Printer Friendly

The role of railway lines in the distribution of alien plant species in the territory of Daugavpils City (Latvia).

INTRODUCTION

The main feature of urban floras is high proportion of alien species with often divergent distribution patterns (Von der Lippe & Kowarik, 2008). Roads, as the major promoter of human urbanization, can be initial habitats for plants dispersed by transportation (Hayasaka et al., 2012). Roads can also act as dispersal corridors where seeds can be spread by water as well as by birds and other animals that use roadways as travel paths (Buckley et al., 2003; Von der Lippe & Kowarik, 2007).

The consequences of expansion and integration of road networks, which accompany urbanization, and their negative impact on flora are different, e.g. floristic homogenization (Smart et al., 2006; Von der Lippe & Kowarik, 2007; Wittig & Becker, 2010) and enabling of invasion of aggressive alien species into adjacent plant communities and habitats (Ozinga et al., 2004; Rentch et al., 2005; Von der Lippe & Kowarik, 2007; Niggemann et al., 2009).

So far, a lot of research has been made concerning the distribution of alien plants in relation to motor roads (Tyser & Worley, 1992; Zwaenepoela et al., 2006; Von der Lippe & Kowarik, 2007, 2008; Flory & Clay, 2009; Kowarik & Von der Lippe, 2011; Hayasaka et al., 2012), while there are fewer such studies concerning railways (Hansen & Clevenger, 2005; Westermann et al., 2011; Penone et al., 2012). Also in Latvia studies on this particular issue are very fragmentary. From 1960 to 1975 the adventive flora of Riga and Daugavpils railways was studied in detail (Sulcs, 1972, 1976, 1977). The first complete inventory of the flora, including alien flora, in Daugavpils was carried out in 1975-1983 (Tabaka et al., 1985). Sulcs (1972) emphasizes that the introduction of alien species has increased in particular with intensive use of rail transport, starting from 1861, when the first railway line was built in Latvia from Riga to Daugavpils. Also Tabaka (1985) stated that the main factor of anthropogenic impact on the formation of the vegetation in Daugavpils is the influx and spreading of the species along the railways and motor roads.

Review of the literature focused on the studies of flora along transport corridors, e.g. Hansen & Clevenger, 2005; Westermann et al., 2011, reveals that railway with its typical abiotic factors contributes to the migration of many species. The major part of the research carried out in Latvia also provides evidence of the aforementioned regularity (Rasins, 1959; Sulcs, 1976, 1977).

However, recent studies (Penone et al., 2012) indicate that even though railways might be corridors for alien species, the frequency of these species seems to be much more related to other factors. These factors, reported in the literature, could be, e.g. higher levels of disturbance (Hansen & Clevenger, 2005; Pollnac et al., 2012), seed traits and certain life-history traits like seed production (Westermann et al., 2011), similarity of abiotic conditions such as type of soil and slope aspect (Gelbard & Harrison, 2003), better light (Trombulak & Frissell, 2000; Seiler, 2001; Flory & Clay, 2006) and wind conditions (Seiler, 2001; Kowarik & Von der Lippe, 2011).

Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the role of railway lines in the distribution of alien species in the territory of Daugavpils City.

Our main tasks were (1) to survey Daugavpils City's railway lines and adjacent areas and to map the alien plant species present in this territory; (2) to compare data obtained through our research with data from a previously conducted inventory on the urban flora; (3) to evaluate some factors affecting the distribution of alien species along railway lines, i.e. way of propagation, territories adjacent to these lines, railway management practices, and the manner in which the railway line is used; (4) and to carry out analysis of alien species most characteristic of railway lines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

The research area is located in Daugavpils, in the south-eastern part of Latvia (55[degrees]52'30"N, 26[degrees]32'8"E). Daugavpils, situated on the banks of the Daugava River, is the second largest city in Latvia with 92 533 inhabitants (CSB, 2012) and an area of 72.48 [km.sup.2]. Daugavpils has historically developed as a crossroads for routes of goods and passenger transport. Four international railway transit corridors pass through the city. Also at national level Daugavpils is an important railway transport node (Spatial Plan of Daugavpils ..., 2005).

Currently the flora of Daugavpils is considered as one of the most unique in Latvia. This is due to the large diversity of natural and semi-natural habitats as well as different anthropogenically transformed habitats, the presence of which is associated with long-standing development of the city as the industrial and transport centre of eastern Latvia.

According to a recent research, 1079 vascular plant species are known in the flora of Daugavpils, 281 or 26% of them are considered to be alien plant species (Evarts-Bunders et al., 2012). Daugavpils is the only known locality for nine alien plant species in Latvia. Five of them, i.e. Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult, Cerastium dubium (Bast.) O. Schwarz, Reseda alba L., Ulmus pumila L., and Visnaga daucoides P. Gaertn. were listed by Tabaka et al. (1985), and four species, i.e. Gilia achilleaefolia Benth., Malva parviflora L., Macleaya x kewensis Turrill, and Cerasus tomentosa (Thunb.) Wall. are known from recent studies (Romancevica et al., 2011).

Field studies

The field studies were carried out from spring to autumn in the period 20072010. This research was conducted as part of a wider research programme concerning the inventory of flora in Daugavpils City and focused on all alien vascular plants. Before the beginning of the field studies, the territory of Daugavpils City was mapped in a regular grid, and quadrats of 500 m x500 m were obtained. The grid system method is most useful as an aid to population density estimation over large areas (Reid & Thompson, 1996). The total number of quadrats was 344 (Nitcis et al., 2011), which were accordingly numbered (Fig. 1a). During the field studies an inventory of all quadrats was carried out and for each quadrat all alien species as well as habitats were recorded in their exact area. Simultaneously, the precise location of the mapped records was fixed by GPS THALES Mobilemapper CE. This allowed us to carry out further processing and analysis of field data with the GIS (geographic information system) software ArcView 9.3.1. For precise identification of species herbarium material of alien species was collected and their taxonomy was determined in the Laboratory of Systematic Botany, Daugavpils University. As a result, a list of alien species and their geographic distribution for the whole territory of Daugavpils City was obtained. The information about the area of origin, life-history traits, and ways of propagation of the recorded alien species was obtained from the literature (Tutin et al., 1964-1980).

However, considering that the role of railways in the distribution frequency of alien species is under discussion in this paper, data of the quadrats covering railway lines were selected. Altogether 84 quadrats (Fig. 1a), i.e. 24.41% of the total number of quadrats in the city, were selected. Within these quadrats analysis of the number and distribution of alien species along the railway lines and areas adjacent to them was performed. The areas adjacent to the railway lines with a total length of 37 km comprise up to 50 m wide belts of ruderal habitats, which are strongly modified by regular management activities such as plant reaping, burning, and application of herbicides conducted by the State Joint Stock Company 'Latvijas Dzelzcels'.

Desk-based studies

Univariate analysis of variance by One-Way ANOVA was used to establish whether railway lines were related to the number of the alien species. Railway lines were used as the influencing factors, and numbers of species as the dependent variables. Serial numbers were given to the existing railway lines located in the city (Fig. 1a): No. 1 eastward-directed line Daugavpils-Zilupe (carriage of goods), No. 2 southward-directed line Daugavpils-Vilnius (mixed passengers-goods carriage with dominance of goods carriage), No. 3 north-westward-directed line Daugavpils-Riga (mixed passengers-goods carriage with dominance of passengers carriage), No. 4 north-eastward-directed line Daugavpils-Rezekne (mixed passengers-goods carriage with dominance of goods carriage), No. 5 Daugavpils railway junction (mixed passengers-goods carriage with dominance of goods carriage). The data were log-transformed. A Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to establish the closeness of relationship between railway lines and numbers of alien species (Gotelli & Ellison, 2004; Quinn & Keough, 2006). Data were analysed using the statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics 20.

The representation of the number of alien taxa per quadrat using colour coding (Mitchell, 1999) and subsequent comparison of all quadrats under study were done with GIS software ArcView 9.3.1. Classification and visualization (Fig. 1b) of field data by GIS tools allowed us to elucidate the pattern of geographical distribution of aliens in the quadrats covering railway lines and to analyse factors affecting the distribution of alien species.

The most characteristic species of railways were identified on the basis of the percentage of each species that had invaded railway quadrats of the total number of invaded quadrats in the whole city. To be regarded as a most characteristic species of railways the species had to make up at least 90% (Table 1).

The obtained results are compared with the data on the same areas from the inventory carried out in 1975-1983 (Tabaka et al., 1985).

RESULTS

In the habitats adjacent to railways, 38 alien plant species were recorded (Table 1). The natural region of origin of the major part of alien species found along the railways in Daugavpils is Europe (47%). Fewer species are from North America (26%) and Asia (23%). The remaining 4% includes species originating in cultivation and known from culture only, both accounting for 2% of the species.

According to data of the previous inventory of the flora in Daugavpils City (Tabaka et al., 1985), 95 alien plant species were found along the railways, in marshy areas along the railways, on the railway embankments, and near railways. During our inventory conducted in 2007-2010 we found 22 species listed by Tabaka et al. (1985), and identified 16 new species that were not detected during the previous inventory. However, it is necessary to point out that 73 species that were recorded by Tabaka et al. (1985) were not found in this study (Table 1).

As to the ways of propagation, the majority of alien species, i.e. 26 species recorded in the quadrats along the railway lines are spreading by seeds (see Table 1). In comparison there are only seven species that are spreading by roots whilst five species are spreading by roots and seeds.

The number of alien species found in each quadrat under study varies from 1 to 15, on average 5.1 per quadrat. The geographical distribution of quadrats characterized by higher numbers of alien species has a dispersed pattern (Fig. 1b). For instance, two quadrats, No. 223 and No. 224, are located close to cemeteries. In these quadrats 11 and 12 alien species were recorded, respectively. These values are higher in comparison to the neighbouring quadrats with no cemeteries. Quadrat No. 330, where 10 alien species were found, is located near an area of private houses or cultivated and abandoned allotments. In quadrat No. 101, which covers one of the marshalling yards in Daugavpils, 12 species were found. Other quadrats characterized by higher numbers of alien species in comparison to neighbouring quadrats, i.e. Nos 179, 197, and 199, are associated with hard disturbance of topsoil along the railway lines. In these quadrats annual alien plant species constituted 75%, 67%, and 82%, respectively, of all recorded alien taxa.

The results of univariate variance analysis indicate that the type of carriage had no significant effect on the distribution of the number of alien species: the F critical 2.3 > Factual 1.9 (p > 0.12) and confidence intervals of the average number of species between the railway lines overlap (Fig. 2). No statistically significant correlation was found between the type of carriage and the number of alien species either, regardless of whether carriage of goods or carriage of goods-passengers was involved.

The geographical distribution of three of the species, Dracocephalum thymiflorum Houtt., Erysimum durum J. Presl et C. Presl, and Lappula squarrosa, found in the ruderal habitats located along the railway is of particular interest: 100%, 100%, and 90% of all the records of these species were made near the railway (Table 1). Another 35 species along the railways made up less than 50% of the total number of species recorded in the city, indicating that railways are less important in their distribution.

DISCUSSION

Comparison of the data on alien species of the inventories of 1975-1983 and 2007-2010

Differences between results of the two studies could be explained by the following circumstances:

(1) in the previous inventory the concepts of 'railway' and 'along the railway' were not explained precisely, possibly denoting a wider area than the area researched by the present authors. For example, Achillea micrantha Willd. is listed in the previous inventory, but was not found by us;

(2) the climate in Daugavpils, characterized by a relatively large range of temperatures, is more continental than in other areas of Latvia. The absolute maximum temperature + 36.4[degrees]C and the absolute minimum temperature -43.2[degrees]C in the whole territory of Latvia were observed only in Daugavpils, thus the range of extreme temperatures here is 79.6[degrees]C (Klavins et al., 2008). These critical temperatures probably are among the key factors limiting the distribution of some alien species. Therefore, the occurrence of part of the species during the previous inventory was incidental (Tabaka et al., 1985). As these species were not naturalized, they were not found in the recently performed inventory. Such species are, for example Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Sambucus nigra L.;

(3) since the 1990s in Latvia herbicides have been applied twice during the vegetation period in railway lines management. This measure limits particularly the occurrence of those taxa that propagate mainly by seeds, which do not ripen before the processing with chemicals. Such species include, for example Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Echinops sphaerocephalus L., and Reseda lutea L.

Factors affecting the distribution of alien species along railway lines

The distribution of alien species along railway lines in relation to ways of propagation, railway management measures, and land use in adjacent areas could be explained by the following aspects:

(1) aspect of seeds (Hansen & Clevenger, 2005; Westermann et al., 2011)--species that are spreading by seeds, for example Erigeron canadensis L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Lepidium densiflorum Schrad., and Sisymbrium loeselli L., are more 'mobile' due to mechanical transmission caused by the motion of trains. Moreover, the fact that railway is characterized by a relatively high wind speed induced by traffic (Seiler, 2001) is beneficial to wind-pollinated species (Penone et al., 2012) and seed transfer (Kowarik & Von der Lippe, 2011);

(2) aspect of disturbance (Hansen & Clevenger, 2005)--on the railroad tracks and the adjacent areas repairing and management works are carried out on a regular basis, therefore such areas are subject to recurrent disturbances (Trombulak & Frissell, 2000; Seiler, 2001). Consequently non-vegetated areas or those with a disturbed vegetation cover are developing (Trombulak & Frissell, 2000), which in turn creates favourable conditions for alien species to spread by seeds. We could observe such a situation in quadrats Nos 74, 179, 197, and 199 where topsoil had been disturbed within areas located directly along the railway lines due to land-use management practices. These quadrats had a relatively higher proportion of annual alien taxa than perennial species. Annual alien plant species constituted a relatively high proportion also in quadrats where harrowing along railway lines had been performed recently;

(3) aspect of land use--quadrats characterized by higher numbers of alien taxa are associated with areas where railways are crossing or passing territories of cemeteries, areas of private houses, cultivated and abandoned allotments, or where marshalling yards are located (Fig. 1b).

Our findings agree with results presented in the literature (Laivins & Jermacane, 2000; Gudzinskas, 2005; Bowdler et al., 2007; Rutkovska et al., 2011) showing that cemeteries are important donor territories of alien species, e.g. of Amelanchier spicata (Lam.) K. Koch., Solidago canadensis L., etc. Hence they contribute to the number of taxa in the relevant quadrats (Nos 224 and 223).

The fact that many alien plants are distributed through ornamental plantings (Prieditis, 2012) and disposal of garden waste (Pysek et al., 2004) explains the occurrence of some species, e.g. Euphorbia cyparissias L., Solidago canadensis L. s.l., Asparagus officinalis L., etc., and thus the higher number of alien taxa in quadrat No. 330.

In the territory of Daugavpils marshalling yards trains are connected and disbanded and maintenance, cleaning, and repairs of wagons are carried out. During maintenance and cleaning activities plant seeds that have stuck to the wagons can get into the marshalling area. It is most likely that this circumstance causes the presence of high numbers of alien species, i.e. in quadrat No. 101;

(4) aspect of type of carriage--no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of alien species in the quadrats covering railway lines and different types of carriage (Fig. 2). The main reason for this might be that all railway lines are managed simultaneously and the same management measures are used.

Analysis of the most characteristic species

Three most characteristic species of railways were identified.

Dracocephalum thymiflorum L.--according to Genova (2012), the distribution of D. thymiflorum is limited by grazing of the territory, intensive agriculture, or infrastructure development. However, our study demonstrated just the opposite: repair work and maintenance of the railway infrastructure did not limit the distribution of D. Thymiflorum; morever, all finds of this species were made along railways (Table 1). Also, the first herbarium of this species in Daugavpils was collected at the edge of a railway in 1965 (DAU).

Erysimum durum J. Presl et C. Presl--has rare occurrence in Latvia (Prieditis, 2012). In Daugavpils it was for the first time found only in 2009 near a railway station. Recent observations in the Check Republic show that the plant is spreading mainly along railways (Houska, 2009), whilst in our study this species was found only along railways. Although according to NOBANIS (2012) data E. durum is referred to as a non-invasive species in Latvia, in Daugavpils, despite the small number of records (Table 1), the species has the tendency to form large plantations and expand in the invaded area.

Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.--in Latvia single specimens or small stands occur in dry weedy places, railway edges, sand and gravel pits, and on riverbank slopes (Prieditis, 2012). The literature review revealed that in other countries the plant is found in disturbed areas, roadsides, waste areas, cultivated fields (Frick, 1984; Royer & Dickinson, 1999), grasslands, shrublands, and forest openings in lowlands (Douglas et al., 1998). In the current study nine out of ten finds of L. squarrosa were recorded along railways. According to Frick (1984), the distribution of the plant can be controlled by herbicides; however, our research showed that apparently the plant is tolerant of Roundup herbicide used in the management of the railway areas.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this research permit us to draw several important conclusions about the regularities of the factors affecting the localization of alien taxa as well as the role of railway lines in the distribution of alien plant species in the territory of Daugavpils City.

Analysis of the geographical distribution pattern of alien taxa indicates that quadrats with higher numbers of alien species generally did not coincide with railway lines. However, the distribution of three species, i.e. D. thymiflorum, E. durum, and L. squarrosa, was associated precisely with railway lines, demonstrating the importance of this infrastructure element for the expansion of these species.

Comparison of previous and recent inventory data on the flora in Daugavpils showed that the number of alien species recorded in 2007-2010 was 2.5 times smaller than in the inventory of 1975-1983. Most likely such a wide discrepancy can be explained by the different meaning of 'railway' and 'along the railway' concepts as used in the previous inventory and in the present study. Another explanation for the observed discrepancy is the use of herbicides for the last 15 years by the State Joint Stock Company 'Latvijas Dzelzcels' as a railway management measure, leading to a decrease in the number of alien species that propagate by seeds.

The principal factors affecting the distribution of alien species along railway lines are the land use ways along railways and, more significantly, railway management practices and the way of the propagation of species. The manner in which the railway line is used has no significant effect on the distribution of the numbers of alien species.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was supported by the European Social Fund within the project 'Support for Doctoral Studies at the University of Latvia--2'.

doi: 10.3176/eco.2013.3.03

REFERENCES

Bowdler, R., Hanna, S., White, J. & Knight, D. 2007. Paradise Preserved. An Introduction to the Assessment, Evaluation, Conservation and Management of Hisatorical Cemeteries. English Heritage and English Nature, Peterborough.

Buckley, D. S., Crow, T. R., Nauertz, E. A. & Schulz, K. E. 2003. Influence of skid trails and haul roads on understory plant richness and composition in managed forest landscapes in Upper Michigan, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 175, 509-520.

[CSB] Central Statistical Bureau of the Republic of Latvia. 2012. Number of population. http://www.csb.gov.lv/en (accessed 10.12.2012).

Douglas, G. W., Straley, G. B., Meidinger, D. & Pojar, J. (eds). 1998. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia. Vol. 2: Decotyledons (Balsaminaceae through Cuscutaceae). Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Ministry of Forest, British Columbia.

Evarts-Bunders, P., Evarte-Bundere, G., Romancevica, N., Brutane, K., Novicka, I. & Nitcis, M. 2012. Rare anthropohytes in the flora of Daugavpils city. Latvian Vegetation, 22, 29-43.

Flory, S. L. & Clay, K. 2006. Invasive shrub distribution varies with distance to roads and stand age in eastern deciduous forests in Indiana, USA. Plant Ecology, 184, 131-141.

Flory, S. L. & Clay, K. 2009. Effects of roads and forest successional age on experimental plant invasions. Biological Conservation, 142, 2531-2537.

Frick, B. 1984. The biology of Canadian weeds. 62. Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 64, 375-386.

Gelbard, J. L. & Harrison, S. 2003. Roadless habitats as refuges for native grasslands: interactions with soil, aspect, and grazing. Ecological Applications, 13, 404-115.

Genova, E. 2012. Dracocephalum thymiflorum. http://e-ecodb.bas.bg/rdb/en/vol1/Drathymi.html (accessed 10.05.2012).

Gotelli, J. N. & Ellison, A. M. 2004. A Primer of Ecological Statistics. Sinauer Associates Inc.

Gudzinskas, Z. 2005. Case studies on the alien flora of the vicinity of cemeteries in Lithuania. Acta Universitatis Latviensis: Earth and Environmental Sciences, 685, 21-37.

Hansen, M. J. & Clevenger, A. P. 2005. The influence of disturbance and habitat on the presence of non-native plant species along transport corridors. Biological Conservation, 125, 249-259.

Hayasaka, D., Akasaka, M., Miyauchi, D., Box, E. O. & Uchida, T. 2012. Qualitative variation in roadside weed vegetation along an urban-rural road gradient. Flora, 207, 126-132.

Houska, J. 2009. Erysimum durum J. Presl et C. Presl. http://botany.cz/cs/erysimum-durum (accessed 10.05.2012).

Klavins, M., Nikodemus, O., Seglins, V., Melecis, V., Vircavs, M. & Abolina, K. 2008. Environmental Science. The Academic Press of the University of Latvia, Riga.

Kowarik, I. & Von der Lippe, M. 2011. Secondary wind dispersal enhances long-distance dispersal of an invasive species in urban road corridors. NeoBiota, 9, 49-70.

Laivins, M. & Jermacane, S. 2000. Emergence of certain neophytic plant communities in the vicinity of cemeteries in Latvia. Botanica Lithuanica, 6(2), 143-155.

Mitchell, A. 1999. The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis: Spatial Measurements and Statistics. Environmental Systems Research Institute, ESRI Press, Redlands, CA, USA.

Niggemann, M., Jetzkowitz, J., Brunzel, S., Wichmann, M. C. & Bialozyt, R. 2009. Distribution patterns of plants explained by human movement behaviour. Ecological Modelling, 220, 1339-1346.

Nitcis, M., Rutkovska, S. & Evarts-Bunders, P. 2011. Mapping principles of plant records in Daugavpils city. In Abstracts of the 53 th International Scientific Conference of Daugavpils University (Olehnovics, D., ed.), p. 13. Daugavpils University (in Latvian).

NOBANIS. 2012. (The European Network on Invasive Alien Species) http://www.nobanis.org/Search.asp (accessed 11.10.2012).

Ozinga, W. A., Bekker, R. M., Schaminee, J. H. J. & Van Groenendael, J. M. 2004. Dispersal potential in plant communities depends on environmental conditions. Journal of Ecology, 92, 767-777.

Penone, C., Machon, N., Julliard, R. & Le Viol, I. 2012. Do railway edges provide functional connectivity for plant communities in an urban context? Biological Conservation, 148, 126133.

Pollnac, F., Seipel, T., Repath, C. & Rew, L. J. 2012. Plant invasion at landscape and local scales along roadways in the mountainous region of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Biological Invasions, 14, 1753-1763.

Prieditis, N. 2012. Encyclopedia of Species 'Nature of Latvia' http://www.latvijasdaba.lv/augi/ sistematiskais-raditajs/ (accessed 10.10.2012) (in Latvian).

Pysek, P., Richardson, D. M., Rejmanek, M., Webster, G. L., Williamson, M. & Kirschner, J. 2004. Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon, 53, 131-143.

Quinn, G. P. & Keough, M. J. 2006. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press.

Rasins, A. P. 1959. Materials and stories of cultural and weed plants on the territory of the Latvian SSR until the 13th century. In The Vegetation of the Latvian SSR. 2nd ed. Zinatne, Riga (in Russian).

Reid, M. & Thompson, S. 1996. Ecological fieldwork methods. In Essential Environmental Science. Methods and Techniques (Watts, S. & Halliwell, L., eds), pp. 352-390. Routledge.

Rentch, J. S., Fortney, R. H., Stephenson, S. L., Adams, H. S., Grafton, W. N. & Anderson, J. T. 2005. Vegetation-site relationships of roadside plant communities in West Virginia, USA. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 129-138.

Romancevica, N., Evarts-Bunders, P., Evarte-Bundere, G. & Brutane, K. 2011. Non-native floral elements in the flora of Daugavpils city. In Abstracts Book of the VII International Scientific Conference of Students and PhD Students (Hamar, I. S., Matiytsiv, N. P., Zaburanniy, N. V. et al., eds), p. 104. Lviv (in Russian).

Royer, F. & Dickinson, R. 1999. Weeds of the Northern U.S. and Canada. The University of Alberta Press.

Rutkovska, S., Pucka, I. & Novicka, I. 2011. Analysis of invasive flora in cemetery territories of the city of Daugavpils. In Proceedings of the 8th International Scientific and Practical Conference "Environment. Technology. Resources". (20-22 June, 2011, Rezekne, Latvia) (Noviks, G., ed.), pp. 344-351. Rezekne, 2011.

Seiler, A. 2001. Ecological Effects of Roads, A Review. Uppsala.

Smart, S. M., Thompson, K., Marrs, R. H., Le Duc, M. G., Maskell, L. C. & Firbank, L. G. 2006. Biotic homogenization and changes in species diversity across human-modified ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 273, 2659-2665.

Spatial Plan of Daugavpils City for the Period 2006-2018. 2005. 2nd edn. Daugavpils City Council, Daugavpils (in Latvian).

Sulcs, A. A. 1972. Adventive plants as weeds of agricultural lands and ruderal places in Latvia. In Nature Conservation in the Latvian SSR, pp. 79-102. Zinatne, Riga (in Russian).

Sulcs, A. A. 1976. Adventive flora in the territory of the city of Riga railway junctions. Botanicheskij zhurnal, 61(10), 1445-1454 (in Russian).

Sulcs, A. A. 1977. Adventive flora of Riga city. Botanicheskij zhurnal, 62(10), 1513-1523 (in Russian).

Tabaka, L. B., Gavrilova, G. B. & Fatare, I. J. 1985. Flora of Daugavpils City. Flora and Vegetation of Latvian SSR. The Eastern Latvian Geobotanical Area. Zinatne, Riga (in Russian).

Trombulak, S. C. & Frissell, C. A. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology, 14, 18-30.

Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A. (eds). 1964-1980. Flora Europaea. Vols 1-5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Tyser, R. W. & Worley, C. A. 1992. Alien flora in grasslands adjacent to road and trail corridors in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Conservation Biology, 6, 253-262.

Von der Lippe, M. & Kowarik, I. 2007. Long-distance dispersal of plants by vehicles as a driver of plant invasions. Conservation Biology, 21, 986-999.

Von der Lippe, M. & Kowarik, I. 2008. Do cities export biodiversity? Traffic as dispersal vector across urban-rural gradients. Diversity and Distributions, 14, 18-25.

Westermann, J., Von der Lippe, M. & Kowarik, I. 2011. Seed traits, landscape and environmental parameters as predictors of species occurrence in fragmented urban railway habitats. Basic and Applied Ecology, 12, 29-37.

Wittig, R. & Becker, U. 2010. The spontaneous flora around street trees in cities--a striking example for the worldwide homogenization of the flora of urban habitats. Flora, 205, 704-709.

Zwaenepoela, A., Roovers, P. & Hermy, M. 2006. Motor vehicles as vectors of plant species from road verges in a suburban environment. Basic and Applied Ecology, 7, 83-93.

Santa Rutkovska (a [mail]), Irena Pucka (a), Peteris Evarts-Bunders (b), and Jana Paidere (c)

(a) Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Daugavpils University, Parades Street 1-310, Daugavpils, LV-5401, Latvia

(b) Institute of Systematic Biology, Daugavpils University, Vienibas Street 13-232, Daugavpils, LV-5401, Latvia

(c) Institute of Ecology, Daugavpils University, Vienibas Street 13-209, Daugavpils, LV-5401, Latvia

([mail]) Corresponding author, santa.rutkovska@du.lv

Received 21 February 2013, revised 18 July 2013, accepted 2 August 2013

Table 1. Data of the inventory of alien species in Daugavpils City

     Scientific name           Family            Area           Life
                                               of origin        span

            1                     2                3              4

Acer negundo L.             Aceraceae       N. America        perennial
Amaranthus albus L.         Amaranthaceae   N. America        annual
Amaranthus blitoides        Amaranthaceae   N. America        annual
  S. Watson
Amaranthus retroflexus L.   Amaranthaceae   N. America        annual
Amelanchier spicata         Rosaceae        N. America        perennial
  (Lam.) K. Koch
Armoracia rusticana P.      Cruciferae      Europe            perennial
  Gaertn., B. Mey. et
  Scherb.
Artemisia austriaca Jacq.   Asteraceae      Europe, Asia      perennial
Asparagus officinalis L.    Liliaceae       Europe            perennial
Bunias orientalis L.        Cruciferae      Europe            biennial
Camelina microcarpa         Cruciferae      Europe, Asia      annual
  Andrz.
Caragana arborescem Lam.    Leguminosae     Eurasia           perennial
Carduus nutans L.           Asteraceae      Eurasia, Africa   biennial
Dracocephalum               Labiatae        Europe            annual
  thymiflorum L.
Echinocystis lobata         Cucurbitaceae   N. America        annual
  (Michx.) Torr. et A.
  Gray
Eragrostis minor Host.      Poaceae         Asia              annual
Erigeron annuus (L.)        Asteraceae      N. America        biennial
  Pers.
Erigeron canadensis L.      Asteraceae      N. America        annual
Erysimum durum J. Presl     Cruciferae      Europe            biennial
  et C. Presl
Erysimum hieracifolium L.   Cruciferae      Eurasia           biennial
Euphorbia cyparissias L.    Euphorbiaceae   Europe            perennial
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.   Asteraceae      N. America        annual
Helianthus tuberosus L.     Asteraceae      N. America        perennial
Impatiens parviflora DC.    Balsaminaceae   Asia              annual
Lappula squarrosa (Retz.)   Boraginaceae    Europe            biennial
  Dumort.
Lepidium densiflorum        Cruciferae      N. America        annual
  Schrad.
Malus domestica Borkh.      Rosaceae        originated in     perennial
                                              cultivation
Medicago x varia Martyn     Leguminosae     known from        perennial
                                              culture only
Populus alba L.             Salicaceae      Europe            perennial
Populus laurifolia Ledeb.   Salicaceae      Asia              perennial
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.     Rosaceae        Eurasia           perennial
  var. divaricata
  (Ledeb.) L. H. Bailey
Rosa rugosa Thunb.          Rosaceae        Asia              perennial
Rumex confertus Willd.      Polygonaceae    Europe            perennial
Salix daphnoides Vill.      Salicaceae      Europe            perennial
Sisymbrium altissimum L.    Cruciferae      Europe            annual
Sisymbrium loeselii L.      Cruciferae      Asia              annual
Solidago canadensis L.      Cruciferae      N. America        perennial
  s.l.
Spiraeae media F. Schmidt   Rosaceae        Eurasia           perennial
Syringa vulgaris L.         Oleaceae        Europe            perennial

     Scientific name        Main way of    No. of grid cells
                            propagation    in which the species
                                           was recorded

                                               in        along
                                           Daugavpils   railways

            1                    5              6           7

Acer negundo L.             seeds             226          31
Amaranthus albus L.         seeds              30          22
Amaranthus blitoides        seeds               4           3
  S. Watson
Amaranthus retroflexus L.   seeds              68          38
Amelanchier spicata         seeds, roots      128           3
  (Lam.) K. Koch
Armoracia rusticana P.      roots             148           6
  Gaertn., B. Mey. et
  Scherb.
Artemisia austriaca Jacq.   seeds               5           1
Asparagus officinalis L.    seeds              67           2
Bunias orientalis L.        seeds             158          14
Camelina microcarpa         seeds               3           2
  Andrz.
Caragana arborescem Lam.    roots              49           3
Carduus nutans L.           seeds              27          20
Dracocephalum               seeds              23          23
  thymiflorum L.
Echinocystis lobata         seeds             104           4
  (Michx.) Torr. et A.
  Gray
Eragrostis minor Host.      seeds              19          14
Erigeron annuus (L.)        seeds             108           4
  Pers.
Erigeron canadensis L.      seeds             276          63
Erysimum durum J. Presl     seeds               4           4
  et C. Presl
Erysimum hieracifolium L.   seeds              19           2
Euphorbia cyparissias L.    seeds, roots       32          11
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.   seeds             118          40
Helianthus tuberosus L.     roots             133           1
Impatiens parviflora DC.    seeds              89           4
Lappula squarrosa (Retz.)   seeds              10           9
  Dumort.
Lepidium densiflorum        seeds              85           7
  Schrad.
Malus domestica Borkh.      seeds             257          10

Medicago x varia Martyn     seeds              18           8

Populus alba L.             roots, seeds       33           3
Populus laurifolia Ledeb.   roots, seeds       43           1
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.     seeds, roots       33           1
  var. divaricata
  (Ledeb.) L. H. Bailey
Rosa rugosa Thunb.          roots              51           6
Rumex confertus Willd.      seeds             132           2
Salix daphnoides Vill.      roots              62           1
Sisymbrium altissimum L.    seeds              24           4
Sisymbrium loeselii L.      seeds             100           8
Solidago canadensis L.      seeds             151          10
  s.l.
Spiraeae media F. Schmidt   roots              15           2
Syringa vulgaris L.         roots             138           5

     Scientific name         Railways/     Species identified
                              city, %
                            (column 7/6)

                                           new in    in 1975-83
                                           2007-10   & 2007-10

            1                    8            9          10

Acer negundo L.                 13.7          x
Amaranthus albus L.             73.3                     x
Amaranthus blitoides            75.0                     x
  S. Watson
Amaranthus retroflexus L.       55.9          x
Amelanchier spicata              2.3                     x
  (Lam.) K. Koch
Armoracia rusticana P.          4.1                      x
  Gaertn., B. Mey. et
  Scherb.
Artemisia austriaca Jacq.       20.0          x
Asparagus officinalis L.         3.0                     x
Bunias orientalis L.             8.9                     x
Camelina microcarpa             66.7                     x
  Andrz.
Caragana arborescem Lam.         6.1          x
Carduus nutans L.               74.1                     x
Dracocephalum                  100.0                     x
  thymiflorum L.
Echinocystis lobata              3.8          x
  (Michx.) Torr. et A.
  Gray
Eragrostis minor Host.          73.7                     x
Erigeron annuus (L.)             3.7          x
  Pers.
Erigeron canadensis L.          22.8                     x
Erysimum durum J. Presl        100.0                     x
  et C. Presl
Erysimum hieracifolium L.       10.5          x
Euphorbia cyparissias L.        34.4                     x
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.       33.9                     x
Helianthus tuberosus L.          0.8          x
Impatiens parviflora DC.         4.5          x
Lappula squarrosa (Retz.)       90.0                     x
  Dumort.
Lepidium densiflorum             8.2                     x
  Schrad.
Malus domestica Borkh.           3.9          x

Medicago x varia Martyn         44.4                     x

Populus alba L.                  9.1          x
Populus laurifolia Ledeb.        2.3          x
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.          3.0          x
  var. divaricata
  (Ledeb.) L. H. Bailey
Rosa rugosa Thunb.              11.8                     x
Rumex confertus Willd.           1.5                     x
Salix daphnoides Vill.           1.6                     x
Sisymbrium altissimum L.        16.7         x
Sisymbrium loeselii L.           8.0                     x
Solidago canadensis L.           6.6                     x
  s.l.
Spiraeae media F. Schmidt       13.3          x
Syringa vulgaris L.              3.6          x
COPYRIGHT 2013 Estonian Academy Publishers
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2013 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Rutkovska, Santa; Pucka, Irena; Evarts-Bunders, Peteris; Paidere, Jana
Publication:Estonian Journal of Ecology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXLA
Date:Sep 1, 2013
Words:5689
Previous Article:Factors affecting the re-vegetation of abandoned extracted peatlands in Estonia: a synthesis from field and greenhouse studies.
Next Article:Properties and behaviour of starch and rapeseed cake based composites in horticultural applications.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |