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The resistance of exotic wheat germplasm to stripe rust {Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) under nature infection at Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.

Wheat is cultivated on an area of about 21.465 million acres with production of 24.303 million tonnes annually (PBS, 2014). Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is world-wide threat to wheat production, causing 10 to 70% grain losses depending on susceptibility of the cultivar, earliness of the initial infection, rate of disease development and duration of disease (Chen, 2005). Afzal et al. (2009) and Rattu et al. (2009) determined variability for yield based-partial resistance against stripe rust among wheat breeding lines. Mirza et al. (2003) concluded that up to 50% improvement in wheat yield has been achieved by introducing new high yielding cultivar in Pakistan. It is the genetic makeup of a variety that is expressed in a favourable environment and produces different yields in different environments (Khan et al, 2011). They had also screened high yielding and rust resistant wheat lines out of CIMMYT germ plasm. Rahman et al. (2012) released a high yielding rust resistance wheat variety BARS-09 selected from CIMMYT nursery in Pakistan. Therefore, using host plant resistance is the most economical, effective and ecologically sustainable method for controlling the disease. To diversify the resistance in wheat breeding programmes, introducing wheat grem plasm from other countries and identifying new resistance source are widely used in breeding practices. In the present study, some exotic wheat lines were evaluated under rainfed condition to identify the best source of resistance against stripe rust for further utilization in wheat breeding programme.

Forty nine exotic wheat genotypes received from CIMMYT International Wheat Improvement Network (Table 1) were planted in a triplicated randomised complete block design at Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan in November, 2013. A local susceptible check (CBN-47) was also involved for properly assessment of disease austerity in field conditions. Each line was planted in four rows of 3 meters long plots having row to row distance of 25 cm. The crop had received enough rain during heading and grain formation stage which ultimately helped the intensification of disease pressure in field conditions. The temperature remained low from December (6[degrees]C) to February (7[degrees]C) while, total rain fall (118 mm) occurred in March (50 mm) and April (68 mm) during the entire cropping season.

The modified Cobb's scale (Peterson et al., 1948) was used to assess the wheat genotypes for adult plant stem rust resistance based on the percentage of the leaf area covered with stem rust pustules (Table 2). Disease data was recorded when susceptible check showed about 30% infection during the evaluation seasons.

A set of 49 wheat genotypes was studied to evaluate their response against stripe rust disease. A local cultivar (CBN-47) was also involved as susceptible check for properly assessment of disease severity in the field conditions. The crop had experienced severe drought stress up to month of February as it was maintained under rainfed conditions. The frequent rain (50 to 68 mm in March and April, respectively), high relative humidity (67 to 83%) coupled with cool temperature (12-24[degrees]C in March, and 18-23[degrees]C in April) during heading and grain formation stage had created quite favourite conditions for stripe rust infection and spread on wheat. Imported germ plasms were screened under high disease pressure in field conditions. Therefore, a narrow disease rating scale (0-100) was used for most opposite evaluation and rating of genotypes. Recorded data revealed highly significant variability among the genotypes regarding their response to stripe rust disease. The reaction of various entries ranged from very highly resistant to very highly susceptible depending upon the genetic makeup of genotypes. Out of 49 test entries, 11 remained very highly resistant, 4 highly resistant, 12 resistant, 3 moderately resistant, 2 moderately susceptible, 8 moderately susceptible to susceptible, 1 susceptible, 2 highly susceptible and 6 were very highly susceptible to yellow rust disease (Table 3). Similar results have been reported by Afzal et al. (2009), who determine significant variability for field based-partial resistance against stripe rust among 188 wheat breeding lines. Rattu et al. (2009) have also found three resistant lines against leaf and yellow rust among 29 wheat candidate lines with desirable Relative Resistance Index (RRI). The expression of resistance and production of different yields in different environments depends upon the genetic makeup of a variety (Khan et al., 2011).

Mirza et al. (2003) reported that, up to 50% yield improvement in wheat has been attained through introducing new high yielding disease resistance cultivars in Pakistan. Kolmer (2003) and Oelke and Kolmer (2004), suggested that prior to exercising any gene pyramiding approach, it is necessary to identify the effective and genetically diversified sources of resistance. Host resistance is the most economical, effective and ecologically sustainable method of controlling the disease (Vanzetti et al., 2011). Rajaram et al. (1996) suggested simultaneous evaluation of germ plasm for drought tolerant and disease resistance genotypes. In present studies, all the entries have shown quite inimitable and incomparable response to disease. The entries No. 1 to 27 possessing resistant genes against stripe rust disease may be conceivably exploited; either through direct selection and/or involving them in wheat hybridization programme for development of stripe rust resistant varieties.

(received December 4, 2014; revised July 29, 2015; accepted August 10, 2015)

Muhammad Yaqoob

Arid Zone Research Institute, Ratta Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan



Afzal, S.N., Haque, I., Ahmadan, M.S., Munir, M., Firdous, S.S., Rauf, A., Ahmad, I., Rattu, A.R., Fayyaz, M. 2009. Resistance potential of wheat germ plasm (Triticum aestivum L.) against stripe rust disease under rainfed climate of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of[micro]Botany, 41: 1463-1475.

Chen, X.M. 2005. Epidemiology and control of stripe rust (Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici) on wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 27: 314-337.

Khan, S., Khan, J., Islam, N., Islam, M. 2011. Screening and evaluation of wheat germplasm for yield, drought and disease resistance under rainfed conditions of upland Balochistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43: 559-563.

Kolmer, J.A. 2003. Tracking wheat rust on a continental scale. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 8: 441-449.

Mirza, H., Wasiullah, Iqbal, J., Ilyas, M. 2003. Evaluation of wheat varieties under the agro-climatic conditions of Barani Agricultural Research Station, Kohat. Pakistan Journal of Agronomy, 2: 8-12.

Oelke, L.M., Kolmer, J.A. 2004. Characterization of leaf rust resistance in hard red spring wheat cultivars. Plant Diseases, 88: 1127-1133.

PBS, 2014. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, Pakisktan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Peterson, R.F., Campbell, A.B., Hannah, A.E. 1948. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity of leaves and stems of cereals. Canadian Journal of Research Section C, 26: 496-500.

Rahman, S., Arshad, W., Ali, S., Hussain, M., Tariq, M., Mahmood, A., Niaz, S. 2012. BARS-09: A high yielding and rust resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety for rainfed areas of Punjab. Journalof AgriculturalResearch, 50: 189-201.

Rajaram, S., Braun, H., van Ginkel, M. 1996. CIMMYT approach to breed for drought tolerance. Euphytica, 92: 147-153.

Rattu, A.R., Fayyaz, M., Ahmad, I., Akhtar, M.A., Hakro, A.A., Khanzada, K.A. 2009. Evaluation of candidate lines against wheat rusts in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 22: 42-49.

Vanzetti, L.S., Campos, P., Demichelis, M., Lombardo, L.A., Aurelia, P.R., Vaschetto, L.M., Bainotti, C.T., Helguera, M. 2011. Identification of leaf rust resistance genes in selected Argentinean bread wheat cultivars by gene postulation and molecular markers. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 14: 523-531.
Table 1. CIMMYT wheat germ plasm accessions used in
experiment at Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera
Ismail Khan, Pakistan

Entry *   Cross name

1         FRANCOLIN #1/WBLL1
2         BAJ#1/TECUE#1
3         MUTUS/AKURI
4         BECARD/KACHU
5         WBLL1*2/4/SNI/TRAP#1/3/KAUZ*2/TRA P//KAUZ/5/BAJ #1
7         WBLL1*2/BRAMBLING/5/BABAX/LR42//BABAX*2/
8         MUU/5/WBLL1*2/4/YACO/PBW65/3/KAUZ*2/TRAP//
9         FRANCOLIN #1//WBLL1*2/KURUKU
10        BAJ #1/AKURI
12        WBLL1*2/4/YACO/PBW65/3/KAUZ*2/TRAP //KAUZ*2/5/DEMAI 4
14        SUP152/BLOUK #1
15        MUTUS/ROLF07
16        WBLL1/FRET2//PASTOR*2/3/MURGA
17        KA/NAC//TRCH/3/DANPHE #1
19        WBLL1*2/4/BABAX/LR42//BABAX/3/BABAX/LR42//BABAX
20        KA/NAC//TRCH/3/DANPHE #1
25        BAV92//IRENA/KAUZ/3/HUITES/4/2*ROLF07
27        KA/NAC//TRCH/3/VORB
28        OB/ERA//TOB/CNO67/3/PLO/4/VEE#5/5/KAU /FRET2/7/PASTOR//
29        TOB/ERA//TOB/CNO67/3/PLO/4/VEE#5/5/KAU6/FRET2/7/PASTOR//
30        TOB/ERA//TOB/CNO67/3/PLO/4/VEE#5/5/KAUZ/6/FRET2/7/MINO
31        METSO/ER2000//MUU
33        SNLG/3/EMB16/CBRD//CBRD/4/KA/NAC//TRCH
34        SNLG/3/EMB16/CBRD//CBRD/4/KA/NAC//TRCH
36        C80.1/3*BATAVIA//2*WBLL1/3/EMB16/ CBRD//CBRD/4/CHEWINK #1
37        1447/PASTOR//KRICHAUFF/5/2*SERI*3/RL6010/4*YR/
38        METSO/ER2000//MONARCA F2007/3/WBLL1*2/KKTS
39        BERKUT/MUU//DANPHE #1
41        KA/NAC//TRCH/3/DANPHE #1
43        METSO/ER2000/5/2*SERI*3//RL6010/4 *YR/3/PASTOR/4/BAV92
46        DHARWAR DRY
47        HIDDAB
49        CHAM 6
50        Local Check "CBN-47"

* wheat genotypes have been arranged according to their
merit of resistance against stripe rust disease.

Table 2. A modified disease rating scale for recording
stripe rust in wheat genotypes

Symptoms                                  Infection (%)   Rating

No visible signs or symptom               0               VHR
Necrotic and/or chlorotic flecks;         5               HR
  no sporulation
Necrotic and/or chlorotic blotches or     6-10            R
  stripes; no sporulation
Necrotic and/or chlorotic blotches or     11-15           MR
  stripes; trace sporulation
Necrotic and/or chlorotic blotches or     16-25           MS
  stripes; light sporulation
Necrotic and/or chlorotic blotches or     26-40           MStoS
  stripes; intermediate sporulation
Necrotic and /or chlorotic blotches or    41-70           S
  stripes; moderate sporulation
Necrotic and/or chlorotic blotches or     71-90           HS
  stripes; abundant sporulation
Chlorosis behind sporulating areas;       91-100          VHS
  abundant sporulation

VHR = very highly resistance; HR = highly resistant; R =
resistant; MR = moderately resistant; MS = moderately
susceptible; MS to S = moderately susceptible to
susceptible; S = susceptible; HS = highly susceptible;
VHS = very highly susceptible.

Table 3. Disease scoring of CIMMYT wheat
accession at AZRI, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

Entry   Disease     Genotypic reaction

1       0     J     VHR
2       0     J     VHR
3       0     J     VHR
4       0     J     VHR
5       0     J     VHR
6       0     J     VHR
7       0     J     VHR
8       0     J     VHR
9       0     J     VHR
10      0     J     VHR
11      0     J     VHR
12      3.3   IJ    HR
13      3.3   IJ    HR
14      3.3   IJ    HR
15      3.3   IJ    HR
16      6.7   HIJ   R
17      6.7   HIJ   R
18      6.7   HIJ   R
19      6.7   HIJ   R
20      6.7   HIJ   R
21      6.7   HIJ   R
22      6.7   HIJ   R
23      6.7   HIJ   R
24      6.7   HIJ   R
25      6.7   HIJ   R
26      10    HIJ   R
27      10    HIJ   R
28      13    HI    MR
29      13    HI    MR
30      15    H     MR
31      17    GH    MS
32      17    GH    MS
33      27    FG    MS to S
34      28    F     MS to S
35      30    EF    MS to S
36      33    EF    MS to S
37      33    EF    MS to S
38      33    EF    MS to S
39      37    EF    MS to S
40      40    E     MS to S
41      70    D     S
42      83    C     HS
43      87    BC    HS
44      93    ABC   VHS
45      97    AB    VHS
46      100   A     VHS
47      100   A     VHS
48      100   A     VHS
49      100   A     VHS
50      100   A     VHS

Genotypes sharing common letter(s) are
statistically similar at 5% probability level.
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Yaqoob, Muhammad
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 1, 2016
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