraraya gelip karsilikli konusma istekleri onun Ankara'da 1985'teki vefati uzerine gerceklesememis, kendisi de 10 Kasim 1990'de vefat etmistir.

Remziye Hanim, donemin kulturlu genc hanimlari arasinda yaygin bir moda olarak genc yaslarindan itibaren piyano calmaktaydi. Remziye Hanim, Inas Sanayii Nefisedeki egitiminin ardindan aktif olarak sanat ortamina katilmamistir. Birikimini farkli bir tasarim alaninda degerlendirmistir. Turkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin ilk yillarinda, 1937'den itibaren, egitiminin getirdigi duyarli bir yaklasimla birikimini mimar calisma arkadaslariyla paylasmistir. Insa ettigi yapilarla, belki de bu alanda calisan tek Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseli olarak mekan tasarimlarina iliskin calismalar gerceklestirmisti. (22) Calistigi mimarlardan birisi Burhan Caglar'dir. Bu cabalariyla Turk kadinin uretime katkisi ve is yasami icindeki zorlu gorevini surdurmustur. Cihangir, Mataraci Sokak, Sisli, Samanyolu Sokak ve Fatih Sariguzel'de tasarimlarini yaptigi apartmanlar bulunmaktaydi.

Sonuc

Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin acildigi donem, savas ortaminin getirdigi yonlu sikintilari tasimakla birlikte yeni atilimlar ve genc Turkiye'nin gelisimi icin bir alt yapi olusturmustur. Bu alt yapinin en onemli basamaklarindan birisi de kuskusuz orgun sanat egitiminde daha once hic sansi bulunmayan kizlar icin yeni bir okulun acilmis olmasidir.

Baslangicta da belirtildigi gibi, 1914-1925 yillari arasinda etkinlik gosteren ve Cumhuriyet'in ilk yillarindan itibaren Sanayi-i Nefise ders programi icinde ve egitimde butunsellik icinde degerlendirilen Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebinin ogrencileri ve mezunlari ile Imparatorlugun hurriyet fikirlerinin yogun yasandigi son gunlerinde kadin sanatci olgusu belirginlesmis ve Cumhuriyet'le birlikte gereken yeri almisitir. Bu olgu, okulun yoneticiligini de yapan ressam Mihri (Musfik) Hanim ile de ozdeslesmektedir.

Butun icindeki yerleri sinirli ve sayilari az da olsa bu surec icinde kentli kadin, el sanatlarina yonelik uretimlerinden plastik sanatlar alanindaki urunlerin yaraticiligina yonlenmistir. Diger taraftan resme konu olan kadin, tutucu cevrelerin varligina karsim resim yapan kadin olarak gundeme gelmeye baslamis ve bu uygulamalar cagdaslik ve uygarligin onemli bir gostergesi olmustur.

Inas Sanayi-i Nefise ogrencilerinin aile ve yakin cevreleri ile ilgili bilgiler, genellikle asker, burokrat, sarayla baglantili, kulturlu, egitimli, sanatla yakin iliskili bir cevrenin cocuklari olduklarini gostermektedir. Kimilerinin, cagin gereklerine uyan, donemin yenilikci ailelerinin bir bireyi olarak modaya uyma cabasi dogrultusundaki girsimleri, kimilerinin ise sanata duyarli yaklasimlari ile sistematik bir egitim surecine girme istekleri, egitimde guzel sanatlari secmeleri sonucunu getirmistir. Bu secimde, siyasal ve tarihsel gelisim ve degisimle butunlesen ve tarihsel surecin zorunlu itisi sonucunda ortaya cikan kosullarla birlikte, kadinarin sanatsal etkinliklere dogrudan katilma yonunde gosterdikleri bilincli yaklasimin da payi olmalidir.

Bir egitimci olarak Mihri Musfik'in ve okulun ogrencilerinin giderek mesleki orgutlenmeler icinde olmalari da Inas Sanayi-i Nefiselilerin ogretmeninden ogrencisine kadar ne denli girisimci ve gelecege yonelik adimlar atmakta olduklarini gostermektedir. Ayrica, aralarinda mevcut egitimleriyle yetinmeyerek Avrupa'da egitimlerini guclendiren ve Avrupa'daki sanat cevreleriyle iliskilerini surduren sanatcilarin da bulunmasi, sanatcinin olanaklari dogrultusunda sinirlarini zorladigini gostermektedir. Belkis Mustafa, Hale (Asaf), Bedia (Guleryuz), Nermin (Faruki) Hanimlar egitimlerini Inas Sanayi-i Nefise'den sonra Berlin Devlet Guzel Sanatlar Akademisinde, Sabiha Ziya (Bengutas) ise Roma Guzel Sanatlar Akademisinde surdurmuslerdir. Fahrunnisa (Zeid) Hanim Paris, Ranson Akademisinde calismis olan sanatcilar arasindadir.

Diger taraftan Inas Sanayi-i Nefise'den yetismis ve yetismekte olan sanatclarin kamuya acik, sureklilik tasiyan sergilere farkli kaynaklardan yetismis diger kadin sanatcilarla birlikte katilimlari, genc Turk kadinlarina varliklarini, sanatci olarak vurgulayici bir ortam yaratmis, onemli sanatsal bir acilim kazandirmis ve boylece kadin sanatcilarin da sanatin sergiler boyutunda devamlilik icinde yer almasina neden olmustur. Basmdaki yonlendirici elestirilerle gelisme, taninma, kabullenilme ve toplumla yakinlsma surecini hizla yasamaya baslamislardir. Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseliler icinde egitimlerinin tamamlanmasindan sonra, birikimlerini egitimci olarak genc nesil ile paylasanlarin da varligi ayri onem tasimaktadir.

Remziye Hanim gibi aktif olarak sanat ortamina katilmamis ancak sanatsal duyarliligini yine sanatla ilgili birikimlere gerek duyulan bir alanda, kent estetigine katilim ile degerlendirmis ozel orneklerin de bulunmasi, Inas Sanayi-i Nefiselilerin sanatsal acidan oldugu gibi toplumsal, ekonomik, sosyo-kulturel acilardan da katkilarinin cok genis bir yelpaze cercevesinde degerlendirilmeleri gerekliligini ortaya cikartmaktadir. Bu nedenle de ayrintili irdelemeler ve degerlendirmeler icin belirtilen donem icindeki sanatcilara iliskin bilgilerin arttirilmasi, ulasilmasi zor da olsa bilinmeyenlerin cozumlenmesi beklenmektedir. Cozumlemelerde ise sanatcilarin hayatta olmamasi nedeni ile zorluklar tasiyan ve cok emek gerektiren bilgi birikiminin olusumu ve bu konuda da ikinci, ucuncu kusaklarin katkilarina gereksinim duyulmaktadir.

Bu calismamizla sozlu tarih calismalarinin onemi bir kez daha gundeme gelmektedir. Ayrica, bilgi birikiminin alanlararasi bilimsel iliskiler cercevesinde yeniden irdelenmesi, Inas Sanayi-i Nefise ogrencilerinin cok yonlu olarak degerlendirilmesi konusuna butunsellik kazandiracak ve genc Turkiye Cumhuriyeti'nin kurulus yillarini hazirlayan ortam icindeki Turk kadininin yerini, sinirlarini daha da belirginlestirecektir.

Notlar

(1) Ilhan Tekeli-Selim Ilkin (1993). s.87. Metinde adi gecen sultanilerin yanisira alti yillik ilkogretime dayali, dort yillik bir ozel program uygulayan, ancak mezunlari yuksek ogrenime devam etme hakki bulunmayan Selcuk Hatun ve Uskudar Kiz Sanayi Sultanileri de Istanbul'da acilmistir.

(2) Iki okulun birlestirilme tarihi olarak farkli yillar verilse de bu tarih son arastirmalarda 1925 olarak kabul edilmektedir, bkz. Emre Zeytinoglu (2003). s. 16; Mustafa Cezar (1983). s.14'de Inas Sanayi-i Nefise ile erkeklerin egitim gordugu kismin Cemil Bey'in mudurlugnun son yilinda birlestirildigi belirtilmektedir.Cemil Bey'in gorev suresi 1925 de bitmistir. Taha Toros (1988), s. 42'de ise her iki okulun 1920 'de birlestirildigine dair bilgi vermektedir.

(3) Mustafa Cezar (1983). s. 54'de Inas Sanayi-i Nefisenin ilk muduru olarak Salih Zeki Bey verilmektedir.

(4) Mihri (Musfik) Hanim, Turkiye'de saray ressami Fausto Zonaro'dan ders almistir. Ayrintili bilgi icin bkz. Taha Toros (1988), s.10.

(5) Mustafa Cezar (1983). s. 54' de Omer Adil'in Inas Sanayi- Nefise kadrosunda bulunus yillari olarak 1921-1925 gosterilmektedir.

(6) 0kulun egitimini surdurdugu cesitli mekanlar icin bkz. Banu Pasalioglu (1996). s. 50-51.

(7) Ali Sami Bey Inas Sanayi-i Nefise'de 4.10.1914-13.10.1915 yillari arasinda gorev yapmistir. Ayrintili bilgi icin bkz. Canan Beykal (1988). s.9; Mustafa Cezar (1983). s. 54'den Ali Sami'nin 9.5.1921-12.9.1921 'e kadar Sanayi-i Nefisede mudurluk yaptigi ogrenilmektedir.

(8) Vahit Bey, Osman Hamdi Bey'in damadidir. Canan Beykal (1988), s. 9.

(9) Asim Mutlu (1987). s.10-13, Belkis Mustafa'nin not defterlerinden belirlenen bilgiler sunulmaktadlr.

(10) Hasbora Hatice (1994). s. 10 da Mihri Hanim' in ogrencilerine Gulhane Parki, Topkapi Sarayi, Uskudar gibi semtlerde acik havada calismalar yaptirdigi, Hoca Ali Riza'nin da zaman zaman bu calismalara katildigi belirtilmektedir.

(11) Bilindigi gibi Turkiye'de ilk kamuya acik sanat sergileri 1867' de Ahmet Ali (Seker Ahmet Pasa)'nin girisimleriyle basladiysa da sergilerin sureklilik tasimasi ile ilgili ilk ornekler 1901-1903 yillari arasindaki Istanbul Salonlari ile kamunun ve sanat evrelerinin ilgilerine neden olmustur.

(12) Galatasaray Sergileri ilk iki 'Galatasaraylilar Yurdu Resim Sergileri' adi ile, daha sonra farkli adlarda duzenlenmistir. Ayrintili bilgi icin bkz. Omer Faruk Serifoglu (ed.) (2003). s. 24-115.

(13) Galatasaray Sergileri'ne katilim tarihidir.

(14) Ihsan Riza, Ihsan ile ayni kisi olabilir.

(15) Melek Ahmet veya Melek Celal olabilir.

(16) Sanatcinin Inas Sanayi-i Nefiseye kayit yilidir.

(17) Harbiye kayitlarina gore 30.9.1908 de vefat etmistir. bkz. Fahri Coker (1994). Deniz Harp Okulumuz 1773, Ankara, s. 27.

(18) 1908'de Deniz Harb Okulundan Guverte subayi olarak cikmis, 1925'te Kidemli yuzbasi iken saglik nedeniyle ordudan ayrilmis ve Ingiltere'de Londra Universitesinde burslu olarak egitim gormustur. ITU de Fizik alaninda akademik kariyere baslayarak uzun yillar ogretmenlik yaptigi universiteden Ord. Prof. olarak emekli olmustur. bkz. Fahri Coker (1994). s. 74.

(19) Nazli Ecevit okuldan 1922'de ayrilmistir, bkz. Anonim (1983). s. 14.

(20) Kizlari Nurten Coksezen ve Armagan Oner'den alinan bilgilerdir. Remziye Hanim, Sema Oner'in anneannesidir.

(21) Zaman icinde, kullanilan malzeme nedeniyle ilk gunku netliklerini kaybetmis olan eserlerin fotograf cekimlerinin gerceklesmesinde, YTU. Sanat ve Tasarim Fakultesi, Sanat Bolumu, Fotograf ve Video Programi Yurutucusu Doc. Nilgun Sim Suldur ve Ars. Gor. Serap Sahan'a tesekkur ederim.

(22) Calistigi mimarlardan birisi Burhan Caglar'dir.

Kaynakca

Anonim (1983). Nazli Ecevit ile Gorusme, Yeni Boyut, S. 16, s.14.

Baskan, Seyfi (1994). Osmanli Ressamlar Cemiyeti, Ankara: Cardas Basim Yayin Ltd.

Beykal, Canan (1983). Yeni Kadin ve Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi, Yeni Boyut, S. 16, s. 6-13.

Cezar, Mustafa (1983). Guzel Sanatlar Akademisi'nden 100. Yilda Mimar Sinan

Universitesi'ne, Guzel Sanatlar Egitiminde 100 Yil, Istanbul: Mimar Sinan Universitesi Matbaasi.

Cezar, Mustafa (1995). Sanatta Batiya Acilis ve Osman Hamdi, C.II, Istanbul: Erol-Kerim Aksoy, Kultur, Egitim, Saglik ve Spor Vakfi.

Coker, Fahri (1994). Deniz Harp Okulumuz 1773, Ankara: Dz.K.K. Karargah Basimevi.

Dolen, Emre (1985). Darulfunun. Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyet'e Turkiye Ansiklopedisi, C.II icinde, Istanbul, s.476-477.

Halil Edhem (1970). Elvah-i Naksiye Koleksiyonu, Istanbul.

Hasbora, Hatice (1994). Baslangicindan Gunumuze Turk Kadin Ressamlari, Istanbul, MSU, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Yayimlanmamis Yuksek Lisans Tezi.

Goksoy, Cavidan (1985). Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebinde Yetisen Kadin Ressamlarimiz, Istanbul, MSU, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Yayimlanmamis Yuksek Lisans Tezi.

Goren, Ahmet Kamil (1996). 19. Yuzyilda Paris'te Resim Egitimi, Antik-Dekor, S. 35, s. 93-100.

Goren, Ahmet Kamil (1999). Mihri (Musfik) Hanim (1886-1954), Turkiye'de Sanat, S.39, s. 24-31.

Mutlu, Asim (1987). Ressam Belkis Mustafa'nin Yasami ve Onun Desenleri ile Yakin Cevresinden Bir Kesit, Sanat Cevresi, Istanbul, S.101, s.10-13.

Pasalioglu, Banu (1996). Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi ve Mezunlari, Istanbul, Marmara Universitesi, Turkiyat Arastirmalari Enstitusu, Yayimlanmamis Yuksek Lisans Tezi.

Serifoglu, Omer Faruk (ed.) (2003). Resim Tarihimizden, Galatasaray Sergileri, Istanbul:Yapi Kredi Kultur Sanat Yayincilik A.S.

Tansug, Sezer (1986). Cagdas Turk Sanati, Istanbul: Evrim Matbaaacilik Ltd.

Tekeli, Ilhan (1985). Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyet'e Egitim Sistemindeki Degisimler.

Tanzimat'tan Cumhuriyet'e Turkiye Ansiklopedisi, C.2 icinde, Istanbul, s. 456-475.

Tekeli, Ilhan & Ilkin, Selim (1993). Osmanli Imparatorlugu'nda Egitim ve Bilgi Uretim Sisteminin Olusumu ve Donusumu, Ankara.

Toros, Taha (1988). Ilk Kadin Ressamlarimiz. Istanbul: Ak Yayinlari, Sayili Matbaa.

Toros, Taha (1999). Bebeklikleri--Cocukluklan Donemlerinde Ressamlarimiz, Antik--Dekor, Sayi 52, s. 118-123.

Toros, Taha (2000). O Guzel Insanlar. Istanbul: Aksoy Yayincilik.

Dr. Sema Oner, Sanat ve Tasarim Fakultesi, Yildiz Teknik Universitesi, 34349 Besiktas-Istanbul. e-mail: soner@yildiz.edu.tr
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