Printer Friendly

The only extant manuscript of Claude Bernard's first course on experimental physiology in College de France during the winter of 1847-1848.


The only extant version of the first lecture course given by Claude Bernard on Experimental Physiology during the winter period of 1847-48 in College de France, substituting Magendie, is presented herein. The prominent Paris-graduated physician from Uruguay, Teodoro M. Vilardebo, attended the 46 lectures, wrote them down and transcribed them into a manuscript that he brought back to and kept in Montevideo in 1853. Mane-Garzon uncovered it in 1987. These Bernard's lectures review practically all physiology at the beginning of his career, while in later courses, he covered selected themes of experimental physiology and medicine and general scientific subjects at greater depth. Comparison of Bernard's initial course with his later ones illustrates general physiology's progress in the more than 35 years of his successful scientific life. The manuscript sheds new light into Bernard's scientific activity and personality.



Se presenta la unica version existente del primer curso sobre Fisiologia Experimental dictado, en sustitucion de Magendie, por Claude Bernard en el invierno 1847-1848 en el College de France. El destacado medico uruguayo graduado en Paris, Teodoro M. Vilardebo, asistio a las 46 lecciones, tomo apuntes y los transcribio a un manuscrito que trajo de vuelta en 1853 y conservo en Montevideo. Mane-Garzon lo descubrio en 1987. Estas lecciones de Bernard revelan practicamente toda la fisio logia de comienzos de su carrera, mientras en cursos posteriores cubrio en mayor profundidad topicos selectos de la fisiologia y la medicina experimentales, asi como temas cientificos generales. La comparacion del curso inicial de Bernard con otros posteriores ilustra el progreso de la fisiologia general durante los mas de 35 ahos de su exitosa vida cientifca. El manuscrito vierte nueva luz acerca de la actividad cientifica y la personalidad de Bernard.



Apresenta-se a unica versao existente do primeiro curso sobre Fisiologia Experimental ditado, em sustituicao de Magendie, por Claude Bernard no inverno 1847-1848 no College de France. O destacado medico uruguaio graduado em Paris, Teodoro M. Vilardebo, assistiu as 46 licoes, anotou e os transcreveu a um manuscrito que trouxe de volta en 1853 e conservou em Montevideo. Mane-Garzon o descobriu em 1987. Estas licoes de Bernard revelam praticamente toda a fisiologia do principio da sua carreira, enquanto que em cursos posteriores cubriu em maior profundidade topicos seletos da fisiologia e a medicina experimentais, assim como temas cientificos gerais. A comparacao do curso inicial de Bernard com outros posteriores ilustra o progresso da fisiologia geral durante mais de 35 anos de sua exitosa vida cientifica. O manuscrito verte nova luz sobre da atividade cientifica e a personalidade de Bernard.

KEYWORDS / Claude Bernard / College de Franee / Experimental Medicine / Experimental Physiology / History of Physiology /


In 1987, Mane-Garzon spotted the manuscript (MS) of Bernard's first lecture course in experimental physiology in the library of the Caceres family in Montevideo (Bernard, 1847-48). It is a 530 pages-long, ink-written manuscript, of 3 cahiers, which include 26 ink drawings. It forms a leather-bound volume, with the following inscriptions: i) in the spine, 'C. Bernard, Physiologie Experimentale'; ii) in the first page, 'Cours de Physiologie Experimentale de M. C1. Bernard trimester d'hiver 18471848', in pencil and in Spanish; iii) 'Notes taken by T. M. Vilardebo in those lectures'; and iv) 'it belongs to Dr. Gonzalo Caceres'. Further studies authenticated Vilardebo's MS that his grandniece had donated to the

Caceres family. Teodoro M. Vilardebo (180-357) studied medicine in the University of Paris (1825-33) and returned to his native Uruguay after graduation. He was back in Paris in 1847 for six years. Then, he attended Bernard's lectures over the winter trimester of 1847-48, wrote down faithful literal notes and transcribed them into the ink-written MS which he brought back to Montevideo in 1853. In the middle of a brilliant career as a physician and scientist, Vilardebo died during a yellow fever epidemic in 1857 in Uruguay, while attending his patients (Bernard, 1847-48: 399-413). The Caceres family has now presented the MS to Mane-Garzon. We believe the MS is the only extant version of Bernard's first lecture course. Olsmted (1938: 59) mentions Bernard's 1847-48 lectures in relation to his inaugural lecture of Dec. 1859 but we have found no information about the subjects of those lectures in several sources (Bernard, 1965; Grmek, 1967, 1973, 1991). Grmek has had access to the complete collection of Bernard's papers in College de France. Bernard also lectured during the winter periods of 1853-54 and 1854-55.

Hector Mazzella (Professor of Physiology, Facultad de Medicina del Uruguay) and Mane-Garzon transliterated and published the MS (Bernard, 1847-48). Its title page is shown in Figure 1. The initial 181 pages are devoted to the MS with a Table of contents (in French), a reproduction of Vilardebo's title page handwriting, the body of the MS and a name index. The following 360 pages are devoted to Dr. TM Vilardebo (Bernard, 1847-48: 183-543). The detailed contents is to be found in Table I.

Before examining Cours de Physiologie Experimentale de M Bernard in detail it is useful to set up a frame of reference with only a brief glance at the lives of Bernard and of his predecessor Magendie, since they have been extensively analyzed in the context of France's 19th century experimental foundations of general physiology (Foster, 1899; Olmsted, 1938, 1944; Izquierdo, 1942; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Grande and Visscher, 1967; Schiller, 1967; Holmes, 1974; Robin, 1979).

Francois Magendie (17831855) had obtained his medical degree from Universite de Paris in 1808. Considered the pioneer of experimental physiology in France, since he established the first Laboratory of Physiology, and was one of the founders of the Journal de physiologie experimentale, he emphasized in lectures and books that experimentation is the source of knowledge (Magendie, 1909, 1916, 1836, 1837). He is known for describing the foramen of Magendie, the Magendie sign (a downward and inward rotation of the eye due to a lesion in the cerebellum), and that the dorsal root of the spinal nerves is connected with feeling and the ventral with movement (Bernard, 1847-48: 85-86; Olmsted, 1944: 93-122). His contemporary Sir Charles Bell had made similar but not so definitive findings. This observation, which constitutes the Bell-Magendie law led to bitter controversies as to the priority of the finding, as revived by Bernard in his 25th lecture of Feb. 21st (Table II; see also the last paragraph of the present paper). Magendie was perhaps the first to point out vitamin defficiencies (Magendie, 1816). Magendie was a faculty at the College of France, holding the Chair of Medicine from Apr. 4th 1831 to 1855, when he was formally succeeded by Bernard. There, he presented original investigations about the physical phenomena of life, experimenting on live animals despite opposition of anti-experimentalists and antivivisectionists. This shocked observers but stimulated colleagues and attracted students, such as Claude Bernard. An initiator of scientific pharmacology and toxicology, he propounded the idea that living phenomena in animals and plants were physical and chemical events accessible to experimentation (Magendie, 1837). He led an empirical approach to science, but he never abandoned vitalism completely (Olmsted, 1944: 236).

Claude Bernard (1813-78) followed under Magendie's tutelage as a brilliant, independent and creative investigator becoming France's general physiology great figure, as were his german contemporaries Johannes Muller (1801-58) and Karl Ludwig (1816-95). In 1843 Bernard obtained his Doctorat en Medecine (Bernard, 1843). He soon reached prominence in experimental science, science methodology and philosophy, due to an exceptional experimental intuition, marvelous sagacity, clear reasoning and prodigious manual and surgical abilities, as shown by his book on surgery with Huette (Bernard and Huette, 1854), extant in Viladerbo's library in Montevideo (Bernard, 1847-48: 443) and a posthumous book (Bernard, 1879; see also Rodriguez de Romo, 1989; Rodriguez de Romo and Borgstein, 1999), hard working capacity and great persistence. He solidified the concept that experimentation was indispensable to advance knowledge, working with invertebrates, amphibians, birds, herbivorous and carnivorous mammals and plants. For him, the task of general physiology was to study the phenomena of life common to animal and plant cells. As Magendie, he emphasized that laws of general biology can be derived from specific experimental data, that living phenomena are by nature physical and chemical events that should be investigated by physical and chemical methods; that living structures are harmoniously organized, interrelated and integrated in the different organs that form a living being (Bernard, 1865; Henderson, 1927; Izquierdo, 1942). Bernard spent more than 35 years of scientific activities in Paris in the College de France (until 1878), in the Faculte des Sciences (until 1869), and in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (from 1870 to 1878). He collaborated with his colleagues and followed the progress of his french and foreign contemporaries not only in his own field but also in physics and chemistry (Foster, 1899; Olmsted, 1938; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Holmes, 1974).


The course on Physiologie Experimentale attended by Vilardebo was the first Bernard lectured when the ageing Magendie asked him to be his substitute to the chair of experimental medicine. He was appointed Magendie's suppleant by the College de France (Olmsted, 1944: 243) and lectured from Dec. 14th 1847 (Table II). Twelve years later, in his opening lecture (in the winter of 1859, in lectures published in 1872) Bernard reminded his audience that in 1847 he had said: "I am in charge of teaching you scientific medicine which does not exist as yet; but we can lay its foundations by cultivating experimental physiology from which scientific medicine shall evolve, because the former is the basis for the latter" (Bernard, 1872: 456, 3rd paragraph). Bernard ended his 46th lecture on Apr. 17th, 1848 (Table II). Although he was only 34 years old, he had accumulated experimental practice: on the chorda tympani (Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952: 34), the action of curare (Changeux, in Robin, 1979: 73-95), he had catheterised the heart to measure the heart blood pressures and the heat production by the lungs (Cournand, in Robin, 1979: 97-121). Bernard used to work sometimes for decades on a given subject, perfecting his reasoning and interpretations until he felt his ideas had matured. He received four French Academy of Sciences' prizes between 1847 and 1854 for his many achievements; among them, his crucial finding of 1849 that pricking the 4th ventricle's floor produced diabetes. Details of Bernard's scientific life from 1850-60 are to be found in Bernard's cahier rouge (Bernard, 1965, 1967). Bernard lectured in lieu of Magendie until the death of the latter in October 1855. Elected Professeur of Medecine Experimentale of the College de France that very December (Olmsted, 1938: 53; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952: 90, 93) he held this position until his death in February 1878 (Olmsted, 1938: 134; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952: 240-243).

Lecture Series 1847-48: Physiologie Experimentale

In Physiologie Experimentale (Bernard, 1847-48), our MS of interest, Bernard covered practically all the physiology of the time emphasizing on the experimental approach and on giving proofs for what he had asserted during lectures (underlined in Table II). Table II can be summarized as follows: a) Digestion, psychic gastric acid secretion (a finding that preceded Pavlov by decades), chemical aspects, destination of ingested glucose, history and methodology of studies on digestion. In his first lecture of Dec. 14th, he mentions how Beaumont's studies in Alexis St' Martin's gastric fistula stimulated his developing artificial fistulas to experiment on digestion (Beaumont, 1833; Bernard, 1847-48: 19). b) Blood. c) Circulations, arterial, venous and portal; Poiseuille and Magendie's experiments; heart, d) Nervous system, peripheral, cranial nerves, brain, central and autonomous nervous system, e) Excitability, muscle, f) Kidney, urine and urea, uric acid. g) Drugs, poisons, toxics, medicaments. la) Contributions of America to Europe. i) Contributions of chemistry to physiology.

The 45 Lecture Series 185455 were the first that Bernard published (Bernard, 1855-56). They were delivered just after Magendie's death. He opened them with an homage to Magendie (Bernard, 1856a). In addition, in these lectures he analyzed the following subjects: i) He compared the style of lectures given in the University with those given in the College de France, describing how in the former they were recitative, as plain speeches to the audience; while they were more experimentally based in College de France. In the latter Bernard always showed new results, new extended views; chats interspersed with experiments: were public demonstrations and discussions of results, since the lecture hall in the College de France was an extension of Bernard's laboratory (Foster, 1899; Olmsted, 1938; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952). ii) The links between physiology and pathology, iii) Diabetes and sugars, production of sugars and starch and glycogen by the liver, and by plants and animals; the "diabetic" center in the floor of the 4th ventricle, iv) Digestion. v) Blood, portal and hepatic venous blood; blood temperature in right and left heart, vi) Secretion vs excretion. vii) Excitation and irritation. viii) The great sympathetic. ix) Curare (Bernard, 1856b). Establishing a clear cut difference with the 1847-48 lectures, in this and in future lecture series Bernard covered, in each course, few successively selected subjects but at a great depth. Thus, he lectured on curare; toxics and medicaments (Bernard, 1857), animal heat (Bernard, 1876), pancreas, diabetes, liver and glycogen synthesis (Bernard, 1853, 1877), chorda tympani and salivary secretion (Bernard, 1866), nervous system physiology and pathology, the great sympathetic nerve system (Bernard, 1858), fluids of the organism (Bernard, 1859), concepts of internal secretion and internal milieu and on general scientific subjects (Grmek, 1967: 248-264). Bernard published hundreds of papers and more than 20 book-volumes, some posthumous (Bernard, 1878, 1878-79, 1879, 1947, 1954, 1965). Marry are available at As Vilardebo had done in 1847-48, Bernard's lectures were noted down by his assistants and edited and published by Bernard or his colleagues (Olmsted, 1938: 52, 55; Omsted and Olmsted, 1952: 94-95), a procedure initiated by Magendie (Olmsted, 1944: 202).

Bernard's famous methodological text Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale (Bernard, 1865) was written during his long illness and convalescence (Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952, ch. 11, 12). It was translated s into Spanish (Bernard, 1880, 1900, 1959; Izquierdo 1942) and later into German (Bernard, 1960). L.J. Henderson (1878-1942) stimulated its English translation (Bernard, 1927) writing an Introduction (Henderson, 1927). Henderson, who greatly admired Bernard, "originated" one of the papers of his long series "Blood as a Physicochemical System" (Henderson and Murray, 1925) in the "Claude Bernard Laboratory, Nevache, France", actually the hotel they were at while writting the paper. In Introduction a l'Etude ... Bernard underscored: a) the logical steps in the scientific method; b) that in biology, as in physics or chemistry, a well controlled and performed experiment ought to give the same result when repeated (Bernard, 1865: 219); c) that the experimental results should be quantified, since ideally laws of all phenomena should be mathematically expressed; at that time it was believed by some that biological experiments were not necessarily reproducible, making a difference with those of physics and chemistry; d) that in science there is no absolute truth on a given subject, because what looks like truth at one time may be later modified by new evidence; and e) the importance of the experimental doubt. This book had been in Bernard's mind at least since December 1856, when he opened his course lecturing about: "The experimental method; difficulties of experimentation...; the art of experimentation, ..." (Bernard, 1858a, Vol. 1: 1-19, also published as Bernard, 1858b).

Bernard had planned that his Principes de Medecine Experimentale should follow Introduction a l'Etude... (cf. Bernard, 1865: 27; Bernard, 1947: xi; Grmek, 1967: 35-40), but it was published 80 years later (Bernard, 1947). Bernard strongly influenced the biomedical environment of his time: for example, his last lecture course Lecons sur les Phenomenes de la Vie Communs aux Animaux et aux Vegetaux of 1874, with the concept that "the constancy of the milieu interieur is required for free life", was out of the presses within a fortnight of his death (Bernard, 18781879). In addition, Introduction a l'Etude ... also produced great impact among the intelligentsia of the time (Tenney, 1991). For example, Zola, wrote an "experimental" novel (Zola, 1880) and characters Mitia and Alioscha in The Brothers Karamazov speak of a "Carr' Bernard and of science in a rather derogative way (Dostoievski, 1879).

To sum up, the present paper draws attention to a transcendental manuscript of Bernard's first lecture course on experimental physiology that remained unknown for 140 years (Bernard, 1847-48: 7-8). It sheds further light on the early period of Bernard's scientific career and contributes to show that when Bernard was substituting Magendie, he lectured during several winter periods, and not only during the summer as has been hinted (Olmsted, 1944: 243). It establishes many new details of Bernard's scientific career. For example, as already mentioned, in his 25th lecture Bernard vindicated Magendie's demonstration that the anterior roots in the medulla are motor and the posterior sensitive, as superior and clearer than Bell's, who, according to Bernard, "never opened the rachis" (Bernard, 1847-48; lecture 25, Table II) a view shared by others (Foster, 1899: 59-60; Olmsted, 1938: 201). At the time of his lecture, Bernard had already published on the subject (Bernard, 1847). Vilardebo's MS shows that in Match 1848, Bernard was beginning his experiments on the action of the vagus nerve on the heart (Bernard, 1847-1848; lectures 29-31, Table II), as well as his studies on the poisonous action of carbon monoxide (Bernard, 1847-1848; lecture 41, Table II). It is widely accepted that Bernard contributed to build general physiology particularly on i) pancreatic functions, a subject which has been reexamined in studies that reaffirm Bernard's great manual dexterity (alluded to above) and show Bernard's deductions related to the function of the pancreas as correct (Rodriguez de Romo, 1989; Rodriguez de Romo and Borgstein, 1999); ii) glycogen and other carbohydrate-related functions of the liver and carbohydrate metabolism in plants and animals (Bernard, 1877; Robin, 1979: 96-97) including histochemical methods (Bernard, 1859b, c); iii) the idea of internal secretions (Robin, 1979: 91); iv) the nervous system control of vasomotor activity; iv) poisons, curare and carbon monoxide; and v) the idea that anaesthetics work in animals and in plants. Introduction a l'Etude....(Bernard, 1865), Phenomena of Life.... (Bernard, 1878-79, 1974), his views on philosophy (Bernard, 1954; Dhurout, 1939; Roll-Hansen, 1976; Sertillanges, 1944) became classic landmarks that unified science, foreshadowing by many decades the development of 20th century biology (Forster, 1899; Izquierdo, 1942; Pi-Sunyer, 1944; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Schiller, 1967; Houssay, 1972).


This paper is dedicated to Carlos Monge and Humberto Aste, who introduced GW to Bernard, Henderson, and the internal environment 60 years ago. The authors are grateful to Antonio M. Gutierrez for his many contributions in the preparation of the manuscript.

Recibido: 04/07/2008. Modificado: 03/02/2009.--Aceptado: 03102/2009.


Beaumont W (1833) Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Facsimile ed. New York, USA. 1959 pp.

Bernard C (1843) Du Suc Gastrique et de son Role Dans La Nutrition. These Presentee a la Faculte de Medecin de Paris pour le Doctorat en Medecine par Claude Bernard. 7 Dec. 1843. Rignoux, Imprimeur de la Faculte de Medicine. Paris, France. 34 pp.

Bernard C (1847) Recherches sur les causes qui peuvent faire varier l'intensite de la sensibilite recurrente. C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. 25: 104-106.

Bernard C (1847-48) Physiologie Experimentale (1847-1848). Apuntes tomados por Teodoro M Vilardebo del primer curso sobre Physiologie Experimentale dictado por Claude Bernard en el College de France (1847-1848). Prologo de Hector Mazzella y Fernando Mane-Garzon. Seguido de Vilardebo (1803-1857) Primer medico Uruguayo, por F Mane-Garzon. Academia de Medicina del Uruguay y Fundacion Beisso-Fleurquin. Talleres Graficos Barreiro. Montevideo, Uruguay. 1989. 540 pp.

Bernard C (1853) Recherches sur une Nouvelle Fonction du Foie Considere comme Organe Producteur de Matiere Sucree Chez l' Homme et les Animaux. These pour le Grade de Docteur es Sciences Naturelles. Martinet. Paris, France. 97 pp.

Bernard C (1855-56) Lecons de Physiologie Experimentale Appliquee a la Medecine. Bailliere. Paris, France. 2 vols. 520 pp., 510 pp.

Bernard C (1856a). Magendie, Fr. Lecon d'ouverture du Cours de Medecine du College de France. Bailliere et Fils. Paris, France. 36 pp.

Bernard C (1856b) Analyse physiologique des proprietes des systemes musculaires et nerveux au moyen du curare. C. R. Hebd. Acad. Sci. 43: 825-829.

Bernard C (1857) Lecons sur les Effets des Substances Toxiques et Medicamenteuses. Bailliere. Paris, France. 488 pp.

Bernard C (1858a) Lecons sur la Physiologie et la Pathologie du Systeme Nerveux. Bailliere. Paris, France. 2 vols. 520 pp., 560 pp.

Bernard C (1858b) De la Methode Experimentale, de l' Experimentation et de ses Perfectionnements, de la Critique Experimentale. Malteste. Paris, France. 24pp.

Bernard C (1859a) Lecons sur les Proprietes Physiologiques et les Alterations Pathologiques des Liquides de l'Organisme. Bailliere. Paris, France. 2 vol. 524 pp., 476 pp.

Bernard C (1859b) De la matiere glycogene consideree comme condition de developpement de certains tissus, chez le foetus, avant l'apparition de la fonction glycogenique du foie. C. R. hebd. Acad. Sci. 48: 673-684.

Bernard C (1859c) Remarques a l'occasion de la communication precedente (M. Schiff): <<De la nature des granulations qui remplissent les cellules hepatiques - amidon animal>>. C. R. hebd. Acad. Sci. 48: 884-886.

Bernard C (1865) Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale. Bailliere. Paris, France. 398 pp. Trans. into Spanish, Bernard, 1880, 1900, 1959; English, Bernard, 1927; and German, Bernard, 1961.

Bernard C (1866) Lecons sur les Proprietes des Tissus Vivants. Bailliere. Paris, France. 492 pp.

Bernard C (1872) Lecons de Pathologie Experimentale. Bailliere. Paris, France. 604 pp.

Bernard Claude (1876) Lecons sur la Chaleur Animale, sur les Effets de la Chaleur et sur la Fievre. Bailliere. Paris, France. 471 pp.

Bernard C (1877) Lecons sur la Diabete et la Glycogenese Animale. Bailliere. Paris, France. 576 pp.

Bernard C (1878) La Science Experimentale. Bailliere. Paris, France. 440 pp. It includes lectures on Bernard by JB Dumas and P Bert, and Bernard's incorporation speech to the French Academy with his laudatio to Flourens, his predecessor at seat No 24 in L'Academie Francaise.

Bernard C (1878-79) Lecons sur les Phenomenes de la Vie Communs aux Animaux et aux Vegetaux. Balliere. Paris, France. 2 vols, 404 pp., 564 pp. Trans. into English, Bernard, 1974.

Bernard C (1879) Lecons de Physiologie Operatoire. Posthumous. Bailliere. Paris, France. 614 pp.

Bernard C (1880) Introduccion al Estudio de la Medicina Experimental. Traduccion por el doctor Antonio Espina Cano. 78 pp. Cit. Izquierdo, 1942.

Bernard C (1900) Introduccion al Estudio de la Medicina Experimental. Version espanola de don Carlos Garcia. Imprenta de la E. Industrial Militar. A cargo de A B Cortes. Cit. Izquierdo, 1942. 78. pp.

Bernard C (1927) An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Trans. Greene HC, with an Introduction by Henderson LJ. MacMillan. New York, USA. 226 pp.

Bernard C (1947) Principes de Medecine Experimentale. Presses Universitaire de France. Paris, France. 308 pp.

Bernard C (1954) Philosophie. Manuscripte inedite.Chevallier J (Ed.) Paris, France. With Chevalier's essay, "La philosophie de Claude Bernard". Preface de J Godard. Boivin. Paris, France. 62 pp. This book as well as Dhurout (1939) contains reflections Bernard wrote as he was reading Cousin's translation of Tennemann's gigantic Manuel d' Histoire de la Philosophie, and Comte's Cours de Philosophie Positive.

Bernard C (1959) Introduccion al Estudio de la Medicina Experimental, Introduccion de L. J. Henderson. (Traduccion de Bernard 1927). Ateneo. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 271pp.

Bernard C (1960) Einfuhrung in das Studium der Experimentellen Medizin. Translation by Szendro P. Introduction by Rothschuh KE, Barth JA. Leipzig, Germany. 350 pp.

Bernard C (1965) Cahier de Notes 1850-1860. Edition integrale du "Cahier Rouge". Grmek MD (Ed.). Gallimard. Paris, France. 315 pp.

Bernard C (1967) The Cahier Rouge of Claude Bernard. (Translit. Into English, tr. by Hoff HH, Guillemin L, Guillemin R). Cambridge, MA, USA. Also printed in Grande and Visscher (1967) Schenkman. Cambridge, MA, USA. 120 pp.

Bernard C (1974) Phenomena of Life Common to Animals and Vegetables. (Tr. by Cook RP, Cook MA). Burns & Harris. Dundee, Scotland, UK. 206 pp.

Bernard C, Huette C (1854) Precis Iconographique de Medecine Operatoire et d'Anatomie Chirurgicale. Mequignon Marvis. Paris, France. 495 pp. This book was in Viladerbo's library in Montevideo. Tr. (1861) by van Buren WH, Isaacs CE as Illustrated Manual of Operative Surgery and Surgical Anatomy. Bailliere. New York, USA. 513 pp.

Dhurout E (1939) Claude Bernard. Extraits de son OEuvre. Avec an Expose de sa Philosophie Emprunte a l'oeuvre de Henri Bergson. With Henri Bergson's address at the centenary celebration of Bernard's birth (12/30/1913) at College de France. Presses Universitaires de France. Paris, France. 140 pp.

Dostoievski FM (1879-1880) Los Hermanos Karamazov. Aguilar. Madrid (1949). pp 467-468.

Foster M (1899) Claude Bernard. Fisher Unwin. London, UK. 245 pp.

Grande F, Visscher MB (Eds.; 1967) Claude Bernard and Experimental Medicine, Symposium commemorating the centenary of the publication of An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, and the first English translation of Bernard's The Cahier Rouge, Cambridge, MA. The Symposium forms the 1st. part of this book; (210 pp.); The Cahier Rouge, the 2nd. (120 pp). Schenkman. Cambridge, Mass.

Grmek MD (1967) Catalogue des Manuscrits de Claude Bernard. Avec la Bibliographie de ses Travaux Imprimes et des Etudes sur son Oeuvre. College de France. Masson. Paris, France. 420 pp.

Grmek MD (1973) Raisonnement Experimental et Recherches Toxicologiques chez Claude Bernard. Droz. Geneve-Paris. 474 pp.

Grmek MD (1991) Claude Bernard et la Methode Experimentale. Payot. Paris, France. 192 pp.

Henderson LJ (1927) Introduction to Bernard, 1927, pp. v-xii.

Henderson LJ, Murray CD (1925) Blood as a physicochemical system. III. J. Biol. Chem. 65: 407-417.

Holmes FL (1974) Claude Bernard and Animal Chemistry. The Emergence of a Scientist. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA, USA. 541 pp.

Houssay BA (1972) El significado de la obra de Claude Bernard. Medicina e Historia. 14: 1-26.

Izquierdo JJ (1942) Bernard, Creador de la Medicina Cientifica. Estudio Critico de su Labor Cientifica Seguido de una Version Castellana de su Introduccion al Estudio de la Medicina Experimental. Imprenta Universitaria de Mexico. 329pp.

Magendie F (1809) Examen de l'action de quelques vegetaux sur la moelle epiniere. Nouv. Bull. Scient. Soc. Philomat. 1: 368-405.

Magendie F (1816) Memoire sur les proprietes nutritives des substances qui ne contiennent pas d'azote. Bull. Soc. Philomat. 4: 137.

Magendie F (1836) Precis Elementaire de Physiologie. 4eme ed. (The 1st ed. was published in 1816-1817). Mequignon-Marvis. Paris, France. Vol I, 456 pp; vol II, 628 pp.

Magendie F (1837) Lecons sur les Phenomenes Physiques de la Vie Professees au College de France. Hauman, Cattoir. Bruxelles, Belgique. Facsimile reprint (2002) of the original edition as Elibron Classics by Adamant Media. Boston, MA, USA. 347 pp.

Olmsted JMD (1938) Claude Bernard, Physiologist. Harper. New York, USA. 272 pp.

Olmsted JMD (1944) Francois Magendie: Pioneer in Experimental Physiology and Scientific Medicine in XIX Century France. Preface by John F. Fulton. Schuman. New York, USA. 290 PP.

Olmsted JMD, Olmsted EH (1952) Claude Bernard and the Experimental Method in Medicine. Schuman. New York, USA. 277pp.

Pi-Sunyer J (1944) El Pensamiento Vivo de Claude Bernard. 2a ed. (1965). Lozada. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 231 pp.

Robin ED (Ed.; 1979) Claude Bernard and the Internal Environment. Dekker. New York, USA. 299 pp.

Rodriguez de Romo AC (1989) Tallow and the time capsule: Claude Bernard's discovery of the pancreatic digestion of fat. Hist. Philos. Life Sci. 11: 243-274.

Rodriguez de Romo AC, Borgstein J (1999) Claude Bernard and Pancreatic Function revisited after 150 years. Vesalius 1: 18-24.

Roll-Hansen N (1976) Critical teleology: Immanuel Kant and Claude Bernard on the limitations of experimental biology. J Hist. Biol. 9: 59-91.

Schiller J (1967) Claude Bernard et les Problemes Scientifiques de son Temps. Ed. du Cedre. Paris, France. 231 pp.

Sertillanges AD (1944) La Philosophie de Claude Bernard. Aubier. Paris, France. 256 pp.

Singer C, Underwood EA (1962) A Short History of Medicine. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK. 854 pp.

Tenney SM (1991) Physiology and literature. News Physiol. Sci. 6: 45-47.

Zola E (1880) Le Roman Experimental. Flammarion (2006). Paris, France. 460pp.

Guillermo Whittembury. M.D. and Doctor in Medical Sciences (Biophysics), Universidad Cayetano Heredia, Peru, Dr. h.c. med. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru. Researcher, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas Venezuela. Address: IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela, e-mail:

Maximo Drets. M.D., Ph.D. Professor,' Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay. e-mail: maximo.drets@gmail. com

Fernando Mane-Garzon. M.D., Ph.D. Professor de Historia de la Medicina, Facultad de Medicina del Uruguay, Uruguay. e-mail:
CONTENTS OF BERNARD (1847-48/1989)*

i) Part devoted to Bernard                            (1-181)

Portrait of Bernard                                       (2)

Presentation by the President of                        (5-6)
the Academy of Medicine of Uruguay **

Mane-Garzon's note about the MS **                      (7-8)

Mazzella and Mane-Garzon's prologue **                 (9-12)

Table of contents (see Table II) ***                  (13-15)

Cours de Physiologie Experimentale de M Bernard,         (17)
MS title page in Vilardebo's ink-handwriting:

Body of the MS ***, with reproductions               (19-175)
of 26 Vilardebo's ink hand-drawings

Name index ***                                      (179-181)

ii) Part devoted to Vilardebo **                    (183-543)

Biography by Mane-Garzon, Vilardebo's scientific    (189-435)
contributions and writings, his life's chronology

Catalogue of his library                            (443-457)

Vilardebo's Bibliography                            (459-465)

Appendix with documents                             (467-524)

Name and content indices                            (525-543)

* Pages in parentheses. ** In Spanish. *** In French.


                      Premiere cahier

1st  Dec 14   Gastric secretion

2nd           Composition

3rd           Effects on digestion

4th  Dec 23   Gastric secretion mechanisms

5th  Dec 27   Saliva

6th  Dec 29   Pancreatic fluid

7th  Jan  2   Gastric fluid, bile and chyle absorption

8th  Jan  6   Starchy and sugary substances

9th           Potassium cyanide

10th          Urine: composition

11th Jan 19   Urine: continued

12th          Urine, urea, uric acid; curare,
              Boussingault and the contribution of America

13th          Digestion and age; milk and starch
              digestion; after lecture experiments

14th          Chyle, comparison between carnivores and
              herbivores, intestinal digestion, experiments

15th Jan 29   Potassium cyanide and ferrous lactate

16th Jan 31   Experiments on digestion#; circulation,
              properties of blood

17th Feb  3   Blood circulation: speed

18th          Its origin

19th Feb  7   Gastric digestion experiments#; arterial circulation;
              blood pressure modifiers: coffee, alcohol, opium;
              capillary circulation

20th Feb 10   Capillary circulation; capillary wall absorption:
              endosmosis and exosmosis; gas absorption; experiments
              of Magendie#

21st Feb 12   Experiments#; venous circulation: origin; portal

                                  Deuxieme cahier

22nd Feb 14   Experiments#; blood, chemical composition

23rd Feb 18   Ozone; Schonlei's experiments#, substances introduced
              into the blood; heart movements; heart contractions,

24th Feb 19   Bile; heart contractions; experiments: infections of
              potassium cyanide and ferrous lactate#

25th Feb 21   Nervous system; sensory and motor nerves; Bell and
              Magendie; cranial nerves; classification according
              to sensory and motor roots

26th Mar  2   Cranial nerves: the pneumogastric and Willis accessory

27th Mar  4   Experiments with toads; galvanism#; muscular
              irritability nervous excitability: theory of
              Marshall Hall

28th Mar  6   PneuPneumogastric and Willis accessory nerves;
              anastomosis of the pneumogastric nerve; distribution;
              superior laryngeal nerves

29th Mar  9   Pneumoeastric nerves section#

30th Mar 11   Its effects on the heart, digestion, circulation
              and respiration

31st Mar 13   Dedicated to experiments: section of pneumogastric
              and of Willis' accessory nerve#

32nd Mar 16   Human anatomical piece to show Willis' accessory nerve#:
              Bell and the sensitivity of the face; Magendie's
              experiments; demonstration in the rabbit#

33rd Mar 18   Continue Magendie's experiments#; ophthalmic branch
              of the trigeminal nerve; oculomotor nerves; section
              of facial nerve; taste; chorda tympani

34th          Progress of physiology due to organic chemistry: Haller,
              Rdaumur, Spallanzani, Dumas, Chaussier, gastric juice
              composition; experiments of Chevreul and Beaumont#;
              works of Muller and Blondlot

                                  Troisieme cahier

35th Mar 21   Nerves: glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, the grand

36th Mar 23   Nervous system: disposition of the membranes;
              cerebrospinal fluid: quantity, composition, uses

37th Mar 25   Experiments; properties of pancreatic juice;
              functions of: medulla spinalis

38th Mar 27   Medulla oblongata; Flourens vital node; annular
              protuberance; pons cerebri; cerebellum; corpus
              callosum; optic thalamus; corpora striata; corpora

39th Mar 30   Experimental toxicology (Humboldt); strychnine

40th Apr  1   Experiments with strychnine: nux vomica: five

41th Apr  3   Nicotine; cyanide; carbonic oxide
42th          Curare, opium, digitalis, alcohol

43th Apr  8   Action of ether on the nervous system;
              medicaments; quinine

44th Apr 10   Arsenic and arsenious acid, mercury
              and compounds, curare, lead, antimony

45th Apr 13   Substances that act on the blood: putrid substances;
              ferments; extreme heat and cold; counter-poisoning

46th Apr 17   Mechanical action of some substances: ergot, ergotine;
              curare, digitalis

Translated from the French of Vilardebo's MS. Experiments and
demonstrations are underlined. Lecture number, date and subjects
(shortened) are given.

Note: Experiments and demonstrations are underlined indicated with #.
COPYRIGHT 2009 Interciencia Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Whittembury, Guillermo; Drets, Maximo; Mane-Garzon, Fernando
Date:Mar 1, 2009
Previous Article:Parasite and reproductive features of Scinax nasicus (Anura: Hylidae) from a South American subtropical area/Parasitos de Scinax nasicus (Anura:...
Next Article:The alternative as support to the social sciences in Venezuela/ Lo alternativo como apoyo a las ciencias sociales en Venezuela / O alternativo como...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters