The role of structural and petrological elements in mineralization of hontite and magnesite in Ashin-Naein.
The under study area lies in the geographical eastern longitude of 53[degrees],00' to 53[degrees], 15' and northern latitude of 33[degrees],15' to 32[degrees],30' including the northern sheet of Naein 1: 250000 map and southern sheet of Anarak 1:250000 map and Ashin 1:100000 map. The best access road to the under study area is Ashin-Naein-Ardestan-Soheyl-Pakooh and Naein-Jandagh asphalted roads. Naeen city in south of the under study area is the most important and closest town with an area of about 20 [Km.sup.2]; the city lies east of Isfahan province at the intersection of Isfahan-Yazd and Kashan-Ardestan-Yazd roads with the geographical eastern longitude of 53[degrees], 05' to 32[degrees].52' and height of 1545m above sea level. The regional climate is hot and dry in Khoor-Biyabanak and the areas close to the desert and mountainous temperate in southwest parts. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are 2.5 [degrees]C and 29.5 [degrees]C in Dec-Jan and Jun-Jul months respectively. The precipitation rate is very low in the city and highest reported precipitation of the area does not go beyond 26.5 mm. The concentration and outcrop of the Ophiolitic rocks complex with different erosions have caused formation of various heights and hills in different parts and this rock complex is considered the most important geological feature of the area along the Ophiolitic trend of central Iran in which numerous mineralization can be traced .
The geologic settings of Ophiolitic complex in Iran:
The Ultramafic--Mafic rock bodies have constituted broad areas in Iran (Fig. 1). In Iran's geology, the Ophiolite refers to a set of Ultramafic--Mafic rocks that may appear in regular and layered forms or mixed due to geological stresses . This rock complex that has companions of deep sedimentary rocks has also been referred to with other titles like Ophiolitic complex, Ophiolitic series, Ophiolitic melange, Colored melange, etc. among which the Colored melange is most frequently used and often is employed as Lithostratigraphic unit . The Colored melanges outcrop as continuous narrow strips along fundamental fractures and are observed in different zones including the following amongst others: The Colored melanges of Zagros crushed zone that include Sheykh Ali--Haji Abad--Darab outcrops and Neyriz, Kermanshah and Marivan Ophiolites. The general direction of this Ophiolitic zone is northwestward--southeastward, but it continues with a sudden change in direction near the Zendan fault toward Minab with adopting a north-south trend [4, 5]. The Colored melanges of south Jazmourian which begin from the north and east of Minab and continuous to Iranshahr with general east-west trend and only adopts north-south direction in south and southeast of Kahnouj.
--Ashin--Naein-Sourak-Dehshir-Shahrbabak--Baft colored melanges with general southward trend.
--Eastern Iran colored melanges including Biijand, Nehbandan, Sefidabeh and west of Zahedan Ophiolits and their north-south to east-west trends most possibly originates from the rotation of the crystals lying between the Nayband and Darouneh fault zones.
--Sabzevar, Kashmar, Torbat Heydariyeh, Robat Sefid colored melanges that are restricted between the Darouneh and Attari fault zones with northeastern-southwestern trend.
--Khoy-Sero colored melanges with northwestward trend that connect to east Turkey colored melanges.
--Arasbaran, Kaleybar and Baft southeastern colored melange, etc.
Sabzeei  classifies the Iran Ophiolitic complexes into two types of rocks with different ages and believes that uniform Pridotites--Serpentine masses of the Ophiolitic complex are rocks older than the lower Paleozoic to Permian which during the next eras especially in upper Cretaceous--Eocene era that have taken place inside the colored melanges in masses with diapiric structure. The second category includes the volcanic--sedimentary rocks of lava type, radiolarites, pelagic lime stones, flysch and turbidities that are belong to a time span from upper Triassic to upper Cretaceous and have been formed after Pridotites. In general, from the age angle of view, Iran's Ophiolits can be divided into three groups of Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ophiolits:
A--Apparently Precambrian aged Ophiolits in Tekab, Saghand, Anarak and Jondaq regions. In Tekab region the Precambrian metamorphic rocks complex are accompanied with Ophiolitic parts constituting from ultra-basic rocks, though their Precambrian age is questionable and the Paleozoic age is more acceptable. In the Saghand region, the Chaydouni--Posht Badam complex rocks (Amphibolites, Gneisses, Schists, Migmatites, Anatectites) are indicative of a tectonic melange of Precambrian metamorphic rocks that have been transformed into Serpentinite together with Pyroxenite and pyroxene--olivine-bearing rocks . The Precambrian Ophiolits in north of Anarak are seen underneath the Precambrian-lower Cambrian metamorphics  and are of Harzburgite and partly lherzolite accompanied with whom scattered masses of gabbro, Diabase, and plagiogranite are observed.
B--Paleozoic Ophiolits of Iran have a limited range of expansion. The best-known of such rocks have outcrop southwestern of Mashhad. In this region the Ophiolits are found in large elongated and relatively layered Lenz forms that are seen together with metamorphosed sediments and the presence of Phozoline fossil with them is an evidence of their Permian age (Majidi-1980). Although most of the geologists have considered the ultra-basic rocks of Mashhad as acrationary wedg of the old Tethys Ocean, but Alavi Tehrani (1984) does not consider them as Ophiolit . Also some ultra-basic rocks In Talesh Mountains and in the southern part of Sanandaj-Sirjan belt have been atributed to the Paleozoic.
C--Iran's Mesozoic Ophiolits are typically of three middle Triassic, upper Triassic and Cretaceous age. A small part of Iran's ultra-basics have been attributed to Triassic era from which the Talesh Mountains layered ultra-basics (middle Triassic) and Esfandagheh (upper Triassic0 can be mentioned. In Sabzeei's opinion (1973) the Seykhoran complex in Esfandagheh has been covered by the Jurassic sediments and their Triassic age is obvious.
The Ophiolits surrounding the central Iran outcrop in the intermitent belt around central Iran Microcontinent . This Ophiolitic ring extends towards Biijand along Nehbandan--Iranshahr fault and after a short unconformity again it appears with east-west direction in south of Sabzevar and north of Darouneh fault intermittently up to Naein Township. From Ashin southeastwards, the Ophiolits have outcrop again along the Naein-Baft fault and from there in west of Jazmoriyan geraben they join to the Beshagerd Ophiolitic complex. Contrary to Zagros, the known sequence of Ophiolitic complexes around central Iran subcontinent can be spotted nowhere; these complexes normally are mixed melanges of sedimentary and volcanic materials . The under study area based on the classification of the sedimentary--structural zones of Iran [3, 4] are regarded part of central Iran sedimentary zone. Aghanabati (2000) believes that the central Iran micro-continent is part of median Iran surrounded by the Ophiolitic suture zone of Sistan, Naeen, Baft, Darouneh fault and Kashmar-Sabzevar Ophiolits and are divided by the elongated westward bending clockwise dextral strike slip faults into Loot block, Shatri horst, Tabas subsidence, Kalmerd horst, Poshtbadam block, Bayazeh-Bardsir graben and Yazd block .
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Considering the initial evidences, the existence of scattered Hontite and Magnesite in rock outcrops was observed. Therefore, after accumulation of previous literature and reports, provisioning the aerial and satellite photographs, the field observation, sampling, determining the profiles and preparing the geologic maps were performed. After field studies and determining the structural elements' trend and jointing, sampling was performed from the existing dykes and veins for the microscopic investigation and accessing the chemical composition of the minerals and after preparing 50 thin microscopic sections, 7 and 5 suitable samples taken from among those picked from different stations of the area were undergone chemical analysis using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods respectively in the Geological Survey of Iran laboratories and their mineralogy status and their relationship with the area faulting and tectonic using the conventional petrographic graphs.
The origin of Magnesite and Hontite:
In general the Magnesite formation procedure can be explained through three methods:
A-Hydrothermal Metasomatic deposits in carbonate and dolomitic rocks: Through this process mechanism, when hydrothermal solutions penetrate into the dolomitic rocks, because the ionic radius of calcium is about 36 % bigger than that of the Magnesium, these two elements therefore cannot replace one another isomorphically; however because the Iron ionic radius is not so much different from that of the Magnesium, a series of isomorphic minerals like Magnesite, Hontite, Bronzitite and etc. (MgC[O.sub.3], FeC[O.sub.3]) with 5 to 30% MgC[O.sub.3]. Hence considering the ionic conditions of Magnesium and its small ionic radius compared with the Calcium, this deposit cannot replace the Calcium in ionic form.
B--Ultra-basic rocks heterology due to hydrothermal solutions in vein or veinlet forms: In this process the ultra-basic rocks, especially Peridotites are transformed into Serpentine due to Serpentinisation and relatively pure Magnesite and Hontite deposit is formed inside the fractures as a result. In shear zones, after penetration of carbon oxide rich hydrothermal solutions, the Serpentinized Magnesium silicates create Magnesium carbonate. This Magnisite is pure and white with obvious feature of concoidal fractures [8, 9].
C--Sedimentary deposits: The Magnesite and Hontite of sedimentary origin constitute depositions in isotropic and cryptocrystalline forms inside the sedimentary basins, some of which being economically exploitable. The basic origin of these Magnesites lies in the saline lakes, lagoons or soft waters. The sedimentary magnezite reserves in some cases comprise amounts of dolomite rock and lime stone accompanied by Pirite. Previous literature indicate that in sedimentary environments, this mineral probably would transform into Brocite Mg [(OH).sub.2] in initial stages and afterwards into hydrous Magnesium carbonate (MgC[O.sub.3], n[H.sub.2]O) and ultimately into Magnesite.
The Magnesite formation medium:
The Magnesite in terms of crystallography is found in two forms of coarse and fine crystals. The coarse crystal Magnesites have been formed in a Magnesium ion saturated solution with adequate heat and duration, while fine-grain Magnesites have been quickly deposited. The size of crystal grains by itself reflects the Magnesite formation conditions and environment and hence the Magnesite types could be categorized into the following groups based on the formation medium:
A--Hydrothermal Magnesites: the appearance of these reserves is a product of metamorphism of the C[O.sub.2] conveying hydrothermal solutions on the ultra-basic rocks. The Magnesites produced during these processes usually are in isotropic and cryptocrystalline forms, often with high grade.
B--Exudative Magnesites: In this type of Magnesites the [Co.sub.2] contained in precipitation waters affect the Serpentinized and ultramaphic rocks causing chemical reactions and formation of Magnesite. The ultramaphic rocks include Dunites, Harzburgites, lherzolites, Verlites and Pyroxenite that transform into Serpentine due to the erosion under certain climatic conditions and oxidation environment.
The serpentinization process is carried out through the following reactions:
Forsterite + 3[H.sub.2]O Serpentine + 1Brucite Serpentine + 3C[O.sub.2] 2Quartz + 3Magnesite
Under especial circumstances in some surface or shallow depths the Magnesite is formed as an erosion product. The Serpentinite decomposition is done gradually trough different stages. The Magnesite reserves of this kind are often small and in the form of veins with high purity and very fine grain (1-10 microns). The porosity of these deposits is also high and variable reaching to 5-25%.
C--Hydrothermal replacement Magnesites: these reserves take root in the hydrothermal solutions originated from great depths of the ground. These solutions during migration on the ground surface and through collision with limes, dolomites, or shales create the crystalline Magnesite reserves due to replacement metasomatism. The Magnesite composed through the above process is normally in coarse and crystalline form.
D--Sedimentary Magnesites These reserves are formed in sedimentary settings adjacent to the rocks rich of Magnesium, usually taking the form of isotropic and concealed crystalline form (Travertin). They are in some cases economically exploitable, but are often of low grade purity.
E--Evaporative Magnesites: These types of Magnesites are formed in saline or very saline environments. Existence of a very saline medium with high Magnesium content in proportion to Calcium in peripheral waters provides for preliminary or diagenetic Magnesite deposits.
Geologic settings of the under study area:
Ophiolitic melange of northern Naein comprise an area of about 600 [Km.sup.2] and includes Serpentinized Pridotites Harzburgite, micro-gabbro dykes, listvenite dykes, sheeted dykes, pillow lavas, metamorphic rocks, calcareous schists, and upper cretaceous radiolarite cherts. The Ophiolitic melange includes Pridotites the best part of which has been transformed into dark to gray and green serpentinite, comprising the main background of Ophiolitic melange . The relationship between these rocks and the adjacent units is tectonic, having been overthrusted on the Eocene flysch and Miocene marl and sandstone.Inside the serpentinites still traces of Pridotites of Harzburgite and sometimes Lherzolite combination is observed in the form of floating pieces. These rocks have meshing texture and the Serpentine group minerals (Antigorite, Lhizardite Chrysotile) constitute their main composition. Traces of initial minerals like Olivine, Orthopyroxene, and Chrome Spinel are observed in the form of isolated islands. In Serpentinization processes of these rocks the opaque mineral, mainly of Minitite type have also been formed.
Harzburgites are vast and huge green masses which have been serpentinized to a limited degree and have relationship with the fault peripheral serpentinized Pridotites. In some cases the penetration of Dunite dykes that have cut the Harzburgites floation direction are also observed. Harzburgites have granular, amorph granular and Milonite textures and amorph Olivine 70-80%), amorph Orthopyroxene (15-25%), Clinopiroxine (5%) and Chrome Spinel (less than 2%) and Menitite crystals are seen in their mineralogy composition. The Olivine and Orthopyroxene crystals in most cases are transformed into Serpentine and opaque mineral (Mintite) along their shear fractures. Sometimes as a result of the carried out reactions of the initial minerals the Harzburgites are transformed into Amphibole, magnetite or spinel and finally some part into talk and in the next process the Amphibole content of the rock is changed into Tremolite--Actinolite. Isotropic gabbros existing in this Ophiolitic melange are seen in northeastern part of the region and Plagioclase and Pyroxene crystals can be spotted in their mineralogy composition; these rocks also have tolerated weak degrees of metamorphism. Microgabbro dykes have spread nearly all over the Ophiolitic field and have been heavily folded under the effect of tectonic mechanisms, changing form into lenz pieces .
Dykes have sometimes maintained their original combination due to hydrothermal, metasomatism and tectonic processes and contain micro-gabbro to gabbro composition, and sometimes the diabase dykes have transformed into hydrothermal metamorphic gabbros . These rocks in petrology studies have nemato-plastic texture and have been transformed into Tremolite, Actinolite and Albite schist. In some cases the Micro-gabbro dykes have changed into Rodingite. The Rodingite dykes' origin is those same gabbro dykes of the region so that during Serpentinisation of Pridotites, the Calcium product of the phenomenon has invaded the gabbro dykes, resulting in formation of Garnet and Hydrogarnet.
Sometimes the diabase dykes have experienced the metamorphism in Amphibiolite outcrop. The Amphibiolites texture is of the oriented grano-plastic type and green Hurnbland type Amphibole crystals with specific orientation and elongation are seen in their mineralogy composition. The pillow lavas have often Basaltic composition and have gone under spilitisation phenomenon process, and minerals like Albite, chlorite, Calcite, Zeolite, Serpentine, etc. have been formed as a result. Listvenites have appeared along the region's faults in dyke like state and brownish yellow color. These rocks are the product of the reaction between the hydrothermal solutions and the Serpentinized ultramaphic and basic rocks (gabbro to basalt) of the oceanic floor along the fractures; the minerals constituting these rocks therefore include an ensemble of Calcite, quartz, rarely Serpentine and Chlorite and crystals of Chrome Spinel. Iron oxides (Hematite) are seen both in scattered form on the surface of quartz and Calcite crystals and in the form of small opaque grains (Mintite). Remnants of Serpentine, chlorite and Chrome Spinel minerals are also observed inside of these rocks. Listvenites have perfect distribution and are important economically in terms of the gold element content potential (Nogreian et al-2001).In the eastern parts of the under study area the Eocene aged Flysch sediments have outcrop and includes a sequence of lime sandstone and green marl together with layers of gypsum. The rocks belonging to Ophiolitic melange have been overthrusted along northwestern-southeastern direction over these Flysch sediments. The previous literature on the eastern Iran Ophiolits and the present study that has been carried out on the oceanic crust and mantle rocks of the northern Naein and Ashin region indicate that the Magnesites and Hontite have been formed in the fault zones lying in the Pridotite rocks belonging to the oceanic mantle. Therefore it can be concluded that the MgO existing in the Magnesites and Huntites in the mentioned Ophiolitic regions and other Ophiolitic areas have been originated from ultramafic rocks.
Specific tectonic and geodynamic conditions have played role in constituting the Ashin-Naein region Magnesites. In this region most possibly the precipitation waters rich of [Co.sub.2] have penetrated into depths through deep faults (especially Naein--Darouneh) and other minor faults and meanwhile increasing the temperature and escalating the geothermal gradient as well as the heat resulting from the magma activities younger than Cretaceous that has caused formation of Soheyl granite to granodioritic plutonic mass, the evidences of metamorphism of which resulting from its penetration inside the Ophiolitic melange of northern Naein can be observed, a series of reactions have occurred under 150[degrees]C temperature causing alteration of the Ultramafic rocks and heightening its Mg and other elements' content.
The said waters meanwhile streaming along the faults and according to the ground surface directions as well as shallow depths have caused formation of Magnesite and Hontite so that traces of the presence of this material in the area is evident and the local residents used to exploit and use it through small wells. Occurrence of several simultaneous activities during upper Cretaceous era in different structural zones of the area can be seen in the region:
1--Volcanic activities in the form of oceanic crust opening (plain dykes, pillow lavas, lava tubes and sheeted dykes) and upper Cretaceous aged radiolarian charts exist within pillow lavas .
2--Bursting volcanic eruptions with Trachy Andesitic-Rhyolite composition are seen Ashin.
3--Granitoid masses (Tonalite, Diorite and Granit) have penetrated into the upper Cretaceous aged Tracky Andesite-Rhyolitic Volcanic rocks.
4--Metamorphism of some parts of lower Cretaceous deposits and interior and exterior volcanic rocks has occurred.
5--Deposition of limestone with Globotroncana fossils.
In Laramian orogenic phase, simultaneous with folding of the mentioned factors, part of them have come out of the water. In the Paleocene priode the continental parts have been covered with conglomerate and after wards with Tantyn aged limestone, and the oceanic parts with Tantyn limestone while deposition and volcanic activities like upper Cretaceous have also occurred. Following this process, eventually in upper Cretaceous and Paleocene eras simultaneous with closure of the Neotethyan Ocean, some parts of the oceanic crust have had obduction movement. In the next stage with the advancement of the Eocene sea, the flysch sediments with base conglomerate comprising Peridotite rocks and cherts have been replaced on the Ophiolitic complex (Akhoreh formation).
As orogenic (Pyrenean) movements continued, the base conglomerate and Miocene clastic deposits have been deposited over Akhoreh formation, Ophiolitic complex as well as the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks; simultaneous with this process, the volcanic activities in the shallow marine and continental conditions have also occurred . Ultimately the Ophiolitic complex has overthrusted the Akhoreh formation flysch and Miocene clastic deposits.
The areas faults generally follow the two northwestern-southeastern and northeastern-southwestern trends: Naein fault:
Naein fault with general northwestward-southeastward direction can be traced from south of Sond village and southwards it leads to Sourak fault in the upper Sero sheet. This fault is of perpendicular type; its hangingwall has been constituted from upper Cretaceous lime stones and its footwall is formed by the Ophiolitic melange rocks. The length of this fault in this sheet is about 17 Km.
This fault has been expanded along northwestward--southeastward direction and its type has not been identified.
This fault located northeast of Naein has accommodated--in its northeastern part--the Ophiolitic melange rocks on the flysch of the Akhoreh and Miocene molasses and is of reversed faults type. Its slop and direction near Hajiabad village has been measured to be N310/50 SW. The fault is about 16 km in length. In northeastern parts of Ashin the Miocene marls have also outcrop and their relationship with the Ophiolitic melange is of fault type. Moreover, from the geologic studies on the Magnesite veins and veinlets on north of Naein it can be inferred that the ultrabasic rocks, especially Harzburgites have tolerated a tectonic phase after their formation and as a result of this tectonic forces a series of shear fractures and fractures have been developed in them so that they have been suitable points of penetration of hot Carbon dioxide rich solutions; such solutions, through absorbing the Magnesium ions from the mentioned rocks and the subsequent cooling and sedimentation near the ground surface have formed Magnesite veins and veinlets. These veins and veinlets lack regular geometrical shape and are not of the same slop and thickness . The Magnesite veins in sections lower than the ground surface change in terms of form and nature. Hence in closer to surface areas the Magnesite is of higher purity degrees than deeper areas, so that in deeper parts the Magnesite purity degree is decreased by gradual increase in the Silicate portion content. The sheet dykes are often crushed along different directions and are filled with Prehnite veins . The Prehnite exists in the rock in addition to the veins. Secondary minerals in these rocks include chlorite, calcite, Iron hydroxide, opaque mineral, Leucoxene and quartz. The secondary quartz has most likely been formed due to chlorite process of primary minerals or other processes. The sheet dykes have tolerated weak metamorphic degree up to green schist limit and the transformation of Plagioclase to Albite and Prehnite in them shows the commencement of Albite--Epidote--Prehnite outcrop.
The measured slop and directions of sheet dykes during the field studies is indicative of northeastern-southwestern opening trend in the region . Magnesite and Hydromagnesite are found visually in small outcrops within 12 km off northeastern Naein and along the Naein fault and the resulting minor faults, that is, the lands between the Serar to Soucheh farms. The deposit is approx, 10m in width and 50m in length. Magnesite can be found in massive and sometimes in cauli flower form. Hydromagnesites are in the form of massive or radial fibers. These ores are often spotted east of Serar farm (northeast of Naein). In this region the Serpentinites and serpentinized Harzburgites often in surface sections have transformed into Hontite which is a calcium and magnesium carbonate with [Mg.sub.3][Ca.sub.3][Co.sub.3] chemical formulae; and such ores are scattered in the form of tiny white balls on the surface of serpentinites. The Hontite ore is often observed in north of Naein and usually exists in 1-3m depths and is exploited and used as constructional paint . This ore can be identified in X-Ray-Diffraction studies by high reflection compared with other carbonates. The Hontite in this area is often exploited through primitive methods including digging of small wells of 1 to 2m depths.
What resulted from the field and mineralogy studies is that the Serpentinisation phenomenon of the Pridotite rocks of Harzburgite type has played role in formation of some ores including Magnesite and Hontite. Serpentinisation of tectonized Harzburgites rocks in Ophiolits of Ashin has occurred in two different phases; in the first phase this phenomenon has taken place in a static and calm condition without any mechanical deformation of the hosting Harzburgite rocks; meanwhile the ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine and pyroxene have transformed into pseudomorphous Lhizardite and Bastite minerals . In the second phase of Serpentinisation which is accompanied by dynamic and deformation phase, in addition to development of a series of shear fractures, the Serpentinisation phenomenon has been activated once more and the asbestos mineral has been replaced within the shear fractures' system simultaneous with growth and development of fractures . The Chromite, Talc, Hontite and Magnesite minerals are relevant to this process and the above mentioned minerals have been created in varying temperatures and pressures. In this region the Serpentinites and serpentinized Harzburgites often in surface sections, have transformed into Hontite which is a Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate with chemical formula of [Mg.sub.3][Ca.sub.3][Co.sub.3]; these ores are scattered over the Serpentines' surfaces in the form of thin white balls. The Hontite mineral often can be seen in the northern Naein and usually can be found in 1 to 3m depth from the ground surface and it is used as the constructional paint. This ore can be identified in X-Ray-Diffraction studies by high reflection in comparison with other carbonates. The Hontite in this area is often exploited through primitive methods such as digging small wells of 1 to 2m depths.
A--A number of 10 Magnesite samples were analyzed using the X-Ray-Diffraction method in the Geology Survey of Iran lab. The results of analysis indicate that in addition to the Magnesite, some other minerals are also present in co-existing state. The following shows the analysis results together with the X-ray graphs:
1--Magnesite + Priclause + Calcite (MgC[O.sub.3] + MgO + CaC[O.sub.3])
2-Clinocler + Antigorite + Diopside + Gypsum + Magnesite [Mg.sub.5]Al [(Si,Al).sub.4] [O.sub.10] [(OH).sub.8] + [Mg.sub.3][Si.sub.2][O.sub.5] [(OH).sub.4] + CaMg [(Si[O.sub.3]).sub.2] + CaS[O.sub.4], 2[H.sub.2]O + [Fe.sub.5][O.sub.4] + MgC[O.sub.5]
3--Halite + Antigorite + Anorthite + Magnesite + Montmorillonite NaCl + [Mg.sub.3][Si.sub.2][O.sub.5] [(OH).sub.4] + Ca[Al.sub.2][Si.sub.2][O.sub.8] + MgC[O.sub.3] + (Na,Ca)[O.sub.3] [(Al,Mg).sub.2] [Si.sub.2] [O.sub.10] [(OH).sub.2]. n[H.sub.2]O + [Si.sub.4][Al.sub.2][O.sub.3]FeO, Mg[O.sub.3].
4--Magnesite + calcite + halite (CaC[O.sub.3] + MgC[O.sub.3] + NaCl)
5--Magnesite + Priclause + Calcite (MgC[O.sub.3] + MgO + CaC[O.sub.3])
6--Calcite + Magnesite (CaC[O.sub.3] + MgC[O.sub.3])
7--Diopside + Ovarovite + Calcite + Quartz + Magnesite with Iron oxide + Gypsum CaMg [(Si[O.sub.3]).sub.2] + [Ca.sub.3][Cr.sub.2] [(Si[O.sub.4]).sub.3] + CaC[O.sub.3] + Si[O.sub.2] + (Mg,Fe) C[O.sub.3] + CaS[O.sub.4]. 2[H.sub.2]O
B--A number of 5 Magnesite samples were chemically analyzed sing the fluorescence method in the Geology Survey of Iran lab, the results which are represented in the table below. Based on the obtained results, the samples taken from the near to surface sections were of higher purity and the samples from the deeper sections contain more impurities, especially the Silicate (Si[O.sub.2]).
1--In this region the Serpentinites and serpentinized Harzburgites often in surface sections have transformed into Hontite which is a Calcium and magnesium carbonate with [Mg.sub.3][Ca.sub.3]C[O.sub.3] chemical formulae; the Hontite is often exploited through primitive methods such as digging small wells of 1 to 2m depths. Such ores are scattered in the form of tiny white balls on the surface of serpentinites and are used by the local residents as the constructional paint. 2--From the geologic studies on the Magnesite veins and veinlets on north of Naein and Ashin it can be inferred that the ultrabasic rocks, especially Harzburgites have tolerated a tectonic phase after their formation and as a result of performance of this tectonic forces a series of shear fractures_and fractures have been developed in them so that they have been suitable points of penetration of hot carbon dioxide rich solutions; such solutions, through absorbing the Magnesium ions from the mentioned rocks and the subsequent cooling and sedimentation near the ground surface have formed Magnesite veins and veinlets. 3--Specific tectonic and geodynamic conditions have played role in constituting the Naein and Ashin region Magnesites. In this region most possibly the precipitation waters rich of [Co.sub.2] have penetrated into depths through deep faults (especially Naein--Darouneh) and other minor faults and meanwhile increasing the temperature and escalating the geothermal gradient as well as the heat resulting from the magma activities younger than Cretaceous, a series of reactions have occurred under 150[degrees]C temperature causing alteration of the Ultramafic rocks and heightening its Mg and other elements' content. 4--Microscopic and geochemical studies confirm the presence of Magnesite and Hontite ores in northern Naein. These ores are often exploited by the local residents through digging small wells.
Received 19 November 2013
Received in revised form 18
Accepted 29 December 2013
Available online 4 March 2014
We would like to express our sincere thanks to Geologic Survey of Iran for facilitating of using their laboratorial equipment for the purpose of this study. Also we greatly appreciate Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Unit for the helpful grant they provided for undertaking of this study.
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(1) Naser Ebadati, (2) Mohammad Foudazi, (3) Narges Behzad
(1,2) Islamshahr branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran.
(3) Zamin Kav Research Center, Iran.
Corresponding Author: Naser Ebadati, Islamshahr branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Analysis of Magnesite samples using X-Ray Fluorescence method Elements Sample Sample Sample Sample Sample Wt% No-85.1 No-85.2 No-85.3 No-85.4 No-85.5 MgO 76.87 69.50 74.50 82.13 86.46 CaO 3.32 2.00 2.18 2.50 1.70 [Fe.sub.2] 4.50 4.12 5.25 2.23 6.25 [O.sub.3] [Al.sub.2] 3.00 2.72 1.80 1.90 1.25 [O.sub.3] Si[O.sub.2] 12.35 15.18 14.25 12.20 2.99 [K.sub.2]O 0.001 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 S[O.sub.3] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 NaO 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.06 0.03
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|Author:||Ebadati, Naser; Foudazi, Mohammad; Behzad, Narges|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Article Type:||Author abstract|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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