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The relationship between stress factors and absenteeism (case study: employees of training and education in Yasouj).

INTRODUCTION

In the field of human resources, programs of stress management help companies contain health expenditures among their employees..stress is universal and inclusive, in all aspects of life and everywhere in varying degrees, is permanent. stress factors May be external or internal or a combination of both. However, our discussion in this paper is mainly is stresses that occurs through external or environmental factors.

According to the definition NIOSH, Job stress occurs when between job needs with abilities, capabilities, and wishes is not fit. This definition, in addition to the lack of coordination with individual capacities, and abilities, focuses on the individual needs [4]. Work in the life of every individual is considered an important part of his life and due to the fact that at least one third of our life is spent at work, has attracted the attention of many researchers. available factors in workplace are in relation to health and disease in employees. Researches show that occupational environment and occupational stress can cause mental illness in the employee's and accelerate process of mental illness. [18].

In study of Kawakami and Haratani job stress is the most important cause of mental disorders, especially depression was introduced [13]. Statistics show that stress and its complications every year caused the loss of hundreds of the working day. The results showed that perceived job stress is highly correlated with absenteeism. and the amount in those divorced or separated and less than 40 years were more than others [19]. Thousands of researchers have tried to losses and costs related to stress in the institutions at the community level estimate. these studies have examined the first jobs with high risk to prove the usefulness of such studies and then gradually shifted their attention to other professions. psychologists and researchers have investigated the role of stress in different positions, here, the effect of stress on employee health sector due to the complexity of work, is very remarkable [23].

Currently, over half of all midsize and large American companies offer at least one type of organisational health promotion activity with a growing number of smaller employers catching on [7].

Stress:

Stress is increasingly becoming accepted as a workplace phenomenon negatively affecting a growing number of employees in organisation [8]. stress is defined as the experienced discrepancy between the requisites of the environment and capacities of the persons [10]. Cartwright and Cooper (1998) divided work stressor variables into three important. Negative stress or distress can cause stress related illness, and it can affect absenteeism, turnover and work performance [21].

Work stress appears to be the number one cause of employees absenteeism. According to new research by recruitment corporation Reed, over three sections of human resource experts have noted an increase in the number of employees taking time off due to stress related illnesses in the last five years. Stress factors comprise job factors, Individual's factors and organizational factors which descriptive in table one.

There are some of the main factors in the environment that could be classified as stressors. factors include: workload in duty, Inefficiency in duty, duty Ambiguity, work Boundaries, duty Responsibility and physical environment.

--workload in duty: Workload refers to the intensity of job assignments. It is a source of mental stress for employees.

--Inefficiency in duty: the lack of ability to do something or produce something without wasting materials, time, or energy.

--duty Ambiguity: Role ambiguity denotes uncertainty about the expectations, behaviors, and consequences associated with a particular role. Specifically, a person has a need to know others' expectations of the rights, duties, and responsibilities of the role, the behaviors that will lead to fulfillment of these expectations, and the likely consequences of these role behaviors.

--work Boundaries: Boundaries are the invisible lines that are drawn to help define roles and interactions in relationships in work, duty and organisation.

--duty Responsibility: A duty or obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task (assigned by someone, or created by one's own promise or circumstances) that one must fulfill, and which has a consequent penalty for failure.

--physical environment: The environment is all of physical and social conditions in work that surround a person and can influence that person's work in organisation. Physical Environment is external surrounding and conditions in which something exists.

Absenteeism and stress:

Absenteeism is a provisional absence from work and organisation (temporary withdrawal from the organization) for reasons such as illness, death in the family or other personal causes [16,17]. The causes for absenteeism are either [2,16,24]:

Mainly aim in nature (and also harder to influence);

Predominantly subjective (psychological causes such as the occurrence of stress and, also cardiovascular diseases, or social causes comprise stimulant dependency, anorexia and insomnia, poor concentration , etc.

Also, some of the most important measures which could have a powerful impact on the absenteeism level between employees in organisations are:

Measures for health and safety at job,

job environment, increased worker motivation and stimulation for the scarce absenteeism and quicker return to work, the level of social security, which in decisive cases can encourage absenteeism, the relevant legislation, which would not licence the abuse of the rights of the persons, the attitude of health services toward absences from job, etc.

Absenteeism poses a obstacle for organizations, because of negative effects comprise direct compensation expenditures, replacement expenditures, lower productivity expenditures, etc. [16]. European studies have shown that work absenteeism is accompanied by symmetric increases in work-related stress [5]. In fact, rates of absenteeism have become a universal standard by which employees health is measured [13].

Stress is one of the most common causes for unscheduled absences in job and organisation [6]. Absenteeism is defined as missed work time by an employee [3]. Adams [1] suggested that over 70% of all work absenteeism was tied to stress-related work and job. last recent investigates has focused on both occupational stress and life stress as being associated with absenteeism [22]. In addition to absences from job, employees often report to their works but are unable to carry out their duties [9] or spend time handling private problems [14].

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

From the above mentioned model the following main hypothesis are developed:

1--There is a meaningful relationship between workload in duty & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

2--There is a meaningful relationship between Inefficiency in duty & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

3--There is a meaningful relationship between duty Ambiguity & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

4--There is a meaningful relationship between work Boundaries & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

5--There is a meaningful relationship between duty Responsibility & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

6--There is a meaningful relationship between physical environment & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

Methodology:

This study is a cross-sectional descriptive. The subjects is The relationship between stress factors and absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj. Stress variable comprise workload in duty, Inefficiency in duty, duty Ambiguity, work Boundaries, duty Responsibility and physical environment are independent variables and Absenteeism in work is dependent in this research. First, a group of 30 persons were selected from the subjects and the questionnaire distributed among them. After extracting the data from the responses of the intended group and the variance estimate, the volume of the sample of the study was drawn 220 persons were selected randomely as the subjects of the study. In this research, questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The validity of its content was ensured by using the expert viewpoints and consensus. The validity of its structure was measured through using the structural functions. The internal reliability of the items was verified by computing the Cronbach's alpha. a minimum alpha of 0.7 sufficed for stage of search. The Cronbach alpha estimated for workload in duty was 0.856. As the Cronbach's alpha in this research were all much higher 0.7, the constructs were therefore deemed to have adequate reliability.

In table 2 our research the reliability of the items is checked through Cronbach's alpha that is 0.912 which shows that our research variables are reliable and there exists internal consistency between them.

Findings:

Descriptive data:

This study attempts to understand the relationships among stress factors and absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj. Table 4 Descriptive statistical data shows the relation to the employees participated to the research (n = 220). The social demographic qualification of the participants are as follows: 146 male and 74 female participated to the research.

The educational background of the participants are; 109 people High School, 146 people have University, 120 people have Master, and 9 people phd degree.

The educational background of the participants are; 8 people diploma, 162 people have Bachelor, and 50 people phd and Master degree.

The age classification of participants are; 12 people are Under 25; 131 people are between 25-35; 55 people are between 36-45 and 22 people are more than the age of 45:

Structural relationships in the conceptual model were tested with LISRAL. The maximum likelihood fitting function was used to estimated parameters. The CFI comparative index could be used to determine the properness of the model. In this study, CFI equals 0/89 since this value is more than the standard value , this could be argued that the designed model suits the collected data. the GFI Index is also another index whose value is Between 0/5 and one and indicates an acceptable value and In the current study GFI is 0/89. According to the indexes it can be concluded that the model have a relatively good fitness.

In the Table 5 Unstandardized Coefficients, Standard Coefficients, t and sig For each of the variables in research variables was examined:

Results:

In the Table 6 research Hypothesis was examined. The Information about any hypothesis Included Standard Coefficients, Significant coefficients and Result For each of the variables in research Hypothesis was examined. For example, in The first hypothesis, Standard Coefficients is 0.88, Significant coefficients is 7.88 and Hypothesis was Accepted

First hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between workload in duty & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj:

As shown in table 6, since observed Standardized coefficients is equal to .88 and Significant coefficients is 7.88 so There is a meaningful relationship between workload in duty & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj with 95% confidence.

Second hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between Inefficiency in duty & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.:

As shown in table 6, since observed Standardized coefficients is equal to .58 and Significant coefficients is 6.76 so There is a meaningful relationship between Inefficiency in duty & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj with 95% confidence.

Third hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between duty Ambiguity & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj:

As shown in table 6, since observed Standardized coefficients is equal to .06 and Significant coefficients is 0.94 so There is not a meaningful relationship between duty Ambiguity & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj with 95% confidence.

Fourth hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between work Boundaries & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

As shown in table 6, since observed Standardized coefficients is equal to .84 and Significant coefficients is 2.70 so There is a meaningful relationship between work Boundaries & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj with 95% confidence.

Fifth hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between duty Responsibility & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

As shown in table 6, since observed Standardized coefficients is equal to .72 and Significant coefficients is 3.45 so There is a meaningful relationship between duty Responsibility & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj with 95% confidence.

Sixth hypothesis: There is a meaningful relationship between physical environment & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj.

As shown in table 6, since observed Standardized coefficients is equal to .62 and Significant coefficients is 2.58 so There is a meaningful relationship between physical environment & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj with 95% confidence.

Conclusions:

The aim of this study was to identify the impact of stress factors comprise workload in duty, Inefficiency in duty, duty Ambiguity, work Boundaries, duty Responsibility, physical environment in absenteeism of work among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj. the study finds out some interesting results: (1): There is a meaningful relationship between workload in duty & Absenteeism , (2): There is a meaningful relationship between Inefficiency in duty & Absenteeism, (3): There is not a meaningful relationship between duty Ambiguity & Absenteeism , (4): There is a meaningful relationship between work Boundaries & Absenteeism, (5): There is a meaningful relationship between duty Responsibility & Absenteeism, (6): There is a meaningful relationship between physical environment & Absenteeism among employees of Training and Education in Yasouj. Due to the impact of job stress on employees It is essential for organizations to implement strategies that support the long-term effects of job stress on employees are prevented. Many researchers believe that interventions, such as encouraging teamwork, participation of staff in decision-making, Supported employment, reducing conflict and uncertainty and increased job control and job events is essential for employees. also psychological interventions to reduce occupational stress and increase consistency in the workplace, not only in the workplace environment, but also the training of personnel is part of the educational planning. Also, Managers in organisation, with awareness of employees occupational stress able to better plan about the psychological fitness and ability of each employee in service for educational programs.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 11 June 2014

Received in revised form 21 September 2014

Accepted 25 November 2014 Available online 29 December 2014

REFERENCES

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(1) Azam azimifar and (2) Gholam Sajadi Khah

(1) Department of Management, College of Humanities, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran

(2) Department of Management, College of Humanities, Kerman Branch, Islamic Kerman University, Kerman, Iran

Corresponding Author: Azam Azimifar, Department of Management , College of Humanities, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
Table 1: Stress factors

Stress factors                         defintion

Job factors       with particular job variables and variables related
                 to work schedule comprise variables such as level of
                 work complexity, work duties diversity, temperature,
                  noise, level of freedom and control that employees
                     have on their speed and timing on their work
                                   (Jewell,, 1998).

Individual's        have been studied more than other levels: role
factors            contrast, role ambiguity, volume overload of job,
                  embarrassment shifts, the quality of interpersonal
                   relations, lack of social support and personality
                            sort (Ivancevich, et al, 2001)

organizational     are management and cultural practicing within the
factors           organization, non participation in decision making,
                 unsuitable and incomplete communication, totalitarian
                 leadership style, organizational policies, incomplete
                    opportunities for upgrade, lack of job security
                   and ... which play a main role in building stress
                              (Ivancevich, et al, 2001).

Table 2: Reliability coefficient of research variables related to
given hypotheses.

Cronbach        Constructs
alpha

0.856        workload in duty
0.797      Inefficiency in duty
0.845         duty Ambiguity
0.892        work Boundaries
0.843      duty Responsibility
0.783      physical environment
0.912             total

Table 3: Demographic qualifications of participants.

Frequency

74              Female        Gender
146              Male
220             Total

8              diploma       Education
162            Bachelor
50          PHD and Master
220             Total

12             Under 25         Age
131             25-35
55              36-45
22           More than 45
220             Total

Table 4: Results of the best fitting model.

Index    AGFI   IFI    CFI    NNFI   NFI    RMSEA   GFI

Amount   0.86   0.98   0.89   0.98   0.96   0.026   0.89

Table 5: Unstandardized Coefficients, Standard
Coefficients, t and sig.

sig     t          Standard     Unstandardized
                 Coefficients   Coefficients

                     Beta       Std. Error     B

0.000   10.628      0.575         0.054      0.575
0.000   7.310       0.435         0.060      0.435
0.035   2.116       0.138         0.065      0.138
0.000   5.521       0.343         0.062      0.343
0.000   8.366       0.484         0.058      0.484
0.001   5.509       0.331         0.050      0.331

sig

         Dependent        Independent

0.000   Absenteeism     workload in duty
0.000   Absenteeism   Inefficiency in duty
0.035   Absenteeism      duty Ambiguity
0.000   Absenteeism     work Boundaries
0.000   Absenteeism   duty Responsibility
0.001   Absenteeism   physical environment

Table 6: Analyzing the hypotheses of research.

Result      Significant    Standardized      Relation       Hypothesis
            coefficients   coefficients

Accept          7.88           0.88         workload in         H1
                                             duty and
                                            Absenteeism

Accept          6.76           0.58       Inefficiency in       H2
                                             duty and
                                            Absenteeism

Rejection       0.93           0.06       duty Ambiguity        H3
                                          and Absenteeism

Accept          2.70           0.84       work Boundaries       H4
                                          and Absenteeism

Accept          3.45           0.72            duty             H5
                                          Responsibility
                                          and Absenteeism

Accept          2.58           0.62          physical           H6
                                          environment and
                                            Absenteeism
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Author:Azimifar, Azam; Khah, Gholam Sajadi
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Oct 1, 2014
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