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The president's budget: overview of structure and timing of submission to Congress.

Contents

Introduction
Origins and Predecessors of the President's Budget
Content of the President's Budget
Structure and Components of Recent Budget Submissions
Timing of Submission of the President's Budget
  Deadlines for Submission of the President's Budget
  Timely Submission of the President's Budget
  Delayed Submission of the President's Budget

Contacts
  Author Contact Information
  Acknowledgments


July 25, 2013

Summary

The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, as amended and later codified in the U.S. Code, requires the President to submit a consolidated federal budget to Congress toward the beginning of each regular session of Congress. Under 31 U.S.C. Section 1105(a), the President must submit the budget--which contains budgetary proposals, projections, and other required reports--to Congress on or after the first Monday in January, but no later than the first Monday in February.

The President's budget, or the Budget of the United States Government as it is referred to in statute, is required to include in part (1) estimates of spending, revenues, borrowing, and debt; (2) detailed estimates of the financial operations of federal agencies and programs; (3) the President's budgetary, policy, and legislative recommendations; and (4) information supporting the President's recommendations. The President's budget also contains budgetary proposals for the legislative and judicial branches. These proposals are transmitted to the President and submitted, without change, as part of the President's budget submission to Congress. There are a number of reports that are required to be submitted along with, or at the same time as, the President's budget, such as an annual federal government performance plan and a report estimating the annual costs and benefits of federal rules.

The content and structure of the President's budget have varied by President. The budget submissions of the past three Presidents have each included the following volumes:

* Budget of the U.S. Government-includes a short budget message summarizing the President's policy priorities, summary tables of budgetary aggregates, and narrative descriptions of proposed government activities;

* Historical Tables-provides a historical overview of federal government finances, including time series statistics on budget authority, government receipts, outlays, and the federal debt;

* Analytical Perspectives-contains in-depth discussion of government programs and technical explanation of the budget baselines that were used to produce the estimates contained in the President's budget; and

* Appendix-includes detailed budget estimates and financial information on individual programs listed by appropriations account, which includes the President's recommended appropriations language, among other information.

Timely Submission of the President's Budget. In the 92 years since the President was required to submit a budget to Congress, it was submitted on or before the original statutory deadline on 75 occasions. On 53 of these occasions, the budget was submitted on the deadline. On the remaining 22 occasions, the President's budget was submitted early.

Delayed Submission of the President's Budget. The President's budget has been submitted after the statutory deadline on 17 occasions. In 6 of these 17 occasions, Congress extended the deadline by statute. In all but one of these occasions, the President's budget was submitted by the extended deadline. In the 12 instances when it was submitted after the original or the extended deadline, the proposal was delayed, on average, 34 days.

This report, which provides information on the origins, content, and submission dates of the President's budget, will be updated annually or as developments warrant.

Introduction

The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (P.L. 67-13; 42 Stat. 20), as amended and later codified in the U.S. Code, requires the President to submit a consolidated federal budget annually to Congress toward the beginning of each regular session. (1) Under Title 31 of the U.S. Code, the President must submit the budget--which contains budgetary estimates, proposals, and other required reports--to Congress on or after the first Monday in January, but no later than the first Monday in February. (2)

In addition to providing budgetary estimates and other required reports, the President's budget is a compilation of the President's budgetary proposals and selected policy recommendations. Congress is not required to adopt the President's proposals or recommendations. Nevertheless, the budget is one of the President's most important policy tools. While it is not legally binding, the President's budget typically initiates the congressional budget process and informs Congress of the President's recommended spending levels for agencies and programs. For this reason, the content and timing of the President's budget submission may be of particular interest to Members of Congress, congressional committees, and congressional staff.

This report begins with a brief overview of the origins and typical content of the President's budget. This report also provides information on the statutory deadlines for submission to Congress and the submission dates of the President's budget for FY1923-FY2014. (3) The President's consolidated, annual budget submission to Congress, or the Budget of the United States Government as it is referred to in statute, is referred to in this report as "the President's budget." (4)

Origins and Predecessors of the President's Budget

Prior to the enactment of the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, the executive budget process was highly decentralized. Until the mid-to-late 1800s, agencies typically submitted their budget requests directly to Congress, frequently with little or no involvement by the President.5 In subsequent years, individual agency requests were compiled by the Department of the Treasury and submitted to Congress as the Book of Estimates. (6)

While the Book of Estimates may have served as an efficient means of transmitting multiple budget requests to Congress as a single package, it was not a consolidated federal budget. Initially, the compilation and submission of the "Book of Estimates" was a matter of custom and practice by some, but not all, agencies within the executive branch. Agencies were not required to submit their budget requests to the Treasury, and many continued to submit their requests directly to Congress. (7)

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a series of laws were enacted that prohibited agencies from submitting their budget requests directly to Congress. For example, in 1884 a law was enacted that required that "all estimates of appropriations ... shall be transmitted to Congress through the Secretary of the Treasury, and in no other manner." (8) In 1901, a law was enacted that required executive departments to submit their requests to the Secretary of the Treasury "on or before the 15th of October of each year." (9) Under the 1901 act, the Secretary of the Treasury was then required to compile all agency requests and submit them as part of the "Book of Estimates" no later than the first day of November. (10) While these acts required the Secretary to transmit all agency requests as a single package, each request was developed independently. (11) Involvement and direction by the President were minimal, and there was little if any coordination amongst agencies. (12)

In 1910, President William H. Taft created the Commission on Economy and Efficiency. One of the primary purposes of the commission was to develop and propose reforms to the executive budget process. (13) The current structure, format, and content of the President's budget submission are similar to those that were proposed by the Taft Commission on Economy and Efficiency in 1912. In a report titled The Need for a National Budget, the commission recommended that the President submit to Congress a consolidated budget consisting in part of (1) a budget message, (2) a consolidated financial report containing revenues and expenditures for each executive department for the previous five fiscal years, (3) the President's proposed revenues and expenditures for the next fiscal year, and (4) detailed information supporting the President's recommendations. (14)

Since 1921, the required contents of the President's budget have been modified and expanded by statutes such as the Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 (15) and the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974.16 The current requirements are discussed in the next section of this report.

Content of the President's Budget

The President's budget typically provides detailed estimates of the financial operations of federal agencies and programs, the President's budgetary and legislative recommendations, and other information supporting the President's recommendations.

Under Title 31 of the U.S. Code, the President's budget must include, in part,

* estimated receipts, expenditures, and proposed appropriations for the next five fiscal years;

* actual receipts, expenditures, and appropriations for the previous fiscal year;

* information on the public debt;

* separate statements of amounts for specified appropriations accounts and trust funds; and

* when practicable, information on costs and performance of federal programs and activities. (17)

The President is responsible for developing budgetary estimates and proposed appropriations for executive branch agencies. In practice, the President has delegated many of the tasks and authorities necessary for developing the budget to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). (18) For example, OMB issues guidance to executive agencies instructing them on the process, format, and deadlines for submitting their budget requests to OMB. (19) OMB officials are also responsible for reviewing agencies' budget requests to ensure that they are consistent with the President's policy objectives, and advising the President on recommended budgetary levels. (20)

The President's budget must also contain budgetary estimates and proposals for the legislative and judicial branches. These estimates and proposals are developed by the legislative and judicial branches, and are then transmitted to the President and submitted, without change, as part of the President's budget submission. (21) Similar procedures apply to select independent agencies and government-sponsored enterprises (e.g., U.S. International Trade Commission, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and Federal National Mortgage Association). (22) Additionally, certain agencies (e.g., Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Securities and Exchange Commission, and National Transportation Safety Board) are required by statute to submit their budget proposals directly to Congress, without review or alteration by the President or OMB. In some cases, the agency submits its budget only to Congress, while in other cases the agency must submit its budget to OMB and Congress concurrently. (23)

There are a number of reports that are required to be submitted along with, or at the same time as, the President's budget. For example, the President is required to submit an annual federal government performance plan for the overall budget. (24) Along with the annual budget submission, the President must also submit to Congress a report estimating the annual costs and benefits of federal rules. (25)

Structure and Components of Recent Budget Submissions

The structure and format of the President's budget have varied by President, but in recent years, the President's budget has been submitted in multiple volumes. The size and composition of these budget volumes have varied from administration to administration.

The budget submissions of the past three Presidents have each included the following volumes: Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables, Analytical Perspectives, and Appendix. In addition, recent submissions have been accompanied by supplemental materials and supporting documents that are typically made available only in electronic form. (26)

* Budget of the U.S. Government. The Budget of the U.S. Government volume typically begins with a short budget message, addressed to Congress, which summarizes the President's policy priorities. In addition, this volume includes detailed narrative descriptions of proposed government activities for each executive department and selected independent agencies. This volume also includes summary tables of budgetary aggregates and estimates of the effects of the President's proposals on the deficit, among others. The summary tables typically provide information for each of the fiscal years covered by the President's budget.

* Historical Tables. The Historical Tables volume provides a historical overview of federal government finances, including time series statistics on budget authority, (27) government receipts, outlays, government employment, economic statistics, and the federal debt going back several decades and in some cases as far back as 1789. (28) Generally, the tables provide data through the fiscal year covered by the President's budget. According to OMB, to the extent possible, the data provided in the historical tables are adjusted to provide consistency and comparability over the period of time covered. (29) In recent years, the tables have also been made available in downloadable, XLS spreadsheet format on the OMB website. (30)

* Analytical Perspectives. Since FY1995, the President's budget submission has included an Analytical Perspectives volume, which contains in-depth analysis of government programs, including credit and insurance programs, discussion of crosscut budgets (i.e., budgets that span two or more agencies), and technical explanation of the budget baselines (31) used in the analyses and estimates contained in the President's budget, among other items. In recent years, this volume has also included a "Budget Concepts" chapter, which provides an overview of the budget process and a "Glossary of Budget Terms" that are used in the President's budget.

Additionally, many of the reports that are required to be submitted along with, or at the same time as, the President's budget are provided within the Analytical Perspectives volume. For example, in the FY2014 budget submission, the Analytical Perspectives volume included a report estimating the annual costs and benefits of selected regulations reviewed by OMB in FY2011. (32)

The web-based version of the FY2014 Analytical Perspectives volume contains supplemental information and spreadsheets of selected tables. (33) Included in the web-based version are tables that provide data on budget authority and outlays (34) for federal agencies and programs. Of these tables, one provides information on budget authority and outlays organized by budget function, (35) category, and program. (36) Another provides the same information by agency and appropriations or fund account, in a structure similar to the organization of annual appropriations acts. (37)

* Appendix. The Appendix volume includes detailed budget estimates and financial information for each appropriations account and for selected programs, listed by appropriations account. This includes the proposed text of appropriations language, and explanations of the work that will be performed by the funds provided. The Appendix volume also includes recommended language for the general provisions applicable to the appropriations of entire agencies or groups of agencies, such as proposed restrictions on the use of funds and proposed authorities to transfer funds from one account to another.38

* Supplemental Materials. Additionally, Presidents' budget submissions have often included supplemental materials, such as legislative proposals for budget process reform, a brief guide to the budget that is intended for members of the public, or a summary of proposed spending reductions or program consolidations. Finally, unforeseen circumstances may require the President to modify the recommendations or other information contained in the President's budget submission to Congress. Under Title 31 of the U.S. Code, the President may revise the budget recommendations or submit supplemental budget requests to Congress at any time during the year.39 When the President makes new budget recommendations for the current fiscal year, the changes are referred to as "supplementals." Changes to the President's proposals for the upcoming fiscal year, however, are referred to as "amendments." (40)

Timing of Submission of the President's Budget

Deadlines for Submission of the President's Budget

Under the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, the deadline for submission was originally set as "the first day of each regular session" of Congress. The deadline was subsequently changed by statute in 1950, 1985, and 1990. The Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950 changed the deadline to the 15th day of each regular session of Congress. (41) The Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 included two changes to the deadline for submission. (42) The first established a deadline of February 5, 1986, for FY1987. The second changed the deadline to the first Monday after January 3 beginning with FY1988. Finally, the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 extended the deadline to the first Monday in February of each year. (43)

The 1990 change to the deadline for submission, which first applied to FY1992, made it possible for an outgoing President, whose term ends on January 20, to leave the annual budget submission to his or her successor. The three outgoing Presidents since the FY1992 change--George H. W. Bush, William J. Clinton, and George W. Bush--exercised this option. Accordingly, the budget was submitted in 1993, 2001, and 2009 by the three incoming Presidents (William J. Clinton for FY1994, George W. Bush for FY2002, and Barack Obama for FY2010). In each of these three cases, the first budget submission of the incoming President was submitted after the statutory deadline. (44)

Under current law, the President is required to submit the annual budget on or after the first Monday in January, but no later than the first Monday in February. (45) Prior to the official transmittal of his budget to Congress, the President typically presents the major budget proposals in the annual State of the Union address, usually in late January.

Table 1 provides a list of the deadlines for submission, the first fiscal year to which each deadline applied, and the statutory source for each deadline.

Timely Submission of the President's Budget

In the 92 years since the President was required to submit a consolidated budget to Congress, the budget was submitted on or before the original statutory deadline on 75 occasions. On 53 of these occasions, the budget was submitted on the deadline. On the remaining 22 occasions, the President's budget was submitted early, between 1 and 13 days before the deadline.

Delayed Submission of the President's Budget

The President's budget has been submitted after the statutory deadline on 17 occasions. In 6 of these 17 occasions, Congress extended the deadline by statute. (46) On average, the deadline was extended by 13 days. In all but one of these occasions, the President's budget was submitted by the extended deadline. In the 12 instances when the budget was submitted after the original or extended deadline, it was delayed, on average, 34 days.

The President's budget submission was delayed more than 30 days after the deadline on six occasions: FY1989, FY1994, FY1997, FY2002, FY2010, and FY2014. The delays for FY1994, FY2002, and FY2010 occurred in presidential transition years. In those three instances, the budget submission was due fewer than three weeks after the start of the President's first term.

The President's budget was delayed by more than 30 days during three non-transition years: FY1989, FY1997, and FY2014. President Reagan submitted the FY1989 budget on February 18, 1988, a total of 45 days after the statutory deadline. The Director of OMB reportedly attributed the delay to the delayed enactment of FY1988 appropriations. (47) President Clinton submitted the FY1997 budget on March 19, 1996, a total of 43 days after the deadline. On February 5, 1996, President Clinton transmitted a message to Congress, along with a thematic overview of his FY1997 budget, which stated that the budget would be delayed because of "uncertainty over 1996 appropriations as well as possible changes in mandatory programs and tax policy." (48) President Obama submitted the FY2014 budget on April 10, 2013, a total of 65 days after the deadline. The Acting Director of OMB attributed the delay to ongoing negotiations over fiscal issues, including enactment of the American Taxpayer Relief Act (ATRA) on January 2, 2013, and the continued uncertainty resulting from the impending sequestration. (49)

Figure 1 shows the number of days the budget was submitted before or after the deadline for each year from FY1923 to FY2014.50 Transition-year budgets since the 1990 change are noted. Table 2 provides information on the timing of submission of the President's budget for FY1923-FY2014.

Acknowledgments

This report draws on previous research conducted by Virginia A. McMurtry, former Specialist in American National Government, James V. Saturno, Section Research Manager, Bill Heniff Jr., Analyst on Congress and the Legislative Process, and Clinton T. Brass, Specialist in Government Organization and Management.

Author Contact Information

Michelle D. Christensen

Analyst in Government Organization and

Management

mchristensen@crs.loc.gov, 7-0764

(1) This requirement first applied to President Warren Harding for FY1923.

(2) 31 U.S.C. [section]1105(a).

(3) The details of the congressional budget process are outside the scope of this report. For discussion of congressional budgetary procedures, see CRS Report 98-721, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process, coordinated by Bill Heniff Jr. and CRS Report R42388, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction, by Jessica Tollestrup.

(4) The most recent version of the President's budget, The President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2014, is available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget.

(5) Allen Schick, The Federal Budget: Politics, Policy, Process, 3rd ed. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007), p. 14.

(6) See U.S. Congress, Senate, Digest of Budget Legislation, 66th Cong., September 26, 1919, S.Doc. 66-111, p. 22; and Charles S. Ascher and James M. Wolf, eds., "Current Legislation," Columbia Law Review, vol. 20, no. 2 (February 1920), p. 237.

(7) Ibid.

(8) Act of July 7, 1884; 23 Stat. 254.

(9) Act of March 3, 1901; 31 Stat. 1009.

(10) Ibid.

(11) Allen Schick, The Federal Budget: Politics, Policy, Process, 3rd ed. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007), pp. 14, 84. Also see U.S. Congress, Senate, Digest of Budget Legislation, 66th Cong., September 26, 1919, S.Doc. 66-111, p. 22; and Charles S. Ascher and James M. Wolf, eds., "Current Legislation," Columbia Law Review, vol. 20, no. 2 (February 1920), pp. 235-237.

(12) Ibid.

(13) Bess Glenn, "The Taft Commission and the Government's Record Practices," American Archivist, vol. 21, no. 3 (July 1958).

(14) U.S. Congress, House, The Need for a National Budget, Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Report of the Commission on Economy and Efficiency on the Subject of the Need for a National Budget, 62nd Cong., 2nd sess., June 27, 2012, H.Doc. 62-854, pp. 7-8.

(15) P.L. 81-784; 64 Stat. 832.

(16) P.L. 93-344; 88 Stat. 297.

(17) 31 U.S.C. [section]1105.

(18) The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is an executive branch entity within the Executive Office of the President. One of its primary purposes is to assist the President in the development of the budget. The Bureau of the Budget, which was the predecessor of OMB, was created by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921.

(19) U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Circular No. A-11, "Preparation, Submission, and Execution of the Budget," August 3, 2012, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_default; Memorandum from Sylvia M. Burwell, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, M-13-14, "Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Guidance," May 29, 2013, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/memoranda/2013/m-13-14.pdf.

(20) Shelley Lynne Tomkin, Inside OMB: Politics and Process in the President's Budget Office (New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1998), pp. 121-124.

(21) 31 U.S.C. [section]1105(b).

(22) David E. Lewis and Jennifer L. Selin, Sourcebook of United States Executive Agencies, 1st ed. (Administrative Conference of the United States, 2012), pp. 113-114. For OMB's list of exempt agencies, see [section]25.1 of OMB Circular No. A-11.

(23) Ibid.

(24) 31 U.S.C. [section]1105(a)(28). Also see 31 U.S.C. [section]1115(a), and CRS Report R42379, Changes to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA): Overview of the New Framework of Products and Processes, by Clinton T. Brass.

(25) This requirement was included in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001 (P.L. 106-554; 114 Stat. 2763), and applied to calendar year 2002 and "each year thereafter." 31 U.S.C. [section]1105 note.

(26) For further descriptions of each volume and links to the FY2014 budget documents, see CRS Report R42384, FY2013 Budget Documents: Internet and GPO Availability, by Jared C. Nagel.

(27) OMB's Glossary of Budget Terms (hereinafter, OMB Glossary) defines budget authority as "the authority provided by law to incur financial obligations that will result in outlays." U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014, (Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013), p. 136, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/spec.pdf.

(28) The time frame for the information contained in the Historical Tables volume varies from table to table, possibly due to the availability of data. For example, information on aggregate levels of receipts and outlays is provided for all years starting with 1789, while information on total levels of federal government employment is only provided as far back as 1962.

(29) For example, certain tables present data in both current dollars and in constant (FY2005) dollars, which have been adjusted for inflation. In addition, data are presented in a manner consistent with current budget concepts, account structure, and governmental organization. When significant changes occur, the historical data are adjusted so that data are comparable across fiscal years.

(30) The most recent historical tables are available in both PDF and XLS (Microsoft Excel) spreadsheet format at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Historicals.

(31) The OMB Glossary defines budget baseline as "a projection of the estimated receipts, outlays, and deficit or surplus that would result from continuing current law or current policies through the period covered by the budget." U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014, (Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013), p. 136, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/ files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/ spec.pdf.

(32) U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014, (Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013), pp. 97-101, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/ default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/spec.pdf.

(33) The most recent web-based version of the FY2014 Analytical Perspectives is available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Analytical_Perspectives. All tables are provided in PDF format. Selected tables are also provided in XLS spreadsheet format.

(34) The OMB Glossary defines outlay as a "payment to liquidate an obligation" and "the measure of Government spending." U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2014, (Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013), p. 138, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/ sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/spec.pdf.

(35) Budget functions categorize budget authority, outlays, and other budgetary information by purpose (e.g., agriculture, national defense, transportation, income security). There are 20 major functions, which are further divided into sub functions. Under 31 U.S.C. [section]1104(c), the President may change the functional categories in the budget only in consultation with the House and Senate Budget and Appropriations Committees. For a complete list of budget functions and sub functions, see [section]79.6, Exhibit 79A of OMB Circular No. A-11. Also see CRS Report 98-280, Functional Categories of the Federal Budget, by Bill Heniff Jr.

(36) See Table 31-1, "Budget Authority and Outlays by Function, Category, and Program," at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/31_1.pdf.

(37) See Table 32-1, "Federal Programs by Agency and Account," at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/ budget/fy2014/assets/32_1.pdf.

(38) See CRS Report R43098, Transfer and Reprogramming of Appropriations: An Overview of Authorities, Limitations, and Procedures, by Michelle D. Christensen.

(39) The President is also required to submit a Mid-Session Review of the budget that reflects changed economic conditions, legislative actions taken by Congress, and other factors that may impact the President's initial budget estimates, by July 15 of each year. For additional information, see CRS Report RL32509, The President's Budget Request: Overview and Timing of the Mid-Session Review, by Michelle D. Christensen.

(40) The President's supplemental budget requests and budget amendments for FY2013 and FY2014 are available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget_amendments.

(41) P.L. 81-784; 64 Stat. 832.

(42) P.L. 99-177; 99 Stat. 1038.

(43) P.L. 101-508, Title XIII; 104 Stat. 1388-573.

(44) CRS Report RS20752, Submission of the President's Budget in Transition Years, by Michelle D. Christensen.

(45) 31 U.S.C. [section]1105(a).

(46) Congress enacted statutes extending the deadline for submission of the President's budget proposal for FY1966, FY1974, FY1981, FY1984, FY1986, and FY1991.

(47) Judith Havemann, "Miller Misses Deadline for Sending Budget: Delay Was Expected; Director Says Congress Should Receive Proposal by Mid-February," Washington Post, January 5, 1988, p. A5.

(48) U.S. Congress, House, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1997, Message from the President Transmitting the FY1997 Budget to Congress, 104th Cong., 2nd Sess., February 5, 1996, H.Doc. 104-162, p. i.

(49) See letter from Jeffrey D. Zients, Acting Director of the Office of Management and Budget, to Honorable Paul Ryan, Chairman of the House Committee on the Budget, January 11, 2013; and White House Office of the Press Secretary, "Statement by Jeffrey D. Zients, Acting Director of OMB," April 10, 2013, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/ the-pressoffice/2013/04/10/press-briefing-press-secretary-jay-carney-omb-acting-director-jeffrey-zi.

(50) In the six instances where the deadline was extended by statute, CRS used the extended deadline to calculate the number of days the President's budget was submitted before or after the deadline.
Table 1. Statutory Deadlines for Submission of the President's Budget

                             Fiscal Year
                             to Which
Deadline for                 Deadline First
Submission                   Applied          Statutory Source of
                                              Deadline

First day of each regular    FY1923           Budget and
  session of Congress                           Accounting Act of
                                                1921 (P.L. 67-13, 42
                                                Stat. 20)
15th day of each regular     FY1952           Budget and
  session of Congress                           Accounting
                                                Procedures Act of
                                                1950 (P.L. 81-784;
                                                64 Stat. 832)
February 5, 1986             FY1987           Balanced Budget and
                                                Emergency Deficit
                                                Control Act of 1985
                                                (P.L. 99-177; 99
                                                Stat. 1038)
1st Monday after January 3   FY1988           Balanced Budget and
  of each year                                  Emergency Deficit
                                                Control Act of 1985
                                                (P.L. 99-177; 99
                                                Stat. 1038)
1st Monday in February of    FY1992           Budget Enforcement
  each year                                     Act of 1990 (P.L.
                                                101-508, Title XIII;
                                                104 Stat. 1388-573)
Sources: Statutes at Large

Table 2. Submission Dates of the President's Budget: FY1923-FY2014

President            Fiscal      Date of        Original    Submitted
                      Year        Budget       Statutory       by
                                Submission      Deadline    Original
                                                  for       Deadline?
                                               Submission

Warren G.            1923     12-5-1921        12-5-1921       Yes
  Harding
Warren G.            1924     12-4-1922        12-4-1922       Yes
  Harding
Calvin Coolidge      1925     12-3-1923        12-3-1923       Yes
Calvin Coolidge      1926     12-1-1924        12-1-1924       Yes
Calvin Coolidge      1927     12-7-1925        12-7-1925       Yes
Calvin Coolidge      1928     12-6-1926        12-6-1926       Yes
Calvin Coolidge      1929     12-5-1927        12-5-1927       Yes
Calvin Coolidge      1930     12-3-1928        12-3-1928       Yes
Herbert Hoover       1931     12-2-1929        12-2-1929       Yes
Herbert Hoover       1932     12-1-1930        12-1-1930       Yes
Herbert Hoover       1933     12-7-1931        12-7-1931       Yes
Herbert Hoover       1934     12-5-1932        12-5-1932       Yes
Franklin D.          1935     1-3-1934         1-3-1934        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1936     1-3-1935         1-3-1935        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1937     1-3-1936         1-3-1936        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1938     1-5-1937         1-5-1937        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1939     1-3-1938         1-3-1938        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1940     1-3-1939         1-3-1939        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1941     1-3-1940         1-3-1940        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1942     1-3-1941         1-3-1941        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1943     1-5-1942         1-5-1942        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1944     1-6-1943         1-6-1943        Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1945     1-10-1944        1-10-1944       Yes
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.          1946     1-3-1945         1-3-1945        Yes
  Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman      1947     1-14-1946        1-14-1946       Yes
Harry S. Truman      1948     1-3-1947         1-3-1947        Yes
Harry S. Truman      1949     1-6-1948         1-6-1948        Yes
Harry S. Truman      1950     1-3-1949         1-3-1949        Yes
Harry S. Truman      1951     1-3-1950         1-3-1950        Yes
Harry S. Truman      1952     1-15-1951        1-17-1951       Yes
Harry S. Truman      1953     1-21-1952        1-22-1952       Yes
Harry S. Truman      1954     1-9-1953         1-17-1953       Yes
Dwight D.            1955     1-21-1954        1-20-1954       No
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1956     1-17-1955        1-19-1955       Yes
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1957     1-15-1956        1-17-1956       Yes
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1958     1-16-1957        1-17-1957       Yes
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1959     1-13-1958        1-21-1958       Yes
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1960     1-19-1959        1-21-1959       Yes
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1961     1-18-1960        1-20-1960       Yes
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.            1962     1-16-1961        1-17-1961       Yes
  Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy      1963     1-18-1962        1-24-1962       Yes
John F. Kennedy      1964     1-17-1963        1-23-1963       Yes
Lyndon B. Johnson    1965     1-21-1964        1-21-1964       Yes
Lyndon B. Johnson    1966     1-25-1965        1-18-1965       No
Lyndon B. Johnson    1967     1-24-1966        1-24-1966       Yes
Lyndon B. Johnson    1968     1-24-1967        1-24-1967       Yes
Lyndon B. Johnson    1969     1-29-1968        1-29-1968       Yes
Lyndon B. Johnson    1970     1-15-1969        1-17-1969       Yes
Richard M. Nixon     1971     2-2-1970         2-2-1970        Yes
Richard M. Nixon     1972     1-29-1971        2-4-1971        Yes
Richard M. Nixon     1973     1-24-1972        2-1-1972        Yes
Richard M. Nixon     1974     1-29-1973        1-17-1973       No
Richard M. Nixon     1975     2-4-1974         2-4-1974        Yes
Gerald R. Ford       1976     2-3-1975         1-28-1975       No
Gerald R. Ford       1977     1-21-1976        2-2-1976        Yes
Gerald R. Ford       1978     1-17-1977        1-18-1977       Yes
Jimmy Carter         1979     1-20-1978        2-2-1978        Yes
Jimmy Carter         1980     1-22-1979        1-29-1979       Yes
Jimmy Carter         1981     1-28-1980        1-17-1980       No
Jimmy Carter         1982     1-15-1981        1-19-1981       Yes
Ronald Reagan        1983     2-8-1982         2-8-1982        Yes
Ronald Reagan        1984     1-31-1983        1-17-1983       No
Ronald Reagan        1985     2-1-1984         2-6-1984        Yes
Ronald Reagan        1986     2-4-1985         1-17-1985       No
Ronald Reagan        1987     2-5-1986         2-5-1986        Yes
Ronald Reagan        1988     1-5-1987         1-5-1987        Yes
Ronald Reagan        1989     2-18-1988        1-4-1988        No
Ronald Reagan        1990     1-9-1989         1-9-1989        Yes
George H. W. Bush    1991     1-29-1990        1-8-1990        No
George H. W. Bush    1992     2-4-1991         2-4-1991        Yes
George H. W. Bush    1993     1-29-1992        2-3-1992        Yes
William J. Clinton   1994     04-08-1993 (a)   2-1-1993        No
William J. Clinton   1995     2-7-1994         2-7-1994        Yes
William J. Clinton   1996     2-6-1995         2-6-1995        Yes
William J. Clinton   1997     03-19-1996 (b)   2-5-1996        No
William J. Clinton   1998     2-6-1997         2-3-1997        No
William J. Clinton   1999     2-2-1998         2-2-1998        Yes
William J. Clinton   2000     2-1-1999         2-1-1999        Yes
William J. Clinton   2001     02-07-2000       02-07-2000      Yes
George W.            2002     04-09-2001 (c)   2-5-2001        No
  Bush
George W.            2003     02-04-2002       02-04-2002      Yes
  Bush
George W.            2004     02-03-2003       02-03-2003      Yes
  Bush
George W.            2005     02-02-2004       02-02-2004      Yes
  Bush
George W.            2006     02-07-2005       02-07-2005      Yes
  Bush
George W.            2007     02-06-2006       02-06-2006      Yes
  Bush
George W.            2008     02-05-2007       02-05-2007      Yes
  Bush
George W.            2009     02-04-2008       02-04-2008      Yes
  Bush
Barack Obama         2010     05-07-2009 (d)   02-02-2009      No
Barack Obama         2011     2-1-2010         2-1-2010        Yes
Barack Obama         2012     02-14-2011       2-7-2011        No
Barack Obama         2013     2-13-2012        2-6-2012        No
Barack Obama         2014     4-10-2013        2-4-2013        No

                     Deadline Extended by
                           Statute?
President            Extended      Public Law       No. of
                     Deadline        Number          Days
                                                  Before (-)
                                                   or After
                                                   Deadline

Warren G.                                             0
  Harding
Warren G.                                             0
  Harding
Calvin Coolidge                                       0
Calvin Coolidge                                       0
Calvin Coolidge                                       0
Calvin Coolidge                                       0
Calvin Coolidge                                       0
Calvin Coolidge                                       0
Herbert Hoover                                        0
Herbert Hoover                                        0
Herbert Hoover                                        0
Herbert Hoover                                        0
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Franklin D.                                           0
  Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman                                       0
Harry S. Truman                                       0
Harry S. Truman                                       0
Harry S. Truman                                       0
Harry S. Truman                                       0
Harry S. Truman                                       -2
Harry S. Truman                                       -1
Harry S. Truman                                       -8
Dwight D.                                             1
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -2
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -2
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -1
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -8
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -2
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -2
  Eisenhower
Dwight D.                                             -1
  Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy                                       -6
John F. Kennedy                                       -6
Lyndon B. Johnson                                      0
Lyndon B. Johnson    1-25-1965   P.L. 89-1;            0
                                 79 Stat. 3
Lyndon B. Johnson                                      0
Lyndon B. Johnson                                      0
Lyndon B. Johnson                                      0
Lyndon B. Johnson                                     -2
Richard M. Nixon                                       0
Richard M. Nixon                                      -6
Richard M. Nixon                                      -8
Richard M. Nixon     1-29-1973   P.L. 93-1;            0
                                 87 Stat. 3
Richard M. Nixon                                       0
Gerald R. Ford                                         6
Gerald R. Ford                                       -12
Gerald R. Ford                                        -1
Jimmy Carter                                         -13
Jimmy Carter                                          -7
Jimmy Carter         1-28-1980   P.L. 96-186;          0
                                 93 Stat. 1338
Jimmy Carter                                          -4
Ronald Reagan                                          0
Ronald Reagan        1-31-1983   P.L. 97-469;          0
                                 96 Stat. 2582
Ronald Reagan                                         -5
Ronald Reagan        2-4-1985    P.L. 99-1;            0
                                 99 Stat. 3
Ronald Reagan                                          0
Ronald Reagan                                          0
Ronald Reagan                                         45
Ronald Reagan                                          0
George H. W. Bush    1-22-1990   P.L. 101-228;         7
                                 103 Stat. 1945
George H. W. Bush                                      0
George H. W. Bush                                     -5
William J. Clinton                                    66
William J. Clinton                                     0
William J. Clinton                                     0
William J. Clinton                                    43
William J. Clinton                                     3
William J. Clinton                                     0
William J. Clinton                                     0
William J. Clinton                                     0
George W.                                             63
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
George W.                                              0
  Bush
Barack Obama                                          94
Barack Obama                                           0
Barack Obama                                           7
Barack Obama                                           7
Barack Obama                                          65

Source: Table prepared by the Congressional Research Service (CRS).
Budget submission dates were obtained from the U.S.Government
Printing Office, http://www.gpo.gov; printed editions of the Budget
of the United States Government; and CRS Report 88.661, The
President's Budget Submission: Format, Deadlines, and Transition
Years, by Virginia A.McMurtry and James V.Saturno (out of print;
available on request).The original source for the budget submission
dates provided in CRS Report 88.661 was the Budget of the United
States Government, FY1923..FY1989.All submission dates contained in
this table were verified by the author of this report using the
original sources listed above.Statutory deadlines for FY1923.FY1986
were calculated by CRS using congressional session dates obtained
from the House and Senate Session Date websites, http:..
history.house.gov.Institution.Session-Dates.Session-Dates; and
http://www.senate.gov/reference/Sessions/sessionDates.htm.

Note: In the six instances where the deadline was extended by
statute, CRS used the extended deadline to calculate the number of
days the President's budget was submitted before or after the
deadline.

(a.) FY1994 was a transition year budget. Incoming President William
J. Clinton submitted an overview of the budget on February 17, I993.
President Clinton submitted the Budget of the U.S. Government for
Fiscal Year 1994 and additional budget volumes on April 8, 1993.
(b.) For FY1997, President Clinton submitted a "thematic overview"
of the budget on February 05, 1996. President Clinton submitted the
Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 1997 and additional
budget volumes on March 19, I996.
(c.) FY2002 was a transition year budget. Incoming President George
W. Bush submitted an overview of the budget on February 28, 200I.
President George W. Bush submitted the Budget of the U.S.
Government, Fiscal Year 2002 and additional budget volumes on April
9, 2001.
(d.) FY20I0 was a transition year budget. Incoming President Barack
Obama submitted an overview of the budget on February 26, 2009. The
Budget Appendix, which contained detailed budget estimates and
financial information on individual programs and appropriations
accounts, was submitted on May 7, 2009. Additional budget volumes
were submitted on May 11, 2009.

Figure 1. Timing of Submission of the President's Budget:
FY1923-FY2014

                   Number of Days Before (-) or After Deadline

FY1923 to FY1951     0
FY1952              -2
FY1953              -1
FY1954              18
FY1955               1
FY1956              -2
FY1957              -2
FY1958              -2
FY1959              -8
FY1960              -2
FY1961              -2
FY1962              -1
FY1963              -6
FY1964              -6
FY1965               0
FY1966               0
FY1967               0
FY1968               0
FY1969               0
FY1970              -2
FY1971               0
FY1972              -6
FY1973              -8
FY1974               0
FY1975               0
FY1976               6
FY1977             -12
FY1978              -1
FY1979             -13
FY1980              -7
FY1981               0
FY1982              -4
FY1983               0
FY1984               0
FY1985              -5
FY1986               0
FY1987               0
FY1988               0
FY1989              45
FY1990               0
FY1991               7
FY1992               0
FY1993              -5
FY1994              66
FY1995               0
FY1996               0
FY1997              43
FY1998               3
FY1999               0
FY2000               0
FY2001               0
FY2002              63
FY2003               0
FY2004               0
FY2005               0
FY2006               0
FY2007               0
FY2008               0
FY2009               0
FY2010              94
FY2011               0
FY2012               7
FY2013               7
FY2014              65

Source: Prepared by the Congressional Research Service using data from
Table 2 in this report.

Note: The President's budgets for FY1923 through FY1951 were each
submitted on the deadline. Transition years since 1990 (FY1994,
FY2002, and FY2010) are shown in gray.

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Date:Jul 1, 2013
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