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The role of urban form at historical waterfront: case of Marsaxlokk waterfront.

INTRODUCTION

The urban form is one of the important components that influence the character of the cultural and heritage waterfront. It deals with the block pattern or the form of building, landscape design and etc. that make up the built form of the townscapes. Accordance to [1] the three main archetypal urban forms are the linear city, the grid iron city and inward looking or highly centralized city to identity of the cultural and heritage waterfront. These three typical forms have also been modified and converted to an array of hybrid type of urban forms depending on number of factors such as location, land value or social structure. So then, according to the (3) urban form is visible form of built up areas thus equated with the term townscapes and seen as the urban equivalent of landscape. However, [2] interprets urban form from urban design in which its physical elements consist of land use, building form and massing, circulation and parking, open space, pedestrian walkways, activity support and signage. This revision will discover the approach to conducting a cultural and heritage waterfront appraisal which is useful tool in outlining the physical component of urban form that personalities the culture and heritage waterfront. Moreover, these paper also deliberate about the roles of urban form that characterized the cultural & heritage waterfront identity of Marsaxlokk waterfront. Hence, the aim of this paper is to discover roles of urban form at culture and heritage waterfront that influence by physical component of landscape element. In this revision qualitative method are fit to the issue and objective. The evident was originated from many different sources: such as, observation, noted, user opinion, personal journal and news clips from many source namely internet, books and media social sources. These consequences can be supportive for the developer, policy makers and master planner to facilitate in documenting the cultural and heritage tourism strategies for a successful cultural and heritage waterfront development.

1.0 Literature Review:

1.1 The physical urban

Historians have attempted to isolate and codify the variations in the pattern of the cities. However, their developments almost preclude such classification well known as adjectives like organic and inorganic, irregular and geometrical, magical, and mystical, formal and informal, medieval and classic, are often so obtuse and obscure rather than clarify the distinctions, or they describe a form without the substance [6]. Two basic urban are discernible, the walled and open city. Within these basic forms a wide variety of patterns has been woven, each color and design shaped by the character of society at the time. Few cities in which great cultures thrived began with a plan [4]. They develop by a process of accretion-the growth was irregular in form, sensitive to changes in the habits of people, and dynamic in character 1.2 The urban form and pattern:

In year [2,7] was mention in her journal according to the urban pattern; urban pattern or urban form is a fundamental element of city design, a utilitarian product of property division and topography. Encompassing it is the planned and unconscious formed sites, transport routes and service system as well as places of passage and arrival. Urban pattern can be explain in term of plan of figure ground and seen in term of absence and presence of elements, vacant and occupied space and most important, public or private space. However (2) also noted that topography conditions of historical process and contain within it the memories of urban ambitions. Hand, according to the book that written by [14,15] she was mention most of major town in Malaysia have a uniform urban pattern demarcated by grid iron pattern of roads quite typical of the town in this country. She also said these roads were either built parallel to the river and then spread perpendicular to the first street. From then on the towns usually spread following the grids of the earliest streets, creating many cross junctions as part of grid iron pattern [4,8] As a result from this discussion, we can found that, the development of pattern at the cities mostly be effected by the road or street. According to the [10,11,14] he was said thus, this pattern is seen to be broken by a creation of green open space locally referred to as padang (Field), most of town in the world have the padang, strategically located in the town centre as demonstrated bt the towns of Kuala Lumpur, Kuantan, George Town, Ipoh, Kuching or Alor Setar. Shuhanah Shamsuddin [15] also mention in her book, Melaka used to have a padang adjacent to historical sites of Portuguese gateway or A Famosa but its originally form has now been reduced and transformed by the recent commercial development on its site [9] in the book of Concise townscape was mention the urban pattern through the blocks of terraced town house and street are laid in an intricate mesh of irregular narrow streets. He also noted the pattern is intermittently disrupted by the fluctuation of street into an enlarged space yet still functioning as a street. We can see the pattern of development in cities is very difference according to the landform, from that issues we know that old town centre also displays a less regulated pattern where the block and streets pattern are not laid in rigid grid iron pattern typical of the news town centre for the example is George town in Penang, Malaysia. As a conclusion, distinct pattern can be seen in the older town centre where the streets are irregular; it will create a mysterious effect in the townscapes.

2.0 Methodology:

This revision will discover the approach to conducting a cultural and heritage waterfront appraisal which is useful tool in outlining the physical component of urban form that personalities the culture and heritage waterfront. Moreover, these paper also deliberate about the roles of urban form that characterized the cultural & heritage waterfront identity of Marsaxlokk waterfront. Hence, the aim of this paper is to discover roles of urban form at culture and heritage waterfront that influence by physical component of landscape element. In this revision qualitative method are fit to the issue and objective. The evident was originated from many different sources: such as, observation, noted, user opinion, personal journal and news clips from many source namely internet, books and media social sources. From this contents analysis, researchers have come out with the theoretical framework for characteristic of heritage and cultural waterfront development in role to understanding about the roles of urban form in creates a good cultural and heritage townscape.

3.0 Discussion and Analysis:

3.1 Case study: Marsaxlokk waterfront:

A lively waterfront and sparkling urban and cultural area mark Malta Island as a chosen destination among the tourists. Walk down toward St Peter Street to discover Marsaxlokk waterfront promenade. Visitors can sign up for sailboat tours and boat rentals, or browse exhibits at the National Museum or Malta Cultural & Heritage Center. End the day watching the sunset over the water at The Rusty Scupper, a popular local seafood restaurant famous for its jumbo lump crab cake--a Malta specialty. Captivating urban cultural & heritage beauty and a distinctly cosmopolitan flair make Marsaxlokk one of the world's most unique waterfront cities. In fact, Marsaxlokk is new development waterfront with Malta Cultural & heritage elements development in year 2000 according to that; the Government of Malta was conferring Marsaxlokk waterfront as a Malta cultural & heritage waterfront development as a part of Malta history to represent to the tourist. Hence, Marsaxlokk was redesign and recreates the landform pattern along the promenade due to alignment the landform to become more functional and vast.

3.2 Evolution of urban form at Marsaxlokk waterfront:

Previously, Marsaxlokk is an industrial city pattern raw or else partly processed materials then turned into finished goods for shipments to the market places of the world then it became an cultural and heritage recreational waterfront city, Marsaxlokk Quay was attracts large numbers of societies since of their climate and special culture heritage offerings. These include mix use of development such as health resorts, gambling centers, recreational area, and attractive areas. The structure of Marsaxlokk is inspiration by narrow frontage terraced shop house and seashore configuration that influenced by its inorganic street pattern. On the hand, there is relationship between the block pattern and building use where the rigid grid iron pattern is associated with the row of shop house whereas the government office and institutions building as well as government residential quarters took on an irregular and loose urban form.

3.3 Discussion:

This section discusses the approach to conducting a cultural & heritage waterfront townscape appraisal which is a useful tool in outlining the character of landform and pattern of case study. The various aspects that need to be considered and way in which the visual qualities of the townscapes can be appreciated has also been outlined. It is also discovered that the qualities of townscapes influences the overall character of landform pattern of the waterfront and that it gives an overall impression of a places. Landform pattern growth can affect many changes due to enhance the image of townscapes. Seemingly most trivial of landform pattern can bring about the vast environmental changes. They all have had particular functions to perform, some singular and other multiple. Hence like organic and inorganic, irregular and geometrical, magical, and mystical, formal and informal, medieval and classic, they are often so obtuse and obscure rather than clarify the distinctions, or they describe a form without the substance.

4.0 Conclusion:

Urban form growth can affect many changes due to enhance the image of townscapes. In fact, the ostensibly greatest trivial of urban form can convey about the vast environmental changes. They completely have had specific functions to carry out, some singular and other multiple. Besides, the adjectives like organic and inorganic, irregular and geometrical, magical, and mystical, formal and informal, medieval and classic, are often so simpleminded and ambiguous rather than clarify the distinctions, or they describe a form without the substance. Moreover, the texture of waterfront form or any town can be assessed though the height differences of building, meanwhile that a narrow and snaky paths are typical characteristic of the medieval cities townscape. Yet, the most significant features of the urban form in the cultural heritage waterfront are its sense of enclosure that results from the proportion of the height of building fronting the street and the street width. Urban form also includes the smidgeon and texture of the waterfront. Smidgeon is the condition that describes the building frontage of the street blocks and is measured in term of the width of the buildings. The flamboyant of urban form at cultural heritage waterfront reflects the affluent. On the other hand, whatever form it look alike, it had better to be less problem for society and mean to be presented the identity and image of the authenticity of townscape. Never less more, to complete this research study, researchers will test this content analysis in Malaysia cultural & heritage waterfront to see how far thus urban form elements are really validity to support the successful waterfront development.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 28 September 2015

Accepted 15 November 2015

Available online 24 November 2015

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Cannot express enough thanks to Ministry of Education for granting the fund of Trans-Research Grant Scheme (TRGS) and my role of supervisors in the research project for their continued support and encouragement: Dr. Mohd Yazid bin Mohd Yunos, Dr. Nangkula Utaberta and Dr. Nor Atiah Ismail, Dr Nor Fazahmima and Dr Sumarni. I offer my sincere appreciation for the learning opportunities provided by my committee.

REFERENCES

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[2] Chase, S.E., 2005. Narrative inquiry. Multiple lenses, approaches, voice. In: Denzin, N.K., Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage publications, London, 651-669.

[3] Ismail, S. and H. Nor Zalina, 2010. The Morphological Transformation of Public Place in Historic Town of Melaka. In: South-east Asia Technical University Consortium 4, 25th-26th February 2010, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo.

[4] Jerpdsen, G.B., G. Swensen, 2005. When the city invades the countryside. Cultural historical environments in spatial planning. In: Kungolos, A., Brebbia, C.A., Beriatos, E. (Eds.), Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning II, 2. WIT Press, 1281-1290.

[5] Lawson, B., 2001. The Language of Space. UK: Architectural Press.

[6] Lynch, K., 1960. The image and urban form of the city, (1). MIT press.

[6] Nor Zalina, H. and Jalil, Raj, 2012. The Morphological History of the Malaysian Urban Form, 2012 IEDRC Phnom Penh Conferences, IACSIT Press, 111-116. doi:10.6663/ffEDR.

[8] Montgomery, J., 2003. Cultural Quarters as Mechanisms for Urban Regeneration. Part 1: Conceptualising Cultural Quarters. Planning, Practice & Research, 18(4): 293-306). Taylor & Francis Group

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[10] Tajuddin, M., M. Rasdi, and N. Utaberta, 2010.--The Design of Mosques as Communily Development Centers from the Perspective of the Sunna and Wright's Organic Architecture," J. Islam. Archil, 1(1).

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(1) Mohd Amirul Hussain, (1) Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, (2) Sumarni Ismail, (2) Nangkula Utaberta, (1) Nor Atiah Ismail, (1) Noor fazamimah Mohd Arifin, (2) Rahayu Intan, (2) Muhammad Lutfi Daud

(1) Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, 43400 University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

(2) Deparment of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, 43400 University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Corresponding Author: Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, 43400 University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Table 1: Result indicated that three main archetypal urban forms
are the linear city, the grid iron city and centralized.

The types of urban form            Description and its roles

1. Centralized pattern     Shuhanah Shamsuddin [15] was noted in her
                               book Townscape Revisited, the most
                                distinctive pattern is in Kuala
                            Terangganu where the earliest street was
                            designed in a deflected manner following
                             the curve river bank. He also mention
                            adjacent to this street in the past was
                             a village with its pattern of sporadic
                             free standing timber houses spread in
                             centralized in a unique combination of
                              compact and a loose pattern. However
                             Ahmad Bashir Sulaiman. 2000 in the book
                                urban design method "case study
                              in Malaysia" the fishing town in was
                             originally started from small fishing
                            village laid in a centralized manner on
                             the river bank but grew to form linear
                            development along the river and earliest
                           road build in the town As a result we can
                            say the type's development that occurred
                           along the river are those associated with
                               river activities such as the port,
                              district office and the bus station.

2. Grid iron pattern           The town later grew in a grid iron
                            pattern when more roads were constructed
                            perpendicular the earlier road parallel
                            to river. There is relationship between
                            the block pattern and building use where
                           the rigid grid iron pattern is associated
                             with the row of shop house whereas the
                               government office and institutions
                           building as well as government residential
                            quarters took on an irregular and loose
                            urban form. However Shuhanah Shamsuddin
                            [12,13,15] was mention also in his book
                             about the grid iron pattern form, the
                              existing old town centre take on the
                             shape of a trapezium with the overall
                              form basically rectilinear and grid
                                         iron pattern.

3. Linear pattern           For the example in Malaysia, Johor Bahru
                             town growth can be traced way back to
                            1855 with earliest building constricted
                               on the hills of Bukit Timbalan and
                              fronting the straits of Tebrau. The
                            straits were influential in determining
                             the urban form with earliest building
                               fronting the straits and the first
                            streets built parallel to Sungai Segget.
                             Shuhanah Shamsuddin [14,15] was noted
                            that most of town were then lined along
                           the road, representing a linear form, the
                              town from began to display Y-shapes
                              instead of a straight lines. However
                           little information was said that the most
                           linear pattern growth base on the building
                                 development, roads and street.

Table 2: The theoretical framework of physical components
of urban form and its characteristic for cultural and
heritage urban form at Marsaxlokk waterfront.

1                        Characteristic for cultural & heritage
                              landscape elements evaluation

1. Linear urban form    Aesthetic / function    Cultural & heritage
                        criteria                criteria

                        * Common visual         * Symbolism of Places
Figure 1: Marsaxlokk      strait: shape,        * Place memory
waterfront district       color, material &     * Identification &
pattern can be seen       texture                 Imageability
in old town center      * Relationship          * Familiarity &
where the street is       between the             Distinctiveness
inorganic pattern         environment
were creating a         * Corresponding
mysterious effect         planar which
in this townscape.        parallel to each
(Sources from:            other
www.flickr.com)         * Interpenetrate
                          each other
2.Centalized            * Image & place
urban form                identity
                        * Geography
Figure 1: There is
relationship between
the block pattern
and building use
where the rigid
irregular pattern is
associated with the
rows of shop house
whereas the other
building took on an
irregular and loose
waterfront form that
create a sense
of curiosity.
(Sources from:
www.snipview.com)
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Article Details
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Author:Hussain, Mohd Amirul; Yunos, Mohd Yazid Mohd; Ismail, Sumarni; Utaberta, Nangkula; Ismail, Nor Atiah
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9MALA
Date:Nov 1, 2015
Words:2992
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