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The solo songs of Gioachino Rossini.

INTRODUCTION

Although Rossini is a well respected composer of opera, his song literature is to a large extent unknown, or, at best, underperformed. Some of Rossini's songs have still not been published; others are in early editions which are out of print; and many are only in critical/scholarly editions of Rossini's works. The lack of good performance editions limits the inclusion of Rossini's songs on voice recitals and recordings. Yet Rossini's smaller compositions represent his artistic output for a large part of his life, as he gave up writing opera in 1829 and was to live for another thirty-nine years. During his later years, he devoted himself to composing songs, vocal chamber music, and small compositions for the piano, an oeuvre that represents a barely excavated gold mine of beautiful music.

The solo songs of Rossini represent only a very small portion of his non-operatic vocal works. Rossini's vocal chamber music is an untapped and potentially rich body of music that also remains to be explored. As can be seen in his operas, he was a masterful composer of ensembles. it is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the numerous duets, quartets, and other chamber pieces; rather, discussion is limited to the solo songs with piano.

Rossini's output as a song composer can be divided into three general categories: 1) early songs; 2) the Soirees musicales and miscellaneous songs from the 1830s and 40s; and 3) the Peches de vieillesse, written after Rossini's return to composition in 1855.

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EARLY SONGS

The songs that comprise the early group are particularly difficult to locate. Philip Gossett who has been directing the new critical edition of the complete works of Rossini has done much to locate these and other songs.

Rossini's two earliest songs are "Se il vuol la molinara" (before 1813) and "Qual voce, quai note" (1813). while he was artistic director of the Teatro San Carlo and its affiliated theaters (1815-1823), he wrote a number of other songs: "Il trovatore," "Addio ai viennesi," "La pastorella," "Amori scendete" (Belta crudele), "Canzonetta spagnuola," "Infelice ch'io son," and "Les adieux a Rome." (1)

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"La pastorella" is a charming strophic song for soprano to a text by N. di Santo-Magno. A staccato melody in the piano depicts the light step of the young shepherdess, complete with a deliberate trip (Bv against Ca little expression of Rossini's wit, in an otherwise diatonic phrase (Example 1). The song relates how the shepherdess, disillusioned with love, dislikes the rose for concealing a snake; then, she no longer waters the flowers at dawn because they hide a bee; and in the final stanza, she dislikes Aminta too for wounding her heart.

"Il trovatore," a piece for tenor composed in 1818, opens with a lively chromatic melody and off-beat accents that depict a carefree troubadour. We learn that the young man is only pretending to be jovial in order to conceal his unhappiness. He has adopted a proud facade, so that the girl responsible for his hurt feelings will not gloat over him. In pretending to be happy, he believes his feelings will become less painful.

"Amori scendete" (Belta crudele; 1821) for soprano has not yet been published; Philip Gossett kindly sent me a copy of the song. It begins in D major with beautiful languid lines in the vocal part over a simple broken chord accompaniment. In poetry by N. di SantoMagno, the singer entreats Cupid to help win over the beloved Nice by offering a ribbon or rose that she can present to him. In a change of texture in the B section, the singer anticipates offering the rose and her heart to Nice, the blissful mood culminating in a fioratura passage. The lover in the song fleetingly entertains the thought that the rose may not be accepted as the tonality moves from F major through D minor and A major and back to tonic, with a return to an expanded and even more poignant version of the A section with a cadenza.

LES SOIREES MUSICALES AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS SONGS

Les soirees musicales is a collection of eight solo songs along with four duets written between 1830-1835. They are probably Rossini's best known songs. The title refers to the soirees (musical evenings) that Rossini held first in Milan and then in Paris in the late 1850s and 60s.2 Liszt, Wagner, Respighi, and Britten have orchestrated the songs.

The collection begins with three songs to texts of Pietro Metastasio, "La promessa" (The promise), "Il rimprovero" (The Reproach), and "La partenza" (The Departure). "Il rimprovero" is a setting of Metastasio's text "Mi lagnero tacendo," to which Rossini returned again and again. The Metastasio settings are followed by five songs with texts by Count Carlo Pepoli (1796-1881): "L'orgia" (The Orgy), "L'invito" (The Invitation), "La pastorella delle alpi" (The Shepherdess of the Alps), "La gita in gondola" (The Excursion in the Gondola), and the "La danza" (The Dance).

In each song, Rossini employs a distinctive piano motif that sets the mood, returns intermittently throughout the song, and usually ends the song. While never overshadowing the vocal line, the piano motifs create a sense of unity and also supply color, texture, and rhythmic vitality (Example 2).

In nearly all of the songs in Les soirees musicales, Rossini employs an ABA form, with the B section in a contrasting key, color, and texture, a clear formal structure that attests to Rossini's classical orientation. There is one general mood in the A section, another in the B section, usually a written-out cadenza at the end of the B section, and a coda and final cadenza at the end of the song (Example 3).

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Rossini's greatest genius lies in his exquisite melodies: the arch of the phrases; the way the vocal line weaves or leaps, or how it builds and tapers; and the delicate decorations and beautifully sculpted details. His spontaneity, exuberance, and the variety of moods and colors he creates, from robust to poignant, humorous, and acrobatic, are all distinctive trademarks of his style. His writing is ideally suited for the voice and is eminently singable. Phrases facilitate comfortable breaths, and the vocal writing allows the singer easy passage through register breaks in the voice. Rossini was himself an excellent singer, and had a great understanding of how to write well for the voice.

The use of dance rhythms is prominent in Les soirees musicales: a Spanish flavor is captured in "L'invito" with a bolero rhythm throughout; "La danza" is a spirited Neapolitan tarantella; "Lorgia" is a waltz. "La gita in gondola" is a barcarola with a figure in the piano that suggests a boat rocking. "La pastorella delle alpi," labeled tirolese, has a musically simulated yodel. All of the songs in the group are in either triple or compound meter. Rossini also creates musical vitality through various rhythmic devices. Off-beat accents are a favored way to create the unexpected. Staccati, appoggiaturas, trills, and shifts of stress contribute to the lighthearted gaiety in both piano and voice.

Rossini's letters attest to his sense of humor, a quality that is built into the music of this ingenious collection of songs. Stendhal spoke of a kind of freshness in Rossini's phrases, which evokes a "smile of pleasure at every bar." (3) Les soirees musicales sparkles with joie de vivre, great lyricism, and vitality.

Other songs that Rossini wrote during the 1830s and 40s are: "La passeggiata" (1831), "La dichiarazione" (c. 1834), "Il rimprovero" (1944), and "Recitativo ritmato" (1848) for soprano. After his arrival in France, Rossini also wrote two French songs: "Nizza" (c. 1836), and "L'ame delaissee" (c. 1844) for soprano. (4)

"L'ame delaissee," set to a text by Casimir Delavigne, uses a broken chord accompaniment that supports a simple, unadorned vocal line in a strophic setting. The text is set syllabically. Absent are the grace notes, appoggiaturas, trills, melismas and other embellishments that are characteristic of Rossini's early Italian songs (Example 4).

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CHANGING AESTHETICS

In 1824, Rossini moved to Paris to become the director of the Opera Italien. In Paris, he staged many of his own operas as well as those of Donizetti and Bellini. (5) He also began composing in the newly emerging style of French grand opera, and his French operas William Tell and the Siege de Corinthe are some of the best examples of this genre.

A significant development that had a major impact on Rossini was the emerging Romantic Movement. Classical style was being replaced by new trends in France with Meyerbeer and Berlioz and in Italy with Donizetti, Bellini, and Verdi. Rossini was caught in the transition between the Classical and Romantic periods. His French operas show him on the threshold of romanticism, but all of his Italian operas were written before this period. Another important factor was that Rossini grew up in Italy with the bel canto tradition of singing--a style that centered on the voice, which involved long, cantabile vocal lines, as well as highly ornate virtuosic melodies. This style was beginning to be replaced by singing based more on dramatic truth. Celletti states that "the bel canto tradition must be seen as a lineage of superlative Italian vocalism that is tied to the repertoire of bel canto composers." He believed that Rossini was the last in the line of true bel canto composers. (6)

Rossini attributed the decline in bel canto to the disappearance at the beginning of the nineteenth century of the castrati, who had not only dominated opera performance, but also ran the main schools of singing. In 1860 in Paris, Rossini said to Wagner, "As to the castratos, they vanished ... That was the cause of the irretrievable decay of the art of singing ... Alas for us! The bel canto of our homeland is lost." (7)

In 1830, the French monarchy was overthrown in what became known as the July Monarchy. When the new regime tried to annul Rossini's contract, he fought for six years in the courts in Paris before he finally won his case. By this time, the increasingly nationalistic French wanted French opera rather than Italian, and some resented Rossini's presence. (8) He moved back to Italy in 1836, followed a few months later by Olympe Pellisier, a French woman, who would eventually become his second wife. (Rossini's first wife was the great Spanish mezzo soprano, Isabella Colbran whom he married in 1822 and left in 1837.) (9) After 1829, Rossini retired from writing operas. He had written thirty-nine operas from 1808-1829 that included opera buffa, opera seria, and French grand operas.

PECHES DE VIEILLESSE

After Rossini's retirement from writing operas, he suffered from very poor health throughout the 1840s and into the 1850s. Eventually, after he and Olympe moved back to Paris in 1855 to seek help from French doctors, he did come to enjoy better health. The couple remained in France for the remainder of Rossini's life. (10)

As a result of renewed health, Rossini began composing again, and produced more than 150 songs, duets, quartets, choruses, and piano pieces that he collected into thirteen manuscript volumes to which he gave the title Peches de vieillesse (Sins of Old Age). Every day for the remainder of his life, he devoted time to composition, both for his own enjoyment and for performances at his Parisian soirees. Rossini said he was not interested in publishing these compositions during his lifetime. However, the time and diligence he put into the compositions indicate that they were important to him. When he died on November 13, 1868, the manuscripts of the Peches de vieillesse were left to his wife, and some of the compositions were published at this time. (11) When Olympe died in 1878, they passed to Rossini's hometown of Pesaro, and in the 1950s, the Fondazione Rossini at Pesaro began publication of all of the music in Peches de vieillesse.

In Paris, the Rossinis lived in a corner apartment on the second floor of a building that contained a very large salon with windows overlooking two streets. On Saturdays, the couple usually invited about twelve to fifteen guest for dinner. Later in the evening, other guests would arrive to listen to or perform music. Rossini often accompanied a singer or instrumentalist on the piano, and would also introduce his own new compositions. Musical soirees were also held at the couple's country home in Passy, outside Paris. The Rossini soirees in France became very famous. Guilio Ricordi, of the music publishing family, described one of the gatherings.

The crowd was so great that some thirty of the guests had to remain seated on the staircase ... My father and I wormed our way patiently through the crowd. Fortunately, we were escorted by Signora Rossini, who with exquisite courtesy made a path for us and led us into the music room. What a spectacle! Rossini truly was surrounded by "all Paris." (12)

Rossini's vocal music contained in his Peches de vieillesse can be divided into Italian and French songs. The Italian songs include the collection entitled Musique anodine and the Album italiano; the French songs include the Album francais and Morceaux reserves.

Musique anodine

Musique anodine is a collection of six songs that is preceded by a prelude for piano. Rossini dedicated the group to his wife Olympe on her birthday in 1857 as a token of appreciation for the care she gave to him during his long illness. The group also marks the date of Rossini's return to composition.

I offer these modest songs to my dear wife Olympe as a simple testimonial of gratitude for the affectionate, intelligent care of which she was prodigal during my overlong and terrible illness. Gioacchino Rossini, Paris, 14 April 1857. (13)

Musique anodine means literally music that "relieves pain or distress." The set consists of six different settings in Italian of the text "Mi lagnero tacendo" (I will lament in silence) from act 2, scene 1 of the play Siroe by Metastasio. 14 Rossini composed numerous songs and albumleaves using Metastasio's text.
Mi lagnero tacendo
Della mia sorte amara;
Ma ch'io non t'ami,
 o cara,

Non lo sperar da me.
Crudel! In che t'offese?

Farmi penar cosi, perche?

I will lament in silence
my bitter fate

But that I cease to love you,
  beloved,

Do not expect it of me.
Cruel one, how have I offended
  you?

Why make me suffer so? (15)


Rossini's wonderful instinct for the stage and dramatic expression is well portrayed in this group. It opens with a playful prelude that dramatically summons our attention with fortissimo chords. From the start, there seems to be a twinkle in the eye of this creator. Each song is a little theatrical play on words. From a text that speaks of suffering and love, Rossini fashions music that contains spirit and tongue-in-cheek humor. The first song, written for contralto, is in a lyric vein; the second portrays a lamenting baritone; the third, a distraught soprano. A playful fourth, also for soprano, opens in a serious vein, but soon lightens, and this is followed by dramatic rendering of the text for mezzo soprano. The group ends with a jovial setting for buffo baritone.

The group is a fascinating depiction of the many different moods and colors created by Rossini with the same text. The idea of suffering in silence is contradicted by the continual repetition of the text in spirited music that contains humor and theatricality.

Album Italiano

The volume entitled Album italiano contains nine solo songs: "La lontananza," "Il fanciullo smarrito," "Tirana alla spagnola," "La fioraja fiorentina," "Ave Maria," "L'ultimo ricordo," and a group of three songs in Venetian dialect entitled La regatta veneziana.

The musical style of the works varies, from the simplicity of "La regatta veneziana" to the romantic intensity of "L'ultimo ricordo." The florid vocal lines evident in songs such as "La fioraja fiorentina" contrast with the more declamatory style in "Ave Maria," a piece entirely composed on two notes. Piano accompaniments in the songs of Album italiano take on greater importance and independence, with chromatic harmonies, a broader range, and an intensity that contrasts with the simple supportive accompaniments of his earlier Italian songs.

The innocent subjects of the songs of Rossini's youth give way to some less typical and more complex characters, such as a lost child ("Il fanciullo smarrito," for tenor) and a gentle flower girl who supports her mother ("La fioraja fiorentina," for soprano). The idea of separation features in "La lontananza" (At a distance, for tenor) and "L'ultimo ricordo" (The last testament, for baritone). Yet there is also the simplicity and joie de vivre in "La regatta veneziana" (for mezzo soprano), in which Anzoleta watches her beloved Momolo in a boat race and then covers him with kisses when he wins, as well as in songs that depict the beauty of the Italian countryside of Rossini's youth. A Spanish flavor is present in "Tirana alla spagnola," an Andalusian dance, and in "Le gittane" (The gypsy).

Rossini retains his propensity to paint theatrical characters in his music. The music conveys vivid depictions of a scenario or persona in mood and texture from the very first note. It does not seem to matter what the words say because the music conveys a picture even without words. ABA form is used in most of these Italian songs. As in earlier songs, the voice is sometimes used virtuosically, especially at cadenzas.

While simple piano accompaniments are still used, particularly in the songs on Italian and Spanish themes, piano introductions are generally much lengthier in the songs of Album italiano as compared to his earlier Italian songs. In two songs in particularly, "Ave Maria" and "L'ultimo ricordo," there is a much greater use of chromaticism. The piano part in "L'ultimo ricordo" is full and expansive with a corresponding wider dynamic range. The thicker accompaniment combines with a greater dramatic intensity in the vocal writing. A poem by Giovanni Redaelli speaks of a dying man who returns a pressed flower he had kept from his beloved during their years together. Rossini replaces the name Elvira in the poem by his wife Olympe's name (Example 5).

In the Rossini critical edition, Gossett notes that "La fioraja fiorentina" "Tirano spagnola," and probably "La lontananza" were first set to the words "Mi lagnero tacendo," with new words added later.

With the exception of "Ave Maria" and "L'ultimo ricordo" songs in the Album Italiano contain the familiar cantabile vocal lines, beautiful lyricism, characteristic ingenuity of Rossini's musical motifs, and familiar Rossinian vivacity. Album italiano is a collection of interesting and diverse songs on Italian themes with two forays into the new Romantic style that includes an interesting musical parody.

Album francais

Rossini's Album francais contains seven solo songs: "Romeo," "Pompadour, la grande coquette," "Le lazzarone," "Chanson de Zoro," "Le dodo des enfants," "Adieux a la vie," and "L'orpheline du Tyrol." This collection and the Morceaux reserves are testaments to Rossini's familiarity with the French language, tastes, culture, and subject matter.

Rossini's style of writing in his French vocal music is markedly different from that of his Italian music. This difference can be seen as far back as his Italian bel canto operas as compared to his French grand operas. The melodies, harmonies, relationship of word to music, and interplay of voice and piano differ in the Italian and French songs. Rossini, in fact, had many facets; he composed not only Italian comic operas, but sixteen Italian opera seria, in addition to his operas for the French stage.

The role of the piano in Album francais and Morceaux reserves assumes much greater importance and independence than in his Italian songs. There is greater use of chromatic harmonies and unexpected modulations in the French songs. Rossini seems to be moving into a more Romantic style in his late French songs. As in the Album italiano and Musique anodine, some of the songs were originally set to "Mi lagnero tacendo" and later rewritten with French words. (16)

"Romeo" is a long song in binary form for tenor (most of the French songs are in binary form). The piano accompaniment is full and weighty, playing an active role equal to the voice. The words by Pacini, set syllabically, depict Romeo's agony at finding his beloved Juliet dead (Example 6).

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"L'orpheline du Tyrol" is a binary ballad for mezzo soprano with text by Pacini about the sad life of an orphan from Tyrol. The opening melody is taken from Rossini's Neopolitan opera Ermione. (17) The rhythm and yodeling refrain evoke a feeling of the Alps (Example 7).

In "Adieux a la vie" the piano writing is full and rich, containing beautiful melodies and expressive chord flourishes, while the voice is restricted in the extreme, to declaiming on a single note--another example of Rossini's wit. Intensity is further achieved through a wide range of dynamics. The text tells of a disillusioned lover who bids farewell to his homeland and his mother.

"Pompadour, la grande coquette" probably refers to the favorite mistress of Louis XV, Madame Pompadour. With a lighthearted, staccato melody in both piano and voice, the French coquette is brought to life. It is a lengthy song with a change of key in the more legato B section and a chromatic transition to a return of the A and a variant of the B section. The song may have been written before Rossini arrived in Paris, but was adapted in 1862 with French words by Pacini, since there is a manuscript by Pacini dated January 29, 1862 (Example 8).18

"La lazzarone" (The Lazy One) is almost a cabaret piece for baritone. Words by Pacini depict the happy life of a lazy one and the atmosphere in Naples. It is a lively, spirited song, with a tarantella rhythm. The use of the spoken voice adds to its sense of fun (Example 9).

"Chanson de Zoro" (La petite bohemienne) with a text by Deschamps for mezzo soprano, concerns a little bohemian girl, Zoro, who earns a living dancing and singing. A short piano prelude begins in B[flat] major, and abruptly modulates to the parallel minor. The singer has a poignant chromatic lyric line, pathos being created mostly by appoggiaturas that depict Zoro's unhappiness. Sequences build to fortissimo as Zoro says, "It's necessary to be pleasant in order to earn my wages." A long cadenza ends the B section with wide leaps that depict Zoro singing and dancing for her living.

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"Le dodo des enfants" for mezzo soprano, is a lullaby that depicts a mother's love and concern for her sick child, and her prayer to God. The music dates from Rossini's pre-Paris period. In binary form, it is a setting of "Mi lagnero tacendo" to which Pacini later wrote French words. (19) The first part of the A section in F# minor consists of a repeated broken chord motif that alternates tonic and diminished chords in the piano depicting the rocking of a cradle. The music eventually modulates to D major in the second part of the A section as the mother prays to God for the protection of her son. There is a build up to fortissimo in rising sequences as the mother pleads for her son and promises that she will bear any misfortune in his place. The song ends as she rocks her son to sleep with the rocking broken chord motif in the piano.

Morceaux reserves

The album Morceaux reserves consists of five solo songs: "L'esule," "Le sylvain," "L'amour a Pekin," "Ariette a l'ancienne," and "Au chevet d'un mourant."

In "Le sylvain," written for tenor, the vocal range is quite narrow, with the words set syllabically (one syllable per note) in keeping with the French declamatory style of writing for the voice. This tendency can be seen in French vocal music back to the time of Lully. The accompaniment, in contrast, has a wide range, giving it a thick, weighty feel and a Romantic style intensity.

"Ariette a l'ancienne" (Little Aria in the Old Style) with a text by Jean-Jacques Rousseau is for mezzo soprano on the theme of pastoral shepherd life. In ternary form, it is harmonically rich and dense containing much chromaticism, and complex and unexpected modulations (Example 10).

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"Lesule" (The Exile), for tenor, is the only song in the album in Italian. With words by Torre, it concerns an exile that lovingly speaks of his homeland. The country where he currently makes his home cannot take the place of Genoa where he grew up. The A section is repeated exactly, followed by an extended B section. Perhaps Rossini, as he neared the end of his life, thought nostalgically of Italy.

"Au chevet d'un mourant" (At the Bedside of a Dying One), for soprano, is a long song with text by Pacini about a girl who looks after her father in his later years, and consoles him when he is dying. The vocal line is simple and declamatory while the piano has an important, independent role, with changing harmonies in the A section over a tonic A- pedal. There is a climactic B section in F minor as the daughter rails against fate for taking her father as the bass line descends.

Three additional songs that Rossini wrote during his final period that are not included in Peches de vieillesse are: "La separazione" (c. 1858), "A Grenade" (c. 1860), and "La veuve andalouse"(c. 1860) for soprano.20

CONCLUSION

Rossini wrote more than sixty Italian and French solo songs. In addition, he wrote more than fifty duets, quartets, and other vocal chamber pieces. He was capable of writing in both the Classical and the Romantic styles. The sunny radiance of his Italian songs is centered on the voice, with long, cantabile vocal lines, as well as virtuosic melodies, the words always serving the music (with the exception of his two late Italian songs, "Ave Maria" and "L'ultimo ricordo"). In the French songs, the accompaniment and harmonies play a greater role while the voice declaims the text mostly syllabically within a narrower range in keeping with the word-centered French style. There is a great deal of beautiful music to be discovered in Rossini's French and Italian songs, as well as his vast amount of chamber music repertoire. This document has only scratched the surface of this great body of music, which deserves further exploration by singers and scholars alike.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ashbrook, William. "The Ways of Wit" Opera News 46, no. 15 (March 13, 1982): 24.

--. "Una voce poco fa" Opera News 49, no. 6 (December 8, 1984): 24.

Azevedo, Alexis Jacob. G. Rossini: Sa vie et se oeuvres. Paris, 1864.

Backus, David. "Opera Made to Order." Opera News 46, no. 15 (March 13, 1982): 12-13.

Barker, Frank Granville. "Man of Mirth." Opera News 39, no. 9 (December 28, 1974): 34-35.

Barbier, Patrick. Opera in Paris 1800-1850. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995.

Beyle, Marie-Henri (pseudonym, Stendhal). Life of Rossini. Translated by Richard N. Coe. New York: Criterion Books, 1957.

--. "Stendhal on Rossini's Style" Opera News 38, no. 15 (March 2, 1974): 20-21.

Celletti, Rodolfo. A History of Bel Canto. Translated from the Italian by Frederick Fuller. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Friedlaender, Maryla. "Rossini: The Jester." Opera News 15, no. 8 (December 11, 1950): 30-31.

Gossett, Philip. "Rossini Seriously." Opera News 55, no. 7 (December 22, 1990): 20-23.

--. "Rossini, Gioachino." Grove Music Online, ed. Deane L. Root http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/ artcile/grove/music/23901.

--. "Prefazione" Album Francais, Morceaux Reserves di Gioachino Rossini. Edizione critica delle opera di Gioachino Rossini, Series 7, Vol. 2, Peches de Vieillesee. Edited by Bruno Cagli, Alberto Zedda, Patricia Brauner, and Paolo Fabbri. Pesaro: Fondazione Rossini, 1995.

--. "Prefazione" Musique anodine, Album italiano di Gioachino Rossini. Edizione critica delle opera di Gioachino Rossini, Series 7, Vol. 2, Peches de Vieillesee. Edited by Bruno Cagli, Alberto Zedda, Patricia Brauner, and Paolo Fabbri. Pesaro: Fondazione Rossini, 1995.

Hughes, Patrick Cairns. "The Swan Who Could Laugh" High Fidelity 10, no. 7 (July 1960): 38-40.

Kay, Elster. Bel canto. London: Dennis Dobson, 1963.

Osborne, Richard. Rossini. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1986.

Manen, Lucie. Bel canto. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Marek, George. "Will the Real Rossini Please Stand?" Opera News 40, no. 11 (January 17, 1976): 24-25.

Metastasio, Pietro. Tutte les opera di Pietro Metastasio, vol. 1. A cura di Bruno Brunelli. Milan: Mondadori, 1943.

Michotte, Edmond. Richard Wagner's Visit to Rossini (Paris 1860) and an Evening at Rossini's in Beau-sejour (Passy 1858). Translated by Herbert Weinstock. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Rushmore, Robert. "The Composer as Singer." Opera News 33, no. 11 (January 11, 1969): 910.

Sable, Barbara Kinsey. "A Gift for Mme. Rossini." The NATS Bulletin 34, no. 1 (October 1977): 33.

Sinclair, Lister. "Rossini: A Lion in the Path" Opera Canada 28, no. 3 (1987): 20-21.

Till, Nicholas. Rossini, His Life and Times. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1983.

Toye, Francis. "The Serious Rossini." Opera News 27, no. 18 (March 9, 1963): 9-12.

Weinstock, Herbert. Rossini. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968.

Zucker, Stefan. "End of an Era." Opera News 45, no. 12 (February 14, 1981): 16-21.

NOTES

(1.) Philip Gossett, "Rossini, Gioachino," Grove Music Online, ed. Deane L. Root (accessed 10 November 2009), http://www. oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/articlegrove/music/23901.

(2.) Herbert Weinstock, Rossini: A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968), 272.

(3.) Marie Henri Beyle, "Stendhal on Rossini's Style," Opera News 38, no. 17 (March 1974): 20-21.

(4.) Philip Gossett, "Rossini, Gioachino," http://www.oxf.ordmusiconline.com/subscriber/articlegrove/music/23901.

(5.) Patrick Barbier, Opera in Paris 1800-1850 (Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995), 189.

(6.) Rodolfo Celletti, The History of Bel Canto, trans. Frederick Fuller (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 188-210.

(7.) Stefan Zucker, "End of an Era" Opera News 45, no. 12 (February 14, 1982): 17.

(8.) Barbier, 191.

(9.) Weinstock, 112, 196.

(10.) Ibid., 260.

(11.) Ibid., 274-275.

(12.) Ibid., 344.

(13.) Philip Gossett, "Prefazione," in Musique anodine, Album italiano di Gioachino Rossini, Edizione Critica delle Opere di Gioachino Rossini, Series 7, Vol 1 (Pesaro: fondazione Rossini, 1995).

(14.) Pietro Metastasio, Tutte le opera di Pietro Metastasio, a cura di Bruno Brunelli (Milan: Mondadori, 1943), vol. 1, 92.

(15.) Philip Gossett, "Prefazione," in Album francais Morceaux reserves di Gioachino Rossini, Edizione Critica delle Opere di Gioachino Rossini, Series 7, Vol 2 (Pesaro: fondazione Rossini, 1989), xxvi.

(16.) Ibid.

(17.) Ibid.

(18.) Ibid.

(19.) Gossett, "Rossini, Gioachino."

Dr. Shannon joined the music faculty at Northwest Missouri State in 2002, where she teaches Applied Voice, Vocal Methods, and Music Appreciation. She holds a DM in Vocal Performance from Indiana University, an MM from the State University of New York, and a BM from the University of Toronto. In addition, she holds an Associateship (ARCT) in Piano Performance from the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto. She has studied at the Israel Vocal Institute in Tel Aviv, the Wesley Balk Institute in Minneapolis, the Banff School of Fine Arts in Banff, Alberta, and the Royal College of Music in London, England.

As a soprano soloist, she has performed Bach's St Matthew Passion, Handel's Messiah, Mozart's C Minor Mass, the Faure Requiem, Carl Orff's Carmina Burana, Mendelssohn's Elijah, Bachianas Brasileiras # 5 by Villa-Lobos, Dona Nobis Pacem by Vaughan Williams, and the Petite Messe Solennelle by Rossini, with groups that include the Omaha Chamber Symphony and Symphonic Chorus, the Grace Chorale (Omaha), the Amadeus Choir of Greater Toronto, the Bach Elgar Choir (Toronto), the International Symphony, Symphony Hamilton, and the St. Joseph Symphony. She has performed the role of Elvira in Rossini's L'Italiana in Algeri and Ann Putnam in Robert Ward's The Crucible with Tri-Cities Opera.

In March 2005, she gave a lecture recital for the CMS Regional Meeting at William Jewell College. In November 2007, she performed a song cycle, The Cliff's Edge by Margaret Garwood, at the Fiftieth Anniversary National Conference of the College Music Society in Salt Lake City.
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Author:Shannon, Pamela
Publication:Journal of Singing
Article Type:Essay
Geographic Code:4EUIT
Date:Mar 1, 2010
Words:5321
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