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The other 'Junius' in Oxford, Bodleian Library Ms Junius 74: Francis Junius and a Scots Glossary by Patrick Young.

1. INTRODUCTION

Among the collection of books and manuscripts left to the Bodleian Library by the seventeenth-century Dutch philologist, art historian, etymologist and lexicographer, Francis Junius (1591-1677), there are six items which provide evidence of Junius's interest in Scots. (2) They are: MSS Junius 4 and 5, Junius's etymological dictionary of English, published posthumously in 1743 by the antiquarian Edward Lye under the title Etymologicum Anglicanunr, MS Junius 6, his glossary of Chaucer's works; MS Junius 9, his annotated edition of The Workes of Our Antient and Learned English Poet, Geffrey Chaucer, Newly Printed, ed. Thomas Speght (London, 1598); MS Junius 54, Junius's annotated copy of Gavin Douglas, XIII. Bukes of Eneados of the Famose Poete Virgil Translatet Out of Latyne Verses into Scottish Metir (London, 1553); MS Junius 74, fols. 18-36r, a glossary of Scots words with mostly Greek etyma; MS Junius 114, Junius's notes on Gavin Douglas, Eneados. (3) In spite of the large amount and variety of this material, Junius's study of Scots has drawn limited attention from scholars active in the field of historical lexicography, and even less from lexicographers of Scots. A review and revaluation of this material will show that these printed books and related glossaries and notes (a) provide evidence of an active interest in Scots in the seventeenth century, (b) show that more than a single 'Junius' was at work, here, and (c) reveal valuable lexicographical information on the history of Scots.

2. SCOTS IN EARLY LEXICOGRAPHY

The lexicography of Scots in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries may well be classified as 'the poor relation' of its English cousin. While English had long seen the publication of dictionaries of various kinds, (4) one will search in vain for a dictionary of Scots before 1808, until the publication of Jamieson's Dictionary that year; (5) instead, Scots was the domain of glossarists: authors who compiled word lists (Aitken 1989: 235-45; Rennie 2012: 22-35). Thus, the oldest surviving word list containing ordinary Scots is one which Andrew Duncan, the rector of Dundee Grammar School and later minister at Crail, appended in 1595 to his Latin Grammar to teach his boys some basic Latin vocabulary (Rennie 2012: 23). (6) More complicated Scots terms are explained in Sir John Skene's De verborum significatione of 1597, a glossary to the laws and acts of the Scottish parliament in which he explains a substantial number of Scottish legal terms, some in Scots (Rennie 2012: 24). (7) It appears that the reasons for these glossaries were utilitarian: simple contemporary Scots was used for studying and translating Latin, or complicated terms were explained for those who wanted to practise law. With the union of the crowns in 1603, and the consequent steady advance of English into Scottish domains (MacDonald 2005: 2), (8) the raison d'etre of Scottish glossaries shifted from a utilitarian purpose to a literary and antiquarian one: Scottish poetry and prose were published for a readership that required glossaries because the language was unknown and antiquated. Most of these glossarists worked in the eighteenth century, however. Only five items from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are included in the list of dictionaries and glossaries containing Scots published by Jack Aitken in 1989, (9) which caused Susan Rennie to remark in her recent study of John Jamieson's Dictionary of Scots that 'the wider field of Scots lexicography progressed little' until, in 1710, Thomas Ruddiman published a substantial glossary to his new edition of Gavin Douglas's Scots translation of Virgil's Aeneid (Rennie 2012: 24).

3. FRANCIS JUNIUS

All the more remarkable, therefore, is the attention paid to Scots in the works of Francis Junius. During his long and productive life (he was born in 1591 and died in 1677), Junius worked intensively on classical literature and art history, before he turned to the Germanic languages. Of those, Old High German, Old English and Gothic received most attention, followed by Old Norse and Old Frisian (Breuker 1990: 42-64; 1997: 129-57; Considine 2008: 216-35), but Junius was also interested in his native language, Dutch (Van Romburgh 2001: 5-36), as well in Middle English and Scots (Bremmer (2001: 37-72). The relationship between these ancient and modem languages is summed up in the Ad lectorem to his Observationes in Willerami (Amsterdam, 1655):
   Ex Gothica certe profluxit vetus Cimbrica, monumentis Runarum
   posteris tradita, nec nondum modema Suecica, Danica, Norvagica,
   Islandica. Ex Anglo-Saxonica vero promanavit magna pars Anglicas &
   Scoticas, tota quoque Belgica, prascipue tamen Frisica ilia vetus,
   reliquis universi Belgii incolis vix intellecta ... Vides igitur,
   mi Lector, quanta sit plurimarum linguarum affinitas, quamque levi
   negotio praecipue Europaeorum lingua subsidio trium antiquissimarum
   perdisci vel saltern intelligi possint.

   'From Gothic, the old Cimbric has sprung, transmitted by later
   Runic monuments, and also modern Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and
   Icelandic. But from Anglo-Saxon a major part of English and Scots
   has emerged, and also the entire Dutch [language], particularly the
   old Frisian, hardly understood by the rest of the inhabitants of
   the entire Netherlands ... Dear reader, you will understand the
   interrelation of many languages, and with how little effort one may
   learn or at least understand Europe's most important languages with
   the help of the three eldest.' (10)


It is remarkable that in this paradigm of 'Europe's most important languages' Junius includes 'Scots', a language to which he does not refer in the book, but which was clearly on his horizon when he wrote this passage. (11)

Had Junius already been involved with Scots in 1655 when he published his Observationes? It is possible that he already possessed his copy of the 1553 edition of Gavin Douglas's Eneados, now MS Junius 54, in the 1650s when he was writing the book, or even earlier. The inscription 'R A' on the frontispiece of the book betrays its provenance. (12) In all likelihood the copy had belonged to Roger Andrewes, the Bible translator and Master of Jesus College Cambridge from 1618 to 1632, whose brother, Lancelot Andrewes, bishop of Winchester, Junius had known well. (13) It is impossible to say exactly when Junius acquired the book. He may well have met Roger Andrewes in July 1630 when he visited his nephew Johannes Vossius, who was a student at Jesus College (Van Romburgh 2004: 386-87 [letter 71]), (14) but it is more likely that he bought the book after Roger Andrewes's death in 1635 (there are no other owner's marks). Junius certainly had it before 1666, when he retrieved it from the house of his deceased friend Jan van Vliet, to whom he had lent it (Van Romburgh 2004: 1016-17 [letter 212]). In 1668 Junius writes to the English antiquarian William Dugdale that he is making very good use of Gavin Douglas's Eneados to illustrate difficult places in Chaucer's works, while mentioning in passing that he had observed infelicities in Douglas's translation. (15)

Junius's annotations show that he studied Douglas's Eneados in his typical 'Junian' fashion: first he numbered the pages (1-752) in the top left hand comer, thereby overriding the original foliation. Then he started reading, underlining those words that he found interesting, and cross-referencing wherever he could with the help of his page numbers, followed by i for infra, s for supra, and m for medio (Bremmer 2001: 47-50). If the cross-reference included a spelling variant, it was often written in the margin. Meanwhile Junius also corrected many of the errors in the 1553 print, adding capital letters and words and correcting other misprints. (16) Another type of annotation reveals that he read the Scots with the Latin in mind: at the top of each page or section there are line numbers, referring to the relevant place in the Aeneid, while on many pages he added sections of the Latin text, presumably to clarify the textual imperfections. (17) The harvest of his hunt for interesting words was gathered in MS Junius 114, a separate copy book dedicated to the vocabulary of Douglas's Eneados. (18) The entries derive from the words or phrases underlined in MS Junius 54, and all references are to his own page numbers and divisions therein. (19) The manuscript is neither a glossary nor 'a concordance with some citations and some definitions, unfinished' (Aitken 1989: 243-44), (20) but a working document and word study, clearly meant for private use. His aim was to study Douglas's vocabulary for its meaning, by collecting, comparing and contrasting translations and citations illustrating the meaning. (21)

Some of the words and citations from Douglas's Eneados collected in Junius 54 were used in the Etymologicum Anglicanum, Junius's etymological dictionary of English, in which 131 lemmata contain words or citations classified by Junius as 'Scots'. (22) Of those, fifty-eight are lemmata directly taken from Douglas's Eneados: bargane 'war, fight, struggle'; barnage 'body of warriors'; bekin 'sign, signal, beacon'; fleur 'smell'; foin 'to pierce'; scalbert 'scabbard'; traik 'plague, destruction'; wissil 'to change', to name a few. Where Scots is added to existing entries, its function is usually to help construct the meaning: in his etymology of bird Junius quotes Douglas, 'The black craw thinkis his awin birdis quhyte', to which he adds that this certainly shows that Old English bird developed via methathesis from earlier brid, and that Old English brid came from brydan 'to bring forth, produce, breed', all of which served to prove that the original meaning of bird was 'chick, young bird'. Although Junius had been working on the Etymologicum since the 1650s, the manuscript, of some four hundred folios, shows that the insertion of the Scots was late (Van Romburgh 2004: 980-81 [letter 204 plus fn. 5]; Considine 2008: 232-33). The original entries were written in double columns on the verso sides, while on the facing recto sides there are pasted notes with additional entries. Almost all of the information from Gavin Douglas's Eneados is either on the slips pasted in later, or added to the earlier entries after they had been written. It is not unlikely, therefore, that Junius added the Scots only in the late 1660s, around the time of his letter to Dugdale. (23)

4. MS JUNIUS 74

While Junius's study of Douglas's Eneados was too late to have influenced his ideas about Scots in the 1650s, when he was writing his Observationes in Willerami, the glossary in MS Junius 74, fols. 18r-36r, is not. This is first of all suggested by the form: an alphabetical list of Scots and English words combined with mostly Greek and sometimes Latin words that display a visual phonological resemblance and are presented as etyma: for example, chapel is said to derive from Greek [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'assembly square'; cry from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to creak', while quhalp 'whelp' is linked to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to heat, to be alive, to foster' and aicre of land to Latin agro, 'field'. Almost all lemmata are single words, while the interpretamenta vary in length from one word to six or seven lines and give evidence of substantial learning:
   Brah vide num a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. apud Suidam
   reperias [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Fores effringere. vel a
   [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] AEolico pro [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
   IN ASCII] Eustathio teste.
   (21v) (24)


Although many of the lemmata occur in Douglas's Eneados in some form or other, there is no obvious link to it in the form of Junius's system of page numbers. Instead, the lemmata in this glossary contain a substantial quantity of distinctive Scots vocabulary, both in terms of spelling and of distinct lexical items (see the partial transcription in the Appendix). John Considine suggests that it might date from 1648, when, as Junius's correspondence informs us, he visited 'Britain's Northern tracts', possibly Scotland, a journey which Philippus Breuker had also noted when he mentioned the possibility that Junius had travelled north to learn Scots (Van Romburgh 2004: 758-59 [letter 164]). Clearly, as Considine also explains, the glossary must have been meant as evidence for the assumption that Scots or English words derive from Greek and Latin. In doing so, it shows a remarkable resemblance to the methodology developed by the French expatriate philologist Meric Casaubon (1599-1671) in his De quattuor linguis commentationis, pars prior: quae de lingua Hebraica: et, de lingua Saxonica (London, 1650), in which Casaubon compared English and even Old English, with Hebrew and Greek in order to demonstrate the close relation between these languages, something Junius first embraced but later denied--even though this type of comparison never quite disappeared from his thinking (Considine 2008: 220-21, and, on Meric Casaubon, 204-06; Breuker 1997: 142-44; Dekker 1999: 257-63).

Even though the glossary in Junius 74 is definitely in Francis Junius's hand, a closer inspection raises serious questions as to whether this glossary really is an original composition by Francis Junius. (25) The booklet containing the glossary is no. II in the manuscript, and consists of twelve bifolia (fols. 17-41), with fol. 38 pasted on to 37v and three other unnumbered small slips pasted on to fols. 37v and 39r. Fol. 38 as well as these slips were pasted in later, as the text written in an eighteenth-century hand shows. The outer bifolium contains on fols. 17r and 41 v five notes which have as a common denominator references to the Scoti (Irish) and Piets. Two of the notes were gleaned from Bede's His tor ia ecclesiastica and explain Irish words, such as the name of the island of Inishbofin: 'Inis bofinde Scotico sermone est Insula vitulae albae, p<ae>t is ealen hwites heahfore, Beda IV.4'. (26) This bifolium is blank on the other side (fols. 17v and 41r). The actual glossary begins on fol. 18r, a new leaf ('Abaizit, v. agazif) and ends on 36r ('nos possumus heulos vocare.'). Ten miscellaneous entries on 36v and 37r (beg. Germanis ein freaw est mulier) link German, French and Latin words to Greek; fols. 37v, 39rv and 40rv are blank. With the exception of the five notes on the outer bifolium, the glossary strikes me as very untypical of Junius's work for a variety of reasons. First of all there is an almost complete absence of words from any other Germanic language in a glossary that deals with etymology; only one marginal note on fol. 32v, kept separate from the main text, refers to Old English, while the use of Brot, morgen and freaw, classified as Germanis 'modem German' looks clumsy for someone like Francis Junius whose German was presumably excellent and whose native language was Dutch. (27) Very untypical of Junius is also the custom in this glossary to refer to Scots words in the interpretamenta as nostrum 'belonging to our country', e.g. 'nostrum barke is a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], latrare' (20r); lOcre vel ocher, Vsuram nostra lingua significat.' (26r); and, at the end 'De sono nostri 3 [yogh], et de ejus usu' (31r). At the same time, the term Anglis is used for English: 'Tua vel ut Angli two' (25r); 'Kil, Occidere Anglice.... Apud nos keil est minio rubro notare & signare' (28r). Whoever wrote the glossary clearly identified himself and his language with Scotland and Scots, something for which Junius would have no reasons. And finally, in no other glossary by Junius have I found material from or references to words or etymologies from this glossary, while Junius habitually re-used and regurgitated his material. I believe, therefore, that this glossary, albeit in Junius's hand, was copied from an exemplar not composed by him.

5. PATRICK YOUNG

The way the author refers to Scots and English suggests strongly that he was Scottish, which then raises the question as to his identity. A clue may be found in the Old Bodleian Catalogue of 1697, where this glossary is referred to as Scotica etyma Petri Junii, omnia a Graecis deducta (Bernard 1697: I, 253). This information is nowhere to be found in MS Junius 74, and the compiler of the catalogue, the English antiquary and bishop Thomas Tanner (1674-1735), may have had access to information that no longer exists--the result, perhaps, of the (re)binding of the Junius manuscripts after they arrived in the Bodleian. (28) The most obvious candidate for a Petrus Junius might seem to be Sir Peter Young (1544-1628), royal tutor to James VI, courtier, ambassador and restorer of the Scottish Royal Library, whose name was regularly latinised to 'Junius'. (29) Scottish born, bred and buried, and well versed in Latin and Greek, Sir Peter is certainly a plausible candidate for the authorship of the glossary. (30) His correspondence with Sir Patrick Waus of Bambarroch shows that, in spite of his penchant for Latin and Greek, he wrote letters to friends and colleagues in Scots during the 1580s (Agnew 1887: 379-79, 382-83, 421-22). However, his return to Scotland in 1620 or 1623, his death in 1628, and the lack of evidence of communication between him and Francis Junius render his authorhip less likely. (31)

In spite of the catalogue's reference to a Petrus, I think it is more likely that the author of the glossary was Sir Peter's son, Patrick Young (1584-1652), who was Royal librarian to King James I and Charles I, noted scholar of Greek, born and bred in Scotland and long-standing friend of Francis Junius. (32) The mistaken attribution of authorship in the Old Bodleian Catalogue could well be the result of a simple scribal error:, erroneously solved as P<e>tri, but actually standing for P<a>tr<ici>i. Junius must have known Patrick Young from the 1620s when the latter was involved in describing the Arundel marbles, at a time when Junius was also concerned with the world of art (Van Romburgh 2004: 332-33 [letter 58 and fn. 8]). (33) In February 1639 Junius writes to his friend, the Dutch philologist and legal historian Hugo Grotius, that he is collating the Septuagint with the Codex Alexandrinus, a fifth-century manuscript of the Greek Bible. No doubt this book had been supplied to him by Patrick Young, who had been entrusted with it in 1628, after King Charles I had received it from Constantinople (Mandelbrote 2006: 74-93). Young had prepared an edition of the Septuagint text of the Codex Alexandrinus, while Junius was mediating between Young and Grotius about the latter's planned edition of the Septuagint (Van Romburgh 2004: 634-37 [letter 125]). Ten years later Junius borrowed a Vitruvius manuscript via Young, while he was already engaged in Germanic studies, for which the agency of Patrick Young was also important (Van Romburgh 2004: 760-65; 788-89 [letters 164 and 169, as well as fn. 18 to the latter]). It must have been through Young's assistance that Junius could borrow the Old English Liber Scintillarum from the Royal Library; his transcription is now MS Junius 14. That Patrick Young was interested in the vernacular also appears from other sources: his friend Francis Kinnaston dedicated his 1635 edition and translation of Chaucer's Troilus and Cresseide, books I and II, to Young, whom he admired for his familiarity with 'modern authors' (Kinnaston 1635: A3). Young's correspondence with the Dutch polymath Johannes de Laet shows his interest in De Laet's Old English dictionary project, for which Young sympathetically supplied De Laet with manuscripts from the Royal Library (Bremmer 1998b: 156-59; Bekkers 1970; Kemke 1898: letters 133, 135, 139, 141, 144, 159, 162 and 165). Similarly significant is the remark by Abraham Wheelock (1593-1653) in the Ad lectorem to his 1643 edition of the Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, in which Wheelock groups Patrick Young with the Dutch scholars Gerard Vossius and Johan de Laet, the Danish physician and polymath Ole Worm and the French philologist Meric Casaubon as 'foreign[!] authors interested in our Saxon antiquities'. (34) It appears that in Wheelock's eyes Young was clearly still very much a Scot, but one who, in 1643, was known to be interested in Old English. Whether he made the same Scottish impression on Francis Junius remains an open question, but Junius's correspondence gives evidence of a good friendship between the two men, which only came to an end when Young died in 1652.

The candidacy of Patrick Young is supported by the content of the glossary. Known for his profound learning in Greek, Patrick Young published in 1633 the first letter to the Corinthians by Clement of Rome from the additional texts in the Codex Alexandrinus--texts which had been unknown to western Christianity until then. (35) Young's interest in Greek would explain why the glossary is more about the many ways in which Greek words can be related to Scots than about Scots in relation to Greek. Young's source references are almost exclusively Greek, and at the basis of many of his etymologies are forms he derived from Hesychius of Alexandria's lexicon, which he inserted almost always without acknowledgement. (36) The number of Greek forms per lemma often exceeds what is necessary (e.g. Code, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].), displaying the author's knowledge of Greek rather than anything else. (37) Even though there is no hard and fast evidence which proves that Patrick Young is the author of this glossary (in theory, it could be his father, Peter Young), it seems probable that Patrick Young wrote the glossary, perhaps, at Francis Junius's request, and very likely before 1650, when his friend and correspondent Meric Casaubon published De quattuor linguis commentationis, in which a similar method of etymology was applied, but to which the glossary does not refer. (38) Francis Junius may well have copied this glossary on one of his visits to Patrick Young, presumably some time in the late 1640s.

Although the layout and the status of the original remains unknown, the space between the entries maintained by Junius implies that he did not regard it as a finished product and that, initially, he may have intended to add information for which he left space. (39) Fol. (18) r, for example, lists only three entries, of which the first is a cross-reference and the second unfinished; in the remainder of the glossary the space between the entries is remarkably regular. There are occasional erasures as a result of copying errors: on fol. 35r Junius unintentionally anglicised a word where he began to write Watt before realising that the Scots word Vatter, 'water' started with a V. On the whole, however, the copy is very clean and does not show signs of reworking, addition or correction.

Patrick Young's authorship of the glossary in MS Junius 74 would make this document the first glossary of Scots written by a Scottish author in the early seventeenth century for etymological purposes. Another glossary of Scots words written around the same time by William Dugdale (now Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ashmole 846, 64r-69v) is based on Gavin Douglas's Eneados and Bellenden's translation (c. 1540) of Boece's Historia Gentis Scotorum (Lancashire 2012: 5-6; Aitken 1989: 243), (40) and is therefore, like Francis Junius's work on Gavin Douglas, focused on literary language. Young, however, selected words not because he had read them in a book or in another glossary but primarily because he knew Greek words which he deemed to be related through meaning and apparent form, regardless of register. There are many monosyllabic words in the glossary, which suggests that he may have looked specifically for them on account of the prevalent notion that monosyllables pointed to the ancient origins of a language; yet here too there is no consistency. (41) Although valuable as an insight into sixteenth- and seventeenth-century etymology, the major significance of this particular glossary is its random selection of Scots words followed by very specific information about the meaning or meanings of these words.

6. THE GLOSSARY: CONTENTS

A first look at the glossary shows a very diverse collection of words, followed by text in Greek or Latin which provides a meaning or an etymology or a combination of the two. As one might expect, a substantial number of the entries are indistinguishable from the forms used in seventeenth-century English (again, against, barrel, barke, bitter, blunt, blythe, bolt, chapel, chapelain, etc.), but the fact that Young specifically referred to some words as Anglice suggests that he considered the unmarked forms as current in Scots. It was, of course, not his aim to select only words that were little known in the south. Nonetheless, many entries are forms with a distinctly Scottish or northern spelling: agazit 'agast', aicre 'acre', aix 'axe', ais 'ash', apil 'apple', bouel 'ball', broes 'brows', cair 'care', creip 'creep', courn 'corn', deir 'deer', hairy 'to harry', leif 'leave', meit 'meat', etc. This must have been a deliberate choice since it is unlikely that Patrick Young did not know southern spellings, nor did he always need the Scots spellings for his etymologies: Latin agro resembles Scots aicre as well as English acre; Greek uhcop resembles vatter as well as water, on the other hand Greek peOaxog resembles meik more than meek and meilk more than milk. Some of the irregular spellings seem to point to pronunciation spelling, something that would by typical of a Scotsman living in London, who was keen to emphasise or distinguish Scottishness, and--it has to be said--who did not write this glossary for publication. Spellings such as kechle for kekkil (27v), and crah for crack (22v) may result from attempts to reflect a slightly affricated /k/, even though it cannot be ruled out that the wish to adapt the spelling to a supposed etymon may also have played a role. (42) The <oa> spelling in roaw 'to row', groaw 'to grow' and perhaps coaf (see below) represent an idiosyncratic spelling of a diphthong with open /[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:/in Middle Scots. (43) Although some spellings present an idiosyncratic picture of Young's Scots, much of the vocabulary he used for his etymologies are distinctly Scots words or spelling forms and would have been rare or unknown in Young's seventeenth-century London: e.g. aid, bairn, brent, eebries, cutill, dad & bladd, eih, gaussy, gloyd, helcruk. (44) The same can be said for phrases such as gang ane and ane, and to leuk brent upon a thing. Some entries even show dialectal features: brent may point to Young's Lothian background, while the name of the children's game Titbor, Tatbor is usually linked to Aberdeen. (45) With a proverb, Earlie crukes the tree, a gud cammock should bee, several phrases serving as examples, a clear penchant for Scots spellings and an explicit effort to separate English from Scots, Young's glossary is decidedly Scots.

The value of Young's glossary as an early example of Scots lexicography is, however, not restricted to form and spelling, but also includes meaning: in many cases the glossary allows us to see what meaning(s) were attributed to a particular word. It is Young's aim to show the correspondences in form as well as meaning between the lemma and its supposed etymon by demonstrating a resemblance in terms of sounds, especially consonants, and by constructing a semantic bridge. For the latter, Young and many fellow etymologists of the time harked back to classical and post-classical scholars, such as Isidore of Seville, who described in his Etymologiae I.xxix. 4-5, etymologies ex causa (reges 'king' from recte agendo 'to do well'), ex origine (homo 'man' from humo 'clay'), or ex contrariis (lucus 'grove', because it is not light there, non luceat). (46) Such etymologies need to be treated with care when one attempts to determine the precise meaning of a word. For example, Young's etymology of Conning (22v) is such a paradoxical derivation or etymology ex contrariis: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Non densus & [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gracilis. Si ad animam referas, potest pro Subtili accepi; atque inde nostru<m> conning.' [--'something coarsly woven', 'a person who is not shrewd'. Not dense and thick, thin/simple. If it refers to the mind, it can be taken for 'fine, acute, exact', and from that is our conning.]. Con in conning is linked to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], while the meaning of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is opposite to that of conning. But also in the case of less imaginative etymologies, one has to be careful: the desirability of providing a Greek etymon may cast a doubt on the authority of the meaning, and the possibility of of cherry-picking on the part of the the etymologist cannot be excluded. In some cases the first part of Young's etymologies immediately provides the meaning of the entry, for example in Latin (Barrel, Cadus [20r]), or in Greek (Ryf, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [32v]). There are, however, also quite a few instances where no meaning is given for the lemma; instead, Young assumes that the meaning of the lemma is known and he immediately starts discussing the etymology. In these cases the glossary poses a challenge to the modem reader keen to find out the exact meaning Young had in mind.

The Appendix presents an edition of Young's glossary. It shows first of all the extent, variety, nature and obscurities of Young's glossary, which is unique in its time and context. Secondly, I have tried to identify where Young suggests meanings for words that are different from those given by the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (for Scots vocabulary up to 1700) or the Scottish National Dictionary' (for Scots vocabulary after 1700). (47) Besides many unrecorded spellings, e.g. aleaf for 'aloof', agazit for 'aghast', aneach for 'enough', the glossary also provides words which are unrecorded: happel 'bound with, equipped with, dressed', kamour 'to curve or bend', neihname and nipname 'nickname', ows 'wool' and raquel 'blow, cuff, box on the ear'. Quite a few words are attributed with meanings that vary from those given in the dictionaries, for example, gleid 'squint-eyed' is explained by Young as 'one-eyed, dim-sighted, purblind'; gumes is used for 'molar, tooth', while pachel 'a feeble old creature', he explains as 'a fat and lazy man', byre as 'a pig sty', and helcruc as 'a metal hook to lift meat from a pot', to give some examples. Occasionally, Young elucidates the meaning of a word by means of an example. For clog 'block of wood ', he descibes a classroom scene with very little pity for recalcitrant pupils, illustrating the use of clog as an instrument of punishments in schools. A few words I have not been able to explain or explain completely: for example asknart, pyrrhen, and bournsni, which may result from copying errors or idiosyncratic spellings. Although it may well be impossible to determine the meanings of all of Young's lemmata precisely, a study of the glossary is, as I hope to demonstrate, a worthwile task.

7. CONCLUDING REMARKS

The glossary has, until now, never been recognised for what it is: a record of everyday Scots by an important seventeenth-century Scottish scholar. Its etymologies are a relic of times when etymology was a combination of broad observation and wide guesses, with the occasional hit but with many more misses. The Scots words and their meanings, however, provide a unique snapshot of how Patrick Young perceived his vocabulary, and he certainly deserves to be taken seriously as a native informant of Scots. There is, to my knowledge, no other list of words from this period that provides us with the same kind of information. Francis Junius left this glossary untouched in his work on the etymologies of English words, convinced, perhaps, that by leaving the ancient Germanic languages out of account Young's reconstructions were spurious and not worth further attention, and that literary language, such as the vocabulary from Gavin Douglas's Eneados, was far more important for the study of English etymology. For a modem audience, however, this glossary--written by the other 'Junius'--is one of the more valuable in the Junius collection. (48)

Appendix

My edition of Junius 74, fols. 18r-36r, presents only that part of the glossary which is relevant for the study of Scots: (a) the Scots lemmata; (b) the Scots vocabulary in the interpretamenta, and (c) those parts of the interpretamenta that will help us to determine the meaning of the words. The remaining information, mostly Greek and Latin text belonging to Young's etymologies, has been excluded, because it is less relevant for lexicographical purposes, and because the space in this study does not allow its inclusion. This means that occasionally words or passages have been left out; all those cases are marked by (...). Anyone interested in the methodology of Young's etymologies should consult the manuscript. Moreover, I have not attempted to edit Young's Greek; it is printed here only as an instrument wherewith to find or approximate the meaning of the Scots words. Although Young was a scholar of Greek, the text editions and lexica on which he based his findings were not always of today's standards, nor does he make any overt distinction between Ancient Greek and Byzantine Greek. Francis Junius, whose copy of Young's text we are reading, may well have made silent emendations for better or for worse. Young's use of v. for vide and f. for forte, fortasse is left unchanged.

The structure of my edition is as follows. For each entry I have reproduced the Scots lemma and Scots text from the interpretamenta in large bold/italics, and the parts of the interpretamenta that provide information about the meanings of the words in large font. My own additions and commentary are always printed in a smaller font and depend on the nature and complexity of the lemma. There are four possibilities: (a) no translation and no comment in the case of straightforward words; (b) only a translation, set between quotation marks; (c) translations of the interpretamenta enclosed between square brackets; (d) further explanatory notes providing a commentary on the lemma or on the translation.

In my explanatory notes I make use of the following abbreviations:

DOST W. Craigie, J. Aitken, J. A. C. Stephenson and M. G. Dareau, eds. 1919-2001. Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, 12 vols. Var. www.dsl.ac.uk

JD John Jamieson, 1910. Jamieson's Dictionary of the Scottish Language Abridged by J. Johnstone and Revised and Enlarged by Dr. Longmuir with Supplement by W. M. Metcalfe. Paisley: Alexander Gardner.

LS C. T. Lewis and C. Short, 1879; repr. 1969. A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

LSc H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, 1968. A Greek-English Lexicon, rev. H. S. Jones and R. A. F. McKenzie and P. G. W. Glare. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

OED Oxford English Dictionary Online edn. Oxford University Press perh. perhaps

SND W. Grand and D. Murison, eds. 1931-76. Scottish National Dictionary, 10 vols. Edinburgh: Scottish National Dictionary Association www.dsl.ac.uk

s.u. Spelling unrecorded (i.e. of one or more of the Scots forms not recorded in DOST)

Abaizit, V. agazit. DOST abaisit, p.p., 'discouraged or dismayed, cast down, taken aback' (s.u.). Agazit occurs on 18v.

Achti, Cf. DOST auchty, num., 'eighty', (s.u.)

Acki, f. ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) a qua origine fortasse et askuart. (...) [perh. from 'to pain, to grieve'; askuart is perhaps from the same origin] Cf. DOST ake, v. 'to cause to ache, to ache', (s.u.) Young's Greek forms are from Hesychius and resemble LSc (XKaxhjm 'to give pain, to pain, to trouble, to grieve'. I have not found the form askuart.

Aft, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'back, again, anew'] Cf. DOST aft, adv., 'often'.

Again, f. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. na<m> saspius repetitu<m> aliquid fit nimium. [perh. 'very much, too much', for something repeated too often is excessive] DOST again, adv., prep., and conj. 'towards a former place'; 'in return, in answer, response or reply'; 'further, moreover, on the other hand'; 'over against, facing'; 'in hostility, resistance, or opposition to'; 'opposite, contrary to', 'in preparation for (a particular time)'. The Greek and Latin meanings assigned to again by Young deviate from DOST, but, instead, reflects OED again, adv., prep., and conj. II.4, 'Expressing repetition of an action or fact; once more; any more; anew'.

Against mee, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] quasi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], fort contraire [perh. as if 'very much against', 'very opposite']

Agazit vel agast, Attonitus (...) ['thunder-struck, stunned'] Cf. DOST agast, adj., 'filled with fright or terror; affrighted, terrified, aghast', (s.u.)

Aicre of land num ab agro, quasi agre of land. [perh. from 'territory', as if agre of land]

Airs, forte a Graeco [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [perh. from Greek 'oar'] DOST are, air, n., 'oars'.

Aix, securis, a Graeco [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['axe', from Greek 'axe-head', 'axe']

Ais vel Ass, fortasse a Graeco [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) [perh. from Greek 'slime, mud'] Cf. DOST as. ais, n., 'ashes'.

Aid 'old'

Aleaf vel alouf Nauticum est vocabulum [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], quod item est nauticum. [a nautical word perh. from 'relief' and 'abatement, cessation', which is also nautical] DOST a-luf aluiff, adv., 'nearer to the wind'. Aleaf (s.u.)

Ane vel en, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. gang ane and ane. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'one'. gang ane and ane. 'to go one at the time'] DOST ane, num. and a., 'one person'; under c. ane and ane, 'one at the time'.

Anent, foment, q.d. inante, coram. [which means 'in the presence, before the eyes'] DOST anent, prep., 'before, opposite, towards, concerning'; foment, prep., 'in front of, over gainst, opposite'. Lat. inante seems to be coined from Greek [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'in the presence of'.

Aneach, satis, ['enough'] (s.u.)

Antre a Gallica aventure (...) [from French avonture] DOST aunter, anter, n., 'adventure, enterprise, chance, risk, fortune'.

Apil, pomum. (...) ['apple']

Apon, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['above', 'on the upper side'] DOST upo(u)n(e), prep. (adv.).

Bairn, infans (...) ['infant']

Babi (...) 'baby'

Bal, pila. (...) vide bolt, ['ball'(...) see bolt]

Barke, Latrare. (...) Vel nostru<m> barke est a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Latrare. (...) ['to bark' (...) or our barke is from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]

Barrel, cadus (...) ['barrel']

Begyle & guyl, fraus, deceptio. (...) ['cheating, conceit, imposition, fraud'; 'deception, deceiving'] The verb and the noun are combined, here.

Ber, portare, ferre, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. vel a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], unde et nostrum Burthen. (...) ['to bear, to carry, to bring', from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ('idem'), or from 'weight, burden, load', from which is also our burthen']

Beir--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Capsula vel feretru<m> mortuorum. Inde etiam nostru<m> byre, i.e. hara vel stabulum porcorum. ['box or litter, bier for the dead'. From this also our byre, that is 'a pen or stable for pigs'] Cf. DOST byre, n., 'cowhouse or cattle-house'; here, however, 'a stable for pigs'.

Birn, (...) urere. (...) incendere. ['to burn'; 'to set on fire']

Birth, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] vel [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] per methathesin. ['weight' or 'to be heavy' by transposition] DOST, n.2, birth, byrth, 'burden', 'carrying capacity'. There is no corresponding verb.

Bitt, mica buccella. (...) ['crumb, bit, morsel'; 'a small mouthful']

Bitter, quasi picre, amarum. (...) [as if picre 'bitter, pungent']

Blet. alibi de hoc vocabulo multa, & de Blito a quo venit. (...) [elsewhere much about this word, and about blito 'tasteless vegetable' from which it comes] Cf. DOST blate, blait, adj. 'devoid of spirit, backward, timid, bashful, shy', 'dull, stupid, simple'. The reference to 'elsewhere' remains untraced.

Blunt, Obtusus (...) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] etiam est qui obtuso aspectu est, atque inde nostrum blind, ['blunted, dull, weakened' (...) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'blunt, dulled, monotonous' is also someone who is of faint sight, and from there our blind]

Blythe (...)

Bolt, Telum, missile. (...) ['missile, dart'; 'weapon that may be hurled'] DOST bolt, bowt, n.1, 'short and heavy arrow', is more restricted in meaning.

Bore pro Foramine (...) Bore pro perfodere. (...) ['for hole'; 'for to drill']

Bouel, (...) DOST bowellis, bowallis, n. pi., 'bowels, entrails', does not mention the singular for Scots.

Bournsni, vide num a Tuburcinari, quo utitur Plautus Persa, Turburcinari de suo si quid domi est. [perh. from tuburcinari, 'to greedily gobble up, devour', which is used by Plautus, Persa, 'to gobble away at his own expense, if he has anything at home'] I have not found Bournsni. Perhaps Junius miscopied from Young.

Brasi vide num a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) [perh. from 'to break, to smite', and 'to dash in pieces'] DOST brasche, brasch, v., 'to break through or down by assault', 'to beat violently at a door', or the corresponding noun brasche, brasch, brase, 'violent onset, attack, or assault', 'an attack or fit of illness', (s.u.)

Bred, Latus, amplius. (...) ['broad, wide'; 'of large extent, great, ample spacious']

Bred, Germ, brot vel brod (...) [German 'bread']

Brent & leuk brent upon a thing, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. brent fortasse a Graeco [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], quod Extolli & cum fastu & superbo aspectu incedere significat. [is 'look intensively, gaze earnestly' and 'to look without winking', brent is perhaps from Greek PpsvOttopai, which means 'to be exalted' and 'to proceed with a haughty appearance'] Young states that leuk brent upon a thing means 'to look intensely or earnestly upon thing', but also connects brent with haughtiness and fearlessness. DOST brent, adj., 'upright', does not list this meaning. JD (p. 74) lists 'straight, directly'; Jamieson's example, to come brent on 'to advance fearlessly or precipitately, in a straight line', encapsules the meaning here, while Jamieson also cites to hae, or see, a thing brent 'to see it distinctly as if directly before one'. Jamieson identifies both examples as 'Lothian'.

ee Bries, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) [from 'eyebrow'] DOST ee-breis, n., gives only one example. (49)

Broes uel browes. quasi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Species plerumque ponitur pro genere. [as if [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'meat'. The outward appearance is often put for the description] The meaning here is prob. 'eye lid', 'brow' or 'forehead'.

Bront, ustus. (...) ['burned']

Brue de cerevisia. (...) [of beer]

Burne, Ardere, Incendere. (...) ['to be on fire, to bum'; 'to set on fire']

Cair (...) 'care, distress of mind'

Caird uel kaird (...) 'a card for wool, hemp, etc.'

Chapel & chapelain (...)

Cheer vel scheer vel cheirs. (...) 'pair of scissors', 'shears'

Clashe, vox facta forte a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [word made perhaps from 'break, weaken, frustrate'] Cf. DOST clash, n., 'chatter, idle talk, gossip'.

Cleif, Findo. (...) ['to cleave, split, part, separate, divide']

Clog, truncus ligneus (...) Solent in scholis nostrates vagoru<m> & dissolatoru<m> scholasticoru<m> (quos truandes vocamus) pedibus truncum lignau<m> grandem & justi ponderis apponere; quo ignominiae nota illis inuratur, cum vident pene jam desperatos esse atque ad verbera contumaces & induratos. [wooden block. (...) in schools our countrymen are accustomed to attaching a big stock of wood of the right weight to the feet of wandering and negligent [pupils] (whom we call truants); wherefore this mark of disgrace is imprinted on them, because they then almost seem to be without hope, and unyielding and hardened to the lashes] Clog, here, seems to have the meaning of an instrument of punishment for pupils playing truant.

Cloth, (...)

Coaf, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'to smite, cut down, strike, beat, hammer, knock, forge'] The meaning of coaf is unclear. Coaf may be a form of DOST coch(e), cogh, n2, 'cough', or of DOST coff(e), n., 'dishonest rogue'.

Code, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) [from 'shellfish']

Cock, (...) 'cock, domestic fowl'

Cod, Cervical (...) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] dicitur coduar nostris, quod cervicali imponitur ut integat. [the diminutive [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'little sheepskin or fleece' is called a coduar by our people, because it is put on a pillow or bolster for protection] Cf. DOST cod, code, cold, n., 'cushion, pillow'; DOST codware, codwair, n., 'pillow-case', (s.u.)

Conning, (...) Si ad animam referas, potest pro Subtili accepi; atque inde nostru<m> conning. [If it refers to the mind, it can be taken for 'fine, acute, exact', and from that is our conning] See DOST cunning, -yng (ppl.) adj., 'possessed of knowledge or skill; learned, skillful'. With subtili Young veers towards 'precise, exact, accurate, subtle'.

Cors. Ane deid cors. (...) 'corpse, body'50

Cote. (...) 'coat'

Crabed. (...) 'ill natured'

Cracquer, crab, crepare, crepitare, sonare: proprie de lignis cum franguntur. a sono derivatum vocabulum (...) ['to crack, creak, crackle'; 'make a noise': particularly of wood when it is broken. A word derived from the sound] (s.u.) Either these forms were miscopied for cracken, crak, or they are an instance of pronunciation spelling.

Crag vel craig, mons vel rapes. (...) ['mount' or 'rock, cliff']

Craib vide crabed. 'to annoy, irritate'

Creip, Repere aliquo ubi te occultus. (...) ['to creep or crawl somewhere to hide']

Croum, (...) DOSTcrum, n., 'crumb, particle', (s.u.)

ane Courn, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. un peu. ['something small'] DOST corn, n., 'small particle, bit', (s.u.)

Cru, Hara porcoram. (...) ['an enclosure for pigs']

Cry (...) 'to cry, shout'

Cutill, Garrire. (...) ['to chatter, prate, prattle, chat'] Cf. DOST cuttle, (kuttle), v., 'to whisper'. SND cuittle, v., gives 'to coax, wheedle, flatter' for post-1700 attestations. JD, p. 144, also translates 'to wheedle'. Young's meaning is not recorded in DOST or SND.

Dad & bladd, voces fictitiae pro Ferire, lacerare. (...) [made-up words for 'to strike, smite, beat, knock'; 'to tear to pieces, mangle, mutilate, lacerate'] Cf. DOST dad, v., 'to strike heavily', 'prob. imitative of the sound'; DOST blad, bland, blawd, bleid, v., 'to damage, pund, beat, blow', 'of obscure origin'. Young adds the meaning of 'lacerate, cut, rend'.

Day, Dies. (...) ['day']

Deir, ut mony ane deir day (...) ['many a dear, lovely day']

Derg, Graecis [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. vel potius a Latina voce Diarium, i.e. unius diei opus. (...) [Greek [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'work, deed, action', or rather from the Latin word diarium, that is 'the work of one day'] DOST darg, n., 'a day's work'. The spelling derg occurs only in SND.

Derk uel dark, Obscurus, caliginosus. (...) ['dark, obscure'; 'misty, obscure, gloomy'] SND derk, adj. and n., 'Scots (mainly southern) form of Eng. dark'. There are no attestations in DOST.

Dik uel dyk, Murus. (...) ['wall, bank, mound']

Dispyt, (...) 'dislike, despise, hate'

Doh, pro natibus, (...) ['rump, buttocks'] Cf. DOST dock, n. (s.u.)

Doul, pro Hebate, stupido, & bardo. (...) [for 'blunt, senseless, stupid, dull'] DOST dull, dul, dwl, adj., 'slow to understand', (s.u.)

Draw, (...) 'draw, pull'

Dryve to an end. (...) see DOST drive, v. 4a., 'to push on with'.

Dye, mori, occidere. (...) ['to die', 'to perish']

Dye to //[..] (51). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], immergere, imbuere. [from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'to dip, plunge, sink'; 'to wet, soak'] Young links the meaning of dye to 'to dip into, to immerge, to sink into'; probably, this is a form of to dye 'to colour or paint'.

Dyke, (...) 'dike'

Dyne, Prandere. (...) ['to eat, dine']

Efter, (...) 'after'

Eih, augere (...) ['to increase, augment, enlarge'] DOST eke, eik, v. (s.u.)

the ein, Oculi. (...) ['eyes']

Eith, (...) 'easy to do'

Erlie, (...) 'early'

Fage, Genus panis oblongi. (...) ['a type of elongated loaf'] Cf. DOSTfagejaige, n., 'a flat, thick loaf'.

Fade, Gleba. (...) ['small piece or lump of earth'] Cf. DOST fail, n.2, 'sod, turf'.

Faire, (...) 'fair, beautiful'

Fall, cadere (...) ['to fall']

Fallow, Sequi (...) Item fallow pro Famulo, quod Dominu<m> sequatur. (...) ['to follow, come after' (...) Likewise a fallow for a 'servant' because he follows a master] Both follow and fellow were indeed written as fallow in older Scots; see DOSTfallow, n. and v.1.

Far, (...). far of (...) 'far'

Feil, palpare. (...) ['to stroke, touch softly, pat'] DOSTfele,feil(l), v., 'to apprehend by bodily sensation'.

Fisch. (...) 'fish'

Fitche, figge, Paulatim progredi. (...) ['to advance little by little'] Cf. DOST fitch, v., a. transitive 'to remove, change the place of.' b. intransitive 'to move from one place or service to another'. 'Of obscure origin. Current in later dialect'. Figge (s.u.). Young's meaning differs from that in DOST.

Flap, pro ictu vel plaga. (...) [for a 'blow, stroke, stab, cut, thrust, wound'] Cf. DOST flap n., 'a flap or a blow', which is more restricted.

Flyre, (...) 'mock, sneer, jest'

Foor vel fore, Ante, corarn. before (...) ['before, in front, before'; 'in the presence, before the eyes, in the face']

Foul & fyl (...) 'loathsome, repulsive' and 'to make unclean, filthy, dirty'.

Frize, (...) a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to make rough, make hair stand on end', often because of a feeling of chill, shiver, shudder'] Probably DOST freeze, v., 'to frizz the hair' (s.u.), or, alternatively DOST frese, freis(e), v.1, 'to become ice or icy cold'.

Froth, (...) 'froth'

Fut & feit (...) 'foot, feet'

Fy, fy (...) 'fie, fie'

Fyl (...) vide supra foul

Gar, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Angariare (...) hinc etiam angar, Molestum esse, [from 'press into service'; 'to demand villanage'. (...) from this also angar 'to be annoying, angry with'] DOST gar, v., 'to cause something to be done'. Young's spurious spelling of angar is driven by his wish to etymologise and link angar to gar.

Gaussy man, (...) 'a handsome, jovial-looking man'. This word does not occur in DOST, but see William Dunbar's slawsy gawsy, with gawsy glossed by Priscilla Bawcutt as 'plump and fresh-complexioned'. (52) SND gawsie, adj., gives a range of meanings, including 'handsome' and 'jovial-looking'. OED gawsy, adj., has attestations from 1720 onwards. Young's entry confirms the use of gawsy well before 1700.

Gay, Trimm or glade. (...) Gay 'pleasing to the eye, cheerful'. Trim 'neat, comely, attractive in appearance, fine, elegant'. Glade, 'cheerful, happy in disposition'.

Geer, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) [perh. from 'possession'] DOST gere, geir, n.2, 'articles or personal possessions'.

Gians, Splendor, fulgor. (...) ['brightness, brilliance, splendour'; 'lightning'] Cf. DOST glans, n., 'flash or flashing of light'; and glans, glance, v., 'to shine, gleam, be refulgent'.

Glawr, intueri. (...) ['to look at, upon, towards'] It does not occur in DOST. See SND glaur, v.2, with attestations from 1871 and 1872. Young shows that this particularly Scots form of 'to glare' (perhaps analogous to SND glaur, n.1, v.1, 'soft, sticky mud; ooze; slime') existed well before the nineteenth century.

Gleid, Luscus, lusciosus. to gley, luscum simulare. ['one-eyed, dim-sighted, purblind', to gley, 'to assume the appearance of being one-eyed'] Young's meaning of gleid differs from DOST gleyit, gleid, glyed, adj., 'squinting, squint-eyed'. DOST gley, v., 'to squint', lacks the element of simulation.

Gloyd, Equus strigosus & piger. (...) ['a meager and lazy horse'] Cf. DOST, gloyd, n., where it is explained as 'an old worn-out horse'.

Gnaw, (...) 'to gnaw'

Gore, (...). nostri pro interficere stick and gore dicunt. [our people say stick and gore for 'to kill'] See DOST gor, v., 'to stab, pierce, gore', for attestations of stick and gore, 'to kill'.

Gouk, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gall. cocu. ['cuckoo', French cocu 'deceived person'] DOST gowk, gouk, golk, n., 'cuckoo', 'fool, simpleton'. Young seems to be aware of the two meanings in Scots, and may have believed that the Scots meaning of 'simpleton' derived from the French meaning of 'deceived husband'.

Grancher, (...) DOST granschire, n., 'grandfather', (s.u.)

Grip, a Graeco [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Gall, gripper, et [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Piscator. [from Greek 'to ask riddles', French gripper, 'to seize', and 'fisher'] DOST grip, n.2, 'griffin, vulture, or falcon'. Young's etymology combines the image of a fishing bird of pray (perh. an osprey?), with 'asking riddles', which suggests that he combined two mythological birds under the same name: the griphen and the sphynx, whose riddle was solved by Oedipus.

Groaw, Crescere, augeri, extendi. (...) ['to grow, to be increased, to be spread out, extended']

Gumes, Dentes molares, vel os illud cui insiti sunt dentes. (...) ['molars, or that [part of] the mouth in which the teeth are implanted] According to Young gumes can mean 'teeth' as well as 'gums'. See DOSTgume, n., 'the gums. Also transf.', which does not list the meaning of 'teeth'. (53)

Gyd, Curam gerere. (...) ['to take care of'] See DOST gyd(e), gid(e), v., 3, 'To direct, control, manage, or keep in order.'

Gyll, unde begyl, Decipere. (...) ['to catch, ensnare, entrap, beguile, elude, deceive, cheat']

Hale, Sanus. (...) ['whole, healthy, well']

Haile, verbu<m> nauticu<m>. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [a nautical word. perh. corresponding to 'to draw, pull, drag, haul'] See DOST hale hail(l), v.1, 'to draw or pull; to drag or haul. (Freq. in nautical use)'.

Hairy, Spoliare. (...) ['to rob, plunder, pillage, spoil; to deprive, despoil'] See DOST herry, v. (s.u.)

Hang, (...), hangman.

Hantle, (...) quasi handfull, (...) See DOST hantill, hantle, n., 'a considerable number', which gives only two attestations, and OED hantle, n., which claims that it was 'not known before c. 1700'.

Hap, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] & happel [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['to attach to oneself'; 'to place, put round, to put on'. & happel 'bound with, equipped with', 'dressed'] See DOST hap, v.1, 'to cover up, cover or wrap a person'. I have not found any attestation of happel. It may be an adjectival formation made up from a verb plus -el/-le (e.g. brittle, fickle), although the accent on the first syllable of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] points to a noun. (54)

Hart, Cor. Hartly, Ex animo. ['heart'; 'in a heart-felt manner']

Harrous & verbum harrow (...) harrowing, harrowis. (...) See DOST 'harrow', n., for instances of plur. harrows or couple of harrows', hence presumably the plural harrous here.

Hay, Foenum. (...) ['hay']

Helcruk, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Instrumentum est extrahendis ex olla carnibus accommodatu<m> [for to pull the meat from the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (not found). It is an instrument fitted for drawing meat from the pot] Helcruk does not occur in DOST, but see cruke, cruik, crewk, n., 'large metal hook'. Young describes helcruk as a hook with which meat is lifted from out of the pot. Perhaps it is linked to DOST hale, hail(l), v.1, 'to draw, pull'; to drag or haul'. See also 'His nailis wes lyk ane hellis cruk' from Robert Henryson's 'Bludy serk', 1. 27, glossed by Denton Fox and David Parkinson as a hook from hell (Fox 1988: 159, 258; Parkinson 2010: 147).

Helter, quasi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], capistru<m> (...) [as if [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'halter']

Hemly, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['wheedling, wily, mostly of words'] DOST hamely, adj., 'plain, unaffected'.

Heap, Strues, cumulus, tumulus, ['heap, pile, mound, barrow']

Hisse, Explodere per contumeliam (...) ['to drive away out of contempt'] See DOST hiss, hyss v. 'to hiss'. Young adds 'out of contempt'; cf. OED hiss, v., 2, 3, which includes the element of contempt.

Hitt, Tangere, percutere, assequi. (...) ['totouch'; 'to strike, beat, hit, smite, shoot, strike'; 'to reach out']

Hol, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] quod cavema<m> sign<ificat>. (...) ['hollow, cavity, cave, cavern, grotto, hole']

Hole, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. the hole night (...) ['whole']

Houre, Gall, garse. Puella & meretrix. (...) [Frenchgarse. 'Girl and prostitute']

thou is, 2 & 3 pers. (...) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [you are] The use of is instead of art for the second person singular must be the reason for the gloss.

Kamour. curvare, inflectere, (...) & Gall, camure a camurus, quod Tortu<m> & obliquum significat. unde Scoticum extat proverbium, Earlie crakes the tree, a gud cammock should bee. ['to crook, bend, bow, curve, round'. (...) And French camure from camurus, which means 'bent, twisted' and 'awry, oblique, slanting'. From which there is the Scottish proverb Earlie crukes the tree, a gud cammock should bee] Kamour, 'to bend', occurs neither in DOST nor in SLD. Young may have referred to OED camber, v., 'to become slightly arched', 'to bend upwards in the middle', which OED links to 'French cambre-r 'to arch slightly (...), a semi-popular repr. of Latin camerare "to vault'", and which is not Scots. An alternative might be a derivation from OED cam, adj. and adv., 'crooked, twisted, bent', which is said to be adopted from cam, 'crooked, bent', in both Gaelic and Welsh. Scots has various words with the root cam', camachal 'troublesome boy', camrell 'stick (bent) from which a carcass is suspended', camshachle 'to distort, bend, twist, disorder', camsheugh 'crooked, distorted, deformed', and then Campbell, derived from 'crooked mouth' and Cameron from 'crooked nose'. It would be surprising, therefore, if camber were exclusively English, as OED suggests; moreover, Young gives a form without the dissimilation found in English camber. The forms with -b- are linked to Medieval Latin, and found in Middle English. Celtic cam is also found in DOST cammock, n., 'a curved or crooked staff or stick', which occurs in the proverb. See also OED cammock, cambock, n.2 'shinty stick, curved bat'. The proverb was published by Fergusson (1641) as Airlie crooks the tree, that good cammokshould be; a similar saying is found in John Lyly's Euphues and His England (1580), 'Crooked trees, proue good Cammockes'. (55)

Kechle, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (...) ['titter, giggle'] See DOST kek(k)il(l), v., 'to cackle, laugh noisily', (s.u.)

Keil, interficere, Angl. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) .& verbu<m> [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], tractu<m> a feris & pravis moribus illius gentis. ['to kill', English, perh. from the Cilicians (...) and the word 'to play the Cilician to one, to cheat'] Cf. DOST kill, kyll, v.1, 'to put to death, slay, kill', which shows that Young was clearly wrong here. In his etymology Young draws to kill from the Cilicians whose national depravity he emphasises. Was he comparing the Cilicians with the English? See kil, below.

Kendle, Accendere proprie. significat etiam Sollicitare & incendere alique<m> aliquid faciendu<m>, (,..) ['to kindle', in particular. It also means 'to urge, seduce, stimulate, provoke' and 'to incite someone to do something']

Kestre, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) ['with the point hardened by fire'] Perh. DOST kestrel, n. (?) '[a shoemaker's tool]'. There is one attestation in an inheritance list from Aberdeen, dating from 1541: 'ane kestrel and hand ledder, with ane elson' (Stuart 1944: 176). Cf. DOST casiar, n., 'a thrower (of darts)'. Kester is also the Gaelic name for 'Christopher'.

Ketle, pro caldario vel aheno. (...) [for 'a pot for boiling' or 'a bronze vessel']

Kil, Occidere Anglice. (...) Apud nos keil est minio rubro notare & signare; quod deduci potest a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Macula, utraque sign, vocabuli ta<m> Anglici quam Scotici a graeco videtur originem traxisse. ['to kill' in English. (...) Among us keil is 'to mark or sign with red lead', which can be deduced from KT|Aiq, 'stain, spot'. Either of the two [etymologies] shows that both the English and the Scots words seem to draw the origins from Greek] See DOST (kele,) keil(l), 'to mark (sheep) with ruddle', from kele, n. (3), 'red ochre used for marking sheep', 'the mark on sheep'. Young does not restrict keil to marking sheep.

Kill, Fornax in quo hordeu<m> encoquitur & siccatur ad cerevisia<m> conficiendam. (...) ['an oven in which barley is roasted and dried in order to make beer'] See DOST kill, n.1, 'a structure containing a fire or furnace'. The form without -n is frequent in Scots.

Kirk, (...) 'church'

Kirn, Lac mixtu<m> quodammodo concretu<m> (...) kirn etiam dicitur de quavis re quae miscetur. ['milk to some extent solidified by mixing'(...) the thing with which it is mixed is also called kirn] According to Young kirn is both the butter milk and the chum. For the latter meaning, see DOST kirn, n.1, 'a chum'. The former is found only in SND, kirn, n.1, 3, 'the milk in the process of being churned, buttermilk'. This attestation antedates those in SND.

Kitle, Titillare. (...) ['to tickle']

Kne a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) [from 'knee']

Knel, (...) 'to ring a bell'

Kyt, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], sinus, (...) [from 'vessel, jar, hollow container'; 'drinking vessel'] Cf. DOST kit. n., 'pail or tub'.

Lad. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Nostris Lad tria significat. (...) aetatem, sexum, & conditioners [among our people lad means three things: age, gender and condition]

Laidron, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], unde etiam forte Gall. Laid, ['bold, impudent', from which also perh. French laid] Cf. DOST ladron(e), n. and attrib., 'a base person, low rascal'. This spelling occurs only in SND.

Laip, Lapper. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) [to lap, drink greedily] DOST lape, laip, v., 'to lap, drink greedily'. Lapper in the meaning of 'one who laps' does not occur in DOST. OED lapper, n.1, provides one attestation from 1606. In Scots, lapper meant 'to coagulate'.

Laird. (...) 'prince, chief, lord'

Lak, carere, privari re aliqua. (...) ['to be without'; 'to be deprived of something']

Lap vel lop. a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.], quod chlamydem significat vel veste<m>. unde (...) the lap of ye gowne. the lap of the coat, [from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which means 'upper garment, cloak, mantle', (...) from which the lap off gowne. the lap of the coat] DOST lap, n., 'loose or overlapping part of garment'.

Lass. Puella. (...) ['girl']

Leem, Mutilare. (...) ['to maim, mutilate'] See DOST lame, v., 'to lame, cripple, maim, disable', (s.u.)

Lef (...) 'leaf'

Leif vel lef. a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Desino, finio, finem impono, desisto. Leif. Relinquere. (...) [from Mtyco, 'to leave off'; 'to finish'; 'to put an end to'; 'to cease'. Leif, 'to leave behind, abandon']

Leik, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) [from 'like, resembling']

Less, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'smaller, less']

Lie, Mentiri. (...)['to lie']

Limmar a Graeco [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from Greek 'spoiler, destroyer' (recte [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])] See DOST limmar, n., 'villain, scoundrel, rogue'.

Limphatt (...) quasi leem hatt. vel a lim. [as if leem hat. or from lim] DOST (limp-,) Lymphat n., (...) adj., 'lame, limping'. The only attestation given in DOST is from 'The Flyting of Montgomerie and Polwart', II, 88: 'The lymphat, lunscheocht, lithargie, The aikand aixis extasie' (Parkinson 2010: I, 147). See OED lymphatic adj. and n., 'frenzied, mad'. Young's etymology from leem Tame' and hatt '?head', or lim 'limb' is spurious.

ye Linkis, pro littore maris. (...) [for the 'sea-shore']

Lisp (...)

Litil or Litle. (...) Litle wee.

Loft, aloft, lofti, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['neck of a horse', 'crest'] Cf. DOST loft, n., meaning in general 'high up'.

Luk vel Leak, (...) 'to look'

Lycht, lux. (...) [Tight']

Lyme', Calx. (...) ['limestone']

Maire, magis. (...) ['more']

Maist vel mast (...) 'most'

ane Mairt, (...) DOST mart, n., 'an ox or cow fattened for slaughter'.

Maidwyf or maitwyf, (...) DOST medwyf(e), n., 'midwife'. Maitwyf (s.u.).

Mait, cibus. (...) ['food']

Mattie times, (...)

Man, (...) inde forte men

Marie, Maritare (...) ['to marry']

Meik, Suavis (...) Inde fortasse etiam meilk, lac, quia suave sit. ['sweet, agreeable'. Perhaps from this also meilk 'milk', because it is sweet]

Mein, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'disclose, make known, declare'] DOST mene, mein(e), v.1, 3, 'to convey in words, declare'.

Meit, Aptum, a verbo mett & meitt, Occurrere, & interdu<m> Hostiliter occurrere. I shall meit with you, pro Poenas de te sumam. hee met with him. (...) ut omnino respondeat nostro meit. (...) ['suited, suitable, proper, fit', from the verb mett & meit 'to come to, meet, fall in with', and sometimes in a hostile way. I shall meit with you for 'I will inflict punishment on you. hee met with him. (...) so that it corresponds completely with our meit] See DOST met(e), meit, adj.1, 'fitting, suitable', and v.1, 5, 'To encounter or engage in battle; to advance against or to withstand, in battle'.

Miss. (...) Miss, vel myss pro peccato & scelere. (...) [for 'fault, error, mistake, transgression, sin' and 'wicked deed, crime, wickedness']

Monichordis, (...) 'musical instrument with one string'

Morne a Germ, morgen. (...) [from German 'morning']

Moryss, Gall, morisque. (...) [from French moorish]

Mouk, (...) 'muck'

Na, Lat, non. (...) ['no']

Naps of [wo]l, (...) Floccus lanae ['flocks of wool']

Neihname, (...) Quid si dicas esse quasi nipname, vel potius eikname, quod nos aliter mitius a tooname. [what if it is as if nipname, or rather eikname, which, in another way we gently [call] a tooname] All terms for 'nickname'. I have not found the form neihname, a combination of nigh and name which is self explanatory. The form nipname is a combination of nip and name. The most likely origin for nip would be Old English genip 'mist, cloud, darkness, obscurity', (56) which has not survived on its own, but might explain nipname, and, perhaps also DOST nipschot, n., 'a shot amiss'. The form eikname, a combination of eke 'increase, addition' and name, is the original of nickname, an eke name was reanalysed to a nekename', see OED eke-name. For tooname, see DOST to-name, n.

Nether vel nedder, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['lower, nether']

Nip, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['touch with a sharp point, prick, stab, pierce'] Cf. DOST nib, n., 'bird's beak, sharp point', but also OED nib, v.1, 'to peck, pick at, prick'. The spelling nip does not occur in DOST, nor does it list the verb.

Nort, (...) ut eest (...) 'north, east'

Noye, vexare, molestu<m> esse (...) ['to injure, damage, molest, annoy, distress'; to be troublesome, irksome, grievous, annoying'] See DOST noy, v., 'to hurt, harm, injure'.

Oclit, aliquid, quicqua<m> (...) ejus contrarium est nocht, Nihil, ['something, anything'; its opposite is nocht 'nothing']

Ocre vel ocher, Vsuram nostra lingua significat. [it means 'usury' in our language] See DOST ok(k)er, ocker, n., 'the taking of excessive interest, usury', (s.u. 2 x).

Ows, osca. ab Oscis, pro lana. inde forte vox nostra. [Osca. from Oscan, for 'wool'. Our word is perhaps from this] Young's spurious etymology attempts to link Scots ows to an Oscan word purportedly for wool. The origin of this remark is Young's misrepresentation of Varro, De lingua Latina VII: 54, 'cum ex ea carunt quod in ea haeret neque est lana, quae in Romulo Naevius appellata asta [osca in older editions] ab Oscis.' 'they card out of it that which sticks in it and is not wool, those things which Romulus Naevius calls osca from the Oscans' (Kent 1938: I, 319). Although Varro makes clear that osca is not wool, Young believes that it is, and therefore links osca to ows meaning 'wool'. It is likely that ows is a variant of DOST oull, owl(l), n., from Old Norse ull, expecially when one considers DOST oue, n., an 'apparent variation of oull found in the Correspondence of Sir Patrick Waus of Barnharroch. 1540-97'(Agnew 1887: 6). (57)

Pachel, Homo obesus & pinguis. (...) ['a fat and lazy man'] Not in DOST. The meaning of given by Young differs from SND pauchle, v2, n2, II.2, 'a feeble old creature, a frail, tottering old body'.

Pitt. (...) inde nostru<m>pitt, quod profundu<m> carcere<m> vel abyssum significat. Inde etiam nostrum bodom vel botom, quasi potom quod Fundu<m> significat. [from this our pitt, which means 'a dungeon' or an abyss. From this also our bodom or botom, as if potom, which means 'the bottom']

Ply, of a ply, tua ply, thre ply. (...) See DOST ply, n., 'fold, pleat, layer', especially lc, 'Frequently plural without inflections, especiall after cardinal numbers'. Young's citations were meant to illustrate this very phenomenon.

Posset, potio, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] & pott & pynt. (...) ['drink, 'beverage'] cf. DOST posset(t), itt, n., 'hot milk curdled with ale, wine, spices or other ingredients'.

Prattis. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. & qui nobis est a prettie man. (...) [from 'to practise', and who among our people is a prettie man'] See DOST practis(e), n., 'established usage', 'behaviour'; prettie, adj., 'cleverly devised, ingenious, skillful, apt'.

Pryss, Pretium, venditio. (...) ['price, sale']

Pyp vel pip a (...) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'to pipe, cheep or chirp']

Pyrrhen, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'fire' and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], an incorrect Greek form, perh. from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to become red'] I have not found pyrrhen. The closest option is JD (p. 398) 'to pirr', 'to spring up as blood from a wound made with a lancet'.

Quhalp, (...) 'whelp'

Racquel, Colaphus. a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['blow with the fist, cuff, box on the ear', from 'stroke, slap on the face']. Perhaps DOST (rakkel) rackel, adj., 'possessed of rude strength, course in action', but, in view of Young's translation of colaphus, it is more likely a formation with an -el suffix of SND rack, n.3, v.2, 'a heavy blow'; OED rack, n.2, 1; JD (p. 417) rack, s., 'a shock, a blow'.58

Raggis, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Raged, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], (...) ['ragged garment' and 'rags'. Raged 'tom, rent, burst']

Rain. (...)

Raire est Ejulare instar infantis. iacoq a pdptov, quod infantem significat. (...) [is 'to wail' like a child, perh. from pdptov, which means 'child'] Cf. DOST rar(e), rair, v. 'to shout aloud, cry as in pain, anger, grief, fear'. Young's restricted meaning originates from his etymology, in that he derives raire from pdptov, which he explains as 'infant'.

Raper. Gall, rapiere. (...) 'rapier'

Rasch. (...) rasch ye lied to ye val or to ye flewr. (...) brak ye dur. raschet ye dur. (...) See DOST ras(c)he, v.2, 'to dash, to bang with force or violence'; 'to bang or slam (a door)'.

Reddy, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) ['easy, ready']

Rin, Currere. de homine & animalibus. Transfertur & ad flumina & aqua<m>, venitque a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Fluo. & non tantum de rapidis verum etiam de lentis aquis dicitur. ['to run', of a man and anmials. It is also applied to rivers and water, and comes from peco 'to flow']

Roaw, Remigare. (...) ['to row'] (s.u.)

Roch, Asper (...) ['rough']

Rod, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) ['from rod, stick']

Rok, quid si a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) [what if from paxia 'rocky shore of the beach']

Roub vel rubb, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], quod est tergere. [from pm|/ai, which is 'to rub']

Rough, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] from 'to break asunder, rend, shatter'] DOST ruch, adj. and adv., does not show this particular meaning for rough in Scots.

Roup, Vendere. (...) ['to sell'] Cf. DOST roup, v., 11.4. 'to proclaim that an object is for sale'.

Ryf, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) ['to tear, strip']

Ryss, Surgere, convalescere a morbo. (...) ['to rise, arise, get up'; 'recover from a sickness']

Saif, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) ['to save, to keep']

Sail, navigare. (...) ['to sail, cruise']

Sark, Indusium, subucula. (...) ['a woman's undergarment'; 'a man's undergarment']

Sattil pro movere, agitare, dissipare. (...) [for 'to move, set in motion, spread abroad, scatter'] Cf. DOST sattil(l), v., 'fall, move, settle'.

Sawe, Secare serra proprie. (...) ['to cut up', particularly 'a saw']

Scarmish, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Pugna. ['joy of battle'; 'hand-to-hand fight'] Cf. DOST scarmis(c) h(e), scirmis(c)h(e), n., 'an irregular encounter or minor conflict'.

Shame, (...)

Schet & beschett, (...) 'excrement'; 'defile with excrement'

Schip. (...) Navis genus, vel schip vel schyph (...) 'ship and skiff'

Seith, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) ['boil, to seethe']

Sery, num a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], imp<er>itus. [from 'uneducated', 'inexperienced'?] Perhaps a form of DOST sary, adj., 5, 'wretched, worthless, of little value, pitiful, mean', but then clearly with a somewhat different meaning.

Silly (...) quod Imperitu<m> significat. (...) [which means 'inexperienced, unversed, unfamiliar']

Sin & Sinner (...)

Sitre, potionis genus (...) ['a type of drink'] (s.u.)

Skart, (...) Gall, egratigner. inde etiam fortasse nostrum skrep. [French egratigner. from this perhaps our skrep] 'scratch'; 'scrape'

Skep. Gallice des mattes. (...) [French des mattes] 'basket, beehive' (made from straw)

Skoul, Caperare frontem. (...) ['to draw wrinkles on the forehead, scowl, frown']

Snib vel snip, Increpare, reprehendere (...) ['to rebuke, reprimand, censure'] Cf. DOST snib, v., 2a.

Soft, mollis (...) ['pliant, soft']

Sol, pro Planta pedis. (...) [for the 'sole of the foot']

Souft vel suouft, velox, pernix. (...) ['rapid, swift'] (s.u.)

South, (...)

Spell, (...) TO [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] interim nostris est to spell, [meanwhile, 'to arrange letters' is 'to spell' among our people]

Spill, a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Maculo (...) [from ajtdoco, 'to stain'] See DOST spill, v., 3c.

Spittil or spattle. spitt (...) ex sputare. [- out of sputare 'to spit'] 'spittle'; 'spit'

Staff, a voce [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] fortasse. (...) [perh. from the word [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'upright pale, stake']

Stake, spica. ['spike']

Stable, stabulu<m>. (...) [stable']

Starte, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. ['springing, leaping']

Steir vel stir, attingere, contrectere, loco movere. ['to touch, come into contact with, feel, move place']

Stiff, (...)

Stik, Pungere, pugione confodere (...) & stik, Figere. (...) ['top rick, puncture'; 'to stab with a dagger', and stik, 'to fix, fasten, attach'] See DOST stek(e), steik, stik, v.1 and v.3.

Still, Tranquille, quiete, immote, firmiter. (...) ['tranquil, quiet'; 'immovable fixed']

Stym vel Stint. I see not a stym. (...) See DOST stime, n., 'Found orig. in phr. not to see a stime, to be unable to see or discern the least thing, from bad sight or visibility'. JD 525 styme s. 'the faintest form of any object', does not give an etymology.

Storme, Tempestas. (...) ['storm']

Tail, Finis & extremitas. (...) ['end, extremity']

Teache, (...)

Thige, Ostiatim victu<m> qusrere. ['to ask for food from house to house']

Thretning & thretten (...) Vide num threp inde etiam deduci possit. [perh. see threp, from which it can also be derived] DOSTthrep(e), n., 'argument, dissension, strife, conflict'.

Thried, pro filo in genere. (...) [for 'thread' in general]

Thirst vel thrist, Cogere in unu<m> (...) ['to compress into one'] See DOST thrist v.2, 4a., 'force downward or down, to press to push, to drive'.

Tig, Ludere eo lusu, quo leviter quis per jocu<m> attingitur & pungitur (...) [to play that 'game, with which one can be touched and pricked in jest'] See DOST tig, tyg, v., 'to touch in a playful and teasing manner'.

Tip vel typ. a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. he gat noth ane tip [from 'to beat or strike'] Young's etymology suggests that he means tip in the sense of OED tip, n.2, 'the act of tipping a blow, stroke, significant touch'. The first attestation of tip with this meaning in the OED occurs in the poems of Charles of Orleans, but Young suggests with the example that the word was current in Scots as well.

Tit vel teit. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (...) Tithor, Tatbor. [[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'stretch, strech out, draw at full stretch'] This points to DOST ticht, thycht, v.2, 'to draw together (the staves of a barrell). Titbor, Tatbor. [DOST titbore tatbore, phr. '(? Altered variant of eighteenth-century Scots Keek-bo (1735) the children's game of peep-bo)'. See OED tit-bore, with a reference to JD (p. 566; p. 576 in the 1825 supplement), whose only written attestation is Patrick Forbes, 1614. 'A Short Discoverie of the Adversarie His Dottage, in His Impertinent and Ridiculously Deceitfull Demaunds', A Defence of the Lawful Calling of the Ministers of Reformed Churches, (...). Middelburg. p. 4. Forbes, who was bishop of Aberdeen from 1618 to 1635, referred to Aberdeen usage. The phrase also occurs in 'Titbore, tatbore, what com maw ye', a line from a song recorded by the Scottish folklorist and orientalist John Leyden (1775-1811) in his 'Preliminary Dissertation' to his edition of The Complaynt of Scotland written in 1548 with a Prelimimary Dissertation and Glossary (Edinburgh, 1801), 284.

Tir, Nudare, denudare. (...) ['to strip, make naked, lay bare'] See DOST tirr, v. 1.

Tree, Arbor (...) ['tree']

Trim, (...) 'well-ordered, ornate, beautiful'

Tua vel ut Angli two, Duo. (...)

Tune, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'cord, brace'; 'stretching, tightening of the voice'; 'measure, metre, key'] This points to DOST ton(e), tun(e), n.1, 'musical note, sound produced by an instrument, tune'.

Vander, Errare, errabundo gressu incedere (...) Inde etiamnostru<m> antre, an evill antre. Gall, mauvaise rencontre, ['to wander'; 'to arrive at a path by wandering about'. From this also our antre, an evill antre. French mauvaise rencontre]

Vay, (...), Way is me 'woe'

Vatter, quasi vader. ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'water', from 'to rain']

Wat, Madidus. (...) ['moist, wet, soaked']

Washe, lavare. ['to wash']

Veit, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [from 'rain' or 'to rain'] See DOST weit, n., 'wetness, damp, mosture'.

Vecht, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Leidvycht. [from 'burden, load, weight'; 'heavy with lead'] See DOST lede, leid, n.1, for an attestation of lead weight.

Wer, Bellu<m>. (...) ['war']

Winck fortasse ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], quod est aviculae nomen. quidam Motacillam putant. significat etiam ille--cebras ex hujusmodi gestu aliquo COntraetas. [perh. from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'wryneck', which is the name of a small bird. Some think it is the white water-wagtail. It means also that--cebras (word not found) compressed by some motion of that kind] Presumbly, Young is referring to DOST wink, wynk, v., 'to close the eyes; to close and open the eyes; to sleep'. In his etymology he claims that winck derives from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (jynks), possibly a 'wagtail', whose habitual physical movements resembles winking. It seems, however, that by wink he also meant an actual bird. If so, Young's winck might well be another attestation of phink, the Scots equivalent of the English form finch, for which DOST gives one attestation from James Dalrymple's 1596 translation of John Lesley's Scottish Chronicle; the attestation is repeated in JD (p. 106 in the 1825 Supplement).

Vn, Fornax, clibanus, fumus ad coquendos panes. (...) ['furnace, oven', for baking bread'] DOST une, one, uven, n.

Vorry, vorare, deglutire. (...) ['to swallow up, eat greadily devour, swallow greedily, gorge'] Cf. DOST wirry, v., which does not mention this meaning, but see SND worry, v., 4, and OED worry, v., 4 trans., 'to swallow, greedily devour', with a first attestation in the Cursor Mundi, all other attestations are also from northern England and Scotland.

Vyle & vyli, pro cauto, ab [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] quod abscondo significat. ['for the benefit of caution, from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which means 'to hide, conceal'] DOST wyle, wil(e), n., 'a trick or stratagem involving cunning or deception'. JD (p. 616), gives the example, 'to wile him awa'.

De sono nostri 3, deq<ue> ejus USU. [About our character 3 (yogh), and about its use] A subheader.

zear ver, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (...) ['Spring'] 'year'

zeel, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] & zeelling, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Vlulatus. ['whirl round' & zeelling, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 'yelling, howling'] 'to yell'.

zeule, Gall. Noel. (...) cantiones in honore<m> illius festi (...) nos possumus zeules vocare. [French Noel, hymns in honour of this feast. We can call [them] 'yules'] 'Christmas'; 'Christmas carols'

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Notes

(1) I am grateful to Alasdair MacDonald, Christine Rauer and Nicholas Hardy for their generous advice.

(2) On Junius, see Bremmer (1998a); Junius's correspondence was published by Van Romburgh (2004).

(3) The manuscripts are catalogued in Madan et al. (1937: 962-90); Important addditions may be found in Stanley (1998).

(4) For an overview of early English lexicography, see the outstanding volumes in the Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicographers series edited by lan Lancashire, especially vol. 3 The Sixteenth Century (McConchie 2012) and vol. 4 The Seventeenth Century (Considine 2012).

(5) For a history of the dictionary and of the beginnings of Scots lexicography, see Rennie (2012).

(6) Andrew Duncan, Latinae grammaticae pars prior, siue etymologia Latina in usum rudiorum (Edinburgh, 1595), unnumbered pages. A selection from Duncan's wordlist was made by John Small, Librarian of the University of Edinburgh, for the English Dialect Society, and published by Skeat 1874.

(7) Lancashire (2004: 25) refers to another 'dictionary of Scottish law, dated July 22, 1566, and dedicated to Mary Queen of Scots, now British Library Add. Ms. 27472', written by David Chalmer.

(8) MacDonald (2005:2) points to the effect of increased English linguistic norms at the expense of Scottish ones.

(9) Aitken (1989: 243-45) lists: William Dugdale's glossary in Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ashmole 846, fols. 64r-69v; Francis Junius's list of words from Gavin Douglas's Eneados in MS Junius 114; John Ray, A Collection of English Words Not Generally Used, 2nd edn. (London, 1691); Stephen Skinner, Etymologicum linguae Anglicanae (London, [1671]); Thomas Speght, The Workes of ... Geffrey Chaucer (London, 1602), 'The Old and Obscure Words in Chaucer Explaned'. Aitken does not claim to be comprehensive, but his list is the most complete one published so far.

(10) Junius's philological commentary on Abbot Willeram of Ebersberg's Middle High German rendering of the Song of Songs (1655: [[PHI]6v]).

(11) Scotland did not loom large in the activities of sixteenth-century antiquarians. Brackmann (2012: 154-5), shows that Laurence Nowell (1530-c. 1570) virtually wrote Scotland out of the map in his cartography. The use of Scots as a tool for the study of Old English was advocated by William L'Isle (15697-1637) in his Saxon Treatise, but there is no reason to suspect that Francis Junius had followed that advice. He probably did not need it (Pulsiano 2000: 177-78). It is likely that Junius knew William Camden's Britannia, who explains on p. 85 that the Lowland Scots are of the same Germanic origin as the English and that their language is also a dialect of Anglo-Saxon.

(12) On Roger Andrewes, see McClure (1853: 117-18); Nicolson (2003: 50-55).

(13) See Van Romburgh (2004: 208-09,226-29,242-43,256-59,278-79 [letters 32, 34, 36, 39, 43]). On Lancelot Andrewes, see McCullough (2004).

(14) Roger Andrewes was Master of Jesus College until July 1632, when he was replaced by William Beale, whom Junius also encountered in his attempts to solve Johannes Vossius's personal and financial problems (Van Romburgh 2004: 456-59 [letter 90]).

(15) Van Romburgh (2004: 1030-1 [letter 215]): 'I took your archpoet Chaucer in hand: and though I thinke that in manie places he is not to bee understood without the help of of the old MS. copies which England can afforde manie; yet doe I perswade myself to have met with innumerable places, hitherto misunderstood, or not understood at all, which 1 can illustrate. To which work I hold the bishop of Dunkel his Virgilian translation to be very much conducing, and in my perusing of this prelate his book (to say so much by the way) I stumbled upon manie passages wherein this wittie Gawin doth grosly mistake Virgil, and is much ledd out of the way by the infection of monkish ignorance then prevailing in Church and common wealth: yet there is verie good use to be made of him'.

(16) E.g. 'malice and rye'> 'yre' (19); 'and at hunder'> 'and a thunder' (23); 'but al this the' > 'but al this night the' (32); 'schin, & swerd' > 'schinand swerd' (87).

(17) Bawcutt (1976: 97-102) observes that Douglas worked from the edition with extensive commentary by Jodocus Badius Ascensius (Paris, 1501), which was the source of his imperfections. Douglas incorporated Badius's explications in his translation and followed Ascensius in adding the 'thirteenth book', written by the Italian humanist Mapheus Vegius. See also Parkinson (2006: 196-98); Bremmer (2001: fn. 54).

(18) Although it is now bound, Junius kept it as a series of separate folders with sections running from ' A' to ' W', made out of disused pages of a Dutch hymn book: Dirk Rafaelsz. Camphuysen, Uytbreyding over De Psalmen des pmpheten Davids (Amsterdam, 1630). In these makeshift folders he inserted small a4 pages folded in landscape and many additional smaller notes and strips of various shapes and sizes, the whole foliated 1 to 251.

(19) See the description by Considine (2008: 231), who estimates the number of entries to be c. 2000.

(20) Typologically, Junius's notes are sometimes difficult to classify. The term 'glossary' is often used but, as Considine has also shown, only part of the entries give the meaning of the lemma; often there are only citations.

(21) For example, on fol. 20v: for blenk 'a glance or sudden look', Junius wrote down 'Blenk--at the first blenk. 578,s, 590,s', followed by 'at the first blenk astonit half wox he, 738,s.' [at the first glance he grew half astonished]. Then he added 'Blenk stemes, 298,m.', where blenk is a spelling variant of blank. Subsequently, he jotted down 'Blent on the saleryfe seyis. Despexit mare velivolum. 28,s.'; then 'blent about, Circumspicit. 696,i. 705,s.'; then 'about 1 blent, Respicio. 88,s.'; and then 'Eneas blent him by, Respicit Aeneas. 282,s'. All entries serve to establish or distinguish between different meanings. For the same reason he also looked at combinations and collocations: for example, hale, translated as 'salve', is, according to Junius, found to occur in halesing 'salutation'; in haleskart 'unhurt'; and in halesnm day, halesnm age and halesum are 'wholesome breeze'.

(22) This does not include the 161 additional Scots lemmata inserted in the printed edition of 1743 by Edward Lye, who changed the refererences to Ruddiman's 1710 edition of Gavin Douglas, and writes in the preface that he would have inserted more Scots words, had he been able to find out their etymologies. See also Considine (2009: 123-51); Mayou (1999).

(23) The observable facts do not support Junius's claim that he used Douglas's Eneados widely in his Chaucer studies. In MS Junius 9, Junius's annotated copy of Speght's 1598 edition, I counted six annotations with references to Gavin Douglas in the Canterbury Tales 19v (Junius's column 95), 26r (122), 28v (131), 42r (186), 69v (295), 82r (346); one in the Romaunt of the Rose 148r (610); two in Troilus and Creseide 163r (669), 167r (686), one in the Complaint of Creseide 197r (806), and one in the Book of Fame 277v (1143). In MS Junius 6, Junius's Chaucer glossary, there are seven references to Gavin Douglas, all of which are late additions 5r, 5v, 16v, 43v, 44v, 51r, 73v. In MS Junius 54, his annotated copy of Gavin Douglas, references to Chaucer are also few and far between: I found 'Chaucer' mentioned on fols. lr (Junius's page 1), lv (2) with 3 references on the page, 3r (5), 7r (13), 23v (48), 29v (60), 53r (107), 83r (167), 86v (194), 192v (372), 319r (627); on fol. 20lv (402) there is a short list of Chaucer collations consisting of two slips glued together and pasted into the book. The picture is somewhat different in the Etymologicum Anglicanum, where 35 entries combine information from Chaucer and Douglas, 27 of which are lemmata from Chaucer.

(24) There are regular references to Greek lexica such as that of Hesychius of Alexandria and the Souda, as well as references to Latin and Greek authors, including, here, Eustathios of Thessaloniki.

(25) Hitherto, the assumption seems to be that it is by Junius. Although Considine (2008: 220), states merely that it 'survives among Junius's manuscripts', he refers to it as 'a manuscript wordlist of Scots [...] prepared by Francis Junius' in the 'Introduction' to Ashgate Critical Essays on Early English Lexicographers. Vol 4. The Seventeenth Century (Considine 2012: xxxiv). In the same volume, I. Lancashire (2012: 5; 2004:21) agrees to Junius's authorship: 'Francis Junius left behind a glossary of Old Scots and Greek in Bodleian MS Junius 74'. Stanley (1998: 171) prudently states that it is 'in his hand'. Aitken (1989) leaves it unmentioned.

(26) 'Inis Bofinde means in the language of the Scoti "the island of white calf', that is "the island of the white heffer"'. See Colgrave and Mynors (1969: 346-47); Miller (1890: 272-73).

(27) Typologically, this glossary resembles most strikingly the lists of monosyllabic words in Junius's Observationes in Willerami (Junius 1655: 176-288), which starts with the 'Monosyllaba Teutonica e Grascarum vocum initiis detruncata' (176-233), followed by similar lists on Old English, 'Gothic', and Welsh. However, none of these lists are completely devoid of words from other Old Germanic languages; moreover, where there is overlap with the glossary in Junius 74, e.g. hoy (191) = hay (27r) or schip (221) = schip (33r), the etymologies are completely different.

(28) Sharp (2004) states that Tanner made his inventory of the Junius manuscripts in 1697, which means that the material had been sorted by then, and presumably bound.

(29) In their Latin communication both Peter Young and his son Patrick Young used the Latinised name of 'Junius'. To avoid confusion, I will not use the Latin name Junius for anyone but Francis Junius in this paper.

(30) Horsburgh (2004). Smith (1707: vita VI [separately paginated 1-33]) gives a life of Sir Peter Young, in which Smith remarks that it is worth mentioning the 'Scotica Etyma D. Petri Junii' among the manuscripts of Francis Junius. Smith cites Bernard's 1697 catalogue which he must have read. Peter Young seems to have been an educator and policy maker rather than a scholar. Durkan (2006: 98), refers to him as a learned schoolmaster. Dickson and Edmond (1890; repr. 1975: 278) state that one of Peter Young's tasks was overseeing the printing of books in the kingdom. His place in Scottish humanism is evident from his friendship with Andrew Melville; see Bast (2011).

(31) Although it is not precisely known when Junius began his studies of the Germanic languages, the period before 1628 can safely be ruled out.

(32) Boran (2004). Part of Young's correspondence was edited by Kemke (1898). A near-contemporary life can be found in Smith (1707: vita VII [separately paginated 1-48]). See also Aston (1997:265); Suarez and Woudhuysen(2010: 1277); and Cross and Livingstone (1976: 1507). In his scholarly network, Young's role was often to provide books and manuscripts; see, e.g., Blom (1984: 25-39).

(33) Patrick Young assisted John Selden in cataloguing the Arundel Marbles at a time when Junius was in the service of the Earl of Arundel (Vickers 2007).

(34) Wheelock (1643: Blv): 'Exteri quoque antiquitates nostras Saxonicas perscrutantur prasclari autores. Clariss. Gerardus Vossius dudum Leidensis, hodie Amstelodamensis: & clariss. Joh. Laetius Leidensis ... cl. Olaus Wormius, ProfessorHafniensis ... Et D. Patricius Junius, Serenissimae Regise Majestati fidelis Bibliothecarius, vir inclytus; alter inter nos Casaubonus, ut Latinas, sic & patrias literas cum Graecis conjunxisset.' Smith (1707: Vitae VII, 47) cites this passage as 'D. Patricius Junius ... Vir inclytus, alter inter nos Casaubonus, ut Latinas ...', and thus interprets Patrick Young as 'the other Casaubon amongst us,...'; according to Smith's interpretation Patrick Young would be the one who combines Latin and the ancestral letters with Greek. Patrick Young produced catalogues of Salisbury and Worcester Cathedral Libraries, which also contained Old English manuscripts (Atkins and Ker 1944; Ker 1949-50).

(35) Also known as Pope Clement I. Patrick Young, Clementis ad Corinthos epistola prior Gr. & Lat. (Oxford, 1633).

(36) On Hesychius, see Reid Forbes and Browning (1970: 512). It is not known which of the many editions Patrick Young used. For a modern edition of Hesychius's lexicon, see Latte, Flansen and Cunningham (2005).

(37) Good examples of Patrick Young's style of philological comments occur in the annotations to his Clementis ad Corinthos epistola prior Gr. & Lat., M3r-R2v.

(38) Overlap is very rare, and where it occurs there are mostly differences. For example, clog (18v) is linked by Young to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], by Casaubon (1650: 278), to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(39) No such additional information was added, however. On fol. 32v Junius added a marginal note to the entry on sark: 'vide Anglo-Saxonicum syric. & Vossium de Vitiis Serm. pag. 290 in Surcarium.'

(40) At the top of the glossary, Dugdale wrote 'Divers Scotch wordes alphabetically disposed (w<hi>ch were collected out of the translation of Hector Boetius set forth by Io. Bellendine Archdeacon of Murray, & out of the translation of Virgill by G. Douglas B<isho>pp of Dunkelden), w&lt;i&gt;th the English interpretation of them, per me W. Dugdale. A 1646.'. It consists of four double columns per page and is written in a tiny hand. There are only Scots words and translations, e.g. aberand: swerving, and a few more encyclopaedic entries, e.g. dolon: A mournful badge or armes used at a funerall caryed by poore people beforey corpse, wche use to proceede in number [pen]nding toy yeares of age of the defunct. In Scotland they are called Salles as praying for his soule (64vd).

(41) On the concept of monosyllabicity, see Van der Wal (1995: 95-105). The idea of monosyllabicity still influenced Junius when he drew up his lists of 'Monosyllaba' for the Observationes in Willerami.

(42) See Scragg (1974: 52-7), on reforming spelling along etymological lines in the early modem period.

(43) Caroline Macafee's vowel no. 13 (Macafee 2003: 141-42, 156-57).

(44) See the glossary in the Appendix for translations and explanations.

(45) See the Appendix below.

(46) Lindsay (1911: E5v). 'Lucusanon lucendo', is still used as a phrase mocking implausible etymologies.

(47) See the list of abbreviations, below.

(48) This study is part of my forthcoming monograph on the Junius manuscripts.

(49) From Bellenden (c. 1540).

(50) 'Ane deid cors' occurs in an annotation to the Extracta E Variis Cronicis Scocie in Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates Library 35.6.13, fol. 287; see Menzies of Pitfodels (1842: 242).

(51) One letter is unreadable.

(52) See Bawcutt (1998: I, 107; II, 345), who comments that slawsy 'occurs in later Scots'.

(53) But see e.g. Amours (1903-1914:1,457): 'He (...) grynnyd and gapyde wyth hys gwmys', where 'teeth' would be a better translation than 'gums'.

(54) '-le, suffix.' OED Online. Oxford University Press, March 2015.

(55) 'The tree that bends early will produce a good cammock (crooked stick)'. David Fergusson, 1641. Scottish Proverbs. Edinburgh, fol. Blv. John Lyly, 1580. Euphues and His England. London, p. 7; see Beveridge (1924: xxi, A 148).

(56) Bosworth and Toller (1882: 422) also list the strong verb genipan 'to grow dark'.

(57) The letter is a holograph from Patrick Waus to his father in which he reports on a transaction of wool, using the form one twice.

(58) See note 54, above.

KEES DEKKER (1)

University of Groningen
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Date:Jan 1, 2016
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