The role of Indonesia public health institutions to contend ASEAN economic community.
Countries that are the members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in December 2015 will implement the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).  The readiness of ASEAN countries to face this era has been prepared for long time. Competition among ASEAN nations will open freely without any insulation, and the ability of a state has to be proven to improve the economy. Otherwise, if it is wrong in the act, it will bring loss to the community. There are two options in this era, be it consumers or producers. Indonesia in 2010 had a population of 237,641,326, which is a great potential for economic growth in this nation. 
There are 12 service sectors that have been agreed upon by the ASEAN countries--business, communication, construction and related engineering techniques, education, distribution, the environment, financial, services relating to health and social services, tourism and travel, recreation, sports and culture, transportation, and other service sectors.  The free movement of skilled labor does not mean to do it totally free but through the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA). With MRA mechanism, the destination country recognizes the professional qualifications of skilled workers from the country of origin or sending countries.  It means the country of origin has the authority to give a certificate that describes the competence of skilled manpower to be sent. Although it indirectly provides a guaranteed access to the market, but certainly, MRA is the first step in the effort to promote the skilled personnel.
College, as an education provider institution, must work quickly to prepare undergraduate public health in the face of this era. Educational development in the ASEAN region should become a benchmark in the advancement of education in Indonesia, particularly the public health education institutions.  Preparing human resources that are reliable and ready to compete in the era of AEC requires a special strategy in view of the challenges and opportunities to compete in this era. 
The Government of Indonesia through educational policies has made various changes in answering the AEC era, which comprises three important pillars, namely: public, health, and curriculum  changes, which refers to the national qualifications framework of Indonesia ; changes to the organizer of accreditation from National Accreditation Board into Higher Education Accreditation Agencyiuris College of Health; and the implementation of Certificate of Registration for health workers.  This article will analyze the role of public health institutions in the era of AEC Indonesia.
Materials and Methods
Secondary data analysis from literature review was conducted, which was from databases such as Scopus, DOAJ, and Google Scholar and from gray literatures from the report of Ministry of Health Indonesia, Indonesian Public Health Association (IPHA), Statistic of Indonesia, and other sources.
Table 1 shows the estimated schools of public health in the countries of Asia region, namely China 72, India 4, others as many as 33, central Asia 2, and high-income Asia Pacific 26. This amount is less than the countries in the region of America. It remains imbalanced when looking at the number of inhabitants in Asian countries.
Indonesia is a big country, in both population and geographic size. In 2013, Human Development Index (HDI) of Indonesia was in the sixth rank of 10 ASEAN countries. Indonesia still remains at lower position than Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and Thailand. Indonesia's IP Min 2010 was ranked 108, while in 2011 dropped to 124 [Table 2]. 
Table 3 shows that there are 241 courses of public health in Indonesia, which are divided to bachelor and doctoral degree on public health. Public health education in Indonesia consists of 212 bachelor courses and has only one profession program of public health in Airlangga University.
On the basis of Law Number 36, Year 2009, on Health and Government Regulation, Number 32, Year 1996, on Health Workers presents that the Bachelor of Public Health has a complex issue, but the problem will increase the maturity of the human resources themselves. The recognition of a Bachelor of Public Health will be marked by a Certificate of Registration. To obtain a Registration Certificate Degree of Public Health, it takes several steps, namely: (1) competency test, a process to measure the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of health workers in accordance with professional standards, (2) certificate of competency and letter of recognition of the competency for the one who is able to do the practice of their profession or occupation in Indonesia after passing the competency test, (3) registration is an official record of health workers who already have a certificate of competence and other qualifications and legally established to run the practice and work profession, (4) Certificate of Registration is a written evidence given by the government to health workers who already have a certificate of competency. 
With this model, each health college, both public and private sectors, are encouraged to prepare their students for taking the examination of Registration Certificate. Surely, the academic process of a university should be a serious concern. Considering that the standard used for examination is a national standard, therefore, the educators should provide the knowledge and information related to the examination in order that student will be get used to it.
Education Accreditation in Indonesia
Accreditation is a form of accountability to the public, which is done objectively, fairly, transparently, and comprehensively by using the instruments and criteria referring to the National Education Standards.  In the early formation, the National Accreditation Board of Higher Education decided to conduct accreditation in advance with the consideration that the course is determining the quality of educational outcomes. However, along with the era of globalization  and the education reform, the National Accreditation Board of Higher Education only accredit higher education institutions. Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005, Article 86, Paragraph (1) stated that the Government of accreditation at every level and education units has to determine the feasibility of the program and the education unit.  Accreditation authority at the level of the course can be established independent accrediting agencies. With these regulations, the health institutions in Indonesia establish an independent accreditation agency medical colleges. 
Accreditation of higher education by the independent accreditation Institute of Higher Education on Health is a public service that combines the resources of government, business/industry, and the civil society to empower people to be able to answer the demands of globalization, the laws and regulations, and civil society in assuring a higher education quality.  On December 22, 2011, there was an agreement in forming Independent Accreditation Institutions of Higher Education on Health,  which was signed by seven health professions, namely: AIPKI, IDI, AFDOKGI, PDGI, AIPNI, PPNI, AIPKIND, IBI, AIPTKMI, IAKMI, APTFI, IAI, AIPGI, PERSAGI, LAM-PTKes, aimed not only to provide the status and rank of accreditation alone but also primarily to increase the awareness, motivation, and concrete steps that ultimately lead to the culture of continuous quality improvement (culture of continuous quality improvement).
The quality of education in Indonesia becomes the responsibility; hence, the government through the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and Technology has formed the Institute for Development of Health Workers Competency Test. It aims at ensuring the quality of higher education graduates to meet the needs of the public health to health care by a qualified healthcare professional through the development of appropriate health personnel competency test in Competency Standards. 
English and Empowerment
Both the approaches English language ability and community empowerment, require hard work and a real effort. System of education in the School of Public Health Halu Oleo University, especially for the improvement of English language skills, pursued a variety of learning  models, namely: first, the formation of student organizations that focus on English language named English Community Public Health (ECPH); second, programs English Study Trip,  the program is given to students who do the learning experiences in the community field.  This activity combines public health academic and English language skills; third, application TOEFL score at the end of the study aims to test and prepare graduates to compete in the job market.
Community empowerment is the application of public health education  and should be accompanied by a good learning ability.  At the International Conference on Health Promotionto-7 in Nairobi, Kenya, it reaffirmed the importance of empowering the community health field by agreeing on the need to build the capacity of health promotion,  health systems strengthening, partnership and collaboration  across sectors, community empowerment, and health conscious and healthy behaviors.
Model and community empowerment techniques are adapted to the conditions of Indonesia. Indonesia has 17,508 small islands, and the five major islands are Sulawesi, Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua. These characteristics should be the benchmark in implementing community development. Model health of the coastal environment is one approach used to solve environmental health problems in coastal areas. 
Public health education institutions have a very big role in creating superior humans the power source. Preparing students to be highly skilled is a serious concern. Competition between undergraduate public health is no longer limited to between nations and Indonesia but increasingly widespread among the ASEAN countries. Higher education system in Indonesia continues to increase; the accreditation system is the one way in improving the quality of higher education, and curriculum changes that are based on the national qualifications framework form curriculum guidelines in education. On the personal development of students, they should be given more value in learning English. With the entry into force of the AEC, then this will be the benchmark for the success of public health college.
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Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.
RamadhanTosepu (1), Devy Savitri Effendy (2), Hartati Bahar (2), La Ode Ali Imran (2)
(1) Environmental Health Department, Public Health Faculty, Halu Oleo University, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia.
(2) Public Health Faculty, Halu Oleo University, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia.
Correspondence to: RamadhanTosepu, E-mail: email@example.com
Received May 20, 2015. Accepted June 16, 2015
Table 1: Institutions, graduate, and workforce by region 2008110] Country Population Estimated number of (millions) schools Medical Public Asia health China 1,371 188 72 India 1,230 300 4 Other 1,075 241 33 Central 82 51 2 High-income Asia Pacific 227 168 26 Europe Central 122 64 19 Eastern 212 100 15 Western 435 282 52 Americans North America 361 173 65 Latin America/Caribbean 602 513 82 Africa North Africa/middle east 450 206 46 Sub-Saharan Africa 868 134 51 World 7,036 2,420 467 Country Estimated graduates Workforce per year (thousands) (thousands) Doctors Nurses/ Doctors Nurses/ Asia midwives midwives China 175 29 1,861 1,259 India 30 36 646 1,372 Other 18 55 494 1,300 Central 6 15 235 603 High-income Asia Pacific 10 56 409 1,543 Europe Central 8 28 281 670 Eastern 22 48 840 1,798 Western 42 119 1,350 3,379 Americans North America 19 74 793 2,997 Latin America/Caribbean 35 33 827 1,099 Africa North Africa/middle east 17 22 540 925 Sub-Saharan Africa 6 26 125 739 World 389 541 8,401 17,684 Table 2: The rank of Human Development Index, the satisfaction of people about health services, and the ratio of health workers in ASEAN country 2013  Rank HDI Country The satisfaction Ratio of health of people about workers (per 1,000 health services (%) people) 18 Singapore 86 1,8 30 Brunei -- 1,4 64 Malaysia 89 0,9 103 Thailand 85 0,3 114 Philippine 81 1,2 121 Indonesia 79 0,3 127 Vietnam 74 1,2 134 Timor Leste -- 0,1 138 Laos 69 0,3 138 Cambodia 75 0,2 Table 3: Institutions of public health in Indonesia by strata  Strata Total Bachelor 212 Magister 25 Profession 1 Doctors 3 Total 241
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|Author:||Tosepu, Ramadhan; Effendy, Devy Savitri; Bahar, Hartati; Ali Imran, La Ode|
|Publication:||International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2015|
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