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The occupational structure of the labour power in the South-West Oltenia Region.

The South-West Oltenia Region corresponds to the historical province of Oltenia (the counties Dolj, Gorj, Valcea, Mehedinti and Olt-Romanati), a part of the Romanian historical territory. As a political, administrative and economic structure, nowadays, it presents a relatively homogenous characteristic, due to the inheritance from the different stages that belonged to the development of the modern Romania, and also some delays in the economy and social structure. The Governmental project of Administrative-Territorial Reorganization of the country, from 2009-2010, stipulates the passing towards the internal division into regions of the territory, Oltenia, representing today such a unit. The South-West Oltenia Region expresses a spiritual and economic geographical institution, an area with a political strategy on addressing the labour power and the creation of sale markets and, to a certain extent, a unitary linguistic area. The management policies of the human resources defined the political and economic achievements of the applied or going to be applied reforms. Democracy needs trained citizens, with an efficient functioning of the labour power, essential factors for the individual freedom and the viability of the state's policies (Dobrota, 1998: 67; Cretoiu, 2003: 102).

The common economic feature of these aspects, related to the human resources, is represented by the direct connection with the work productivity, and, in consequence, with the economic growth. Our integration in the European Union implies the rapid and sustained progress in fighting against poverty, a result that depends on the promotion of the strategies regarding the use "of the most important wealth of the poor--their labour power" (Barr, 2010:9) and the insurance of the social services for the society. The basic medical assistance, family planning, alimentation and the primary education are essential for the development of the labour power markets and, naturally, for the economic and social progress. The neglecting of the human resources by the governors led, is still leading and will continue to lead to significant costs. Not paying a particular attention to the diminishing of poverty, constitutes a false economy and, moreover, a pressure on the development of the labour power in its integrity (Samuelson, 1982: 76).

The fiscal crises, the perturbations regarding the state's role in the society, have a great influence on the social policies, the budget equilibrium and, furthermore, on the public and private activities. Presently, there is a consistent bibliography that debates different technical arguments concerning the economic theories, the criteria on the good functioning of the labour power markets, their malfunction in the relation with the governmental activity (Pirvu, 2011:236-240; Pirvu, 2012: 98-113). Starting from an analysis of the occupational structure in the South-West Oltenia Region, it is necessary to mention the fact that the present Romanian economy resulted from the communist era, presenting distinct particularities, as confronted to the democratic occident (Ciucur, 2001: 78). In the transition period, in the entire country, the change of the communist property structure was necessary, which was, to a great extent, favourable for the state, the change of the production structure that was oriented towards the heavy industry and agriculture and, obviously, of the commerce structure that was distorted because of the excessive specialization and structural imbalances.

The reforms applied in Romania follow a fundamental change, both in responsibilities of the state and of the individual. In a market economy, each economic organization becomes responsible for the efficiency of the production and for the realization of the profit. The wages and the employment are therefore determined "by the forces of the market for the interest of the efficiency" (Barr, 2010:10). A special influence is presently represented by the income redistribution system, implying a continuous attention for the protection of the individuals and their families against poverty. The line that separates the state, the market and the human resources constitutes the central problem in the process of the economic reforms (Galbrait, 1982 : 37). The short term policies must be concentrated on the survival, both fiscally and politically, of the prosperous economy, the force that generates labour power (Stancu, 1997: 85). The unemployment, the fiscal crisis, the irrational transfers of the income constrain and diminish the normal development of the labour power. According to the data provided by The National Institute for Statistics, on the 1st of July 2011, the South-West Oltenia Region had a population of 2 225 108 dwellers, representing 10.42 % of the total population number in Romania, the 7th place from the 8 regions of the country.

The urban population of 1.068.281, concentrated in the 40 towns, situates the region on the last place in the national context, while the rural population, of 1.156.827, situates the region on the 5th place on the national level.

Craiova Municipality registered the highest population decrease, with 1.230 people from 2010 to 2011. Tg. Jiu Municipality registered the highest population increase, with 341 people.

In 2011, the occupational structure of the Roma people continues to demonstrate a low degree of integration on the labour market. There is a high share of the insecure occupations that do not offer permanence and stability. The degree of employment among the Roma population is of 35.5%, 36% would like to have a job and 28% are inactive. This is a low level of employment, as comparing to the national one.

As regarding the general population from Romania, the employment rate was of 58% in 2011, and the rate of unemployment of 7.6%. The share of the Roma people who do not have a steadfast job is significantly lower: only 10% of the interviewed have worked permanently in the last two years, and 51.5% of the sample declared that they have not worked for the last two years.

The low share of the permanently employed population proves an elevated vulnerability and a high risk of poverty and social exclusion, through the consequences created by the lack of social and health insurances, and also the shortcomings of the material means. The analysis of the gender structure among the employed population, indicated significant differences, favouring the men who carry on economic activities in a higher share (44.3%, as confronted to 27.4%).

The degree of employment of the Roma population from Romania is inferior to the national rate. The employing structure of the Roma people is one specific to their ethnicity, being characterized by traditional or low skilled professions, with a reduced degree of social security (Babeanu & Babeanu, 1998: 45). The women represent a highly vulnerable category, from the employment point of view, most of them being housekeepers, not having any qualification and therefore with low chances to be integrated on the labour market. The women who declared they are employed have reduced skills, most of them being unskilled workers. The young people also represent a group with reduced chances on the labour market, having low educational level and skills.

As comparing to 2010, the population of this region decreased with 13 535 people. This diminishing was mainly determined by the manifestation of a negative natural growth of 10 449 people. The same evolution is also noticed on the national level, where after a growth registered between 2005 and 2008, the population has continuously decreased, every year, the accent being seen especially among the employed population (The National Institute of Statistics, 2012: 9; Department of Statistics, 2013: 19). The distribution on areas of the population evidenced, in 2011, the preponderance of the rural population (52.0%), which was regressing, as confronted to 2010 (52.1%). The age structure of the population is characterized by a demographic aging process. It can be noticed, in the South-West Oltenia Development Region, the reduction of the young population share (0-14 years old), in the total number of the population, from 14.3% in 2010, to 14.1% in 2011, while the older population samples (60 years old and over) grew larger from 22.2% to 22.5%. To sum up, the share of demographic dependency was modified from 57.5% in 2010, to 57.6%, in 2011 (Department of Statistics Dolj, 2013: 20).

At the national level it is noticed, along the studied period, the reduction of the young population share (15.25, in 2011, and 14.9% in 2013) and the growth of the older people share (from 19.5% in 2011, to 20.9% in 2013) (The National Institute of Statistics, 2012: 10).

The structure of the employed population on sectors of activity in the national economy, to a closer analysis, indicates the slight reduction in the number of employed people in the agricultural sector (-6% at national level) and industry and constructions (-6% at national level), concomitantly with the growth of the people employed in services sector (+2.2%). At national level, the active population (women and men) was, in 2010, made of 9 965 thousand people, in 2011 of 9 868 thousand people, and in 2012 of 9 912 thousand people. After a continuous growth registered between 2005 and 2008, starting with 2009, the employed population started to decrease, up to the lowest number, registered in 2013-9.016 thousand people. The greatest part of the employed population, at national level, lives in the urban areas (55.6% in 2012), being predominant, among the employed people, the wage earners (The National Institute of Statistics, 2012: 11-12).

The evolution of the labour power in the South-West Oltenia Development Region has been lately influenced, generally, by those factors that have affected the entire economic and social life of our country:

--the adopting of a new structure of economic relations based on the free and competition market system;

--the reorganization of the large and medium sized enterprises that used to produce essential damages to the economy

--the decrease of the training and skills level of the employees

--the decrease of the birth rate that has been affecting the structure of the able to work young people--an effect of the living standard diminishing and of the insecurity of tomorrow;

--the difficult integration of the socio-professional categories that were laid off

An important factor is also represented by the migration of the active population towards advantageous jobs in the countries of the European Union (especially Spain and Italy) (Barr, 2010:15-20). The share of activity among the able to work population at the national level (15-64 years old) was in 2011 of 65.2%, bigger for men (73.0%, as confronted to 57.2% for women) and for the rural areas (70.1%, as confronted to 60.7% for the urban areas) (The National Institute of Statistics, 2012: 18).

In the same period, the employed population from the South-West Oltenia Development Region was of 1 024 thousand people. Among these, the men represented 54.5%, and the share of the people living in the urban areas was of 44.3% (Department of Statistics Dolj, 2011-2012: 18). The share of employment of the able to work population (15-64 years old) reached in 2011, in the South-West Oltenia Development Region, the level of 60.3% (as confronted to 59.2% in the previous year). The employment rate of the able to work people was higher for men (66.5%), than for women (54.1%) and in the rural areas (66.3%), than in the urban areas (54.9%).

The distribution of the employed population according to the level of education, in 2011, evidences the fact that the majority (49.4%) graduated high-school (including the first step) and a vocational school. Among the employed male people, most of them graduated high-school and vocational schools, while, among the females, a significant share (57.5%) was constituted by those who graduated high-school (including the first step) and the secondary school. In the total number of the employed population, the people who graduated a university had a share of 14.7%, and the people who attended post-graduate courses or a foreman school represented 4.7%.

The people with a low level of education (secondary, primary or no school education) represented 31.2% from the total number of the employed people; among these, 94.1% were living in the rural areas and 56.1% were women. After analysing the structure of the employed population, according to the professional status, in 2011, it results that the wage earners continued to have the highest share (50.6%). The freelancers and the unpaid family workers represented 48.7% of the employed population. The average number of the employees from the South-West Oltenia Development Region was, in 2011, of 361 744 people, with 2 064 less people than in 2010. Most of the employees were in: industry (32.1%), wholesale and retail trade; cars and motorbikes repairing (15.4%), education (9.9%), health and social assistance (9.0%), constructions (7.75), public administration and defence; the public system of social insurances (5.5%), transportation and storage (5.1%).

As regarding the economic activities from the primary and secondary sectors, it can be evidenced, unlike the previous year, the growth of the average number of the employees with 2 584 people in industry, with 1 436 in the administrative services and support services, with 572 people in professional, scientific and technical activities, with 399 people in the real-estate sector, with 111 people in agriculture, sylviculture and fishing. The number of the unemployed people at the end of 2011 was 69 252 people (as confronted to 84 595 people in 2010), representing 7.7% of the active civil population. The number of the unemployed people at the end of 2011 was 69 252 people (as confronted to 84 595 people in 2010), representing 7.7% of the active civil population. From the total number of registered unemployed people, at the end of 2011, 43.5% were females (41.8% in 2010). At the end of 2011, 35.7% of the unemployed people had a redundancy payment (48.1% in 2010). The unpaid unemployed were representing 64.3% of the unemployed total number (51.9% in 2010).

Among the unemployed, registered on categories of staff and level of training, at the end of 2011, 68.1% were people who had graduated a primary, secondary or vocational school (67.9% in 2010), 24.2% had graduated the high-school and postgraduate courses (23.9% in 2010) and 7.7% had graduated a university (8.2% in 2010). The rate of the unemployment registered in 2011 was of 7.7% (7.1% for women), and 9.2% (8.4% for women) in 2010.

In 2011, the rate of the vacant jobs was of 0.435, superior levels registering in the branches: real estate (4.21%), public administration and defence; public social insurances (1.135), cultural and entertaining activities (0.97%), transportation and storage (0.82%), health and social assistance (0.75%) (Department of Statistics Dolj, 2011-2012: 21-23; Statistical Yearbook Dolj, 2013: 21-23).

From the statistic point of view, the active population represent the part of the population that is encompassed in the legal limits of age and health, who can be potentially employed at a certain point in time. In the South-West Oltenia Development Region, the economically active population had a negative evolution in the interval 2006-2011, permanently decreasing after 2008, when it was registered a slight increase, reaching, in 2011, to only 1 100 thousand people (11.3% from the national level), as confronted to 1 118 people in 2006 (11.33% from the national level). In 2011, in the South-West Region, there were 1 110 active people, representing a reduction with 18 thousand people, as confronted to 2006, as a consequence of the demographic dwindling. This fluctuation and diminishing of the population can be noticed for the both genders. From the total number of the active population in 2011, the females represented 44% and the males 56% (Department of Statistics Dolj, 2011-2012:21-23; Statistical Yearbook Dolj, 2013: 24-25).

The employed population is the indicator that measures only that part of the active population who effectively works in the economy. This analysis reflects the level of the South-West Region in 2011, the existence of 1 024 employed people, signifying a higher value, as confronted to 2005, with 19 thousand people. The lowest value of the employed population number was registered in 2010-1 017 thousand people.

In the analysed period, it can be noticed the maintaining of an almost constant evolution for all the analysed sectors. A developed economy implies a preponderance of the employed population in services, a smaller proportion of the employed population in the secondary sector (industry and construction) and a very small proportion of the employed population in agriculture, in the South-West Oltenia Region being registered an inverse situation of the percents, the highest number of people still performing activities in the subsistence farming.

If we compare the rates of unemployment among young people at the development regions level in Romania, the fact that the South-West Oltenia Region is situated below the national average number and also considerable under regions as the Centre, South Muntenia and South-East, in which there have been registered unemployment rates among the young people up to the value of 30% in the last years. The lowest unemployment rates of the young people were registered in the North-East region, in 2011 reaching a value of 11.9%, the lowest from the national level, in the analysed period of time.

As confronted to 2000, we can notice the fact that in all the regions (excepting the North-East one), there were registered increases of the unemployment rates among the young people, in the South-West Oltenia Region this raise being of 3.1%.

On addessing the evolution in the number of the unemployed from the counties that represent the South-West Oltenia Region, Dolj County registers the highest number of unemployed, on the entire analysed period of time. The existence of a high demand for labour power represents an advantage for attracting potential investors in this county.

We can notice the necessity of staged priorities coming from the reported facts. Once with the integration in the European Union, the structure of the activities is going to change in the same time with the diminishing of the role played by the state and with the global effort for "surviving", from the fiscal and political point of view (Constantinescu, 1998: 93). Confronted with a continuously growing inflation and unemployment, the short term public policies, in the labour power area, have to focus on the control over the inherited legal restrictions that limit the flexibility of the labour power. The investment in the human capital has become essential for the economic prosperity.

Along with the fiscal income relaxation, the income redistribution will have to assume other function besides the amelioration of poverty. Furthermore, we consider that it is necessary to consolidate the relation between the tax payers and the benefits, and the intervention over the pensions, education, health etc. The action has to include the support for the emerging of private tax payers. The political and legislative plans, because they take time, must be initiated in advance, and the improvement of the administrative capacity must develop into a priority. The governors have to become aware of the fact that the diminishing of production illustrates the compromise between the actual living standard and the future. Consequently, the political problem is that to find a merging point between the pressure regarding the increase of the living standard and the need to have more resources for the development of the labour power and in the interest of the economy (Barr, 2010: 29-59; Pirvu, 2012: 63-72).

The governments cannot avoid the option between the consumption and investments fund, and cannot ignore anymore the fact that the options are both economical and political.

References:

Abraham-Frois, G., (1994), Political economy, Bucharest: Humanitas Publishing.

Barr, N., (2010), The labour power markets and the social policy in the Central and Eastern Europe, World Bank and the School of Economic and Political Sciences from London, Oxford University Press, Bucharest.

Babeanu, M., Babeanu, M. (1998), The market and the marketing system, Craiova: Scrisul Romanesc Publishing.

Babeanu, M., (2004), Macroeconomics, Craiova: University Publishing.

Ciucur, D., Gavrila, I., Popescu, C. (2001), Economy, Bucharest: Economic Publishing.

Constantinescu N.N. (1998), The method and the technique in the economic science, Bucharest: Economic Publishing.

Cretoiu, Gh., Cornescu, V., Bucur, I. (2003), Economy, Bucharest : All Beck Publishing. Department of Statistics from Dolj (2013), The records of the localities 2011-2012, Computerized data, official source.

Dobrota, N. (1998), Political Economy, Bucharest: Economic Publishing 1998.

Galbrait J.K. (1982), The economic science and the public interest, Bucharest :Political Publishing .

Pirvu, Gh., (2002) (coordinator), Economics, University Manual, Craiova: Universitaria Publishing.

Pirvu, Gh., (2010), European Union policies, Craiova: Universitaria Publishing.

Pirvu, Gh., (2011). Microeconomics, Craiova: Universitaria Publishing.

Pirvu, Gh., (2012). Macroeconomics, Craiova: Universitaria Publishing House.

Romanian Statistical Yearbook (2005-2012), The National Commission for Statistics, (2005-2012), Bucharest, official source.

Romanian Statistical Yearbook (2012a), The National Commission for Statistics, (2005-2012), Bucharest, official source.

Romanian Statistical Yearbook (2012b), The National Commission for Statistics, (2005-2011), Bucharest, official source.

Romanian Statistical Yearbook (2012c), The National Commission for Statistics, (2007-2011), Bucharest, official source.

Samuelson, P.A. (1982), L'Economique (The economist), Paris : Librair Armand Colin.

Stancu, S., Andrei, T. (1997), Micro-economy, Bucharest: All Beck Publishing.

The National Institute of Statistics, (2012). Romania in numbers. 2012, Bucharest, official source.

Article Info

Received: April 24 2014

Accepted: July 22 2014

Mihaela Ceana, Ph.D candidate, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Craiova, Phone: 0040727392953, E-mail:mihaela_ceana@yahoo.com.
Table 1. The population number in 2011, on
regions and counties

Territorial unit   Population   % from the population
                   in 2011      total on regions

Dolj                  697,813                  31.36%
Gorj                  375,147                  16.86%
Mehedinti             288,775                  12.98%
Olt                   458,380                  20.60%
Valcea                404,993                  18.20%
Total Region        2,225,108

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 2. The population of the 40 cities from the region,
evolution 2010-2011

                                   County     The number of
                                              the dwellers

                                                  2010       2011

Municipality of Craiova             Dolj       298,740    297,510
Municipality of Bailesti                        19,536     19,413
Municipality of Calafat                         17,707     17,382
Bechet Town                                      3,873      3,850
Dabuleni Town                                   12,692     12,485
Filiasi Town                                    18,650     18,463
Segarcea Town                                    8,122      8,080
Municipality of Targu--Jiu          Gorj        96,396     96,737
Municipality of Motru                           22,170     22,134
Bumbesti--Jiu Town                              10,423     10,360
Novaci Town                                      5,986      5,943
Rovinari Town                                   13,375     13,384
Targu Carbunesti Town                            8,947      8,856
Ticleni Town                                     5,200      5,148
Tismana Town                                     7,724      7,699
Turceni Town                                     8,180      8,142
Municipality of Drobeta--         Mehedinti    105,739    105,232
  Turnu Severin
Municipality of Orcova                          12,616     12,373
Baia de Arama Town                               5,763      5,701
Strehaia Town                                   11,496     11,438
Vanju Mare Town                                  6,225      6,145
Municipality of Slatina              Olt        77,108     76,736
Municipality of Caracal                         34,730     34,431
Balc Town                                       20,845     20,632
Corabia Town                                    19,647     18,956
Draganecti--Olt Town                            12,277     12,027
Piatra--Olt Town                                 6,121      6,109
Potcoava Town                                    5,863      5,862
Scornicecti Town                                12,358     12,228
Municipality of Ramnicu Valcea     Valcea      110,731    110,697
Municipality of Dragacani                       20,245     19,988
Baile Govora                                     2,885      2,882
Baile Olanecti                                   4,551      4,553
Balcecti Town                                    5,539      5,503
Brezoi Town                                      6,945      6,907
Calimanecti Town                                 8,769      8,704
Horezu Town                                      6,701      6,661
Ocnele Mari Town                                 3,521      3,505
Babeni Town                                      9,752      9,877
Berbecti Town                                    5,580      5,548

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 3. Structure of the population according to the ethnicity

Counties      Stable                From which, according
            population              to the ethnicity
              TOTAL

                         Romanian   Hungarian   Roma

Dolj          618335      587549       218      28911
Gorj          334238      326873       161      6815
Mehedinti     254570      241501       153      10956
Olt           415530      405393       246      9601
Valcea        355320      348344       198      6384

Counties             From which, according
                     to the ethnicity

            German   Ukrainian   Turkish

Dolj          92        21         53
Gorj          24        24         10
Mehedinti    156        13         38
Olt           11         5         31
Valcea        63        13         38

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 4. Roma population--2012

            Romanian    Roma

Dolj         0.9502    0.0468
Gorj         0.978      2.04
Mehedinti    0.9487     4.3
Olt          0.9756     2.31
Valcea       0.9804     1.8

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 5. The evolution of the population on ethnicity,
on counties, from 2002-2012

             Year     Stable     From which, according
                    population   to the ethnicity

                                 Romanian   Hungarian

Dolj         2012     618335      587549       218
             2002     368410      359588       203
Gorj         2012     334238      326873       161
             2002     162743      159719       164
Mehedin ti   2012     254570      241501       153
             2002     141956      139669       155
Olt          2012     415530      405393       246
             2002     186542      183141       63
Valcea       2012     355320      348344       198
             2002     161836      160360       279

             From which, according to the ethnicity

             Roma    Ukrainian   German

Dolj         28911      21         92
             7796       36        131
Gorj         6815       24         24
             2760        5         32
Mehedin ti   10956      13        156
             1509       11        169
Olt          9601        5         11
             3204        3         20
Valcea       6384       13         63
              983       11         84

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 6. The natural displacement of the population
on counties in 2011

                    Absolute data (number)

            Born    Deceased   Natural   Marriages
            alive              growth

South-      17823    28272     -10449      9886
  West of
  Oltenia
Dolj        6045      9567      -3522      3100
Gorj        2923      4118      -1195      1914
Mehedinti   2481      4044      -1563      1382
Olt         3356      6254      -2898      1897
Valcea      3018      4289      -1271      1593

              Absolute data (number)

            Divorces   Born   Deceased
                       dead   under one
                              year old
South-        2357      48       166
  West of
  Oltenia
Dolj          380       1        49
Gorj          400       13       29
Mehedinti     498       12       40
Olt           583       10       22
Valcea

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 7. The natural displacement of the
population in urban areas--2011

            Absolute data (number)

            Born    Deceased   Natural   Marriages
            alive              growth

South--     9,141    9,261      -120       6,099
  West of
  Oltenia
Dolj        3,309    3,474      -165       2,109
Gorj        1,452    1,362       90        1,040
Mehedinti   1,208    1,290       -82        859
Olt         1,644    1,596       48        1,086
Valcea      1,528    1,539       -11       1,005

            Absolute data (number)

            Divorces   Born   Deceased
                       dead   under one
                              year old

South--      1,503      20       64
  West of
  Oltenia
Dolj          231       1        24
Gorj          216       8        12
Mehedinti     384       2        12
Olt           330       6         4
Valcea        342       3        12

Source of data: Romanian Statistical
Yearbook 2012a

Table 8. The natural displacement of the
population in rural areas-2011

            Absolute data (number)

            Born    Deceased   Natural   Marriages
            alive              growth

South-      8,682    19,011    -10,329     3,787
  West of
  Oltenia
Dolj        2,736    6,093     -3,357       991
Gorj        1,471    2,756     -1,285       874
Mehedinti   1,273    2,754     -1,481       523
Olt         1,712    4,658     -2,946       811
Valcea      1,490    2,750     -1,260       588

            Absolute data (number)

            Divorces   Born   Deceased
                       dead   under one
                              year old

South-        854       28       102
  West of
  Oltenia
Dolj          149       0        25
Gorj          184       5        17
Mehedinti     114       10       28
Olt           253       4        18
Valcea        154       9        14

Source of data: Romanian Statistical
Yearbook 2012a

Table 9. Indicators for natural movement of the population by
region, 2011

Region         Rate of    Rate of    Natural
                Birth    Mortality   growth

North West       9.6       11.5       -1.9
Center           10        10.9       -0.9
North East       9.8       11.1       -1.3
South East       8.5       11.8       -3.3
South            8.6       13.1       -4.5
Muntenia
Bucharest       10.2       11.1       -0.9
South--West       8        12.7       -4.7
of Oltenia
Dolj             8.7       13.7        -5
Gorj             7.7       10.9       -3.2
Mehedinti        8.6       13.9       -5.3
Olt              7.3       13.5       -6.2
Valcea           7.4       10.5       -3.1
West             8.5       12.2       -3.7

Region         Born dead   Deceased under
                in 1000    one year old in
                 born       1000 children
               children      born alive

North West        4.9            8.7
Center            3.7           10.1
North East        3.7           10.1
South East         4            11.3
South             5.2           10.3
Muntenia
Bucharest         2.4            5.7
South--West       2.7            9.3
of Oltenia
Dolj              0.2            8.1
Gorj              4.4            9.9
Mehedinti         4.8           16.1
Olt                3             6.6
Valcea             4             8.6
West              6.7            8.9

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012

Table 10. Variation of birth (born alive) in the South
Western region of Oltenia

County      1990   2011   Variation 1990/2011

Dolj        9779   6045          3734
Gorj        5805   2923          2882
Olt         7018   2481          4537
Mehedinti   4551   3356          1195
Valcea      6287   3018          3269

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 11. The fertility rate of women on areas and age groups
in the South-West OLTENIA Region, 2010-2011

                  2,010                   2,011

                  Total   Urban   Rural   Total   Urban   Rural
                          Area    Area            Area    Area

TOTAL (15-49      33.9    32.0    36.3    32.3    29.9    35.4
  years old)
15-19 years old   40.7    26.7    53.7    38.8    26.3    49.7
20-24 years old   64.6    50.2    82.8    62.9    47.4    82.0
25-29 years old   68.2    71.8    63.1    63.4    65.1    60.9
30-34 years old   43.7    52.0    33.4    42.1    47.8    34.8
35-39 years old   14.8    17.3    11.9    16.8    18.6    14.8
40-44 years old    3.3     2.8     4.0     2.7     2.4     3.1
45-49 years old    0.1     0.1     0.1     0.2     0.2     0.2

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 12. The evolution of the fertility rates
on counties in the period
2005-2011

                2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011

Dolj            35.1   35.9   36.7   37.2   35.9   35.3
Gorj            32.5   33.2   32.4   32.1   31.2   29.5
Mehedinti       33.3   32.7   35.7   40.4   35.9   35.0
Olt             34.2   32.2   33.8   34.8   32.1   30.2
Valcea          35.6   34.6   34.1   34.7   33.7   30.4
SW of Oltenia   34.3     34   34.8   35.8   33.9   32.3

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 13. The mortality rate on counties in the period 2005-2011

             2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011

Dolj         13.9   13.7   13.8    14    14.3   13.7
Gorj         10.8   10.5   10.5    11    11.3   10.9
Mehedinti    13.7   13.9    14    13.8   14.3   13.9
Olt          13.6   13.5   14.1   13.9   13.9   13.5
Valcea       12.2   11.4   11.4   11.4   11.5   10.5
SV Oltenia    13    12.7   12.9    13    13.2   12.7

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012a

Table 14. The evolution of the active population and rate of activity
between 2006 and 2011 on ages, genders and residential areas

INDICATORS        2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011

                          TOTAL

Total (thousand   1118   1103   1112   1107   1100   1100
  of people)

                   Rate of activity (%)

15-64 years old   65.1   64.1   64.6   64.7   64.5   65.2
15-24 years old   27.8    28     30    31.5    31    29.1
25-34 years old   78.9   77.2   76.7   75.5   76.4    79
35-44 years old   84.1   83.5   82.3    82    84.4   84.4
45-54 years old   78.8   77.5   77.8   77.2   75.1   76.1
55-64 years old   54.9   52.3   54.3   54.9   51.3   51.7

                          MALE

Total (thousand   612    611    617    613    611    609
  of people)

                   Rate of activity (%)

15-64 years old   71.9   71.6   72.3   72.4   72.5    73
15-24 years old   31.5   32.7   34.8    37    37.6   33.9
25-34 years old   88.9   86.8   85.1   84.5   85.6   88.6
35-44 years old   91.6   91.8   92.8   92.8   93.6    93
45-54 years old    86     86    85.7   84.3   83.7    85
55-64 years old   59.6   57.9   60.3   59.8   55.9   57.9

                        FEMALE

Total (thousand   506    492    495    494    489    491
  of people)

                  Rate of activity (%)

15-64 years old   58.2   56.5   56.8   56.8   56.5   57.2
15-24 years old    24    23.1   25.1   25.7    24    24.1
25-34 years old   68.4   67.1   67.8    66    66.7   68.9
35-44 years old   76.4   74.9   71.4   70.7   74.8   75.4
45-54 years old   71.5    69    69.8   70.1   66.3   67.1
55-64 years old   50.8   47.2   48.9   50.4   47.2   46.2

                      URBAN AREA

Total (thousand   513    503    499    488    488    502
  of people)

                   Activity rate (%)

15-64 years old   60.9   59.7   59.6   58.7   58.9   60.8
15-24 years old   18.4   19.3   20.8   20.5   18.2   18.2
25-34 years old   78.5   77.1   75.8   74.7   76.5   79.3
35-44 years old   84.7    84    82.2   81.4   84.3   84.2
45-54 years old   76.7   74.6   74.8   72.8   71.2   73.9
55-64 years old    38    32.9   34.2   33.3   31.9   35.6

                        RURAL AREA

                  605    600    613    619    612    598

Rate of activity (%)

15-64 years old   69.8   69.1   70.2   71.4   70.8   70.1
15-24 years old   39.3   38.4   40.6   43.7   44.6   40.4
25-34 years old   79.3   77.4   77.8   76.4   76.3   78.7
35-44 years old   83.5    83    82.5   82.6   84.5   84.6
45-54 years old   81.6   81.5   81.8    83    80.2   78.9
55-64 years old   66.8   66.5   69.8   72.4   68.3   66.6

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook data series 2005-2012

Table 15. The employed population in the South-West Oltenia Region
in 2005-2011

S-W of           2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011
Oltenia

Total-Thousand   1043   1039   1028   1040   1032   1017   1024
  of people

Source of data: Labor Balance 2011b

Table 16. The structure of the employed population
on sectors of activity (2005- 2012)

Indicator/             The South-West Region
Year

                    2005    2006    2007    2008

Total (thousand     1.043   1.039   1.028   1.040
  of people)
Agriculture,         49      46      44      45
  silviculture
  and fishing
Extractive            3       3       3       3
  industry
Manufacturing        14      14      15      14
  industry

Production and        3       3       3       3
  supplying of
  electrical
  and thermal
  energy, gases,
  hot water
  and air
  conditioning
Water supplying;                              *
  public health,
  waste disposal
  management,
  decontamination
  activities
Constructions         4       4       4       5
Wholesale and         8       8       9      10
  retail trade;
  cars and
  motorbikes
  repairing
Transport and                                 3
  storage
Transport and         4       4       4
  storage and
  communications
Hotels and            1       7       1       1
  restaurants
Information and                               1
  communications
Brokerage and         1       1       *       1
  insurances
Real estate           2       2       2       *
Professional,                                 1
  scientific and
  technical
  activities
Administrative                                1
  services and
  support
  services
  activities
Public                5       5       5       5
  administration
  and defence;
  public social
  insurances
Education             4       4       4       4
Health and            3       3       3       3
  social
  assistance
Entertaining                                  *
  and cultural
  show activities
Other activities      1       2       2       1
  of the national
  economy

Indicator/          The South-West Region
Year

                    2009    2010    2011

Total (thousand     1.031   1.017   1.024
  of people)
Agriculture,         47      47      48
  silviculture
  and fishing
Extractive            3       3       3
  industry
Manufacturing        12      11      11
  industry

Production and        3       3       3
  supplying of
  electrical
  and thermal
  energy, gases,
  hot water
  and air
  conditioning
Water supplying;      1       1       1
  public health,
  waste disposal
  management,
  decontamination
  activities
Constructions         4       4       4
Wholesale and        10      10       9
  retail trade;
  cars and
  motorbikes
  repairing
Transport and         3       3       4
  storage
Transport and
  storage and
  communications
Hotels and            1       1       1
  restaurants
Information and       *       *       1
  communications
Brokerage and         1       1       1
  insurances
Real estate           *       *       *
Professional,         1       1       1
  scientific and
  technical
  activities
Administrative        1       1       1
  services and
  support
  services
  activities
Public                5       4       4
  administration
  and defence;
  public social
  insurances
Education             3       3       3
Health and            3       3       4
  social
  assistance
Entertaining          *       *       *
  and cultural
  show activities
Other activities      *       1       1
  of the national
  economy

Source of data: Statistical yearbooks 2005-2012

Table 17. Unemployed people registered at regional level--people

               2006    2007    2008    2009    2010    2011

People with    21317   15256   20442   52280   40696   24702
  redundancy
  payment
Unpaid         42968   32051   44098   45243   43899   44550
  unemployed
  people
Registered     64285   47307   64540   97523   84595   69252
  unemployed
  people--
  TOTAL

Source of data: National Agency for Employment 2012a

Table 18. The evolution of the unemployment and the
unemployment rate on counties and genders, 2007-2011

Region/               2009                 2010
County

              No. of     The rate of      No. of
            unemployed   unemployment   unemployed
            registered                  registered
              people                      people

South--       97,523         10.4         84,595
  West of
  Oltenia
Women         40,452         9.3          35,321
Dolj          33,643         11.2         29,167
Women         14,089         10.2         12,209
Gorj          16,464         10.9         14,821
Women         7,324          10.8         6,629
Mehedinti     17,363         14.1         12,219
Women         7,126          12.5          4,83
Olt           15,694         8.8          14,467
Women         5,709          6.8          5,502
Valcea        14,359         8.1          13,921
Women         6,204          7.7          6,151

Region/         2010                2011
County

            The rate of      No. of     The rate of
            unemployment   unemployed   unemployment
                           registered
                             people

South--         9.2          69252          7.7
  West of
  Oltenia
Women           8.4          30100          7.1
Dolj            9.8          25396          8,9
Women           8.8          10937           8
Gorj            10.1         11306          7,8
Women           10.2          5176          7,8
Mehedinti       10.5         11373          9,7
Women           8.7           4723          8,4
Olt             8.2          11993          9,9
Women           6.6           5022          5,8
Valcea          7.7           9185          5,2
Women           7.6           4242          5,3

Source of data: Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2012c
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Title Annotation:Original Paper
Author:Ceana, Mihaela
Publication:Revista de Stiinte Politice
Date:Oct 1, 2014
Words:6291
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