The only extant manuscript of Claude Bernard's first course on experimental physiology in College de France during the winter of 1847-1848.
The only extant version of the first lecture course given by Claude Bernard on Experimental Physiology during the winter period of 1847-48 in College de France, substituting Magendie, is presented herein. The prominent Paris-graduated physician from Uruguay, Teodoro M. Vilardebo, attended the 46 lectures, wrote them down and transcribed them into a manuscript that he brought back to and kept in Montevideo in 1853. Mane-Garzon uncovered it in 1987. These Bernard's lectures review practically all physiology at the beginning of his career, while in later courses, he covered selected themes of experimental physiology and medicine and general scientific subjects at greater depth. Comparison of Bernard's initial course with his later ones illustrates general physiology's progress in the more than 35 years of his successful scientific life. The manuscript sheds new light into Bernard's scientific activity and personality.
EL UNICO MANUSCRITO EXISTENTE DEL PRIMER CURSO SOBRE FISIOLOGIA EXPERIMENTAL DICTADO POR CLAUDE BERNARD EN EL COLLEGE DE FRANCE, INVIERNO 1847-1848
Se presenta la unica version existente del primer curso sobre Fisiologia Experimental dictado, en sustitucion de Magendie, por Claude Bernard en el invierno 1847-1848 en el College de France. El destacado medico uruguayo graduado en Paris, Teodoro M. Vilardebo, asistio a las 46 lecciones, tomo apuntes y los transcribio a un manuscrito que trajo de vuelta en 1853 y conservo en Montevideo. Mane-Garzon lo descubrio en 1987. Estas lecciones de Bernard revelan practicamente toda la fisio logia de comienzos de su carrera, mientras en cursos posteriores cubrio en mayor profundidad topicos selectos de la fisiologia y la medicina experimentales, asi como temas cientificos generales. La comparacion del curso inicial de Bernard con otros posteriores ilustra el progreso de la fisiologia general durante los mas de 35 ahos de su exitosa vida cientifca. El manuscrito vierte nueva luz acerca de la actividad cientifica y la personalidad de Bernard.
O UNICO MANUSCRITO EXISTENTE DO PRIMEIRO CURSO SOBRE FISIOLOGIA EXPERIMENTAL DITADO POR CLAUDE BERNARD NO COLLEGE DE FRANCE, INVERNO 1847-1848
Apresenta-se a unica versao existente do primeiro curso sobre Fisiologia Experimental ditado, em sustituicao de Magendie, por Claude Bernard no inverno 1847-1848 no College de France. O destacado medico uruguaio graduado em Paris, Teodoro M. Vilardebo, assistiu as 46 licoes, anotou e os transcreveu a um manuscrito que trouxe de volta en 1853 e conservou em Montevideo. Mane-Garzon o descobriu em 1987. Estas licoes de Bernard revelam praticamente toda a fisiologia do principio da sua carreira, enquanto que em cursos posteriores cubriu em maior profundidade topicos seletos da fisiologia e a medicina experimentais, assim como temas cientificos gerais. A comparacao do curso inicial de Bernard com outros posteriores ilustra o progresso da fisiologia geral durante mais de 35 anos de sua exitosa vida cientifica. O manuscrito verte nova luz sobre da atividade cientifica e a personalidade de Bernard.
KEYWORDS / Claude Bernard / College de Franee / Experimental Medicine / Experimental Physiology / History of Physiology /
In 1987, Mane-Garzon spotted the manuscript (MS) of Bernard's first lecture course in experimental physiology in the library of the Caceres family in Montevideo (Bernard, 1847-48). It is a 530 pages-long, ink-written manuscript, of 3 cahiers, which include 26 ink drawings. It forms a leather-bound volume, with the following inscriptions: i) in the spine, 'C. Bernard, Physiologie Experimentale'; ii) in the first page, 'Cours de Physiologie Experimentale de M. C1. Bernard trimester d'hiver 18471848', in pencil and in Spanish; iii) 'Notes taken by T. M. Vilardebo in those lectures'; and iv) 'it belongs to Dr. Gonzalo Caceres'. Further studies authenticated Vilardebo's MS that his grandniece had donated to the
Caceres family. Teodoro M. Vilardebo (180-357) studied medicine in the University of Paris (1825-33) and returned to his native Uruguay after graduation. He was back in Paris in 1847 for six years. Then, he attended Bernard's lectures over the winter trimester of 1847-48, wrote down faithful literal notes and transcribed them into the ink-written MS which he brought back to Montevideo in 1853. In the middle of a brilliant career as a physician and scientist, Vilardebo died during a yellow fever epidemic in 1857 in Uruguay, while attending his patients (Bernard, 1847-48: 399-413). The Caceres family has now presented the MS to Mane-Garzon. We believe the MS is the only extant version of Bernard's first lecture course. Olsmted (1938: 59) mentions Bernard's 1847-48 lectures in relation to his inaugural lecture of Dec. 1859 but we have found no information about the subjects of those lectures in several sources (Bernard, 1965; Grmek, 1967, 1973, 1991). Grmek has had access to the complete collection of Bernard's papers in College de France. Bernard also lectured during the winter periods of 1853-54 and 1854-55.
Hector Mazzella (Professor of Physiology, Facultad de Medicina del Uruguay) and Mane-Garzon transliterated and published the MS (Bernard, 1847-48). Its title page is shown in Figure 1. The initial 181 pages are devoted to the MS with a Table of contents (in French), a reproduction of Vilardebo's title page handwriting, the body of the MS and a name index. The following 360 pages are devoted to Dr. TM Vilardebo (Bernard, 1847-48: 183-543). The detailed contents is to be found in Table I.
Before examining Cours de Physiologie Experimentale de M Bernard in detail it is useful to set up a frame of reference with only a brief glance at the lives of Bernard and of his predecessor Magendie, since they have been extensively analyzed in the context of France's 19th century experimental foundations of general physiology (Foster, 1899; Olmsted, 1938, 1944; Izquierdo, 1942; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Grande and Visscher, 1967; Schiller, 1967; Holmes, 1974; Robin, 1979).
Francois Magendie (17831855) had obtained his medical degree from Universite de Paris in 1808. Considered the pioneer of experimental physiology in France, since he established the first Laboratory of Physiology, and was one of the founders of the Journal de physiologie experimentale, he emphasized in lectures and books that experimentation is the source of knowledge (Magendie, 1909, 1916, 1836, 1837). He is known for describing the foramen of Magendie, the Magendie sign (a downward and inward rotation of the eye due to a lesion in the cerebellum), and that the dorsal root of the spinal nerves is connected with feeling and the ventral with movement (Bernard, 1847-48: 85-86; Olmsted, 1944: 93-122). His contemporary Sir Charles Bell had made similar but not so definitive findings. This observation, which constitutes the Bell-Magendie law led to bitter controversies as to the priority of the finding, as revived by Bernard in his 25th lecture of Feb. 21st (Table II; see also the last paragraph of the present paper). Magendie was perhaps the first to point out vitamin defficiencies (Magendie, 1816). Magendie was a faculty at the College of France, holding the Chair of Medicine from Apr. 4th 1831 to 1855, when he was formally succeeded by Bernard. There, he presented original investigations about the physical phenomena of life, experimenting on live animals despite opposition of anti-experimentalists and antivivisectionists. This shocked observers but stimulated colleagues and attracted students, such as Claude Bernard. An initiator of scientific pharmacology and toxicology, he propounded the idea that living phenomena in animals and plants were physical and chemical events accessible to experimentation (Magendie, 1837). He led an empirical approach to science, but he never abandoned vitalism completely (Olmsted, 1944: 236).
Claude Bernard (1813-78) followed under Magendie's tutelage as a brilliant, independent and creative investigator becoming France's general physiology great figure, as were his german contemporaries Johannes Muller (1801-58) and Karl Ludwig (1816-95). In 1843 Bernard obtained his Doctorat en Medecine (Bernard, 1843). He soon reached prominence in experimental science, science methodology and philosophy, due to an exceptional experimental intuition, marvelous sagacity, clear reasoning and prodigious manual and surgical abilities, as shown by his book on surgery with Huette (Bernard and Huette, 1854), extant in Viladerbo's library in Montevideo (Bernard, 1847-48: 443) and a posthumous book (Bernard, 1879; see also Rodriguez de Romo, 1989; Rodriguez de Romo and Borgstein, 1999), hard working capacity and great persistence. He solidified the concept that experimentation was indispensable to advance knowledge, working with invertebrates, amphibians, birds, herbivorous and carnivorous mammals and plants. For him, the task of general physiology was to study the phenomena of life common to animal and plant cells. As Magendie, he emphasized that laws of general biology can be derived from specific experimental data, that living phenomena are by nature physical and chemical events that should be investigated by physical and chemical methods; that living structures are harmoniously organized, interrelated and integrated in the different organs that form a living being (Bernard, 1865; Henderson, 1927; Izquierdo, 1942). Bernard spent more than 35 years of scientific activities in Paris in the College de France (until 1878), in the Faculte des Sciences (until 1869), and in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (from 1870 to 1878). He collaborated with his colleagues and followed the progress of his french and foreign contemporaries not only in his own field but also in physics and chemistry (Foster, 1899; Olmsted, 1938; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Holmes, 1974).
[FIGURE 1 OMITIR]
The course on Physiologie Experimentale attended by Vilardebo was the first Bernard lectured when the ageing Magendie asked him to be his substitute to the chair of experimental medicine. He was appointed Magendie's suppleant by the College de France (Olmsted, 1944: 243) and lectured from Dec. 14th 1847 (Table II). Twelve years later, in his opening lecture (in the winter of 1859, in lectures published in 1872) Bernard reminded his audience that in 1847 he had said: "I am in charge of teaching you scientific medicine which does not exist as yet; but we can lay its foundations by cultivating experimental physiology from which scientific medicine shall evolve, because the former is the basis for the latter" (Bernard, 1872: 456, 3rd paragraph). Bernard ended his 46th lecture on Apr. 17th, 1848 (Table II). Although he was only 34 years old, he had accumulated experimental practice: on the chorda tympani (Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952: 34), the action of curare (Changeux, in Robin, 1979: 73-95), he had catheterised the heart to measure the heart blood pressures and the heat production by the lungs (Cournand, in Robin, 1979: 97-121). Bernard used to work sometimes for decades on a given subject, perfecting his reasoning and interpretations until he felt his ideas had matured. He received four French Academy of Sciences' prizes between 1847 and 1854 for his many achievements; among them, his crucial finding of 1849 that pricking the 4th ventricle's floor produced diabetes. Details of Bernard's scientific life from 1850-60 are to be found in Bernard's cahier rouge (Bernard, 1965, 1967). Bernard lectured in lieu of Magendie until the death of the latter in October 1855. Elected Professeur of Medecine Experimentale of the College de France that very December (Olmsted, 1938: 53; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952: 90, 93) he held this position until his death in February 1878 (Olmsted, 1938: 134; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952: 240-243).
Lecture Series 1847-48: Physiologie Experimentale
In Physiologie Experimentale (Bernard, 1847-48), our MS of interest, Bernard covered practically all the physiology of the time emphasizing on the experimental approach and on giving proofs for what he had asserted during lectures (underlined in Table II). Table II can be summarized as follows: a) Digestion, psychic gastric acid secretion (a finding that preceded Pavlov by decades), chemical aspects, destination of ingested glucose, history and methodology of studies on digestion. In his first lecture of Dec. 14th, he mentions how Beaumont's studies in Alexis St' Martin's gastric fistula stimulated his developing artificial fistulas to experiment on digestion (Beaumont, 1833; Bernard, 1847-48: 19). b) Blood. c) Circulations, arterial, venous and portal; Poiseuille and Magendie's experiments; heart, d) Nervous system, peripheral, cranial nerves, brain, central and autonomous nervous system, e) Excitability, muscle, f) Kidney, urine and urea, uric acid. g) Drugs, poisons, toxics, medicaments. la) Contributions of America to Europe. i) Contributions of chemistry to physiology.
The 45 Lecture Series 185455 were the first that Bernard published (Bernard, 1855-56). They were delivered just after Magendie's death. He opened them with an homage to Magendie (Bernard, 1856a). In addition, in these lectures he analyzed the following subjects: i) He compared the style of lectures given in the University with those given in the College de France, describing how in the former they were recitative, as plain speeches to the audience; while they were more experimentally based in College de France. In the latter Bernard always showed new results, new extended views; chats interspersed with experiments: were public demonstrations and discussions of results, since the lecture hall in the College de France was an extension of Bernard's laboratory (Foster, 1899; Olmsted, 1938; Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952). ii) The links between physiology and pathology, iii) Diabetes and sugars, production of sugars and starch and glycogen by the liver, and by plants and animals; the "diabetic" center in the floor of the 4th ventricle, iv) Digestion. v) Blood, portal and hepatic venous blood; blood temperature in right and left heart, vi) Secretion vs excretion. vii) Excitation and irritation. viii) The great sympathetic. ix) Curare (Bernard, 1856b). Establishing a clear cut difference with the 1847-48 lectures, in this and in future lecture series Bernard covered, in each course, few successively selected subjects but at a great depth. Thus, he lectured on curare; toxics and medicaments (Bernard, 1857), animal heat (Bernard, 1876), pancreas, diabetes, liver and glycogen synthesis (Bernard, 1853, 1877), chorda tympani and salivary secretion (Bernard, 1866), nervous system physiology and pathology, the great sympathetic nerve system (Bernard, 1858), fluids of the organism (Bernard, 1859), concepts of internal secretion and internal milieu and on general scientific subjects (Grmek, 1967: 248-264). Bernard published hundreds of papers and more than 20 book-volumes, some posthumous (Bernard, 1878, 1878-79, 1879, 1947, 1954, 1965). Marry are available at www.claude-bernard.co.uk/. As Vilardebo had done in 1847-48, Bernard's lectures were noted down by his assistants and edited and published by Bernard or his colleagues (Olmsted, 1938: 52, 55; Omsted and Olmsted, 1952: 94-95), a procedure initiated by Magendie (Olmsted, 1944: 202).
Bernard's famous methodological text Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale (Bernard, 1865) was written during his long illness and convalescence (Olmsted and Olmsted, 1952, ch. 11, 12). It was translated s into Spanish (Bernard, 1880, 1900, 1959; Izquierdo 1942) and later into German (Bernard, 1960). L.J. Henderson (1878-1942) stimulated its English translation (Bernard, 1927) writing an Introduction (Henderson, 1927). Henderson, who greatly admired Bernard, "originated" one of the papers of his long series "Blood as a Physicochemical System" (Henderson and Murray, 1925) in the "Claude Bernard Laboratory, Nevache, France", actually the hotel they were at while writting the paper. In Introduction a l'Etude ... Bernard underscored: a) the logical steps in the scientific method; b) that in biology, as in physics or chemistry, a well controlled and performed experiment ought to give the same result when repeated (Bernard, 1865: 219); c) that the experimental results should be quantified, since ideally laws of all phenomena should be mathematically expressed; at that time it was believed by some that biological experiments were not necessarily reproducible, making a difference with those of physics and chemistry; d) that in science there is no absolute truth on a given subject, because what looks like truth at one time may be later modified by new evidence; and e) the importance of the experimental doubt. This book had been in Bernard's mind at least since December 1856, when he opened his course lecturing about: "The experimental method; difficulties of experimentation...; the art of experimentation, ..." (Bernard, 1858a, Vol. 1: 1-19, also published as Bernard, 1858b).
Bernard had planned that his Principes de Medecine Experimentale should follow Introduction a l'Etude... (cf. Bernard, 1865: 27; Bernard, 1947: xi; Grmek, 1967: 35-40), but it was published 80 years later (Bernard, 1947). Bernard strongly influenced the biomedical environment of his time: for example, his last lecture course Lecons sur les Phenomenes de la Vie Communs aux Animaux et aux Vegetaux of 1874, with the concept that "the constancy of the milieu interieur is required for free life", was out of the presses within a fortnight of his death (Bernard, 18781879). In addition, Introduction a l'Etude ... also produced great impact among the intelligentsia of the time (Tenney, 1991). For example, Zola, wrote an "experimental" novel (Zola, 1880) and characters Mitia and Alioscha in The Brothers Karamazov speak of a "Carr' Bernard and of science in a rather derogative way (Dostoievski, 1879).
To sum up, the present paper draws attention to a transcendental manuscript of Bernard's first lecture course on experimental physiology that remained unknown for 140 years (Bernard, 1847-48: 7-8). It sheds further light on the early period of Bernard's scientific career and contributes to show that when Bernard was substituting Magendie, he lectured during several winter periods, and not only during the summer as has been hinted (Olmsted, 1944: 243). It establishes many new details of Bernard's scientific career. For example, as already mentioned, in his 25th lecture Bernard vindicated Magendie's demonstration that the anterior roots in the medulla are motor and the posterior sensitive, as superior and clearer than Bell's, who, according to Bernard, "never opened the rachis" (Bernard, 1847-48; lecture 25, Table II) a view shared by others (Foster, 1899: 59-60; Olmsted, 1938: 201). At the time of his lecture, Bernard had already published on the subject (Bernard, 1847). Vilardebo's MS shows that in Match 1848, Bernard was beginning his experiments on the action of the vagus nerve on the heart (Bernard, 1847-1848; lectures 29-31, Table II), as well as his studies on the poisonous action of carbon monoxide (Bernard, 1847-1848; lecture 41, Table II). It is widely accepted that Bernard contributed to build general physiology particularly on i) pancreatic functions, a subject which has been reexamined in studies that reaffirm Bernard's great manual dexterity (alluded to above) and show Bernard's deductions related to the function of the pancreas as correct (Rodriguez de Romo, 1989; Rodriguez de Romo and Borgstein, 1999); ii) glycogen and other carbohydrate-related functions of the liver and carbohydrate metabolism in plants and animals (Bernard, 1877; Robin, 1979: 96-97) including histochemical methods (Bernard, 1859b, c); iii) the idea of internal secretions (Robin, 1979: 91); iv) the nervous system control of vasomotor activity; iv) poisons, curare and carbon monoxide; and v) the idea that anaesthetics work in animals and in plants. Introduction a l'Etude....(Bernard, 1865), Phenomena of Life.... (Bernard, 1878-79, 1974), his views on philosophy (Bernard, 1954; Dhurout, 1939; Roll-Hansen, 1976; Sertillanges, 1944) became classic landmarks that unified science, foreshadowing by many decades the development of 20th century biology (Forster, 1899; Izquierdo, 1942; Pi-Sunyer, 1944; Singer and Underwood, 1962; Schiller, 1967; Houssay, 1972).
This paper is dedicated to Carlos Monge and Humberto Aste, who introduced GW to Bernard, Henderson, and the internal environment 60 years ago. The authors are grateful to Antonio M. Gutierrez for his many contributions in the preparation of the manuscript.
Recibido: 04/07/2008. Modificado: 03/02/2009.--Aceptado: 03102/2009.
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Guillermo Whittembury. M.D. and Doctor in Medical Sciences (Biophysics), Universidad Cayetano Heredia, Peru, Dr. h.c. med. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru. Researcher, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas Venezuela. Address: IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Maximo Drets. M.D., Ph.D. Professor,' Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay. e-mail: maximo.drets@gmail. com
Fernando Mane-Garzon. M.D., Ph.D. Professor de Historia de la Medicina, Facultad de Medicina del Uruguay, Uruguay. e-mail: email@example.com.
TABLE I CONTENTS OF BERNARD (1847-48/1989)* i) Part devoted to Bernard (1-181) Portrait of Bernard (2) Presentation by the President of (5-6) the Academy of Medicine of Uruguay ** Mane-Garzon's note about the MS ** (7-8) Mazzella and Mane-Garzon's prologue ** (9-12) Table of contents (see Table II) *** (13-15) Cours de Physiologie Experimentale de M Bernard, (17) MS title page in Vilardebo's ink-handwriting: Body of the MS ***, with reproductions (19-175) of 26 Vilardebo's ink hand-drawings Name index *** (179-181) ii) Part devoted to Vilardebo ** (183-543) Biography by Mane-Garzon, Vilardebo's scientific (189-435) contributions and writings, his life's chronology Catalogue of his library (443-457) Vilardebo's Bibliography (459-465) Appendix with documents (467-524) Name and content indices (525-543) * Pages in parentheses. ** In Spanish. *** In French. TABLE II ABBREVIATED TABLE OF CONTENTS OF BERNARD'S PHYSIOLOGIE EXPERIMENTAL (1847-1848) * Premiere cahier 1st Dec 14 Gastric secretion 2nd Composition 3rd Effects on digestion 4th Dec 23 Gastric secretion mechanisms 5th Dec 27 Saliva 6th Dec 29 Pancreatic fluid 7th Jan 2 Gastric fluid, bile and chyle absorption 8th Jan 6 Starchy and sugary substances 9th Potassium cyanide 10th Urine: composition 11th Jan 19 Urine: continued 12th Urine, urea, uric acid; curare, Boussingault and the contribution of America 13th Digestion and age; milk and starch digestion; after lecture experiments 14th Chyle, comparison between carnivores and herbivores, intestinal digestion, experiments 15th Jan 29 Potassium cyanide and ferrous lactate 16th Jan 31 Experiments on digestion#; circulation, properties of blood 17th Feb 3 Blood circulation: speed 18th Its origin 19th Feb 7 Gastric digestion experiments#; arterial circulation; blood pressure modifiers: coffee, alcohol, opium; capillary circulation 20th Feb 10 Capillary circulation; capillary wall absorption: endosmosis and exosmosis; gas absorption; experiments of Magendie# 21st Feb 12 Experiments#; venous circulation: origin; portal circulation Deuxieme cahier 22nd Feb 14 Experiments#; blood, chemical composition 23rd Feb 18 Ozone; Schonlei's experiments#, substances introduced into the blood; heart movements; heart contractions, theories 24th Feb 19 Bile; heart contractions; experiments: infections of potassium cyanide and ferrous lactate# 25th Feb 21 Nervous system; sensory and motor nerves; Bell and Magendie; cranial nerves; classification according to sensory and motor roots 26th Mar 2 Cranial nerves: the pneumogastric and Willis accessory nerves 27th Mar 4 Experiments with toads; galvanism#; muscular irritability nervous excitability: theory of Marshall Hall 28th Mar 6 PneuPneumogastric and Willis accessory nerves; anastomosis of the pneumogastric nerve; distribution; superior laryngeal nerves 29th Mar 9 Pneumoeastric nerves section# 30th Mar 11 Its effects on the heart, digestion, circulation and respiration 31st Mar 13 Dedicated to experiments: section of pneumogastric and of Willis' accessory nerve# 32nd Mar 16 Human anatomical piece to show Willis' accessory nerve#: Bell and the sensitivity of the face; Magendie's experiments; demonstration in the rabbit# 33rd Mar 18 Continue Magendie's experiments#; ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; oculomotor nerves; section of facial nerve; taste; chorda tympani 34th Progress of physiology due to organic chemistry: Haller, Rdaumur, Spallanzani, Dumas, Chaussier, gastric juice composition; experiments of Chevreul and Beaumont#; works of Muller and Blondlot Troisieme cahier 35th Mar 21 Nerves: glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, the grand sympathetic 36th Mar 23 Nervous system: disposition of the membranes; cerebrospinal fluid: quantity, composition, uses 37th Mar 25 Experiments; properties of pancreatic juice; functions of: medulla spinalis 38th Mar 27 Medulla oblongata; Flourens vital node; annular protuberance; pons cerebri; cerebellum; corpus callosum; optic thalamus; corpora striata; corpora quadrigemina 39th Mar 30 Experimental toxicology (Humboldt); strychnine 40th Apr 1 Experiments with strychnine: nux vomica: five experiments# 41th Apr 3 Nicotine; cyanide; carbonic oxide 42th Curare, opium, digitalis, alcohol 43th Apr 8 Action of ether on the nervous system; medicaments; quinine 44th Apr 10 Arsenic and arsenious acid, mercury and compounds, curare, lead, antimony 45th Apr 13 Substances that act on the blood: putrid substances; ferments; extreme heat and cold; counter-poisoning 46th Apr 17 Mechanical action of some substances: ergot, ergotine; curare, digitalis Translated from the French of Vilardebo's MS. Experiments and demonstrations are underlined. Lecture number, date and subjects (shortened) are given. Note: Experiments and demonstrations are underlined indicated with #.
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|Author:||Whittembury, Guillermo; Drets, Maximo; Mane-Garzon, Fernando|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2009|
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