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The relationship of physical self-perceptions and goal orientations to intrinsic motivation for exercise.

The purpose of this study was to examine the multivariate relationship between physical self-perceptions/goal orientations and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Female undergraduates (N= 261) enrolled in physical activity classes completed several self-report measures assessing physical self-perceptions, task and ego goal orientations for exercise, and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Factor analysis initially confirmed stable fact or structures for all the measured variables. Subsequent canonical correlation analysis revealed a significant and meaningful relationship between a pair of canonical variates incorporating physical self-perceptions and task/ego orientations as predictor variables and indices of intrinsic motivation for exercise as dependent measures. Results revealed that a high positive loading on self-perceptions of physical condition, moderately positive loadings on perceptions of sports competence, physical strength, and a task orientation for exercise, corresponded to a set of intrinsic mo tivation criterion variables composed of interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/importance, and tension/pressure for exercise. Ego orientation for exercise, however, failed to significantly contribute to the multivariate relationship. Discussion highlights the notion, that among the present sample. self-perceptions of competence in the physical domain, and a task orientation for exercise, are robust correlates of intrinsic motivation for exercise.

The importance of cardiovascular fitness to both physical and psychological health is well-documented (Bouchard, Shepard, & Stephens, 1993). Physical benefits of aerobic training include decreases in blood pressure, cholesterol levels, triglycerides, as well as resting heart rate (Hoeger & Hoeger, 1998). Psychological benefits for those who engage in regular aerobic exercise include reduction of both anxiety and depression (Craft & Landers, 1998; Petruzzello, Landers, Hatfield, Kubitz, & Salazar, 1991). Unfortunately, it is estimated that clearly fifty percent of those individuals who initiate an exercise regime discontinue participation within six months (Dishman, 1988). As a result, exercise psychologists have directed considerable research attention to psychological constructs potentially related to both the initiation of, and adherence to an exercise regime.

Several theories have been advanced in an attempt to explain intrinsic motivation for exercise. These include exercise self-efficacy (Dzewaltkowski, Noble, & Shaw, 1990; McAuley & Courneya, 1992; McAuley, Courneya, & Lettunich, 1991; Rudolph & McAuley, 1996), intentions to exercise (Godin, Colantonio, Davis, Shepard, & Simard, 1986; Godin & Shepard, 1986; Hausenblaus, Carron, & Mack, 1997), and exercise self-schemata (Eastabrooks & Courneya, 1997; Kendzierski, 1988, 1990; Yin & Boyd, 2000). However, a theoretical approach emanating from the self-esteem literature (Harter, 1985,1986; Marsh & Shavelson, 1985; Shavelson, Hubner, & Stanton, 1976), is the study of physical self-perceptions. Based on Harter's (1978, 1985) competence motivation theory, this model maintains that individuals are motivated to engage in mastery behavior that satisfies an intrinsic need for challenge and perceptions of control. The model has been adopted in sport and exercise psychology and underscores the importance of the salience of c ompetence perceptions to the development of intrinsic motivation for physical activity, behavioral choice, intensity, and persistence (Harter, 1985). Perceptions of competence, in the form of physical self-perceptions, serve as a measure of self-esteem in the physical domain and have been shown to reliably predict exercise behavior (Fox & Corbin, 1989; Marsh, 1996; Marsh & Redmayne, 1994; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989).

A social-cognitive model for studying motivation in sport and exercise is goal perspective theory (Ames, 1992; Ames & Archer, 1988; Dweck, 1986; Dweck & Elliott, 1993; Maehr & Braskamp, 1986; Nicholls, 1984, 1989, 1992). Nicholls (1984,1989) asserts that individuals engage in achievement behavior in order to demonstrate competence and avoid the demonstration of incompetence. According to Nicholls, goal orientations are linked to the manner in which individuals construe competence and define success in a given achievement domain. Two goal perspectives, task and ego orientation, are related to the amount of effort expended on a given task and are also associated to subsequent referents of intrinsic motivation such as task choice, performance, and persistence (Nicholls, 1984, 1989). A task orientation involves a self-referenced conception of ability where mastery of skills, or improvement, induce perceptions of competence. An ego orientation, rather, represents a normatively referenced conception of ability wher e perceptions of competence are based upon the demonstration of superior ability or performing as well as others with less effort. This framework has been used extensively in the study of intrinsic motivation in sport and physical activity (Duda & Whitehead, 1998). In conjunction, goal orientation theory and physical self-perceptions (Fox & Corbin, 1989) provide an intuitively appealing conceptual approach to the study of intrinsic motivation for exercise.

The study of physical self-perceptions has its origins in the self-esteem literature (Hailer, 1985, 1986). Unlike proponents of the unidimensional approach to the study of self-esteem and competence advanced in the past (Marsh, Byrne, & Shavelson, 1988; Marsh & Shavelson, 1985), contemporary theorists have advocated a multidimensional/hierarchical approach. Global self-esteem serves at the apex of the conceptual network in this model, and is further divided into situation-specific, subordinate domains of self-esteem (eg. academic, social, emotional, physical domains). Moreover, each of these domains is further divided into subdomains of even greater specificity. Exercise psychologists have adopted this multidimensional model in their study of self-concept in the physical domain (Fox & Corbin, 1989; Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne, 1994; Sonstroem, & Morgan, 1989).

Fox & Corbin (1989) validated the multi-level heirarchical organization of self-perceptions in the physical domain using the Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP). Self-perceptions of competence at the domain level are assessed utilizing a physical self-worth scale. More importantly, at the subdomain level, is the measurement of self-perceptions of physical condition, sports competence, physical strength, and attractive body. Correlation procedures have confirmed the heirarchical nature of the model, and factor analysis has demonstrated construct validity of the four-factor subdomain structure. Fox and Corbin (1989), for instance, reported that discriminant function analysis correctly classified males and females seventy percent of the time into activity/non-activity groups. Furthermore, canonical correlation indicated that loadings on the various subdomains were associated to the type of physical activity participation. Self-perceptions of sports competence, for example, corresponded to ball sports activit y, whereas perceptions of physical strength and physical condition corresponded to weight training and aerobic exercise, respectively. Utilizing the PSPP, Sonstroem, Speliotis, and Faua (1992) found that adult exercisers were categorized correctly 84% of the time. The most robust predictor of aerobic exercise among both men and women has been shown to be self perceptions of physical condition (Hayes, Crocker, & Kowalski, 1999; Sonstroem, et al. 1992; Sonstroem, Harlow & Joseph, 1994). Marsh and his colleagues (Marsh, 1996; Marsh & Redmayne, 1994; Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche, & Tremayne, 1994; Marsh & Sonstroem, 1995) have also provided evidence for the multidimensional structure of self-esteem in the physical domain and validity of the PSPP. Evidence clearly suggests that the strength of physical self-perceptions is reliably associated to exercise behavior and therefore theoretically should also be related to intrinsic motivation to exercise.

Goal orientations are also proposed to exert an effect upon the motivation to exercise. Task and ego goal orientations have been reported to be associated to both psychological and behavioral variation in sport and physical activity achievement contexts (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998; Nicholls, 1992; Roberts, 1992). A task orientation in sport has been shown to be related to mastery/cooperation, satisfaction, enjoyment, and sources of perceived physical competence including learning and improvement as well as goal attainment (Boyd & Yin, 1996; Duda, 1989; Duda, et al., 1995; Treasure & Roberts, 1994; White, Duda, & Keller, 1998; Williams, 1994). A task orientation has also been found to be positively related to the belief that effort rather than ability leads to success in sport and physical activity (Duda, Fox, Biddle, & Armstrong, 1992; Duda & Nicholls, 1992; Treasure & Roberts, 1994). Regarding exercise behavior, two studies have demonstrated a task orientation to be associated to participation in mod erate to vigorous physical exercise among children (Dempsey, Kimiecik, & Horn, 1993; Kimiecik, Horn, & Shurin, 1996). Research suggests that participating in challenging tasks, exerting high levels of effort, and experiencing self-improvement are inherent goals for those who adopt a task orientation in the physical domain,

An ego orientation in sport and physical activity has exhibited a strikingly different pattern of results. In sport, an ego orientation has been found to be associated to sources of perceived physical competence including a preference for social comparison information, interest in the performance of others, and performance outcome, (Williams, 1994). Ego orientation in the physical domain is also related to cognitive anxiety prior to sport performance (Hall & Kerr, 1997; White & Zellner, 1996), cognitive interference during performance (Hatzigeorgiadis & Biddle, 1999), and self-handicapping in sport (Ryska, Yin, & Boyd, 1999). Unlike those with a task orientation, ego-oriented individuals maintain the belief that ability, ratherthan effort, leads to success in the physical domain (Duda, 1989; Duda et al., 1992; Duda & Nicholls, 1992; Treasure & Roberts, 1994). Not surprisingly, an ego orientation has been reported to be unrelated to both intrinsic motivation in sport and moderate to vigorous physical activity (Dempsey et al., 1993; Duda, Chi, Newton, Walling, & Catley, 1995). For those who are ego-oriented, participation in physical activity is apparently perceived as a means toward an end, outperforming others on tasks of normative difficulty. In summary, intrinsic motivation for physical activity has been shown to be associated to goal orientation, however, it has also been outlined in relation to cognitive evaluation theory.

Cognitive evaluation theory posits that intrinsic motivation is the result of satisfying an inherent need for perceptions of competence and self-determination (Deci, 1975; Deci & Ryan, 1985). According to the theory, intrinsic motivation is fostered when feelings of competence are increased or perceptions of self-determination and internal control are salient. Physical activity perceived to be interesting, challenging, providing feelings of pleasure and satisfaction, or performed for its own sake rather than external causation, induces intrinsic motivation (Vallerand & Fortier, 1998). When achievement behavior, characterized as volitional behavior in which people strive for success, persist in light of failure, and experience pride of accomplishment (Gill, 1986), such as in sport and exercise, is causally perceived to be under one's internal control, intrinsic motivation is enhanced. Extrinsic motivation, however, results from achievement behavior performed for some tangible reward or to avoid negative conseq uences rather than for the inherent pleasure it provides (Deci, 1975; Vallerand & Fortier, 1998). Deci & Ryan (1985) contend that extrinsically motivated individuals engage in given activity as a means toward an end, such as outperforming others, subsequently perceiving the locus of causality of their behavior to be linked to external causation. Cognitive evaluation theory suggests that intrinsically motivated exercise enthusiasts are those who possess greater perceptions of physical competence or engage in exercise behavior for the feelings of self-determination, perceptions of control, and satisfaction exercise provides. Conversely, those who possess lower perceptions of competence, exercise exclusively for external rewards, or perceive their exercise behavior to be externally controlled, should express little intrinsic motivation for exercise. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI; McAuley, Duncan, & Tammen, 1989) has been utilized extensively to measure intrinsic motivation for physical activity.

In accordance with competence motivation theory (Hailer, 1985), a primary purpose of this study was to examine whether physical self-perceptions are associated to intrinsic motivation for exercise. As only limited research has linked goal orientations to exercise behavior, a secondary purpose of the study was to discover whether a task orientation and efforts toward mastery and improvement correspond to intrinsic motivation for exercise. Moreover, ego orientation and a preoccupation with social comparison of fitness were expected to demonstrate little predictive value with regard to intrinsic motivation for exercise. It was hypothesized, therefore, that physical self-perceptions and a task orientation for exercise would be associated to intrinsic motivation for exercise.

Method

Participants and Procedure

Undergraduate female students (N=261), age 18-43 years (M=21.6, SD=3.9), enrolled in twelve aerobic dance classes at a university in Southern California served as subjects in the study. Upon approval of the study by a university institutional review board, instructors were solicited by the principal investigator of the study for participation of their class. Data was collected during the first 30 minutes of a regular class session in the final two weeks of the semester. Participants were told that their involvement in the study was voluntary and anonymous in nature, they could withdraw at any time without consequence, and then subsequently completed both informed consent and several questionnaires. Each instrument was thoroughly explained, instructions read orally by the investigator, and clarifications addressed as well as encouraged before participants were requested to complete each measure in an honest manner.

Measures

Physical Self-perceptions. The Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP; Fox, 1990) was utilized in order to measure physical self-concept. The PSPP was designed to quantify subdomains of self-esteem in the physical domain in an effort to predict physical activity levels. The instrument contains 30 items distributed among four 6-item subdomain subscales assessing self-perceptions of sports competence, physical condition, attractive body, and physical strength, and one scale (6 items) quantifying general physical self-worth at the domain level. Respondents are requested to choose between two contrasting descriptors, indicate which of the two alternatives best describes them, and finally choose whether the descriptor is, "sort of true for me", or, "really true for me". Items for each subscale are scored from 1 (low) to 4 (high) and summed in order to arrive at a total score for each subdomain. Construct and predictive validity as well as internal reliability of the PSPP have been well documented (Fox & Corbin, 19 89; Sonstroem et al., 1992; Sonstroem et al., 1994; Marsh & Sonstroem, 1995).

Goal Orientations. In order to assess goal orientations for exercise, the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ; Roberts & Balague, 1989, 1991) was adapted for an exercise context. Items were slightly modified by altering the word "sport" in the stem to "exercise". The POSQ is a 12-item instrument consisting of two 6-item subscales designed to quantify task and ego orientation in sport. Each item was preceded by the phrase, "I feel most successful in exercise when..." answered on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). A total score for both task and ego orientation is derived by adding six items contained in each subscale. Examples of items embedded within the task and ego subscales respectively are: "I work hard", and, "I am the best". The POSQ has been modified previously in the physical domain (Roberts, Treasure & Hall, 1994) and has demonstrated adequate psychometric properties including factorial validity and internal consistency (Roberts et al., 1994; Robert s & Ommundsen, 1996; Roberts & Treasure, 1995; Treasure & Roberts, 1994).

Intrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic motivation for exercise was assessed using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) developed by Ryan (1982). The IMI has been adapted in the past to quantify intrinsic motivation in the physical activity domain (McAuley et al., 1989) and is composed of four subscales assessing interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/importance, and tension/pressure. Scoring for these items ranges from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Total scores for each subscale are established by summing the respective items of each scale. Higher scores are indicative of greater levels of intrinsic motivation whereas lower scores reflect less intrinsic motivation. Items were slightly modified in order to reflect participation in exercise. Examples of items on the instrument include, "I enjoy exercise very much" (interest/enjoyment), "1 am satisfied with my exercise performance" (perceived competence), "I put a lot of effort into exercise" (effort/importance), and, "I feel tense while ex ercising" (tension/pressure). Construct validity and internal reliability of the IMI have been successfully demonstrated within a physical activity context (McAuley et al., 1989; McAuley, Wraith, & Duncan, 1991).

Results

Psychometric Properties of the Scales

The component structure of the various subscales contained in the PSPP, POSQ, and IMI instruments was assessed using principal components factor analysis. Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization procedures provided meaningful interpretation of the underlying simple structure and the number of factors to be retained. A factor loading of .50 was established as a minimum criterion in order to be included in the model.

For the PSPP, five factors emerged, identified as physical self-worth, sports competence, physical condition, physical strength, and attractive body with eigenvalues of 1.78, 4.34, 3.59, 3.46, and 6.08 respectively accounting for 64% of the variance among the items. In contrast to the proposed hierarchical model (Fox & Corbin, 1989), however, the physical self-worth scale and the attractive body subscale demonstrated considerable factor overlap and were subsequently deleted from further analysis. This factor overlap between the attractive body and physical self-worth scales has been reported elsewhere (Sonstroem et al., 1992). The remaining three subscales of physical self-perceptions accounted for 38% of the variation in the questionnaire items. Cronbach (1951) alphas for these subscales were .90 for sports competence (6 items), .86 for physical condition (6 items), and .85 for physical strength (6 items).

The POSQ also demonstrated a clear factor structure for interpretation. Two factors emerged with eigenvalues greater than 1.00 and were identified as task (6 items) and ego orientation (6 items) for exercise, accounting for 34% and 21% of the variance in participants' responses, respectively. The interfactor correlation was negligible (r = .04), consistent with past research (Treasure & Roberts, 1994; Roberts & Treasure 1995) confirming orthogonality of the two factors. Alpha coefficients were .71 and .90 for the task and ego orientation for exercise subscales, respectively.

The IMI also exhibited a stable factor structure as all items loaded on their respective factors meeting the minimum criterion to be retained for interpretation. Eigenvalues were greater than 1.00 for the interest/enjoyment (5 items), perceived competence (4 items), effort/importance (5 items), and tension/pressure (4 items) intrinsic motivation subscales, respectively, accounting for 60.1% of the variance in the items. Internal reliability coefficients were .82 (interest/enjoyment), .77 (perceived competence), .76 (effort/ importance), and .77 (tension/ pressure) for the intrinsic motivation for exercise subscales.

Descriptive Statistics

Means and standard deviations of the physical self-perception (PSPP), task and ego orientations for exercise (POSQ), and intrinsic motivation for exercise (IMI) subscales are displayed in Table 1. Significant zero order correlations (2-tailed) were observed between task orientation for exercise and both interest/enjoyment (r .29), and effort/importance (r = .36). Self-perceptions of physical condition were associated to interest/enjoyment (r = .49), perceived competence (r .59), effort/importance (r = .49), and tension/pressure (r = -.27).

Intrinsic Motivation for Exercise

In order to examine the multivariate relationship between the linear combination of the two sets of variables composed of physical self-perceptions/goal orientations for exercise, and indices of intrinsic motivation for exercise, canonical correlation was performed. The predictor variables were composed of self-perceptions of sports competence, physical condition, and physical strength, as well as task and ego orientations for exercise. The criterion variables consisted of the four measures of intrinsic motivation for exercise, specifically, interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/importance, and tension/pressure.

The overall multivariate relationship was significant (Wilk's lambda = .74, F(4, 252) = 21.73,p <.0001). Follow-up canonical correlation analysis indicated three significant functions emerged. However, only the first function exceeded the .30 criterion (10% of the variance) suggested as the minimal level for meaningful interpretation (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1989). The analysis revealed that the relationship between the linear combinations of the two sets of variables could best be explained by one function with a Rc value of .68 ([R.sup.2]= .46). A minimal canonical loading of .30 is considered to contribute significantly to the multivariate relationship (Pedhazur, 1982). As Table 2 demonstrates, a high positive loading on physical condition, and moderately positive loadings on task orientation for exercise, sports competence, and physical strength, were positively associated to the criterion set of variables composed of interest/ enjoyment, perceived competence, and effort/importance, and were negatively relat ed to tension/pressure for exercise. Ego orientation for exercise, however, failed to significantly contribute to the multivariate relationship. The redundancy index revealed that 16% of the variance in the four indices of intrinsic motivation for exercise could be explained by the linear combination of the predictor variables. A redundancy value of 10% is recommended as a significant and meaningful cutoff for interpretation (Pedhazur, 1982).

Discussion

Results of the present study demonstrated that physical self-perceptions and a task orientation for exercise were associated to intrinsic motivation for exercise. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that, among undergraduate female exercisers, self-perceptions of sports competence, physical condition, and physical strength, and a task orientation for exercise, were positively related to a set of criterion variables indicative of intrinsic motivation. A high, positive loading on perceptions of physical condition, and moderately positive loadings on perceptions of sports competence and physical strength corresponded to a set of intrinsic motivation criterion measures including interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and effort/importance during exercise. These same physical self-perceptions were negatively related, however, to perceptions of tension/pressure during exercise.

This behavioral pattern in the exercise domain is consistent with tenets of both competence motivation (Harter, 1985) and cognitive evaluation (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories. Proponents of competence motivation theory maintain that perceptions of physical competence lead to higher degrees of intrinsic motivation for physical activity. Application of the theory to exercise behavior has demonstrated that perceived physical competence, in the form of physical self-perceptions, is predictive of exercise behavior (Fox & Corbin, 1989). Cognitive evaluation theory highlights the significance of feelings of competence and self-determination, also theorized to lead to desirable levels of intrinsic motivation. Physical activity perceived to be interesting, challenging, and providing feelings of pleasure and satisfaction is postulated to enhance intrinsic motivation (Vallerand & Fortier, 1998). In support of theoretical rationale, in the present study, feelings of competence in the form of physical self-perceptions were f ound to be intimately associated to intrinsic motivation for exercise.

The multidimensional approach to the study of physical self-concept highlights the influence of the subdomains of physical condition, sports competence, body attractiveness, and physical strength, to the prediction of exercise behavior (Fox & Corbin, 1989; Hayes, et al., 1999; Sonstroem et al., 1992; Sonstroem et al., 1994). Three of these four physical self-perception measures were linked to intrinsic motivation to participate in exercise among the present sample. However, not unlike earlier studies (Sonstroem, et al., 1992; Sonstroem et al., 1994), the body attractiveness subscale failed to demonstrate a stable factor structure and was subsequently deleted from further analysis. The most robust predictor of intrinsic motivation for exercise was self-perceptions of physical condition which historically has been shown to be most influential of the four subscales in predicting self-reported exercise behavior (Fox & Corbin, 1989; Sonstroem et al., 1992; Sonstroem et al., 1994).

Canonical correlation also revealed that a task orientation for exercise was moderately and positively related to intrinsic motivation for exercise. Only a limited number of studies have noted a meaningful relationship between a task orientation and degree of moderate-to-vigorous physically activity, exclusively among children (Dempsey et al., 1993; Kimiecik et al., 1996). As the present results suggest, a task orientation may not only induce greater enjoyment for exercise but also leads to lower levels of tension/pressure. Focusing upon mastery, self-improvement, and effort, rather than evaluating one's unique level of fitness in relation to others, who may already be in an exercise maintenance stage, appears to be a functional strategy for maintaining intrinsic motivation and may also play a significant role in adherence to an exercise regime. Individuals who are either initiating involvement in an exercise program or are not currently in a desirable state of cardiovascular condition, as well as more experi enced exercise enthusiasts, would do well to take a task-oriented approach to exercise while pursuing steady fitness improvement over time.

An ego orientation was found to be unrelated to intrinsic motivation for exercise. This finding, however, was not unexpected and is consistent with research findings in the sport domain (Duda, et al., 1995). For those who are ego-oriented, perceptions of competence are normatively referenced, dependent upon the ability to outperform others (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998). An ego orientation and concomitant preoccupation to perform better than others is a maladaptive dispositional strategy for motivating oneself to participate long-term in an exercise program, reported to be associated to anxiety in the physical domain (Hall & Kerr, 1997). Moreover, an ego orientation in conjunction with low perceived physical ability has been theorized to contribute to dropout in the physical domain (Duda, 1987). Commercial advertisement of fitness corporations often promote pictorials of highly physically fit individuals perhaps generating unrealistic expectations to potential clients which may ultimately discourage the public from engaging in ongoing exercise. Beginning as well as more experienced exercisers, therefore, would be well advised to take a task-oriented approach to exercise and working toward steady personal fitness improvement over the long term.

Factor analysis of the subscales contained within both the POSQ (goal orientation; Roberts & Balague, 1989) and the IMI (intrinsic motivation; McAuley et al., 1989), modified for exercise, exhibited a stable and internally reliable factor structure. Both scales have been modified earlier in the sport and exercise psychology literature and have held up well psychometrically (McAuley et al., 1989; Treasure & Roberts, 1994). The two scales appear to be both valid and reliable measures of exercise goal orientations and intrinsic motivation, respectively. Further research should attempt to replicate the present findings in order to extend the utility of these instruments in the exercise domain among adult as well as youth populations.

In summary, higher physical self-perceptions and a task orientation for exercise were found to be associated to intrinsic motivation for exercise. In order to maintain optimal motivational levels for exercise, practitioners would do well to emphasize a task orientation and personal improvement over time in their teaching strategies, rather than normatively referenced perceptions of fitness competence. A task orientation and efforts toward improvement may subsequently eventually lead to higher physical self-perceptions, which as the results suggest, are also related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation to exercise. Exercise provides substantial physical and psychological benefits for those who choose to participate and therefore warrants ongoing research.

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Table 1

Means, Standard Deviations, and Reliability Cofficients of All Measures

 M SD Alpha

Goal orientations
 Ego 2.86 1.02 .90
 Task 4.62 .37 .71
Physical self-perceptions
 Sports competence 2.35 .72 .90
 Physical condition 2.54 .69 .86
 Physical strength 2.45 .60 .85
Intrinsic motivation
 Interest/enjoyment 3.75 .74 .82
 Perceived competence 3.78 .64 .77
 Effort/importance 3.95 .70 .76
 Tension/pressure 2.26 .77 .77
Table 2

Correlations, Canonical Correlation, percents of Variance, and
Redundancies Between Physical Self-Perceptions/Goal Orientations and
Intrinsic Motivation

 Canonical Loadings

Physical Self-Perceptions/
 Goal Orientations

 Task Orientation .493
 Ego Orientation .128
 Sports Competence .595
 Physical Condition .936
 Physical Strength .477

 Percent of variance .34
 Redundancy .16

Intrinsic Motivation

 Interest/Enjoyment .780
 Perceived Competence .893
 Effort/Importance .810
 Tension/Pressure -.440

 Percent of variance .56
 Redundancy .26

 Canonical correlation .68
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Author:Boyd, Michael P.; Weinmann, Carol; Yin, Zenong
Publication:Journal of Sport Behavior
Article Type:Statistical Data Included
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2002
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