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The secret sentinels: careers in intelligence.

The Secret Sentinels: Careers in Intelligence Suave secret agents who save the world between sips of champagne are favorite subjects for paperback novelists. Surrounded by danger and intrigue, these colorful characters can be welcome companions on a slow Saturday night. But they're more fiction than fact. They resemble real intelligence workers about as much as Indiana Jones resembles an anthropologist.

Today's intelligence professional is more likely to be a scholar or scientist, an analyst or administrator. The jobs of these workers are less romantic, perhaps, than those of fictional heroes, but their contribution to America's security is real. These professionals work for the network of agencies that make up the intelligence community of the United States. A few are well known, subjects of frequent media attention and scrutiny; most operate in relative anonymity and near total secrecy. Though their specific missions may vary, they share a common purpose--to safeguard national security and provide information crucial to the conduct of foreign policy.

This article profiles the principal practitioners of the craft of intelligence. It also examines other agencies that play supporting roles in this arcane arena. The Central Intelligence Agency, or CIA, is probably the most familiar. Others are the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research; the Defense Intelligence Agency and the service intelligence branches (Army, Air Force, Navy, Marines) of the Department of Defense; and the super secret National Security Agency.

Although not formally members of the intelligence community, other organizations make important contributions to national intelligence efforts. The FBI conducts counterintelligence operations, keeping tabs on foreign agents within our borders; the Drug Enforcement Administration concentrates on international narcotics trafficking. Three agencies operate under the aegis of the Department of the Treasury--the Secret Service, the U.S. Customs Service, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The Division of Intelligence in the Department of Energy monitors international energy developments and nuclear weapons research; and a branch of the Library of Congress, the Federal Research Division, undertakes special research projects for a variety of executive branch agencies, including components of the intelligence community.

A Historical Perspective

The history of intelligence operations in our country is a lengthy one. During our Revolution, Washington, as Commander of the Continental Army, recognized the value of intelligence. "Everything, in a manner, depends upon obtaining intelligence. Single men in the night will be more likely to ascertain the facts than the best glasses during the day. Secrecy and dispatch may prove the soul of success to an enterprise."

But the General had difficulty recruiting agents from among his gentleman officers. An overwhelming social stigma was attached to espionage. Washington appealed to the patriotism of volunteers, and one who stepped forward was a young Yale graduate named Nathan Hale.

From the Revolution through the Civil War, intelligence efforts supported specific military operations. Both Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 and Winfield Scott in the Mexican War maintained intelligence units. During the Civil War, intelligence operations were organized by famed detective Alan Pinkerton.

The first peacetime intelligence organizations were formed by the Army and the Navy in the 1880's. The first civilian cryptologic--or code making and breaking--group, the Black Chamber, was founded under the auspices of the Department of State and the War Department. Secretary of State Stimson disbanded the Chamber in 1929 with the admonition that "gentlemen do not read each other's mail."

In World War II--with gentlemanly concerns buried beneath the war's rubble--the Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, the forerunner of the CIA, conducted wide-ranging missions against the Germans in Europe and against the Japanese in the China-Burma-India theater.

After the war, the United States was a world power, with global responsibilities. President Truman recognized the need for a professional intelligence service. In 1947, Congress passed and the President signed the National Security Act, founding the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council and laying the cornerstone of a new community--the intelligence community.

What Is Intelligence?

Before taking a look at the components of the intelligence community and the kinds of jobs available within these organizations, some definitions of intelligence are in order.

In simple terms, intelligence may be considered a product refined from raw information by specialists within the community for the benefit of national security policymakers. This notion of producers and consumers of intelligence appears frequently in intelligence literature. A more complete definition may be found in Elements of Intelligence, the first volume in the series Intelligence Requirements for the 1980's, published by the National Strategy Information Center: "In the American context, intelligence connotes information needed or desired by the government in pursuance of its national interests. It includes the process of obtaining, evaluating, protecting, and eventually exploiting the same information. Intelligence also encompasses the defense of U.S. institutions from penetration and harm by hostile intelligence services. The term is also used to describe the mechanism or mechanisms and the bureaucracy which accompanies these activities. Intelligence is at once knowledge, organization, and process."

When considered as a process, the first element is the collection of information. The overwhelming proportion of information used by intelligence agencies is available publicly. Reports published in foreign scientific and technical journals are closely examined, as are other sources, such as newspapers and magazines. Cord Meyer, a former CIA official, estimates that 90 percent of the "raw" intelligence used by the community comes from public sources. The remainder is gathered through "clandestine collection."

Clandestine collection is fundamental to gathering intelligence. In intelligence parlance, this collection takes two forms--HUMINT, or human intelligence, and TECHINT, or technical intelligence.

HUMINT is the world of the spy and secret agent. It also, however, refers to information gathered by diplomats and military attaches in the course of their work. Records from the Select Senate Committee on Intelligence, or Church Committee, which conducted hearings in the mid-1970's, note that Foreign Service officers are the principal source of political intelligence and a primary source of economic intelligence.

Technical intelligence has expanded rapidly in the last few decades due to major advances in such areas as satellite technology. Many of these advances allow the collection of signals intelligence, or SIGINT. Varieties of SIGINT include communications intelligence, or COMINT, which is directed towards the interception of radio signals, coded and uncoded; electronics intelligence, or ELINT; telemetric intelligence, or TELINT, which concentrates on telegraphy; and photographic intelligence, PHOTINT, which deals with photo interpretation and imagery analysis.

A second element of intelligence, inextricably bound to the first, is analysis. Simple facts don't always tell the whole story. The collected information, or "raw intelligence," must pass through a process of expert interpretation. The process is nothing new. During the Revolutionary War, Washington assayed its importance: "It is by comparing a variety of information that we frequently are enabled to investigate facts which were so intricate or hidden that no single clue could have led to knowledge of them."

The types of analysis produced by the American intelligence community vary from current reports on subjects of immediate interest to periodic studies of questions of long-term concern. These reports may be categorized as basic intelligence, current intelligence, tactical intelligence, and strategic intelligence.

An example of the first is biographical data on members of the Soviet Politburo. The CIA's National Intelligence Daily, an up-to-the-minute report of happenings around the world distributed daily to top policymakers, would be in the second category. Tactical intelligence reports, such as data on troop movements, are of supreme importance to military commanders in the field. Illustrative of the fourth category are the National Intelligence Estimates, comprehensive studies on major foreign policy and security issues, which are produced collaboratively by the various components of the community.

Technical innovations in intelligence collection have dramatically increased the amount of information subjected to analysis. William Colby, former Director of the CIA, writes that "the challenge of the intelligence profession today is to absorb the mass of information which forces itself upon us."

The final two elements of intelligence are both very sensitive and highly controversial--counterintelligence and covert action. Counterintelligence is "the identification, neutralization, and, under certain conditions, manipulation of other countries' intelligence services." Its principal aim is to safeguard sensitive information. "It aims further at protecting government and its various components from penetration by their foreign counterparts."

Covert action has received considerable congressional attention and media scrutiny recently, due to U.S. Government efforts to influence events in Nicaragua. As defined in Elements of Intelligence, "Covert action involves the clandestine effort to influence the internal and often external affairs of a foreign country.... Political propaganda and paramilitary activity command the great bulk of covert action efforts."

The Central Intelligence Agency

The CIA both collects raw intelligence and produces finished intelligence. Most of its employees work in the Agency's headquarters in Langley, Virginia. Budget and personnel data are unavailable, but some estimates place the number of employees around 35,000.

The CIA has four directorates or departments: The Directorate of Intelligence; the Directorate of Administration; the Directorate of Science and Technology; and the Directorate of Operations. Each directorate is composed of a variety of offices and branches. David Atlee Phillips, a former CIA official, provides an insider's look at the Agency and each of its directorates in his book, Careers in Secret Operations. Much of the following information on the CIA was taken from this work.

The Directorate of Intelligence. The individual offices of this directorate, described in the following paragraphs, have a wide range of responsibilities.

Office of Economic Research: This office conducts research and analysis concerning actual and potential foreign economic activities and their possible effects on the United States. Most of the analysts have master's or doctoral degrees in economics, but well-qualified bachelor's degree holders may be hired.

Office of Political Analysis: Current and strategic intelligence studies on major foreign policy questions are produced by this office. Intelligence analysts with degrees in such fields as political science, history, and international relations work here. Analysts must be skilled in written and oral presentations.

Office of Strategic Research: Research on foreign military activities and programs is the focus of this office. Analysts with degrees in area studies, international relations, international business and economics, and political science perform much of the work.

Office of Central Research: This office designs, develops, and operates research services that support the analysts. A master's degree in library science is required for some jobs.

Office of Geographic and Cartographic Research: This unit produces geographic intelligence and is composed of four major components: 1) The Environmental and Resource Analysis Center; 2) Geography Division; 3) Cartographic Division; 4) Map Library Division. Geographers and cartographers are actively recruited.

Office of Imagery Analysis: This office specializes in photo interpretation. A variety of specialists work in it and receive in-depth training on the job.

Office of Scientific and Weapons Research: Research on foreign scientific and technical activities, weapons, and space programs is this office's field. Candidates with degrees in the physical sciences and engineering are recruited for work in the OSWR.

Foreign Broadcast Information Service: This office monitors foreign public media and publishes the Daily Report, a compilation of foreign news distributed to a variety of officials and sold to the public through the Department of Commerce. People with degrees in English, history, international relations, journalism, and other related fields work in the service.

Directorate of Administration. A variety of professionals work in the Directorate of Administration. Personnel and management specialists, financial administrators, communications experts who install and maintain the complex array of equipment, and medical personnel, among others, are employed.

Directorate of Science and Technology. Much of the work of this directorate is top secret. It is the technical intelligence arm of the CIA. People with degrees in scientific and technical fields compose a large portion of the personnel.

Directorate of Operations. This directorate is sometimes known as the clandestine service. Intelligence officers in this directorate conduct overseas intelligence operations. Many of its employees work in foreign countries.

Recruitment: "Intelligence is a growth profession," says Larry Curran, Chief of Recruitment Operations for the CIA. "The Agency is coming into maturity," he adds. "Many who were around at the birth of the Agency are approaching retirement age, so we are hiring for attrition as well as for increment."

The CIA runs an active recruitment operation, with 11 recruitment centers across the Nation. Advertisements in major newspapers and magazines promise exciting, challenging careers coupled with the opportunity to serve the country.

Some new recruits are people in their mid- to late 20's who've decided upon a career change. "Many," says Curran, "want to get out in front in R and D" referring to CIA research and development work in engineering, computers, and electronics.

Other recruits come straight from college. Recruiters regularly visit about 350 campuses a year. Graduates with scientific and technical degrees are highly sought, Curran says, but so are those with degrees in the liberal arts. "I'd wager that on a percentage basis we hire more liberal arts graduates than any institution in the country," says the CIA's chief recruiter.

Special opportunities for language specialists exist in three different categories. In the first, specialists work in foreign literature analysis, monitoring publications in more than 60 languages. In the second category are foreign language teachers. The third type of specialist works for the U.S. Joint Publications Research Service, which provides translation services not only for the CIA but for a variety of government agencies and departments. Translators hired on a contract basis may work at home, conducting their business through the mail.

For candidates interested in a career with the CIA, recruitment procedures are fairly uniform. The initial step is to submit a resume or Standard Form 171, available from the Office of Personnel Management. These are scrutinized carefully not only for qualifications but for clarity and succinctness of expression. Next is a screening interview with an Agency recruiter. Satisfactory performance at this level will result in an invitation to take the Professional Applicants Test, a rigorous exam similar to the Graduate Record Examination. The records of candidates who pass the exam are circulated through the Agency to see if there is interest and if there is a position available. If so, the candidate may be brought to Washington for additional interviews, a medical examination, and a polygraph or lie detector test. In this pre-employment test, some embarrassing questions are likely to be posed. Any personal trait or problem that may cause difficulties is explored by the Agency. Finally, an intensive background investigation will be undertaken that may last anywhere from 4 to 6 months. Recruits are usually hired at the GS-7 grade, which pays $17,824 at present.

Once on board, new employees participate in a Career Training program lasting 3 to 15 months. Curran says that until recently only the Directorate of Operations participated in this special program. Now professionals in all four directorates receive general intelligence training and then more specific training in their assignment areas.

For additional information, contact Director of Personnel Central Intelligence Agency Washington, D.C. 20505.

The Department of Defense

The CIA receives the most attention of all components of the U.S. intelligence community, although the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence revealed that in 1976 less than 10 percent of the Nation's spending on intelligence was directed by the CIA. Nearly all of the remainder was controlled by the Department of Defense.

The defense intelligence establishment provides information on the military capabilities or political intentions of foreign powers. While there is likely some duplication of effort with the CIA, defense intelligence is primarily tactical and the CIA concentrates on strategic intelligence issues.

The Defense Intelligence Agency. Chief among agencies that contribute to defense intelligence efforts is the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), headquartered at Bolling Air Force Base in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1961, DIA supports the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff with its own intelligence estimates and coordinates Defense Department involvement in the national intelligence community.

DIA produces intelligence in these four categories: 1) Basic intelligence--information on the strength of opposing forces, biographical information, and targets. 2) Current intelligence--information on recent events of global significance. 3) Collaborative intelligence--estimates of foreign capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action, in collaboration with other members of the intelligence community; the results of that collaborative study serve as the cornerstone of long-term foreign and national security policy. 4) Scientific and technical intelligence, which includes research on all aspects of weapons technology.

Intelligence specialists at the DIA perform work similar to their counterparts at the CIA. The Department of Defense General Intelligence Personnel Manual describes some of the fields in which DIA analysts work. These include Strategic Mobility--transportation systems, railways, highways, and waterways; Military Geography--physical and cultural geography, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power facilities, and telecommunications systems; Production Support and Resources--such diverse fields as meteorology and demography. A variety of other scientists, technicians, and engineers are also involved in the production of intelligence.

Recruitment: According to James W. Jones, Director of Civilian Personnel Operations for the DIA, the agency maintains a small campus recruitment schedule. In 1984, DIA recruiters visited only 14 schools, primarily in the Washington, D.C., area. The agency does advertise heavily in major newspapers and technical magazines. These generate a significant number of responses. In 1984, the agency received 16,000 to 18,000 inquiries ranging from completed resumes to requests for information.

Candidates for intelligence analyst research positions need at least a bachelor's degree. "Realistically," says Jones, "we are able to demand even more." Recruitment is primarily at the entry level. Jones says there are some mid-level hires but very few at the senior levels.

Recruitment procedures are similar to those of the CIA. Candidates must submit a resume or a Standard Form 171. Some candidates then receive a screening interview. The next step is an aptitude test. Those who pass are invited to DIA headquarters for further interviews; candidates for certain jobs take a polygraph exam. Extensive background checks are conducted by the Defense Investigative Service.

Entry-level candidates can expect to start at the GS-7 level. All employees undergo training, both in the classroom and on the job. Individual career plans can be established with the assistance of personnel officers in the Intelligence Career Development Program, a department-wide program geared to assist civilian defense intelligence specialists.

Intelligence specialists are expected to pursue continuing education. Advancement to senior positions is contingent upon these studies. The Training Compendium for General Intelligence Career Development Program Personnel, published by DIA, lists over 10 pages of courses, single spaced, in which intelligence personnel, with certain prerequisites, may enroll. Courses range from general intelligence analysis to such esoterica as Advanced Imagery Interpretation Orientation and Probability Theory for the Intelligence Specialist. One institution, the Defense Intelligence College, a major training ground for intelligence specialists throughout the community, maintains a fully accredited graduate program, offering a master's degree in strategic intelligence.

Although DIA commands a large portion of Department of Defense's intelligence resources, other agencies, such as the Defense Mapping Agency, contribute significantly. Each of the military branches also maintains a large intelligence service. In many respects, these positions mirror those found in DIA but are geared to the particular needs of the branch.

For additional information, contact Defense Intelligence Agency Civilian Personnel Operations Division (RHR-2) Washington, D.C. 20301.

The Defense Mapping Agency. This agency produces strategic and tactical maps for the defense intelligence community. It also conducts imagery and terrain analysis for defense planners. DMA recruits at over 40 universities and, like its counterparts in the community, conducts a highly visible advertising campaign in several technical publications. The agency hires, among others, about 200 cartographers a year. Most candidates have degrees in the physical sciences. Liberal arts graduates with a strong science background are considered, but competition is stiff.

The National Security Agency. NSA is the most secret of all the members of the intelligence community. Founded by President Truman's executive order on November 4, 1952, secrecy is so strict that NSA'S existence was not acknowledged until 1957. The executive order that established it still remains classified.

The mission of NSA is the collection of signals intelligence and the protection of U.S. communications systems. In its mammoth headquarters at Fort Meade, Md., codemakers and codebreakers, computer specialists, engineers, mathematicians, and linguists perform their work behind a wide, high wall of security.

Technically part of the Department of Defense, NSA is the largest component of the community in terms of personnel. And, according to the 1976 Church Committee report, it "is the largest single program contained in the national intelligence budget."

Very little information is available about the workings of NSA. Much of what follows is taken from The Puzzle Palace by James Bamford. (NSA disavows any connection with Bamford's book and will not comment upon it.) "Basically," says Bamford, "the NSA is made up of 10 key components: Four primarily operational organizations, five staff and support activities, and one training unit."

First among equals at NSA is the Office of Signals Operations. This unit encompasses the entire spectrum of signals intelligence, from interception to cryptanalysis, from traffic analysis to analysis of clear text, and from high-level diplomatic systems to low-level radio telephones.

Some unusual careers exist in Signals Operations. A traffic analyst works with the "externals" of a message--its point of origin, destination, priority, grade of cipher, frequency, and volume. Bamford cites as an example a traffic analyst's prediction of an impending Soviet rocket launch by analyzing the aforementioned data in radio traffic from a Soviet rocket base.

Many foreign language specialists work at NSA. A former NSA official says the Agency contains the "largest single population of foreign language experts in the world." A special breed of linguist employed at NSA is the "crypto-linguist," who analyzes secure voice systems and develops such tools as computer-assisted voice translations.

The Office of Communications Security provides the methods, principles, and equipment to protect America's classified communications systems, which encompass "everything from the scrambler phone in the President's limousine to the banks of chattering crypto machines in the State Department's code room." It also prescribes the ways in which to use them.

Engineers and scientists in the Office of Research and Engineering work with the most advanced computers and electronic equipment. Bamford notes that these scientists try to remain at least 5 years ahead of equipment now in general use.

An integral component of NSA is the Office of Telecommunications and Computer Services. NSA has been a "silent partner" in computer growth from the very beginning. One NSA computer expert says that it is NSA's "policy of anonymity" that has kept its role almost totally hidden. Beneath its headquarters is "undoubtedly the largest concentration of computers the world has ever known" and "probably the most advanced computer operation in the world." General Marshall Carter, a former director of NSA, is quoted in The Puzzle Palace as saying, "I had five and a half acres of computers when I was there. We didn't count them by numbers; it was five and a half acres."

NSA literature lists seven major career fields and the college majors appropriate to each.

Computer systems: Employees perform applications programming, systems programming, retrieval systems, or data base management. Preferred majors: Mathematics, statistics, physical science, data management.

Language: Employees perform research and analysis involving translation or transcription. Preferred majors: All foreign languages.

Communications security: Employees protect U.S. communications against exploitation by foreign intelligence or unauthorized persons. Preferred majors: Mathematics, statistics, physical science, operations research, information theory.

Intelligence research: Like their counterparts in other agencies, intelligence research analysts collect and assess information on foreign policy and national security issues. The results of their work are shared with other members of the intelligence community. Preferred majors: International relations, history, political science, economics, foreign languages, library science.

Cryptography: Specialists in this field develop code and cipher systems to ensure "the maximum degree of security" for the transmission of classified information. Preferred majors: Mathematics, statistics, logic.

Signals analysis: Signals analysts are involved in one of three major areas: Communications, electronics, or telemetry. Preferred majors: Mathematics, physical science.

Management and administration: NSA managers supervise and administer support services throughout the Agency. They work in logistics, resource management, personnel, and security. Preferred majors: Personnel management, business, accounting, psychology.

NSA maintains what Bamford calls "the most selective institution of higher learning in the country, The National Cryptologic School." In 1979, over 19,000 employees of NSA were enrolled in over 500 courses.

Recruitment: NSA maintains an active college recruitment program. Carolyn Johnson, speaking for NSA, estimates that NSA recruiters visit between 150 and 200 colleges annually. The Agency also holds an annual jobs fair. The last gathering was held in Atlanta in March 1985. This is expected to be a big year for NSA; as many as 2,000 new employees may be hired in 1985. Emphasis is upon graduates in mathematics, engineering, computer science, and linguistics.

Most applicants are required to take NSA's special Professional Qualifications test, administered once a year, usually in the autumn. The passing grade on the exam varies from year to year, depending upon Agency requirements. As with the other components of the community, prospective employees can expect a series of rigorous interviews and an in-depth background investigation that may take 6 to 9 months.

For additional information, contact

College Recruitment Program

National Security Agency

Attn: Office of Employment (M322)

Fort Meade, Md. 20755.

The Department of State

The State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research was founded in 1946 to furnish the Secretary of State with information and analysis concerning basic trends in foreign affairs. It serves two basic functions: 1) Providing substantive intelligence for the Department and other agencies and 2) coordinating intelligence operations within the Department.

INR focuses on policy-oriented research. Most of this is sensitive material available only to national security policymakers, although special reports are available to the public for a small fee through the Government Printing Office.

INR staffers are Foreign Service officers. Entry requirements for the Foreign Service are stringent: Good academic credentials, satisfactory performance on the Foreign Service Officers Examination, and oral examinations for those who pass the written test.

Many compete for Foreign Service positions. Phillips notes in his Careers in Secret Operations that of the nearly 17,000 candidates who took a recent exam only around 2,500 passed. Statistics show that more than 80 percent of these candidates will be eliminated after the oral, and some of the remainder will be eliminated after medical examinations.

For additional information, contact

U.S. Department of State

Recruitment Division

P.O. Box 9317

Rosslyn Station

Arlington, Va. 22209.

The Department of Justice

Two major agencies in the Department of Justice are members of the intelligence community: The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation. In the interest of national security, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) conducts foreign counterintelligence investigations within the United States. It also coordinates the domestic counterintelligence activities of other agencies in the intelligence community. The FBI does not recruit personnel specifically for assignments in foreign counterintelligence.

To become a special agent, a person must meet certain general requirements. Candidates must be citizens of the United States, between 23 and 35 years old, in good health and physical condition, possess a valid driver's license, and be available for assignment anywhere in the FBI's jurisdiction. With these basic requirements satisfied, a candidate must qualify under one of five entrance programs:

* Law--for graduates of State-accredited law schools who have also completed at least 2 years of undergraduate work at an accredited college.

* Accounting--for holders of a bachelor's degree in accounting.

* Language--for holders of the bachelor's degree who are fluent in one or more languages currently needed by the Bureau.

* Diversified--for holders of a bachelor's degree who have at least 3 years' full-time work experience or an advanced degree and 2 years' experience.

* Engineering/science--for holders of a bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree from an accredited college in disciplines such as computer science, biological science, engineering, chemistry, business administration, and management information systems. Relevant fulltime work experience may be required.

The FBI's Special Agent Selection system has three phases: A written test, a panel interview, and a background investigation.

Newly hired agents proceed to the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia, where they undergo training for 15 weeks. They are then assigned to a field office.

Further information regarding employment may be obtained from the nearest office of the FBI. You may also contact

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Office of Personnel

10th and Pennsylvania Avenue NW.

Washington, D.C. 20535.

The Drug Enforcement Administration. International narcotics trafficking has been specifically identified by President Reagan as one of the principal concerns of the intelligence community. Spearheading government efforts against drug traffickers is the Drug Enforcement Administration.

Recent history demonstrates what a dangerous job this is. David Atlee Phillips writes that "the work of the DEA agent is difficult and risky--unquestionably the most dangerous undercover work in which any Federal agent can become involved."

Most of the DEA's work is conducted by special agents. Unlike some of the other agencies, DEA does not require that agents have a college degree. However, according to John Farley, Jr., Acting Chief of Recruitment of Special Agents, most successful candidates do have a degree and at least a year of criminal investigative experience.

About 2,000 agents serve with DEA in the United States and nearly 60 countries around the world. These international assignments demonstrate why DEA actively recruits candidates with language skills.

Foreign language fluency is not the only special skill sought by DEA recruiters. Drug traffickers have become increasingly sophisticated in hiding and "laundering" their ill-gotten gains. Auditors and accountants able to decipher complex financial data are therefore needed by DEA, says Farley.

Nineteen recruiters, operating out of as many offices across the country, conduct DEA's employment operations. Recruiting efforts vary in response to investigative needs. "The Administration must be in the position to respond to traffickers," says Farley. At times, recruitment concentrates on certain ethnic groups, but, says Farley, "DEA is an equal opportunity employer whose workforce reflects the general population."

Interested candidates should submit a resume or Standard Form 171 and a college transcript. Satisfactory candidates will be invited to appear for an interview before a panel of three senior agents. If successful at this stage, candidates have a medical exam, a security check, and, occasionally, a polygraph examination. All candidates are then placed in a recruitment pool from which several classes a year are drawn.

Presently, DEA training takes place at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center at Glyncoe, Georgia; in the future, DEA agents may undergo training at the FBI Academy in Quantico. Eight weeks of training include basic law enforcement techniques and investigative methods, legal aspects of the job, and physical training. This is followed by 4 weeks of specialized DEA training.

In a supporting role at DEA, Intelligence Research Specialists perform research functions similar to those at other agencies. These positions are civil service jobs. While a college degree is not required, most successful applicants do possess a degree.

For additional information, contact

Drug Enforcement Administration

Office of Personnel

1405 I Street NW.

Washington, D.C. 20537.

The Department of the Treasury

Three organizations within the Department of the Treasury conduct intelligence operations in support of their normal law enforcement functions: The Secret Service; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; and the U.S. Customs Service.

The Secret Service protects the President and Vice President, their families, and candidates for the office of President and Vice President. In addition, the Service conducts operations against counterfeiters of U.S. currency, coins, and stamps; forgers of government securities; and violators of certain other Federal laws.

The Secret Service is not formally a member of the intelligence community although it does maintain close contact with it. It is principally a consumer of intelligence. One office, however, the Intelligence Division, monitors individuals who may pose a threat to the President or others whose safety is a concern of the Service.

About 1,900 Secret Service agents work in offices around the country. The agency conducts no active college recruitment program, but does occasionally participate in career nights at high schools and universities. Technically, a college degree is not required, though most agents do possess one. Michael Tarr, public affairs officer with the Service, says, "We look for self-starters who can easily adapt to a variety of situations." Interested people should submit a Standard Form 171 and take the Treasury Enforcement Agent exam. Candidates then pass through a series of interviews and a thorough background investigation.

Once accepted, special agent candidates go through two phases of training. The first phase takes place at the Federal Law Enforcement Academy at Glyncoe. The second phase occurs in Washington and is geared toward job particulars.

For additional information, contact.

United States Secret Service

Personnel Division

1800 G Street NW.

Washington, D.C. 20223.

The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. The Bureau, referred to as BATF, is primarily a law enforcement agency. Its special agents investigate violations of Federal laws relating to alcohol, tobacco, firearms, explosives, and arson. In the course of its operations, it frequently consults with components of the intelligence community.

Joseph Vince, special agent in charge of the Intelligence Branch, says that the Bureau employs some senior intelligence analysts, but at present there is no recruiting. That may change in the future, he says. Those analysts who are employed all have a college degree and have demonstrated analytical abilities. They are subject to a thorough background investigation and receive a top secret clearance from the Bureau's Office of External Affairs.

About 1,200 special agents in BATF work in offices around the country. BATF recruitment literature offers an idea of special agents' duties. Agents conduct investigations that "involve surveillance; participation in raids; interviewing suspects and witnesses; making arrests; obtaining search warrants and searching for physical evidence.... When required by circumstances, the special agent must assume an undercover role and associate with known criminals to purchase contraband, observe illegal activities, and obtain additional intelligence." These investigations often involve organizations acquiring firearms and explosives through illegal means or for unlawful purposes. Most agents possess a college degree. Applicants must take the Treasury Enforcement Agent exam. Those with high scores may be invited for a series of interviews. They must be American citizens, between 21 and 35 years of age, in good health, and able to pass a complete background investigation. There is a two-phase training program: 8 weeks at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center and subsequent study at the Special Agents Basic School for specialized BATF training.

For additional information, contact Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Personnel Division 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW. Washington, D.C. 20226.

The U.S. Customs Service. Founded in 1789, the Customs Service was one of the first agencies established by Congress. Its mandate was to collect revenues on imported goods and enforce customs laws. This mandate has not changed but the number of laws to enforce has grown. The Service enforces 400 laws and regulations established by 40 other agencies regarding revenues, goods, and immigration. Hardly anything or anyone crosses the borders of the United States without some involvement with the U.S. Customs Service.

Since 1972, the Customs Service has maintained an intelligence component. In October 1984, the Office of Intelligence was officially established. Around 100 intelligence specialists and clerical workers are stationed at Customs headquarters in Washington, with another 100 in the seven customs regions.

According to the Office of Intelligence, Customs intelligence personnel concentrate on four principal areas: Narcotics, critical technology, terrorism, and commercial fraud. The protection of high-technology products, such as certain types of computers or electronics equipment, is a new role for the Service. Federal laws proscribe the export of "critical technology." Customs agents are the final guard to ensure that it does not pass into unfriendly hands. To guard our borders against the entry of international terrorists, a highly advanced computer system with up-to-date information on known and suspected terrorists is in use at all major points of entry into the United States. Commercial fraud involves quota regulations, country-of-origin markings, copyright and trademark protection, and undervaluation of merchandise.

Applicants for intelligence positions in Customs who do not have prior civilian Federal Government experience are selected from the Office of Personnel Management's register for the GS-0132 series (Intelligence Research Analyst). A Standard Form 171 must be completed. A series of interviews and a satisfactory background investigation are required. Personnel attached to the Office of Intelligence participate in a 2-week intelligence orientation course and receive extensive on-the-job training.

For additional information, contact United States Customs Service Headquarters Personnel Branch 1301 Constitution Avenue NW. Washington, D.C. 20229.

The Department of Energy

The oil embargo in 1973 underlined the danger of American reliance upon imported oil and dramatized the linkage between energy issues and national security. One organization that monitors this interplay is the Office of Intelligence of the Department of Energy.

According to Charles V. Boykin, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Intelligence, analysts at the Office of Intelligence closely watch events in the world's energy-producing regions. The Office also produces economic analysis and some military analysis, including research on nuclear weapons, and disseminates this information throughout the Department and the community. Much of the work is highly technical, requiring a thorough acquaintance with engineering and science, although the office does employ some general intelligence research analysts.

A distinguishing feature of the Energy Department is that it follows the general employment guidelines established by the Office of Personnel Management. The other agencies within the community are generally "excepted," that is, they are not bound by Office of Personnel Management regulations.

Secretary Boykin states that most new employees enter at the middle or senior level, frequently transferring from other agencies within the intelligence community. "But," says the Secretary, "we would consider a recent college graduate of high academic achievement."

For additional information, contact U.S. Department of Energy Careers P.O. Box 8900 Silver Spring, Md. 20907.

The Library of Congress

The Federal Research Division (FRD) is a branch of the Library of Congress that conducts foreign language and international research and analysis for a variety of intelligence agencies, principally within the Defense Department.

Analysts at FRD use the resources of the Library, the world's largest, to perform wide-ranging social science, scientific, and technical research. Examples of FRD research topics include Soviet elites and propaganda, Central American insurgencies, Warsaw Pact economies, and strategic mineral production.

The majority of staffers at the FRD have advanced degrees and substantive experience in such fields as the social, physical, and life sciences and technical disciplines. Specialists in all the major foreign geographic areas work for the Division. The FRD staff has an impressive language capability--analysts conduct research in about 30 of the world's languages. Recruitment for FRD positions is conducted by the Library's personnel office. Competition is keen. FRD personnel are eligible to participate in the Defense Department's development program for intelligence careers.

For additional information, contact Library of Congress Recruitment and Placement James Madison Building 101 Independence Avenue SE. Washington, D.C. 20540.

Clerical Positions Within the Intelligence Community

All of the agencies within the intelligence community employ large numbers of administrative and clerical personnel. Positions for clerk-typists, stenographers, word processing specialists, and other workers are available both in the United States and in overseas offices for qualified candidates. The employment process is not as rigorous as that for professional positions, but candidates should expect to take certain skills tests and, perhaps, a polygraph examination. A security clearance is necessary for some positions. For additional information, contact the individual agencies or a Federal Job Information Center. These centers are listed in the Federal Government section of telephone directories.
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Author:Stanton, Michael
Publication:Occupational Outlook Quarterly
Date:Sep 22, 1985
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