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The status of women in the Asheville metropolitan area, North Carolina.

Introduction

Women in the Asheville, North Carolina metropolitan area, (1) and in North Carolina as a whole, have made much progress during the last few decades. The majority of women work--many in professional and managerial jobs--and women are a mainstay of the economic health of their communities. Yet, not all women are prospering. This fact sheet provides basic information about the status of women in the Asheville area (which includes Buncombe and Madison counties), focusing on women's earnings and workforce participation, level of education, poverty, access to child care, and health status. It also provides background demographic information about women in the region.

Basic Facts About Women in the Asheville Metropolitan Area

Approximately one in eight women in the Asheville metropolitan area is a woman of color, making this area less racially and ethnically diverse than the state as a whole, where one in three women are from minority backgrounds. The proportion of women in the Asheville area who are foreign-born, however, is not much lower than in the state overall (five percent compared with seven percent; Table 1). The median age among women in the Asheville area is 42, four years older than in the state and the United States as a whole. Eighteen percent of women in the metropolitan area are 65 years and older, compared with 15 percent in the state. As in the United States, and North Carolina overall, one in two women in the Asheville area is married.

Work and Earnings

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The majority of women aged 16 and older in the Asheville area are in the workforce. Nearly six in ten (59 percent) are either employed or actively looking for work, the same proportion as in North Carolina as a whole. The proportion of women in the labor force in Buncombe and Madison counties is considerably lower than the proportion of men in the workforce (68 percent; Table 2), as it is in most jurisdictions. Women's labor force participation varies somewhat across the largest racial and ethnic groups. Hispanic women in the Asheville area have the highest labor force participation rate at 64 percent, followed by white women (59 percent) and black women (57 percent). (2)

In Buncombe and Madison counties, as in the state as a whole, the labor force participation rate for women with dependent children is substantially higher than the rate for all women (75 percent of women with dependent children in the Asheville area are in the labor force; Table 2). Yet, despite the higher workforce participation rates among mothers, mothers of children under age 18 are much less likely than fathers with dependent children to be in the labor force. Ninety-three percent of fathers with dependent children in the Asheville area are in the workforce, suggesting that women are more likely than men to cut back on employment when they are parents (Table 2).

While the majority of employed women in Buncombe and Madison counties work full-time (68 percent), employed women in this area, as in the state and the nation as a whole, are more likely to work part-time than employed men (32 percent compared with 20 percent). (3) The reasons for women's higher rates of part-time work vary. Women are more likely than men to say that they work part-time because they cannot find child care or for other family care related reasons; in the state overall (data are not available for Buncombe and Madison counties), 20 percent of women, compared with only 3 percent of men, give these reasons for working part-time. (4) In addition, although the Great Recession has led both men and women to experience an increase in part-time work for economic reasons during the last few years, women are more likely to work in the sectors and occupations where jobs are only available on a part-time basis (Shaefer 2009). (5) Part-time workers are much less likely than full-time workers to have access to paid leave, healthcare, and employer supported pensions (Society for Human Resource Management 2011).

In addition to these differences in hours worked, women and men in the Asheville area tend to work in different occupations. Four in ten women in Buncombe and Madison counties work in professional and managerial jobs, a higher proportion than men (39 percent compared with 33 percent; Table 2). While the strong representation of women in these jobs is a sign of their educational and professional advancement during the last few decades, women in the Asheville area are still less likely than men to work in management positions (7 percent compared with 11 percent). (6)

In addition, there are marked differences in women's and men's professional specializations. Men in Buncombe and Madison counties are more likely than women to work in computing, architecture, and engineering professions (5 percent compared with 1 percent), whereas women are more likely than men to work in professional occupations, such as jobs in education and health care practitioner occupations (19 percent compared with 8 percent). Women are also more likely to work in nonprofessional occupations such as office and administrative support jobs (20 percent compared with 6 percent), while men are much more likely to work in construction, repair, and transportation jobs (24 percent compared with 3 percent). (7)

Despite holding a higher share of professional occupations, women in the Asheville area have lower median annual earnings than men. This is, at least partially, explained by women's lower representation in management jobs and the unequal distribution of men and women across occupations. In 2008-2010, women's median annual earnings, in Buncombe and Madison counties combined, for full-time, year-round work were $31,000, compared with $36,500 for men: women earned only 85 cents for every dollar earned by a man (Table 2). Median earnings for both women and men in the Asheville area are lower than in the state overall, but the difference in earnings for men is greater than for women, explaining the lower earnings gap in Asheville compared with the state and the nation as a whole (83 percent and 79 percent, respectively; Table 2). (8)

Educational Attainment

Women in the Asheville metropolitan area are comparatively well-educated. One-third (32 percent) of all women aged 25 years and older in this area have a bachelor's degree or more, a higher proportion than men (29 percent) and than women in the state and the nation overall (27 percent and 28 percent, respectively; Table 2).

Yet, almost four in ten women in the Asheville area have not completed high school or do not hold educational qualifications beyond a high school diploma (38 percent, or an estimated 36,500 women aged 25 years and older). (9) Proportionately more men have such low educational attainment (41 percent; Table 2). Women with this level of education, however, are less likely than men to have jobs with earnings that are high enough to sustain a family. Median earnings for women with only a high school diploma or the equivalent in 2010 were $26,731, compared with $31,508 for men with this same level of education. (10) Women with some college education or an associate's degree earn more ($30,492) than women with only a high school diploma, but less than men with just a high school diploma or the equivalent. Such earnings for women are well below the annual income a family of one adult and two children needs to afford essential living expenses in the Asheville area (Table 3).

In this area, as in the state and the nation as a whole, having a bachelor's degree raises the level of earnings for both women and men ($42,527 for women, $60,984 for men) but does not reduce the gender gap in earnings. (11) In Asheville, as in the state and the nation as a whole, the difference in earnings between men and women is even larger when those with a bachelor's degree or higher are compared. College-educated women in Buncombe and Madison counties combined earn only 70 cents for every dollar earned by a college-educated man, even though the comparison includes only people who work full-time, year-round--workers with the highest attachment to the labor market (Table 2).

Poverty

A substantial number of women in the Asheville area have incomes that leave them below or close to the federal poverty line. Approximately 16,000 women aged 18 and older have incomes at or below the poverty line, and another 21,600 are near poverty (living with incomes between 100 and 200 percent of the federal poverty line). (12) Women in Buncombe and Madison counties combined are slightly more likely to live in poverty than men (15 percent compared with 14 percent; Table 2), and more than half of all adults in these counties with poverty incomes are women (55 percent). (13) Just over one in ten households in the Asheville area receives food stamps, a slightly lower proportion than in North Carolina as a whole (11 compared with 13 percent; Table 2).

Poverty is especially a problem for families headed by non-married mothers. These families make up one-quarter of all families in Buncombe County with children under 18 (data not available for Madison), but half of all families in Buncombe County poverty with dependent children (Table 3). In North Carolina as a whole, only one in ten (eleven percent) of non-married mothers with young children and incomes below the qualifying poverty threshold receives any welfare cash assistance. (14)

Child Care

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The lack of affordable child care is a major constraint for many families in North Carolina and the United States. In the absence of quality, affordable child care, women may decide to interrupt their tenure in the labor market, reducing their ability to provide for their families, put aside resources for retirement, or save for emergencies. Alternatively, they may have to put their children in low-quality and unreliable care.

In North Carolina, the average annual fees for full-time child care range from $6,227 (for a four-year-old in a family child care home) to $9,185 (for an infant in a child care center). By comparison, the average annual tuition and fees for a public four-year college in North Carolina are $5,685 (Child Care Aware of America 2012). In the Asheville area, over 9,500 children qualify for child care subsidies because their parents earn too little to afford the fees; yet fewer than one in five eligible children receives any subsidy for child care, and child care subsidy payment rates for eligible children are substantially below the market rates for child care in the state (Table 3 and Center for Urban Affairs and Community Services 2012).

Health

Close to one-quarter of women aged 18-64 (23 percent; Table 2) in the Asheville area do not have basic health insurance coverage, a slightly higher proportion than in the state or the nation overall (21 percent and 19 percent, respectively). Lack of health insurance coverage leaves women without the resources for basic wellness and check-up visits, let alone for dealing with serious medical problems.

Women in Buncombe County have considerably higher rates of mortality from heart failure and stroke than in the state as a whole (data for Madison County not available), a pattern that is likely a reflection of Asheville's older demographic. Women in Buncombe County, however, have similar rates of mortality due to breast, uterine, and ovarian cancer to women in the state and the nation overall (Table 4). The pregnancy rate for teens aged 15-19 in Buncombe County is below the rate for teens in North Carolina as a whole (data not available for Madison;

Conclusion

Although many women in the Asheville area are doing well, the data reviewed in this briefing paper point to a number of areas of concern, such as the gender wage gap, substantial rates of poverty, the high cost of child care, and lack of basic health insurance coverage for many women and men. Policy recommendations to address these challenges include:

* Promoting quality flexible working practices to make it easier for parents to combine paid work with care giving;

* Ensuring that employers are aware of their obligations under the federal anti-discrimination statutes;

* Providing training to employers on best practices for recruiting and retaining women workers, particularly in sectors where they are now under-represented;

* Encouraging pay transparency and increasing awareness of resources to help women find out about going wage rates and strategies for negotiating their wages;

* Monitoring workforce development to ensure that women and men have equal access to training in high-growth, well-paid careers;

* Providing career counseling and financial supports to women with lower levels of education; and

* Ensuring that those who need it receive 'Work First' assistance (North Carolina's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program).

Methodological Notes

This briefing paper presents data for the Asheville Metropolitan Statistical Area, defined to include Buncombe and Madison counties. Demographic and economic data are based on IWPR analysis of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series version of the American Community Survey (Ruggles et al.) and on American Community Survey data accessed through American Fact Finder. To ensure sufficient sample sizes that allow for reliable reporting, IWPR used estimates that combine several years of data (2008-2010) for the Asheville area. Data for North Carolina and the United States are for 2010 only, the most recent data available. Child care data come from various published sources, including the Annie E. Casey Foundation Data Center Kids Count, Child Care Aware of America, and the North Carolina Division of Child Development and Early Education. Data on women's health status are from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, and the National Cancer Institute. To define the Asheville metropolitan area, IWPR aggregated Public Use Micro Data Area variables (PUMAS), which are the smallest geographical unit available in the American Community Survey data.

References

Annie E. Casey Foundation. 2012. Data Center Kids Count. <http://datacenter.kidscount.org/> (accessed September 15, 2012).

Center for Urban Affairs and Community Services, North Carolina State University. 2012. North Carolina 2011 Child Care Market Rate Study. <http://ncchildcare.dhhs.state.nc.us/ pdf_forms/NC_2011_CHILD_CARE_MARKET_RATE_SURVEY_REPORT.pdf> (accessed September 19, 2012).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. 2012. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2009 on CDC Wonder Online Database. <http://wonder.cdc.gov/> (accessed October 4, 2012).

Child Care Aware of America. 2012. "2012 State Fact Sheets." <http://www.naccrra.org/sites/default/files/ default_site_pages/2012/cca_sf_finaljuly12.pdf> (accessed September 17, 2012).

Hegewisch, Ariane and Claudia Williams. 2011. "The Gender Wage Gap: 2010." Fact Sheet #C350. Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research.

National Cancer Institute. 2012. State Cancer Profiles. <http://statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov/ deathrates/deathrates.html> (accessed September 27, 2012).

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, State Center for Health Statistics. 2012. "Pregnancy, Fertility, Abortion Rates and Abortion Fractions by Race for Females Ages 15-19 North Carolina, Regions and Counties." North Carolina Division of Public Health. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. <http://www.schs.state.nc.us/SCHS/ data/pregnancies/2000/preg1519.pdf > (accessed September 30, 2012).

North Carolina Division of Child Development and Early Education.2012. "Child Care Subsidy Services Makes a Difference for Children and Communities". <http://ncchildcare.dhhs.state.nc.us/pdf_forms/ subsidy_county_fact_sheets_11_12.pdf> (accessed September 17, 2012).

Ruggles, Steven, J. Trent Alexander, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Matthew B. Schroeder, and Matthew Sobek. 2010. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

Shaefer, Luke H. 2009. "Part-Time Workers: Some Key Differences Between Primary and Secondary Earners. " Monthly Labor Review (October):3-15.

Sirota, Alexandra and Edwin McLenaghan. 2010. Making Ends Meet After the Great Recession: The 2010 Living Income Standard for North Carolina. Raleigh-Durham, NC: North Carolina Justice Center. <http://www.ncjustice.org/sites/ default/files/LIVING INCOME Standard--2011--REVISED_0.pdf>

Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). 2011. 2011 Employee Benefits: Examining Employee Benefits Amidst Uncertainty. Alexandria, VA: SHRM.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, American Fact Finder. 2012. 2010 American Community Survey. <http://factfinder2.census.gov/ faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml> (accessed September 14, 2012).

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 2010 Bulletin 2768. <http://www.bls.gov/opub/gp/pdf/gp10full.pdf> (accessed October 3, 2012).

Notes

(1) The Asheville Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is comprised of Madison and Buncombe counties.

(2) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).Sample sizes are too small to reliably report the labor force participation rates for Asian American and American Indian women in the Asheville area.

(3) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(4) IWPR calculation based on U.S. Department of Labor (2011) 'Table 23: States: persons at work 1 to 34 hours by sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and hours of work, 2010 annual averages.

(5) IWPR calculation based on U.S. Department of Labor (2011) 'Table 23: States: persons at work 1 to 34 hours by sex, age, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and hours of work, 2010 annual averages.

(6) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(7) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 and 2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(8) Because these estimates are based on the American Community Survey, they are not strictly comparable to IWPR's standard calculation of the gender wage gap for the United States, which is based on the Current Population Survey (CPS). In 2010, the national earnings gap based on the CPS was 23 percent (Hegewisch and Williams 2011).

(9) Table 2 and IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(10) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(11) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(12) IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 and 2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010)

(13) IWPR analysis based on IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

(14) IWPR analysis based on IWPR analysis of 2010 IPUMS American Community Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

This fact sheet was prepared by the Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Youngmin Yi, and Alicia Sheares with support provided by the N.C. Council for Women, Wells Fargo, the Women's Giving Circle of Cumberland County at the Cumberland Community Foundation, the Mountain Area Health Education Center Department of OB-GYN, the North Carolina Women's Fund at the North Carolina Community Foundation, Women for Women of the Community Foundation of Western North Carolina, and Women to Women of the Community Foundation of Greater Greensboro.
Table 1. Basic Demographic Statistics for Women and Girls

                                          Asheville   North Carolina

Total Population                           256,954      9,561,558
  Number of Women and Girls, All Ages      133,661      4,905,216
  Median Age of All Women and Girls          42            38
  Proportion of Women Aged 65 and Older      18%           15%
Distribution of Women and Girls by Race
and Ethnicity, All Ages
  White, Not Hispanic                       87.3%         66.3%
  Black, Not Hispanic                        6.3%         22.2%
  Hispanic                                   5.1%          7.9%
Asian American, Not Hispanic                 1.0%          2.3%
American Indian, Not Hispanic                N/A           1.1%
Proportion of Women Who Are ForeignBorn,
All Ages                                       5%            7%
Proportion of Women Who Are Married,
Aged 18 and Older                             50%           50%

                                          United States

Total Population                           309,349,689
  Number of Women and Girls, All Ages      157,294,247
  Median Age of All Women and Girls             38
  Proportion of Women Aged 65 and Older         15%
Distribution of Women and Girls by Race
and Ethnicity, All Ages
  White, Not Hispanic                         64.9%
  Black, Not Hispanic                         12.9%
  Hispanic                                    16.2%
Asian American, Not Hispanic                   5.1%
American Indian, Not Hispanic                  0.7%
Proportion of Women Who Are ForeignBorn,
All Ages                                        13%
Proportion of Women Who Are Married,
Aged 18 and Older                               49%

Notes: Data for the Asheville metropolitan area are for
2008-2010. Data for North Carolina and the United
States are for 2010 only. N/A indicates data not available.

Source: IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 and 2010 IPUMS American
Community  Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

Table 2. Overview of Women's and Men's Economic Status

                                                      North     United
                                         Asheville   Carolina   States

Labor Force Participation Rate, Aged
16 and Older
  Women                                     59%        59%        59%
  Men                                       68%        70%        70%
  Mothers With Children Under 18 Years      75%        74%        73%
  Fathers With Children Under 18 Years      93%        94%        94%

Percent of Employed Women and Men Who
Work Full-Time, Aged 16 and Older
  Women                                     68%        72%        71%
  Men                                       80%        84%        84%

Percent of Employed Women and Men in
Professional or Managerial
Occupations, Aged 16 and Older
  Women                                     39%        40%        39%
  Men                                       33%        30%        33%

Median Annual Earnings, Full-Time,
Year-Round Workers, Aged 16 and Older
  Women                                   $31,000    $33,000    $36,000
  Men                                     $36,500    $40,000    $45,500

Gender Earnings Ratio, Aged 16 and          85%        83%        79%
Older Gender Earnings Ratio by
Educational Attainment, Aged 25 and
Older
  Less Than High School Diploma             N/A        76%        74%
  High School Diploma or the
    Equivalent                              85%        75%        74%
  Some College or Associate's Degree        85%        76%        76%
  Bachelor's Degree or Higher               70%        70%        71%

Proportion of Women and Men with a
Bachelor's Degree or Higher, Aged 25
and Older
  Women                                     32%        27%        28%
  Men                                       29%        26%        29%

Proportion of Women and Men with a
High School Diploma or Less, Aged 25
or Older
  Women                                     38%        40%        42%
  Men                                       41%        46%        44%

Percent of Women and Men Living At or
Below Poverty, Aged 18 and Older
  Women                                     15%        17%        15%
  Men                                       14%        13%        12%

Percent of Households Receiving Food        11%        13%        12%
Stamps Percent of Women and Men
without Health Insurance Coverage
  Women                                     23%        21%        19%
  Men                                       29%        26%        25%

Note: Data for the Asheville metropolitan area are for 2008-2010.
Data for North Carolina and the United States are for 2010 only.

Median annual earnings in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars.

Source: IWPR analysis of 2008-2010 and 2010 IPUMS American Community
Survey microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

Table 3. The Status of Children: Family Income, Poverty, and Child Care

Family Income                                               Buncombe

Annual Income a Family of One Adult and Two Children        $39,428
  Needs to Afford Essential Living Expenses, 2010.
Median Annual Income of Married-Couple Families with        $65,408
   Children under 18 Years (2)
Median Annual Income of Non-Married Fathers with            $27,976
  Children under 18 Years (2)
Median Annual Income of Non-Married Mothers with            $23,925
  Children under 18 Years (2)

Poverty

Number of Families in Poverty with Children Under 18         4,948
  Years, 2008-20102
Share of Families in Poverty with Children that are           50%
  Headed by Non-Married Women, 2008-20102
Share of All Families with Children Under 18 that are         25%
  Headed by Non-Married Women, 2008-2010 (2)

Child Care

Children Eligible for Child Care Subsidy, SFY                8,871
  2010-2011 (3)
Budget Available to Serve Eligible Children, SFY 2010-     $9,400,256
  2011 (3)
Percent of Eligible Children Receiving Subsidized Child       20%
  Care Services, SFY 2010-2011 (3)
Budget per Child Eligible for Child Care Subsidy, SFY      $1,059.66
  2010-2011 (3)
Total Number of Children Age 0 to 5 Enrolled in Child        4,848
  Care, 2011 (4)

Family Income                                              Madison

Annual Income a Family of One Adult and Two Children       $41, 009
  Needs to Afford Essential Living Expenses, 2010.
Median Annual Income of Married-Couple Families with       $53,657
   Children under 18 Years (2)
Median Annual Income of Non-Married Fathers with           $51,339
  Children under 18 Years (2)
Median Annual Income of Non-Married Mothers with           $10,074
  Children under 18 Years (2)

Poverty

Number of Families in Poverty with Children Under 18         N/A
  Years, 2008-20102
Share of Families in Poverty with Children that are          N/A
  Headed by Non-Married Women, 2008-20102
Share of All Families with Children Under 18 that are        N/A
  Headed by Non-Married Women, 2008-2010 (2)

Child Care

Children Eligible for Child Care Subsidy, SFY                806
  2010-2011 (3)
Budget Available to Serve Eligible Children, SFY 2010-     $696,223
  2011 (3)
Percent of Eligible Children Receiving Subsidized Child      17%
  Care Services, SFY 2010-2011 (3)
Budget per Child Eligible for Child Care Subsidy, SFY      $863.80
  2010-2011 (3)
Total Number of Children Age 0 to 5 Enrolled in Child        259
  Care, 2011 (4)
                                                            North
Family Income                                              Carolina

Annual Income a Family of One Adult and Two Children       $41, 920
  Needs to Afford Essential Living Expenses, 2010.
Median Annual Income of Married-Couple Families with       $70,124
   Children under 18 Years (2)
Median Annual Income of Non-Married Fathers with           $29,874
  Children under 18 Years (2)
Median Annual Income of Non-Married Mothers with           $20,393
  Children under 18 Years (2)

Poverty

Number of Families in Poverty with Children Under 18       254,650
  Years, 2008-20102
Share of Families in Poverty with Children that are          61%
  Headed by Non-Married Women, 2008-20102
Share of All Families with Children Under 18 that are        37%
  Headed by Non-Married Women, 2008-2010 (2)

Child Care

Children Eligible for Child Care Subsidy, SFY              391,549
  2010-2011 (3)
Budget Available to Serve Eligible Children, SFY 2010-       N/A
  2011 (3)
Percent of Eligible Children Receiving Subsidized Child      N/A
  Care Services, SFY 2010-2011 (3)
Budget per Child Eligible for Child Care Subsidy, SFY        N/A
  2010-2011 (3)
Total Number of Children Age 0 to 5 Enrolled in Child      207,953
  Care, 2011 (4)

Note: N/A indicates data is not available.

Sources: (1) Sirota and McLenaghan (2010).

(2) IWPR compilations of 2010 and 2008-2010 American Community
Survey data accessed through American Fact Finder;
data for North Carolina is for 2010 only (U.S. Department of Commerce
2012).

(3) North Carolina Division of Child Development and Early Education
(2012).

(4) Annie E. Casey Foundation (2012).

Table 4. Overview of Women's Health Status

                                                  Buncombe   Madison

Total Number of Teen Pregnancies (15-19
  Years), 2010 (1)                                  275         11
Pregnancy Rate Among Teens Aged 15-19
  (per 1,000), 2010 (1)                             40.0       N/A
Average Mortality Rates Among Women
  (per 100,000) (2)
       Breast Cancer, 2005-2009                     25.9       N/A
       Cervical Cancer, 2005-2009                   N/A        N/A
       Uterine Cancer, 2005-2009                    3.9        N/A
       Ovarian Cancer, 2005-2009                    7.9        N/A
Heart Failure Death Rate per 100,000,               51.7       N/A
  35 Years and Older, 2009 (3)
Stroke, 2009 (Mortality Rate Only) (3)              44.0       N/A
Diabetes, 2009 (Mortality Rate Only) (3)            N/A        N/A

                                                   North      United
                                                  Carolina    States

Total Number of Teen Pregnancies (15-19
  Years), 2010 (1)                                 15,957      N/A
Pregnancy Rate Among Teens Aged 15-19
  (per 1,000), 2010 (1)                             49.7       N/A
Average Mortality Rates Among Women
  (per 100,000) (2)
       Breast Cancer, 2005-2009                     23.5       23.0
       Cervical Cancer, 2005-2009                   2.3        2.4
       Uterine Cancer, 2005-2009                    4.0        4.2
       Ovarian Cancer, 2005-2009                    7.9        8.2
Heart Failure Death Rate per 100,000,               20.9       23.3
  35 Years and Older, 2009 (3)
Stroke, 2009 (Mortality Rate Only) (3)              38.7       33.4
Diabetes, 2009 (Mortality Rate Only) (3)            26.5       24.9

Notes: Mortality rates are crude rates per 100,000.
N/A Rates based on small numbers (fewer than 20 cases) are unstable
and are not reported.

Source: (1)North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
(2012).

(2) National Cancer Institute (2012).

(3) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012).

Figure 1. Distribution of Women and Girls by Race and Ethnicity
in Asheville Metropolitan Area, All Ages, 2008-2010

Black, Not Hispanic             6.3%
White, Not Hispanic            87.3%
Asian American, Not Hispanic    1.0%
Hispanic                        5.1%

Note: Total does not add to 100 due
to rounding.

Source: IWPR analysis of 2008-2010
Integrated Public Use
Microdata Series (IPUMS)
American Community Survey
microdata (Ruggles et al. 2010).

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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