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The spirit of the liturgical movement: a benedictine renewal of culture.

DOM VIRGIL MICHEL, OSB, (1890-1938) was one of the leading figures of the liturgical movement in the United States. (1) When researchers consider the work of the liturgical movement, their focus is usually limited to the movement's efforts related to the celebration of the liturgy. Oftentimes, what is overlooked is that one of the major concerns of the liturgical movement is the relationship between the liturgy and social action. This relationship is also generally overlooked by contemporary theology, which tends to focus either on liturgy or social action (more commonly known today as social justice). As a result of this separation, the social end of the liturgy is neglected and at the same time, the liturgical roots of authentic social action are ignored. At the extreme end of the spectrum, the study of the liturgy alone is reduced to mere aestheticism or rubricism, while the exclusive focus on social justice can become influenced solely by ideology instead of authentic charity. The Church advocates an inclusive and comprehensive understanding.

Michel's thought offers a balanced view that represents the liturgical movement's concern for the unity between liturgy and social action. (2) This harmony is expressed by Michel's famous syllogism: "Pius X tells us that the liturgy is the indispensable source of the true Christian spirit; Pius XI says that the true Christian spirit is indispensable for social regeneration. Hence the conclusion: the liturgy is the indispensable basis of social regeneration." (3)

The authentic renewal of culture cannot take place without the liturgy and social action. Fruitful social action flows from the love of God in liturgical prayer. More recently, Pope Emeritus, Benedict XVI, expressed the importance of this unity in his first encyclical Deus Caritas Est: "A Eucharist which does not pass over into the concrete practice of love is intrinsically fragmented." (4) Michel and Benedict are interested in recovering the true spirit of the liturgy that fully blossoms in charity toward one's neighbor. As a result of the liturgical movement's influence, these two emphasize the unison between the love of God expressed in liturgical worship and the love of neighbor put into action through works of charity.

A key figure in the German liturgical movement, Romano Guardini (1885-1968), asserts that logos has precedence over ethos. (5) For Michel, the logos of the Mystical Body of Christ precedes the ethos of social action. Similarly, one of Benedict's major themes is that the logos of communio precedes the ethos of charity for one's neighbor. There is a clear consonance between the thought of Michel and Benedict on this particular theme. First, it is important to outline briefly the main ideas and history of the liturgical movement, and it is imperative to underscore its emphasis on the union between liturgy and social action. Second, it is essential to highlight the themes of the incarnational life and the Mystical Body of Christ in the writings of Virgil Michel. Third, it will be necessary to show how the liturgy is the source for the renewal of culture. Finally, I will examine Dom Michel and Benedict's shared interest in the organic relationship between the love for God that is expressed through the celebration of the liturgy and the love for neighbor that should flow from our Eucharistic worship.

Liturgical Movement

Changing the language in which the liturgy was celebrated from the exclusive use of Latin to the vernacular, shifting from the celebrant's ad orientem position to a versus populum, or making evening Masses available, were not the primary concerns of the liturgical movement. These issues were of secondary importance compared to the fundamental goal of the liturgical movement as described by Alcuin Reid, OSB: to "return liturgical piety to its rightful place in the life of the Church." (6) The proper place of the liturgy as the source and summit of the Christian life was overshadowed by the prominence of popular piety (for instance, the rosary, and devotion to the Sacred Heart). In order fully to understand the work of Virgil Michel, it is essential to trace the development of the liturgical movement and its members, who worked for the restoration of the liturgy's central position in the life of the Church.

The liturgical movement began in Europe with the leadership of Romano Guardini and the Benedictines Doms Lambert Beauduin (7) (1873-1960), Ildefons Herwegen (8) (1874-1946), and Odo Casel (9) (1886-1948). (10) The roots of this movement began in the early part of the nineteenth century with the founder of a Benedictine monastery in Solesmes, Dom Prosper Gueranger (1805-1875). (11) According to a later member of the movement, Louis Bouyer (1913-2004), "there is no achievement whatever in the contemporary liturgical movement which did not originate in some way with Dom Gueranger." (12)

Gueranger, a diocesan priest, wanted to reopen the monastery of Solesmes, which had been suppressed along with other convents and monasteries during the French Revolution. Gueranger wanted Solesmes to be a center of renewal for the Church in France through its life of liturgical prayer and study. In particular, he wanted the liturgy in Solesmes to be celebrated according to the Roman Rite without the additions and innovations that were present in liturgies celebrated throughout France because of the influence of Gallicanism and Jansenism. (13) Monastic life in Solesmes would model liturgical renewal through a focus on the liturgical year (14) and the restoration of chant as the norm to be used during the liturgy. (15) In both theory and practice, Gueranger renewed in monastic life the focus on the liturgy in the celebration of the Eucharist and praying the Divine Office. Eventually, the work of Gueranger would reach beyond the walls of Solesmes to other monasteries and other countries. (16)

Liturgical renewal was not limited to a monastery in Solesmes, France. On November 22, 1903, St. Pius X promulgated the Motu Proprio Tra le Sollecitudini to renew sacred music in the celebration of the liturgy. Pius articulates a foundational principle that will guide the work of the liturgical movement: "It being our ardent desire to see the true Christian spirit restored in every respect and preserved by all the faithful, we deem it necessary to provide before everything else the sanctity and dignity of the temple, in which the faithful assemble for the object of acquiring this spirit from its indispensable fount, which is the active participation [la partecipazione attiva] in the holy mysteries and in the public and solemn prayer of the Church." (17)

What Gueranger wanted for the local churches in France, Pius desired for the universal Church, namely, a deeper participation in the mystery of the sacred liturgy as the center of Christian life and piety. Pius focused on the renewal of the liturgy through the use of sacred music, particularly Gregorian Chant. He writes, "Special efforts are to be made to restore the use of the Gregorian Chant by the people, so that the faithful may again take a more active [attiva] part in the ecclesiastical offices, as was the case in ancient times." (18) Under Pius, Gregorian Chant was officially restored to its central place as the norm for sacred music in the liturgy. In general, sacred music was one of the primary means of assisting all of the faithful to actively participate in the sacred mysteries of the liturgy. The proper role of sacred music, in the estimation of Pius, was "to add greater efficacy to the text, in order that through it the faithful may be the more easily moved to devotion and better disposed for the reception of the fruit of grace belonging to the celebration of the most holy mysteries." (19) Although sacred music, especially Gregorian Chant, was a particular means to be employed within the liturgy, the proper and fundamental end was the active participation of every member of the Body of Christ ordered to the reception of grace.

In September 1909, a Belgian monk, Lambert Beauduin, delivered an address at the National Congress of Catholic Works. In his presentation, entitled "La vraie priere de l'Eglise" (The Real Prayer of the Church), Beauduin reemphasized the fundamental goal of Pius' aforementioned motu proprio, the need for the active participation of all people in the liturgy. (20) In his work, La Piete de L'Eglise (The Piety of the Church), Beauduin underscores the importance of active participation: "Active participation in the liturgical life of the Church is a capital factor in the supernatural life of the Christian. ... Let us change the routine and monotonous assistance at acts of worship into an active and intelligent participation; let us teach the faithful to pray and confess these truths in a body: and the Liturgy thus practiced will insensibly arouse a slumbering faith and give new efficacy, both in prayer and action." (21) Beauduin desired to increase active liturgical participation primarily through acts of worship, but he also wanted to promote active participation through piety, study, the arts (sacred music and sacred art), and through the spread of popular publications dedicated to varying aspects of the liturgy. (22) In Bouyer's estimation, Beauduin strengthened the foundation laid by Gueranger by articulating this essential idea: "That we must not try to provide an artificial congregation to take part in an antiquarian Liturgy, but rather to prepare the actual congregations of the Church today to take part in the truly traditional Liturgy rightly understood." (23) In other words, the goal of the liturgical movement was not initially or principally ritual reform. In continuity with Pius, the focus of the movement was promoting active participation. In its later years, members of the liturgical movement would concentrate on ritual reforms. Initially, however, the primary concentration was the formation and education of the faithful so they could fully and actively worship God during the liturgy. (24) The insights of Beauduin would form the foundation of the liturgical movement in the United States through one of its greatest pioneers, Dom Virgil Michel.

Dom Virgil Michel

Michel was a Benedictine Monk from St. John's Abbey in Collegeville, Minnesota. As a result of his studies, Michel would develop interests in modern and scholastic philosophy, education, the Church's social teaching, and the liturgy. Abbot Alcuin Deutsch (1877-1951) sent Michel to Rome in 1924 primarily to study philosophy at Sant' Anselmo. (25) During his studies in Rome, Beauduin was teaching apologetics, ecclesiology, and liturgy at Sant' Anselmo. Beauduin's classes would lead to Michel's interest in the liturgy and the Mystical Body ecclesiology. (26) Michel had many private meetings with Beauduin, which Beauduin describes in a letter to Dom Paul Marx, OSB:
   I knew [Michel] well at Rome, and when he discovered that I was
   concerned with the liturgical movement at Louvain, we became quite
   friendly, and he often came to talk to me in private; but liturgy
   was not for him just a matter of study; it was above all a powerful
   means of doing apostolic work, by increasing the faith and devotion
   of the faithful.

   His vocation for such work seemed part of himself. He asked me to
   arrange for him to spend his holidays in our monastery at Louvain,
   in order to become familiar with all the details of the
   organization of liturgical work. ...

   Later when he was organizing his liturgical work at Collegeville,
   he often wrote to me to tell me about the results of his efforts.
   In his letters he always showed the same enthusiasm for the
   liturgy. (27)

Further studies and his travels throughout Europe would solidify Michel's varying interests. Ultimately, they would shape Michel's development of an integrated vision that brought seemingly disparate issues in the areas of philosophy, social teaching, and liturgy into a unified whole.

Michel's approach to the liturgical movement in the United States was formed by his encounters with ideologies arising throughout Europe after World War I that promoted either autonomous individualism on one hand or a collectivism dominated by a totalitarian state on the other. Clearly, modern culture was in need of a transformation by a renewed Christian spirit. (28) For Michel and many of the leaders of the liturgical movement, the foundation for the renewal of Christian culture is the celebration of the liturgy. The liturgy helps individual members of the Church realize their call to be a part of the Mystical Body of Christ. The doctrine of Christ's Incarnation and an emphasis on the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ formed the foundation for Michel's theology of the liturgy.

Throughout his writings, Michel highlights the sacramental principle in light of the human person's hylomorphic nature: that is, the nature of the human person is material and spiritual because he has a compound body and soul. Michel explains that "man by nature expresses the things of mind through bodily signs, or again, that we reach a man's mind through signs that he can see or hear." (29) Spiritual realities are expressed through the material. Following the writings of St. Paul and the Fathers of the Church, Michel emphasizes that Christ is the living embodiment of the sacramental principle. (30) Through the Incarnation, Jesus Christ makes visible the invisible love of God the Father (see Col 1:15). Michel in his commentary on the liturgy writes that Christ's human nature "facilitate[s] for us our association and assimilation with him and his redeeming work." (31) Through the humanity of Christ, every human person has access to the divine life and love. In light of the sacramental principle, the gifts of grace and divinization can be experienced as mediated in a concrete and visible way.

The Church continues to manifest the presence of Christ in the world above all through her liturgical celebrations. Michel underscores the sacramental principle embodied by the Church: "The Church is the embodiment of the Spirit of Christ Himself; she is the continuation of Christ, endowed with His invisible supernatural powers." (32) Through the grace given in the sacramental life of the Church, the faithful are brought into communion with Christ and his supernatural life. Christ promises the Church, "When I am lifted up from the earth, [I] will draw all men to myself" (Jn 12:32). All individuals are drawn together to become individual members of the one Body of Christ through the Church (1 Cor 12 : 12-27). The Church as the body of Christ is the dominant ecclesiological model in the thought of Michel and the other members of the liturgical movement. (33) The emphasis on active participation underscores the goal of each individual member within the liturgy to worship in harmony with the One Body.

Michel's understanding of the liturgy also coincided with the teachings of Pius. The focus of Pius's pontificate is summed up in his papal motto: Instaurare omnia in Christo (To restore all things in Christ). This restoration begins with all of the faithful praying the Mass and not simply praying in the Mass. (34) In the words of Pius' motu proprio, the active participation of the faithful is the "primary" and "indispensable source of the true Christian spirit." Michel emphasizes Pius' fundamental focus on active participation throughout his writings. The purpose of Michel's publication Orate Frates was dedicated to help all of the faithful to participate actively in the Liturgy through a "better understanding of the internal structure of the Mass [and] of the spiritual action taking place therein." (35) At various times during the celebration of the Mass, the priest exhorts all of the people to enter into prayer with him through the exhortation: Oremus (Let us pray!). In his commentary on this invitation, Michel writes: "This exhortation is addressed to the people, who are thereby invited to join heart and mind in the prayer which the priest recites." (36) Throughout the liturgy, there are many passages that highlight the unified worship of both the priest and the congregation.

According to Michel, at various points the text of the liturgy "calls for the active co-operation of the people in the action of the Mass." (37) There is a common misunderstanding and reduction of active participation to merely external acts and words, but Michel clearly defines active participation as "primarily a participation by understanding and will." (38) Active participation is consistent with human nature. People, as rational creatures, have been blessed with an intellect and will. Consequently, true active participation begins internally (within the intellect) before it is manifested externally (by the will). Michel writes, "There can be no worship without intelligence, without the quality of mind or of consciousness. Any actions of the [person] that are devoid of the quality of mind are in so far merely actions of his body, and not [human acts] as such." (39) Human acts involve the conscientious use of both intellect and will. Rational powers of the soul are carried out through the operations of the body. The cooperation of soul and body is a distinctly human characteristic.

Michel affirms the theme "Liturgy is the life of the Church" throughout his works. (40) As the soul animates the body, so the liturgy gives life to the Church as the Mystical Body. Based upon her understanding of Michel's unpublished manuscript, entitled "The Liturgy and Catholic Life," Sr. Jeremy Hall, OSB, offers this succinct summary of this theme: "[The Church] possesses an organic unity (the vital union of Christ and His members), immanent activity (liturgical action), and growth by assimilation (the growth and development of each member and of the whole mystical body by means of immanent activity)." (41) The liturgy keeps the Church alive in the world and is the primary means through which people are brought into communion with one another. The use of activity and growth suggest that the work of becoming one in Christ is ongoing. According to Michel, this process is part of "our nature insofar as our finite being cannot possess its fullness of the Divine at once. It cannot grasp the Divine in one act, it can never grasp or possess it fully, but it can always attain to a greater possession and realization of it." (42) Every year, the Church celebrates the same liturgical feasts and seasons-the rhythm of preparation, birth, life, suffering, and death-to draw the faithful into this process of spiritual growth and development in light of the divine mysteries. Michel refers to the liturgical year as the "spiritual itinerary of the member of the mystical Christ." (43) Authentic growth presupposes that the faithful Christian actively participates in the celebration of the liturgy.

Michel uses the analogy of a child learning to walk to illustrate the development of the Christ-life in a Christian. The child may receive some support from his mother, but he must ultimately learn to put forth his own effort. Similarly, throughout the liturgical year, the Christian "must put forth effort step-by-step in co-operation with the workings of the Spirit of Christ in him." (44) Christ has both a head and body, so the worship of the Mystical Body of Christ must involve all individuals actively engaged in communion with one another. Christ became Incarnate to unite Himself with all men and women. In response, the entire Body of Christ (symbolized by the congregation) with Christ the Head (symbolized by the priest) must in unison worship the Father in the Spirit. This type of unity cannot simply be the product of the human person's efforts. Grace builds on nature. Therefore, the liturgy gives the faithful the gift of grace or the Christ-life, which unites every person to God and subsequently to one another in charity.

According to Michel, the ultimate end of the liturgy is "to assimilate us unto Christ, to make us partakers of the Christ-life, of the eternal life of God." (45) In the liturgy, there is an opportunity for the authentic transformation in the life of the individual who receives the gift of grace consciously as a member of the body of Christ. St. Paul describes the fruits of this sanctified life with these words, "I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me" (Gal 2:20). Christ offers the gift of His life through the grace given in the sacraments. Michel refers to this gift as the Incarnational Life, which he describes as "getting back to a better realization of what our life in the Church is, a better realization of the great privilege of union with God here and now in the life of grace ... a fuller realization of the true nature and significance of the sublime Sacrifice of the mystic body daily enacted on our altars." (46) The true nature of the Church has been described as a body or a communion. As the Incarnation unites what is human and divine (what is natural and supernatural) in the one Person of Jesus Christ, the Church, through each of her members, is called to work toward the unity of God and all creation. Through the incarnational life that develops as a result of an individual's active participation in the liturgy, he is able to deepen his communion with God and his neighbor. Subsequently, the Christian can engage in the mission to sanctify and transform human culture.

For Michel, the Johannine image of the vine and the branches (Jn 15:1-6) is the key analogy to describe the effect of the Christ-Life in both the individual member of the Church and the Church as a whole. (47) Christ is the vine and the members of the Church are the branches. The branches bear fruit to the degree that they abide in communion with Christ, the true vine. Christ exhorts the faithful with these words: "Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me ... for apart from me you can do nothing" (Jn 15:4-5). What the person is unable to do through the efforts of his human nature, he is able to do with and in the supernatural Christ-Life. The image of Christ the vine and the members of the Church as branches strengthens Michel's insistence upon the primacy of the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ. Michel describes the relationship between the Mystical Body and the Christ-life discussed above: "The mystical body here on earth is therefore a constantly growing fellowship of souls, in whom the Christ-life becomes ever more real. Christ lives and acts in His mystical body as He lived and acted in His physical body while on earth." (48) The life of the Body, animated by the fruitful Christ-Life, is active and through the Church it works in the world to ensure that Christ is "all and in all" (cf. Col 3:11).

The True Spirit of the Liturgy

The role of the liturgy in transforming human culture cannot be underestimated because, as Michel contends, "it has preserved intact the supernatural model of all human fellowship in full harmony with the complete responsibility of all individual members." (49) The supernatural model preserved by the liturgy is the life of the Mystical Body of Christ. Every human person is made for an authentic communion with God in Christ and with his neighbor through Christ. The liturgy achieves this goal on the supernatural level and it offers grace to assist people to achieve this communion on the natural level. Modern culture has separated the supernatural from the natural since the rise of nominalism in the fourteenth century. (50) According to Michel, the "dominant cultural attitude has been that of the bourgeois this-worldliness and materialism and naturalism." (51) For centuries, modern culture has been dominated by a materialistic and immanent worldview in lieu of a sacramental and transcendent worldview. Michel argues that the denial of Christ and God are fruits of the rejection of the liturgy. (52) Liturgy involves both the worship of God and authentic human fellowship or solidarity. Without liturgy, one logically shifts toward a culture that is centered on the person and individualistic autonomy.

The irony of the modern anthropocentric shift is that it is not focused on the human person as such, but is actually concerned with a diminished view of the person whom it reduces to a material being or animal. Hence, utilitarianism, hedonism, and pragmatism become the dominant ethos that one is free to adopt. A materialistic and individualistic logos leads to an ethos that views the person as a mere means to be used for someone else's selfish end. This type of anthropology has implications for political, economic, and social structures. Michel's primary concern was not a reform of the liturgy. Michel's goal was to educate the faithful so they could understand how the liturgy could direct culture or society to its proper end in God through Christ. The liturgy allows the human person to encounter reality as it truly is-a unity between the natural and supernatural.

Liturgy is meant to direct culture to its proper transcendent end. Culture, in its very nature, is oriented toward the transcendent. In Truth and Tolerance, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger emphasizes that religion is the essential element of a "definitive culture." (53) Ratzinger reiterates this point by writing, "faith itself is cultural" in that it is "creating culture and is culture." (54) The word culture is derived from the Latin word cultus or "worship." Michel contends that culture "implies human improvement of nature, but for the purpose of greater realization of the possibilities of nature." (55) Further, Michel asserts that culture is "the application of human endeavor and of reason to the natural abilities of man for the development of the best that is in him." (56) It is clear from the writings cited above that the Christ-Life is the fulfillment of the human person's true nature. The human person is made to be sanctified or divinized by participating in the life of Christ. The truly sacramental life is opposed to the prevailing cultural norms (or anticultural norms) of materialism and individualism.

The Christ-Life unites men and women into the one body of Christ. This body is the paradigm for every form of social organization, namely, the family, the economy, the state, and the Church. (57) Michel boldly claims "no proper conception of the corporate form of the political state or of the economic order will be developed by anyone who has not a fruitful concept and understanding of the mystical body of Christ." (58) Without an understanding of the Mystical Body, all institutions will tend toward a materialistic and individualistic worldview. If there is no spiritual end that a person should pursue for the benefit of his life or the life of others, he will naturally seek only material goods. Furthermore, if there is no common fellowship that a person should be a part of, then his only concern should be the good of his own individual life.

Michel observes that as a result of the contemporary dominance of individualism, a "human being is to all intents and purposes sufficient unto himself. There is no higher law above man than his own sweet self." (59) One of the main fruits of individualism is autonomy. A person dictates his own laws to fit his own life. Michel further describes the effects of individualism: "Man is his own lawgiver in everything; he makes his own god and religion to suit himself, and he makes and unmakes ethical or moral laws of life and conduct as he happens to see fit." (60) Individualism directs people toward the lie given by the serpent "in the beginning" to be like God without his grace (Gn 3). Ironically, people surrender their true freedom and identity for a caricature of what it means to be a human created in the image and likeness of God. The corrective that will bring about a restoration or regeneration of the true Christian spirit is the life of the Mystical Body that is symbolized and realized in the celebration of the liturgy.

In light of the doctrine of the Mystical Body of Christ, Michel asserts that "no Christian is as such ever separated from his brethren in Christ. He is never an isolated individual but always a part of a greater whole, he is always a member of an all-embracing fellowship from which he may not detach himself." (61) Through the reception of the Holy Eucharist, an individual enters into union with Christ the Head and every member of the Body. The supernatural communion must also be translated into a concrete life of charity directed toward a natural communion. Concretely, a Christian who truly participates in the liturgy cannot treat his neighbor as a means to his own selfish end nor should he ignore a neighbor who has some sort of physical or spiritual need. Michel argues, "It is impossible to remain individualistic in prayer and sincerely social in daily life, or to remain individualistic in daily life and become sincerely social in prayer." (62) Prayer, above all liturgical prayer, is meant to draw people out of themselves toward others.

The love of God in the liturgy and the love for our neighbor in works of charity are intimately connected in Michel's thought: "The essential act of liturgical worship is also eminently an act of love for God as well as for one's neighbor, it is the worship of all souls united intimately in the charity for Christ." (63) The liturgy (lex orandi) is an expression of the Church's doctrine (lex credendi). Michel consistantly emphasizes the theme that the liturgy is specifically an expression of the unity that people have with God and one another in the Body of Christ. Further, this lex orandi and lex credendi lead to the lex vivendi that Michel refers to as the "true Christian spirit." The authentic Christian spirit does not permit a separation between authentic liturgical worship and love for one's neighbor. (64) The individual cannot approach the liturgy as something that benefits his own life without any regard for the well-being of others. Every individual member of the Church has the responsibility to assist fellow members of the Mystical Body of Christ to maintain the shared life within the Church. (65) Michel's view is not simply a reiteration of papal teaching of the early twentieth century. Michel is affirming Christ's exhortation concerning the final judgment: "Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me" (Mt 25:40). Active participation comes to full fruition in our concrete love of neighbor. The Christ-life is given to the Christian faithful so that they might share it with others in charity. This true spirit of the liturgy is also a major theme in the writings of Benedict XVI.

Kindred Spirits: Dom Michel and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI

Michel has had no direct influence on the writings of Benedict, yet there is a kinship between these two thinkers on the relationship between liturgy and social action. Both were influenced by members of the liturgical movement. Whereas Michel was influenced by the teaching of Beauduin, Benedict was formed by the writings of Guardini. (66) Arguably, what unites Michel and Benedict on the unity between liturgy and social action is their shared ecclesiology. Michel's understanding of the liturgy was shaped by his emphasis on a Mystical Body ecclesiology. Benedict's understanding of the liturgy is formed by his Eucharistic or communio ecclesiology that finds its roots in the thoughts of the French Theologian Henri de Lubac SJ (1896-1991). (67) De Lubac's Eucharistic ecclesiology is a further development of the Mystical Body ecclesiology, which was influential on the members of the liturgical movement. (68) Like Michel, Benedict argues that the communion brought about through the Eucharist compels every Christian to give of themselves concretely in love to their neighbors. The logos of communion expressed by the Eucharistic or Mystical Body of the Church precedes the ethos of self-giving love. This type of logos is the antidote to a culture that continues to foster the false individualistic autonomy of the person. (69) As a consequence of the materialistic and individualistic logos, modern culture is dominated by an ethos directed toward utilitarianism and hedonism.

In his analysis of culture in light of the Incarnation, theologian David Schindler concludes that "every ethos always needs a logos that precedes it and gives it meaning." (70) The ethos of modern culture is governed by a mechanistic and utilitarian logos. The ethos of an authentic Christian culture is underpinned by the logos of love. Until the logos of love as self-gift is given its proper primacy, an ethos driven by lust, power, avarice, and ugliness will continue to reign. Schindler has described the effect of the mechanistic logos on modern culture: "Sexual relations hollowed out into their material shell become lustful manipulation; political relations hollowed out into their material shell become brutal power; market relations hollowed out into their material shell become hedonistic consumerism; and music and architecture governed by the laws of such market relations become noise and harsh ugliness." (71) The mechanization of the human person logically leads to the exaltation of the self above God and other people. This ethos has its roots in the Fall, which Benedict aptly describes: "Love is seen as dependence and is rejected. In its place come autonomy and autarchy: existing from oneself and in oneself, being a god of one's own making." (72) In his theological vision, Benedict seeks to recover a proper understanding of communion and love to reorient the logos of modern culture to Christ. What is needed is a Eucharistic ethos, which is formed first and foremost by the liturgy. In Sacramentum Caritatis, Benedict writes that the Eucharist "compels all who believe in him to become 'bread that is broken' for others and to work for the building of a more just and fraternal world." (73) (88). The Holy Eucharist provides the framework for the logos of love that is ordered to establishing communion among all people.

The order of communion and love into which each person is called to enter is embodied sacramentally by the Holy Eucharist. The Holy Eucharist draws each person into Christ's sacrificial gift of love. In the words of Benedict, the "Eucharist draws us into Jesus' act of self-oblation. More than just statically receiving the incarnate Logos,

we enter into the very dynamic of self-giving." (74) Each communicant enters into a union with Christ and "all those [to] whom He gives Himself." (75) Holy Communion thus unites the love of God and the love of neighbor. As we have already cited earlier, the Holy Father boldly claims that the "Eucharist which does not pass over into the concrete practice of love is intrinsically fragmented." (76) To love God, one must love one's neighbor and vice versa. According to Benedict, the saints, particularly Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, "constantly renewed their capacity of love of neighbor from their encounter with the Eucharistic Lord, and conversely this encounter acquired its realism and depth in their service to others." (77) The saints represent the fullest development of the Christ-life, which results in a life of selfless love for one's neighbors. The Eucharist is the self-giving love of Christ realized in sacramental form. Subsequently, the Eucharist is an exemplar of self-giving love to which each person is called to imitate in their love of neighbor.

The language of gift is inherent in the words of institution employed by Christ at the Last Supper: "This is my body which will be given up for you" (See Mk 26:26; Lk 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24, emphasis added). The Eucharistic presence of Christ realizes sacramentally what the human person is by nature-a gift. According to David Schindler, "The human self is most basically a gift: from the Creator, and from our parents and indeed from all other creatures inside the relation to the Creator. The basic act elicited from self in response to its being-as-gift is therefore gratitude." (78) As a sacrifice, Christ offers His Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity seeking nothing in return. The gift of Christ's sacrificial love is meant to assist each person in his or her self-giving love. "God himself gives to us, that we may give in turn." (79) This is why the sacrificial gift is fully realized in Holy Communion. Communion actualizes the union that one person has first with Christ and then with his or her neighbor. The human person is an existing-for-others or a sharing with others that is fully realized through communion with Christ's Eucharistic sacrifice. (80)

Michel and Benedict emphasize the true spirit of the liturgy, which brings together the twofold command to love both God and neighbor, which we fulfill through participation in the liturgy and social action. In the words of Benedict, "The love that we celebrate in the [Holy Eucharist] is not something we can keep to ourselves. By its very nature it demands to be shared with all." (81) Christians have a missionary mandate that they have received from Christ prior to his Ascension that compels them to share their knowledge and love of Christ with others (Mt 28 : 19-20). The Eucharist is intrinsically directed toward the mission of self-giving love and compels each communicant to live a Eucharistic life through a selfless love for others. Just as the body of Christ is given for many in the celebration of the liturgy, every person is called to an analogous self-giving that brings about a greater communion between God and the world. The Catechism of the Catholic Church affirms the mission of communion that springs forth from God's inner life: "God himself is an eternal exchange of love, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and he has destined us to share in that exchange" (221). People will only come to share in this exchange to the degree that Christians are willing to actively participate in the life of Christ through the celebration of the liturgy and to the extent that they cooperate with the gift of grace to bear fruit not merely in social justice but above all in charity. This is the most important legacy of the liturgical movement that one finds in the thought of Michel and Benedict. The love of God and love for neighbor are inseparable according to the Johannine tradition: "If any one says, 'I love God,' and hates his brother, he is a liar; for he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he has not seen" (1 Jn 4: 20).


(1.) For an overview of the liturgical movement in the United States, see Kathleen Hughes, ed., How Firm a Foundation: Voices of the Early Liturgical Movement (Chicago, IL: Liturgical Training Publications, 1990); Keith F. Pecklers, The Unread Vision: The Liturgical Movement in the United States of America: 1926-1955 (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1988); William J. Leonard SJ, "The liturgical movement in the United States," in The Liturgy of Vatican II: A Symposium in Two Volumes, ed. Jovian Lang OFM (Chicago, IL: Franciscan Herald Press, 1966), 293-312; Godfrey L. Diekmann, OSB, "Is There a Distinct American Contribution to the Liturgical Renewal?," Worship 45.10 (1971): 578-87. In his article, Diekmann draws the attention of his readers to four interpretations and implementations of liturgical reform that were unique to the United States: (i) the harmony between Liturgy and social reform, (2) the development of catechetics, (3) national liturgical weeks, and (4) the work of the American canonist Father Frederick McManus in the interpretation and implementation of liturgical law. Arguably, these efforts were not unique to the Liturgical Movement in the United States. We will see that similar efforts were carried out by Dom Lambert Beauduin in Belgium. For the best study of the life and work of Dom Virgil Michel, see Paul B. Marx OSB, Virgil Michel and the Liturgical Movement (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1957). Marx also develops an overview of the history of the Liturgical Movement in the United States. See Marx, 49-105. For a thorough examination of the ecclesiology that would affect the development of the liturgical movement, particularly in the thought of Michel, see Sr. Jeremy Hall, OSB, The Full Stature of Christ: The Ecclesiology of Virgil Michel OSB (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1976).

(2.) On the relationship between liturgy and social action in the thought of Virgil Michel, see Michael J. Baxter CSC, "Reintroducing Virgil Michel: Towards a Counter-Tradition of Catholic Social Ethics in the United States," in Communio 24.3 (Fall 1997): 499-523; Kenneth R. Himes, "Eucharist and Justice: Assessing the Legacy of Virgil Michel," in Worship 62.3 (May 1998): 201-24; Scott Hebden, "Liturgy and Social Justices: Recovering the Prophetic Vision of Virgil Michel," in Chicago Studies 46.2 (Summer 2007): 238-48; David W. Fagerberg, "Virgil Michael on Liturgy and Social Justice: A New Appraisal," in Chicago Studies 48. 3 (Fall-Winter 2009): 277-97; David W. Fagerberg, "Liturgy, Social Justice, and the Mystical Body of Christ: The Vision of Virgil Michel," in Letter and Spirit 5 (2009): 193-210.

(3.) Virgil Michel, "The Liturgy: The Basis of Social Regeneration," in Orate Fratres (ab breviated henceforth as OF) 9.12 (1935): 545.

(4.) Pope Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est (abbreviated henceforth as DCE), 14.

(5.) Romano Guardini, Spirit of the Liturgy, trans. Ada Lane (New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1998), 86. Benedict XVI reiterates the position of Guardini. See Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, The Spirit of the Liturgy, trans. John Saward (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2000), 155. For an overview of the thought and impact of Guardini, see Robert A. Krieg, CSC, Romano Guardini: A Precursor of Vatican II (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 1997).

(6.) Alcuin Reid, The Organic Development of the Liturgy (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2005), 73. Reid has a comprehensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources on the development and thought of the Liturgical Movement.

(7.) Lambert Beauduin, OSB, Liturgy: the Life of the Church, 3rd ed., trans. Virgil Michel OSB (Farborough: St. Michael's Abbey Press, 2002).

(8.) Ildefons Herwegen, OSB, The Liturgy's Inner Beauty (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1955).

(9.) Odo Casel, OSB, The Mystery of Christian Worship (New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 1999).

(10.) For a general outline of the early history and main ideas of the Liturgical Movement in Europe, see Dom Olivier Rousseau, OSB, The Progress of the Liturgy: An Historical Sketchfrom the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Pontificate of Pius X (Westminster, MD: Newman Press, 1951). Also see Ernest Benjamin Koenker, The Liturgical Renaissance in the Roman Catholic Church (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954). For a more recent and critical history that places the liturgical movement in a larger context leading to its climax in the Second Vatican Council, see Reid, Organic Relationship, 73-301.

(11.) The term "liturgical movement" was first used in France during the nineteenth century by Dom Gueranger, Abbe Jouve, and MDA Sibour. See R.W. Franklin, "Response: Humanism and Transcendence in the Nineteenth Century Liturgical Movement," in Worship 59.4 (1985): 345 n. 2.

(12.) Cf. Pecklers, Unread Vision 5. Bouyer was also a critic of Gueranger. See Louis Bouyer, Liturgical Piety (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1966), 57-58.

(13.) Pecklers, Unread Vision, 2; Reid, Organic Development, 56-58.

(14.) Gueranger wrote a work entitled l'Annee liturgique (The Liturgical Year, 1841). This was the first volume in a series of works that contained meditative commentaries on the various prayers and texts used in the Mass and the Divine Office for every day of the liturgical year. Michael Kwatera, "Proper Gueranger: Founder of the Modern Liturgical Movement," in How Firm a Foundation: Leaders of the Liturgical Movement, ed. Robert L. Tuzik (Chicago: Liturgical Training Publications, 1990), 20.

(15.) See Dom Pierre Combe, OSB, The Restoration of Gregorian Chant: Solesmes and the Vatican Edition, trans. Theodore N. Marier and William Skinner (Washington, DC: CUA Press, 2003), ii-94. For an overview of the history and role of Gregorian Chant in the Liturgy, see Dom Daniel Saulnier, OSB, Gregorian Chant: A Guide to History and Liturgy, trans. Mary Berry (Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2010).

(16.) Two students of Gueranger, Maurus and Placidus Wolter, would bring the influence of their teacher to the abbey they founded in Beuron. In 1872, monks from Beuron traveled to Belgium to found the Abbey of Maredsous. Maredsous would be the home of Blessed Columba Marmion (1858-1923) and mother of the Abbeys of Mont Cesar and St. Andre. See Marx, Virgil Michel, 73. For the impact of the Benedictines of Beuron, Maredsous, Mont-Cesar, and Maria Laach on the liturgical movement, see R.W. Franklin, "Response: Humanism and Transcendence in the Nineteenth Century Liturgical Movement," 348-53. In 1906, Lambert Beauduin, a priest of the diocese of Liege, entered Mont-Cesar when Marmion was the prior. See Reid, Organic Development, 79, and Pecklers, UnreadVision, 10. For a brief overview of Marmion's ideas on liturgy, see Lambert Beauduin, "Dom Marmion and the liturgy," in More About Dom Marmion, trans. The Earl of Wicklow, 60-73 (St. Louis, MO: Herder Book Co, 1949).

(17.) Quoted in Reid, Organic Development, 74. This is the first time that the phrase "active participation" appeared in a papal document. The motu proprio was originally written in Italian. Roman Latinists translated the Italian partecipatione attiva into the Latin phrase communicatio actuosa because the word participatio does not exist in classical Latin. The liturgical movement in subsequent years following the issuance of St. Pius's motu proprio will adopt the expression participatio actuosa. For a thorough study of this expression, see Martin Stuflesser, "Actuosa Participatio: Between Hectic Actionism and New Interiority. Reflections on "Active Participation" in the Worship of the Church as Both Right and Obligation of the Faithful," in Studia Liturgica (2011): 92-126.

(18.) St. Pius X, Tra La Sollecitudini, 3. Accessed May 1, 2013. /TraLeSollecitudini.html. St. Pius X invited the Benedictine monks of Solesmes to bring the fruits of their study and practice in restoring Gregorian Chant in their own monastery to aid the universal Church in a larger restoration that would ultimately result in the publication of typical editions of chants for the Mass (Graduale Romanum, 1908) and for the Divine Office (Aniphonale Romanum, 1912). For a comprehensive history of the commissions that would develop these editions with the assistance of the monks of Solesmes, See Combe, The Restoration of Gregorian Chant, 219-416.

(19.) St. Pius X, Tra La Sollecitudini, 1.

(20.) Pecklers, UnreadVision, 12.

(21.) Beauduin, Liturgy: the Life of the Church, 19, 21. Emphasis added. Beauduin highlights active participation as one of the main aims of the liturgical movement: "The members of the Liturgical Movement desire to contribute with all their strength to the attainment of the following aims: The active participation of the Christian people in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass by means of understanding and following the liturgical rites and texts" (ibid., 52).

(22.) See Beauduin, Liturgy: the Life of the Church, 52-53.

(23.) Bouyer, Life and Liturgy (London: Sheed and Ward, 1956), 14-15. Cf. Reid, Organic Development, 81.

(24.) In 1909, Beauduin and the monks of Mont Cesar initiated a monthly publication of a journal entitled Litrugical Life (published in both French and Flemish). In 1910, Beauduin started a journal entitled Les Questions Liturgiques (originally entitled Questions Liturgiques et Paroissales) for clergy. In 1912, Beauduin and the monks of Mont Cesar founded the annual semaines liturgiques ("liturgical weeks") to discuss the ideas of the liturgical movement. Pecklers, UnreadVision, 13-14. Similar efforts were carried out by the pioneers of the liturgical movement in the United States under Michel's leadership.

(25.) Marx, Virgil Michel, 24. In addition to sending Michel to Sant' Anselmo, Deutsch furnished Michel with a copy of Romano Guardini's Vom Geist der Liturgie ("Spirit of the Liturgy"), which was the beginning of Michel's interest in the liturgy (ibid., 25).

(26.) Marx, Virgil Michel, 27.

(27.) Beauduin, Letter to Dom Paul Marx OSB, Chevetogne, September 27, 1952. Quoted in Marx, Virgil Michel, 28 .

(28.) Michel, "Christian Culture," in Communio: 683. Originally published in OF 13 (1939): 269-304

(29.) Michel, "Sacramental System," in OF 9.3 (1935): 114. Michel "Rediscovering the Obvious: Liturgy and the Psychology of Education," in OF 14.12 (1940): 529-30: "For the sacramental principle is nothing but this sound pedagogical rule applied by Christ Himself in assuming a human nature, and in instituting the Church as a visible organism and endowing her with visible sacraments and sacrifice. In the sacramental principle, God adapted Himself to the ways and needs of human nature, and gave us in the liturgy of the Church not only a system of worship satisfactory to Himself but a means of worship and of formation of Christian souls suited to all the exigencies of human nature."

(30.) Michel, OSB, "Sacramental System," 116; Michel, "Natural and Supernatural Society I," in OF 9 (1936): 243.

(31.) Virgil Michel, OSB, The Liturgy of the Church According to the Roman Rite (New York: Macmillan Company, 1937), 71.

(32.) Virgil Michel, OSB, "The True Christian Spirit," American Ecclesiastical Review 82 (Feb. 1930): 130. Although Michel was undoubtedly influenced by the developments of nineteenth-century ecclesiology (see below), he was also impacted by his own studies of the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas. See Martin Grabmann, Thomas Aquinas: His Personality and Thought, trans. Virgil Michel OSB (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1928), 173-81. This passage from Grabmann's work, which Michel translated, demonstrates the impact of the Thomistic concept of the Church on Michel's own thought.

(33.) The authors who influenced Michel's ecclesiology include Dom Adrien Grea (1828-1917), Humbert Clerissac, OP (1864-1914), Matthias Scheeben (1835-1888), and Johannes Cardinal Franzelin (1816-1886). Hall, The Full Stature of Christ, 68-70. The other theologian, whose Body of Christ ecclesiology impacted the development of the liturgical movement, was Johannes Mohler (1796-1838). According to R.W Franklin, "[Mohler's] teaching that the mystery of the incarnation is reflected in both the eucharist and the church became the fundamental theological contribution of the nineteenth century to the liturgical movement" (R.W. Franklin, "Response: Humanism and Transcendence in the Nineteenth Century Liturgical Movement," 348). For a general history of the impact that ninteenth-century theology had on the history of the liturgical movement, see Thomas F. O'Meara, OP "The Origins of the Liturgical Movement and German Romanticism," Worship 59.4 (1985): 326-42.

(34.) Michel, "The Liturgical Movement: Its General Purpose and Its Influence on Priestly Piety," in OFI (1926): 9.

(35.) Michel, "Participation in the Mass," in OF (1926): 20. See Alcuin Deutsch, OSB, "The Liturgical Movement," in OF 1.1 (1926): 391-97. In the article, Deutsch emphasizes the primary focus on active participation as the central aim of the Liturgical Movement.

(36.) Michel, "Participation in the Mass," 19.

(37.) Michel, "Participation in the Mass," 19-20. See Michel, The Liturgy of the Church,

(38.) Michel, "Scope of the Liturgical Movement," in OF 10 (1936): 486.

(39.) Michel, The Liturgy of the Church, 3. Michel is using the Thomistic distinction between a human act and an act of man. See ST. I-II, q. 1, a. 1.

(40.) See Hall, The Full Stature of Christ, 31-38.

(41.) Ibid., 32.

(42.) Michel, The Liturgy of the Church, 90.

(43.) Ibid., 93.

(44.) Ibid.

(45.) Michel, The Liturgy of the Church, 46. Through grace or the Christ-Life, a person is able to realize fully his personality. See Michel, "Personality and Liturgy," in OF 13 (1939) : I56-59.

(46.) Michel, "The True Christian Spirit," 141.

(47.) See Virgil Michel, OSB, Our Life in Christ (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1939), 33-34.

(48.) Michel, Our Life in Christ, 36. For a thorough overview of Michel's thought on the relationship between liturgy and culture, see Marx, Virgil Michel, 255-97.

(49.) Michel, "Scope of the Liturgical Movement," 489.

(50.) For Michel, the roots of the separation between Christian faith (the supernatural) and society (natural) began with the Protestant Reformation. See Marx, Vigil Michel, 260-62. Recent historical scholarship supports the thesis that the roots of secularism began with the Protestant Reformation. See Brad Gregory, The Unintended Rerformation: How a Religious Revolution Secularized Society (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 2012). Also see, Michael Allen Gillipsie, The Theological Origins of Modernity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009). The Protestant Reformation finds its intellectual origins with the shift in philosophical thought from realism to nominalism. On the impact of the shift toward nominalism, see Louis Dupre, Passage to Modernity: An Essay in the Hermeneutics of Nature and Culture (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993), 39-45; Robert Barron, The Priority of Christ: Toward a Postliberal Catholicism (Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2007), 12-15.

(51.) Michel, "Christian Culture," 682. For a thorough description of the "bourgeois spirit," see Michel "The Bourgeois Spirit and the Christian Renewal," in OF 14.6 (1940): 253-60; Michel, "The Bourgeois Spirit and the Christian Renewal (II)," in OF 14.7 (1940) : 302-08. This spirit continues to persist in contemporary culture. See David Brooks, Bobos In Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001).

(52.) Michel, "Liturgy and Modern Thought," in OF 13 (1939): 206.

(53.) Joseph Ratzinger, Truth and Tolerance, trans. Henry Taylor (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2004), 59.

(54.) Ibid., 67.

(55.) Michel, "Christian Culture," 681. Further in the article, Michel writes (686): "Just as a material Weltanschauung ["worldview"] necessarily makes material progress an end in itself, so the Christian spirit drawn from the liturgy will necessarily use material things as the means or instruments they are in the design of God." Only a Christian culture enables nature to achieve its supernatural end in God.

(56.) Michel, "Christian Culture," 681.

(57.) Michel, "Natural and Supernatural Society I," 244-45. Once again the influence of St. Thomas is evident in Michel's focus on these four societies. See Fagerberg, "Liturgy, Social Justice, and the Mystical Body of Christ: the Vision of Virgil Michel," Letter and Spirit 5 (2009): 205 n. 34. For a description of the Christian family as a miniature representation of the mystical body of Christ, see Michel, "The Family and the Mystical Body," in OF 295-99. Also see Michel, "The Family and the Liturgy," in OF: 393-96. For a collection of Michel's writings on the state and the economic society, see Virgil Michel, OSB, The Social Question: Essays on Capitalism and Christianity, ed. Robert L. Spaeth (Collegeville, MN: St. John's University, 1987).

(58.) Michel, "Natural and Supernatural Society I," 246.

(59.) Virgil Michel, OSB, Christian Social Reconstruction: Some Fundamentals of Quadragesimo Anno (Milwaukee, WI: Bruce Publishing Co., 1937), 9.

(60.) Michel, Christian Social Reconstruction, 9.

(61.) Michel, "Natural and Supernatural Society I," 294. Michel, "The Cooperative Movement and the Liturgical Movement," in OF 14.4 (1940): 154: "A basic idea of the liturgical movement is the traditional Christian concept of the fellowship of souls united in Christ as their head, which fellowship is called the mystical body of Christ. A Christian, to be such, must be united with Christ spiritually and supernaturally; and he cannot be united with Christ by himself alone, or in total isolation from his fellowmen. By his intimate spiritual union with Christ he is also most intimately united, he is divinely united, with all others who are in intimate union with Christ. The two, union with Christ or with God through Christ, and union with all the brethren in Christ, stand or fall together."

(62.) Michel, "Timely Tract: Our Social Environment," in OF 12 (1938): 318-20.

(63.) Michel, "Christian Culture," 685.

(64.) Michel writes about the "inseparability of the liturgical life and Catholic Action." The former was renewed by Pope St. Pius X, whereas the latter was promoted as a further development of authentic liturgical life by Pope Pius XI according to Michel. See Michel, "The Significance of the Liturgical Movement," 18-22. David Fagerberg: "Liturgy Social Justice, and the Mystical Body of Christ," 204: "Michel believed we are witnessing the twin expressions of spiritual recuperation in the Church. The first expression, the liturgical movement, beckons Christians at liturgy to see themselves as branches of a vine, as members of a body, as citizens of this City of God. The second expression, Catholic Action, springs from the awareness that Christ, head of this body, is doing the work of overcoming alienation between man and God, and between man and neighbor, and expects his body to share in this work."

(65.) Michel, Christian Social Reconstruction, 7.

(66.) A number of scholars have highlighted the remarkable parallels between Ratzinger and Guardini: both wrote a doctoral thesis concerning the work of St. Bonaventure, both wrote books outlining the main contours of the Christian faith, both wrote books on the liturgy, and both have written their own theological reflections on the person of Christ. See Aidan Nichols, OP, "Romano Guardini and Joseph Ratzinger on the Theology of Liturgy," in Aidan Nichols, OP, Lost in Wonder: Essays on Liturgy and the Arts (Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2011), 21-25; Tracey Rowland, Benedict XVI: A Guide for the Perplexed (New York: T & T Clark, 2010), 17-19; Emery De Gaal, The Theology of Pope Benedict XVI (New York: Macmillan Palgrave, 2008), 39-43.

(67.) See Henri De Lubac, SJ, Corpus Mysticum: The Eucharist and the Church in the Middle Ages, trans. Gemma Simmonds CJ with Richard Price and Christopher Stephens, eds. Laurence Paul Hemming and Susan Frank Parsons (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006).

(68.) See Paul McPartlan, SJ, "Liturgy, Church and Society," in Studia Liturgica 34 (2004): 147-64. According to McPartlan (158-59):
   Beauduin's sudden insight at community Mass was that if the Church
   is the body of Christ, then it lives in and from the eucharist.
   Thus did the idea of the body of Christ begin to become concrete.
   The linkage of Church and eucharist is, of course, fundamental to
   eucharistic ecclesiology, and de Lubac's Corpus Mysticum massively
   consolidated that linkage. The major conceptional step that was
   still needed was to say that if the Church lives from the
   eucharist, then the Church should be patterned as a network of
   Eucharistic communities, as the Catechism of the Catholic Church
   now teaches: "The Church," it says, "is the People that God gathers
   in the whole world. She exists in local communities and is made
   real as a liturgical, above all a Eucharistic, assembly" (no. 752).

(69.) This is a prominent theme in Benedict's second encyclical, Spe Salvi. Benedict contrasts the secular materialistic and individualistic "hope" with the authentic sacramental and communal hope of Christianity. See Spe Salvi nos. 13-31.

(70.) cf. Tracey Rowland, Culture and the Thomist Tradition: After Vatican II (London: Routledge, 2003), 92 .

(71.) David Schindler quoted in Tracy Rowland, Culture and the Thomist Tradition, 99.

(72.) Ratzinger, The Spirit of the Liturgy, 33.

(73.) Benedict XVI, Sacramentum Caritatis, 88.

(74.) DCE, 13.

(75.) Ibid., 14.

(76.) Ibid.

(77.) DCE, 18.

(78.) Schindler, "Does the free market produce free persons?" in David L. Schindler, Ordering Love: Liberal Societies and the Memory of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2011), 155.

(79.) Ratzinger, God Near Us: The Eucharist the Heart of Life, eds. Stephan Otto Horn and Vinzenz Pfnur, trans. Henry Taylor (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2003), 45.

(80.) Ibid., 79.

(81.) Benedict XVI, Sacramentum Caritatis, 84.
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