The necessity to develop competencies in the field o cultural and intercultural education to the level of the students--prospective teachers.
The culture is the totality of the material and spiritual values of the society and cultural education emphasizes this concern derived at the pedagogical level, from the very meaning which it has education: in the Latin language "educere" means cultivation, transformation, overcoming the natural state existence.
The education comes close, but does not overlap with the notion of literacy, which is the one of its functions only, besides the functions of humanization, socialization, individualization, professionalism. One of the features of education is its axiological feature, the education is made by relating to a set of values widely recognized. Man is "a cultural human being and by that is educable" (Antonesei, 1996: 13-14).
The concern for the cultural education takes place in a complex context that includes references to a number of phenomena such as: the multiculturalism, the cultural relativism, the interculturalism as cultural exchange, the cultural negotiation and the need for everyone to be an active participant in the process of cultural building and reconstruction.
Going beyond the multiculturalism, the cultural pluralism meets the requirement of unity in diversity, which is itself a challenge, as practical goal, but this phenomenon is an important lever to the democratization of the social relations. From a constructivist point of view, it is obvious that cultural differences influence very much the learning and education (Richardson, 1997, Marlow, & Page, 2005, Henson, 2004).
The interculturalism makes references to process of the construction of social identity, which in its turn is the result of interaction of the psychological with the social at the individual level, with the possibility of differentiating oneself from the others, but also achieving the solidarity with the affiliation group. The process of the identity formation is a complex, tortuous process, marked by obstacles, stagnations, recoveries that never end and involves many life experiences, conflicts, changes, progresses of the person.
The European identity is a new concept which exploits the possibilities of the interculturalism and transculturalism, but at the same time, draws the attention to the compatibility between the national and the European values.
In the terms of the values it is showed that "The educational value is a standard that guides, directs the behavior of the actors involved, is a benchmark by which are built the principles that give the coherence to our critical judgments about the aesthetic, intellectual, religious, moral aspects and so on (...). In addition to the fundamental values (the truth, the good and the beauty--the eternal human values and the justice and freedom--the social values), there are contextual values (...), personal values (...) and specific values of the subjects of education (...)."(Ilie, 2011: 24-25).
Each of the education factors has a stronger or weaker influence, depending on the stage of life, but also on the social context in which a person lives, cumulating the effects of the others factors that acted before. It works here the explanation of the educational field as a "field of forces" (Lewin, 1989).
The partnership in education involves the relationship between the factors of education, by creating and operating some structures which support each other, in order to achieve common goals. The partnership is conducted either by the cooperation between two parties, for instance: family--school, or as a multiple partnership
The intercultural education, as a new education, is subsumed to the contemporary education issues, influenced in their turn by a number of social challenges: the globalization and the interdependence of the countries, the development of the New Information and Communication Technologies, the education decentralization, the democratization of the education, the requirement of participation in the civic life, the market economy, the changing of the attitudes and the education reform, the interculturalism.
In the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education in the XXI century, the intercultural education corresponds to the pillar of "learning to live together". According to the experts' recommendations, the universities should claim the intellectual and social vocation, the most important factor of the change of the conception being the globalization of the countries and human activity, the universal communication. Thus, "The education can promote the cohesion to the extent that we take into account the diversity of the individuals and groups, while trying not to cause their marginalization and social exclusion." (Delors, 2000: 41).
After (Ivasiuc Koreck & Kovari, 2010), the year 1984 marked at the European level a paradigm shift in which was unequivocally recognized the positive character of the integration of the populations resulting from the their migration and their contribution to the development of 'host' societies. Since that time were issued ideas to be applied in education (on the basis of a genuine intercultural dialogue) and in initial and continuous training of teachers in the field of the interculturalism. It is interesting, as showed the authors of the Research Report of The Community Development Agency "Together" the fact that the educational measures are no longer restricted to the groups perceived as minority, but are extended to all pupils, both majority and minority ones.
All the challenges or the major social changes (from 1990-2000) were determined, in addition to the positive effects, and a number of shortcomings at the social level:
--demographic imbalances (the overcrowding or, on the contrary, the reduction of the population);
--overturning the scale appreciation of the social values (especially the moral ones);
--economic changes, the underdevelopment, the poverty;
--the immigration etc.
In fact, the concept of the problematic of the contemporary education has existed since the '60s-'70s, when there was a chronic maladjustment of the school to life. In a paper entitled "The global crisis of education", 1968, the American Philip Coombs indicated the existence of certain functional differences between the education, as a social subsystem and the other subsystems of the society through: the gap between the supply (too low) and the demand (too large) of a quality education; the gap between the quality of the human resources offered by the education and the social needs; the inadequacy of the curricula and the methods to the demands of the society; the inertia of the organizational structures of the education systems in relation to the dynamics of the contemporary society etc.
We might consider that these challenges of the education (which are maintained throughout the post-communist period) are related to the current state of many countries, which are in the processes of social transition, but they also derived from the new requirements generated by the current socio-economic and cultural development.
More recently, sharply in the recent years, the functional gaps between the education and the other social sectors have been boosted mainly due to the emergence of new economic phenomena such as globalization and the competitiveness of the economic, the structural disruption of the labor market and the marginalization, the lack of integration economic of the youth. The intercultural education becomes this way a mean to prevent the conflicts' appearance by cultivating the empathy and the correct assessment of the interdependence.
From these trends and challenges have resulted at the level of the society: the need for man to permanent adapt to the pace of the social changes, the increase of the individual aspirations, the increase in their sense of personal dignity and the manifestation of man's need to relieve tensions, the need for confidence in the future and in progress, all being the arguments for the necessity of the self-education and lifelong learning.
As a general solution it was imposed the concept and the strategy of the sustainable development, which covers all the forms and methods of the socio-economic development, whose foundation is to ensure a balance between the socio-economic systems and the elements of the natural capital. Object of the sustainable development is the concern for justice and equity between countries, not only between generations. In the educational field, the sustainable development can be implemented by cooperation and intercultural dialogue, by curriculum innovation and consequently the innovation of the teaching-learning experiences through active learning and participation.
Another solution co-related with the intercultural approach is given by the education decentralization. If the quality assurance in education depends on the quality of the social life in general, the decentralization is dependent on the development of the local communities, with the valorization of the differentiated potential they may have, depending on the specific requirements of the labor market.
The numerous cases of school, family, social maladjustment, registered among young people are a worrying evidence that both the school, the family and the other social institutions and communities fail to fulfill their educational role always effective. Not all educational influences and actions have a convergent sense, although their purpose remains the same: to develop the child's personality.
Appears, therefore, absolutely necessary a collaboration among all the factors of the education, and this manner of conception and action is favorable for manifestation of the interculturalism, addressed in its natural environment, in informal and non-formal environments, not only in school.
The intercultural education of children, youth, and much more, the prospective teachers is closely linked to the promotion of the equal opportunities in education, as a basic principle in the current Law of Education (2010-2011).
This principle is correlated with the avoidance of the inequalities, discriminations of any kind: gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, age, sexual orientation, family and socio-economic status, health status, beliefs, physical condition, intellectual, social, and emotional condition, language. It makes references to the rights and duties of the educated and the educators and the education should be accessible, open to all.
The declared aims of the education indicate the following: the education aims to build certain values to guide the behavior and career of the beneficiaries, ensuring their social inclusion, the civic participation and the integration in the labor market.
The Education Act states that the education supports and promotes the patriotism by cultivating the love for the country and the attachment to the national traditions. The education and professional training in the national education system also aim: forming a conception of life based on humanistic and scientific values, on the national and universal culture, the fostering of the intercultural dialogue; the education in the spirit of respecting the rights and fundamental freedoms of the human beings, dignity and tolerance; growing the sensitivity to human issues, to moral and civic values, respect for the nature and the natural environment, social and cultural.
The equality of chances- refers to the fact that human beings are free to develop their personal abilities and choose without limitations imposed by the strict roles. The opposite of the equality is the discrimination when applying a different treatment for two people or situations where there is no relevant distinction between them. The equality of the chances or opportunities involves resolving the discrepancy between the right of self-determination and the effective experience of the self- determination (as show Mithaug, 1996).
Launched after 1990, the concern about the citizenship is considered "a paradigm of the political sciences that allows the interpretation of the democratic processes in terms of affiliation, political participation, identity, rights and responsibilities" (Barzea, 2005: 6). The education for active citizenship depends on variables such as: the age, the socio-economic and professional status, the education level, the nationality, the ethnicity. An important role for the manifestation of man as an active citizen at various levels--from the local community to national, to European and even global-- belongs to the quality of life, this being in the relation of reciprocal influence with the socio-human aspects, historical, political, economic, technological, informational of the reality.
The global education has been defined by the Global Education Congress (cited Kaivola & Melen-Paaso, 2007: 14) as "education that opens minds to people's eyes and the realities of the world, and awakens them to bring about a world of greater justice, equity and human rights for all. Global education is understood to encompass development education, human rights education, the education for sustainability, education for peace and conflict prevention and intercultural education, being the global dimensions of education for citizenship."
Worldwide, another phenomenon that interacts with the interculturalism is the migration, which is relatively small quantitative (approximately 3% of the world population). But in Europe, the migration has registered increased flows. Situations such as the ethnic conflicts, the nationalism, the terrorist threats, the environmental pollution, the diminishing of the solidarity among people, the distrust in the government forms and leaders remain issues to be solved and for this, the involvement/citizen activism and tolerant approach, peaceful being the ways to prevent or solve (Sartori, G., 2007).
Nowadays, the concern over these situations arises again, due to the risks generated in provoking crises, at the local or regional level, from the economic point of view, which could adversely affect the social order or could trigger riots from ethnic or religious grounds. The demographic decline caused by migration is given by the direct loss of the people leaving, followed by the temporal effects of damaging the population age structure.
Almost all the nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development continued to face the migration of the qualified personnel who populated the nodes of an increasingly global economy. In the last twenty years, these flows were accompanied at the global level by the human movements from South Asia to the Gulf and Middle East (Held et al., 2004).The effects of the migration can be: changes in the social identity (in national plan, historical, civic, political); the fact that the emigration of the young people, parents influences the idea of family, the functions/role in the society (social, educational level); economic, demographic dysfunctions.
But the main effect of the migration is that it compels those who migrate to develop a number of new roles. Therefore, the European Commission Report--Teaching and Learning. Towards the Learning Society (2002)--showed that the training and education throughout life help to maintain economic competitiveness, in employment, but also is a way to combat the social exclusion.
We may conclude, therefore, that, in terms of notional, the interculturalism sets the priority ties with: the equality, the chances, the access, the success, the rights, the responsibilities, the focusing on the educated one, the dignity, the self- determination, the protection, the justice, the ethics, pluralism, tolerance, justice, solidarity, active citizenship, participation in the distribution of benefits, integrated education/inclusive school.
The European Parliament proclaimed the year 2008 as the European Year of the Intercultural Dialogue, and one of the key competencies required to young people is the competency of sensitiveness and cultural expression.
The intercultural Pedagogy is a trans-disciplinary field with psychological bases/roots, anthropological, sociological, communicative, philosophical, demographic, geographic, historical, political, international relations.
2. Experiences and possibilities of action in the intercultural training of the trainers
On a practical level, in education, the eco-cultural model means respecting the diversity. Neamtu conducted an inventory of the difficulties of the values internalization in the process of socialization at teenagers and, we would add, many of them are maintained during academic studies for young people aged 19-23 years: "low tolerance to frustration, poor self-control, self-centeredness, impulsivity, aggression, underestimating the seriousness of the mistakes and acts committed, the underdevelopment of the moral feelings, the indifference or contempt for socially useful activities, the avoidance of voluntary effort, the desire to achieve an easy life, the opposition to the legal, moral, social norms, the poor self-valorization, the false image about the world" (Neamtu, 2003: 55).
The academic training has a cultural background that tends to turn into trans- disciplinarity considering the globalization study programs and student mobility. The teachers in the higher education succeed to adapt to this specific through a reflective attitude on the approach of the students in teaching-learning-assessment, the interactions they promote; university broadcasts culture, and culture is diverse, being desirable the interculturalism.
The professionalization of the teachers was in the last three decades in a period of major restructuring. The concern for providing the professional approach to the teaching career is constant in the recent years in many other European countries. Such restructuring is determined by the fact that education, in general and the teacher's activity, in particular, are extremely sensitive to the social and community dynamics; they evolve almost simultaneously with them.
The teaching professionalization requires not only a harmonization of the teacher personality dimensions in accordance with the requirements for acting the specific roles, but also brings to the fore those dimensions ensuring the quality and efficiency of solving the more complex existential situation.
The transversal competencies of the students who will be teachers aim the recognition and respect for the diversity and multiculturalism, the openness to the lifelong learning, and the respect and development of the professional values and ethics, the active insertion in the community, school and professional community, cultivating a school environment focused on the democratic values and relationships. The professional needs are established both in the initial training of the pupils or students and the continuous training of the young people or adults; these needs are reassessed, adapted within the qualification, requalification, professional retraining or improvement. Voiculescu (2004: 99-120) includes the professional needs within the educational needs of the people (analyzed by the size of the education), considering that they imposed themselves the most powerful because they act both within school and outside (at the level of society).
The reputed teacher of Pedagogy, Constantin Cucos, proposed in 2000, the initial and continuous training of the teachers, the training and intercultural training, seen not as a theory but as a methodology to be systematized in the following dimensions:
--personal dimension, regarding the own psycho-behavioral profile of the teacher, by overcoming the personal prejudices and stereotypes;
--cognitive dimension, of knowledge by the teacher of the historical, geographical, anthropological, sociological prerequisites, on the generation and consequences of the intercultural phenomena.
--methodological dimension, which refers to the accumulation of the methods and procedures to store and stimulate the differences, the application of the methods of differentiation and customization of values;
--relational dimension, of deep knowledge of the actual data about the pupils who are working with.
A powerful argument for the acceptance of the diversity is the creative contribution brought by the human heterogeneity; however, addressing the problem requires a critical-constructive attitude, analyzing the advantages, but also the potential problems caused by the interculturalism.
2. An example in the training of the teachers. Curricular documents analysis method
In the following table is made an excerpt on the correspondence among the existing undergraduate specializations at the University of Craiova (Decision no. 707 of 18/07/2012, published in Monitorul Oficial, Part 1, no. 525 of 30/07/2012) and the teaching positions in the secondary education, related to teaching the Civic Education (in secondary school) (Extract from the Summary of disciplines, fields and specializations, and competition tests available to hire teachers in secondary education, 2012).
We mention that in present, by the psycho-pedagogical studies, level 2 during the master studies in the same specialization as the one of the Bachelor studies, the graduated are entitled to become teachers in the non-binding education (high- school, academia), so for the specializations listed above, the Intercultural Education can be taught in high school.
We could also notice, through the vast connections that intercultural education sets, the fact that even a foreign language teacher, a teacher of History, economics etc. are agents of intercultural education achievement of pupils. The most interesting aspect is that the pupils themselves (especially if they have a different cultural affiliation, ethnic etc.) become factors, active agents of intercultural education in the class or school in question.
We analyze further an important curricular document: The Syllabus for the optional class "The Intercultural Education" (Curriculum by the decision of the school for the high school), approved by the Minister Order No.5817/06.12.2010, 1 hour per week at high-school, any class depending on the school.
The arguments presented in the Syllabus are in fact the pursued goals:
--preparing young people for openness to the intercultural dimension of their existence;
--develop students' ability to recognize the diversity in its various forms;
--training young people as able to appreciate different cultures, to respect and positively value the cultural differences;
--develop students' ability to communicate and cooperate with the people belonging to different cultures, operating under fair representations of differences among ethnicities, races, cultures, genders, religions, social groups, professional groups, etc.;
--developing the skills of the youth regarding the participation to enrich the community life by sharing the identity elements, by dialogue and social participation;
--developing skills to live with others in a good intercultural living.
The above Syllabus assumes a range of values and attitudes: the positive valuing of the cultural differences; positive attitude towards individuals and groups belonging to different cultures, supporting different values, opinions and beliefs; respect for their own cultural identity and the cultural identity of others; respect for the dignity and human rights; tolerance and understanding; peaceful resolution of the conflicts; cultural empathy; civic spirit; availability for the intercultural dialogue and cooperation.
The curricula contents refer both to the theoretical aspects such as: the social Diversity and cultural Diversity; the Education for the Interculturalism: Learning to live together and the applicative issues related to the Intercultural Education Project.
We consider that the student mobility, the personal and institutional development programs, as educational exchanges--are opportunities that have utility in teacher training.
At the level of originality of the analyzed syllabus is emphasized the role of the intercultural projects proposed for the prospective teachers. These projects have the following structure (stages).
A simpler version: local intercultural project:
--Identifying the subject;
--Planning the collection of information;
--Collecting of information (multiple interactions, including with members of the local minority communities, if applicable);
--Summary information and product realization;
--Presentation of the product made;
--Reflecting on the whole experience: acquisitions acquired (knowledge, skills, attitudes); running the process, conclusions on designing and implementing an intercultural project.
A more complex version--cultural partnership:
--Training: establishing a partnership with a class from another school (can be from the same locality, in another city or even another country);
--The mutual presentation of the partner classes;
--Identify the subject;
--Planning the collection of information;
--Collection of information (possible collaboration with the partners);
--Summarizing the information and product realization;
--Presentation of the product produced. Analysis of the product made conducted by the partner class product and provide feedback;
--Possible review of the product based on the suggestions and questions received from the partners;
--Reflecting on the entire experience: acquisitions acquired (knowledge, skills, attitudes); running of the process, conclusions on development and implementation of a intercultural project;
--Exchange of impressions and information with partners.
The instructive-educational methodology uses the debates, questionings for the clarification of the problems, exercises, simulations, case studies, analysis of texts, documents, the analysis of some footage projections, problem solving, the participation in the proposal, implementation of some projects, the approach from the multiple perspectives, the achievement of educational portfolios.
The assessing methods used include mainly the alternative assessment by observation of the behavior, portfolio, self-assessment, reciprocal assessment etc.
Analyzing the student record documents, in 2014, at the Teacher Training Department of the University of Craiova, level 1, are enrolled a number of 40 foreign students. Compared to the number of the Romanian students (2785), the ratio is 1,41 %, but these intercultural influences are not formally structured in a strictly determined way, quantitatively and qualitatively.
The global evaluations of the students, we work with, show that there are clear benefits in the terms of integration of the foreign students, of the cultural exchanges (data about geography, history, lifestyle, education, customs, food etc.), as the phenomena of cultural integration.
At the level of the university students we can notice this interaction of the majority with the foreign students studying in Craiova and also the interaction of the Romanian students who benefit from programs, mobility projects abroad, as experiences with a real value for their professional and personal development.
The Erasmus Mundus Program--(http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/ erasmus_mundus/index_en.php) aims to improve the quality of the higher education and to promote the intercultural dialogue, by cooperation of the EU countries with other countries; Erasmus is the most important program of education and professional training in the European Union in terms of the mobility and cooperation of the students, teachers intending to teach abroad or university staff wishing to undertake training abroad.
During the initial training for the teaching profession, in parallel with the master cycle in college, the students who prepare to be teachers attend the class named: The Designing and Management of the Educational Programs, by which they can form the following professional competencies:
--Design, application, implementation and evaluation of the educational curriculum;
--Management and monitoring of the process of education and training of students;
--Design and implementation of pupils assessment and educational activities;
--Undertaking professional cooperation at the school level, with family and the local community to solve various problems of education.
The transversal competencies formed to students are: applying the principles and rules of professional conduct, based on explicit value options, specific to the future teacher, efficient cooperation in professional work teams, interdisciplinary, specific to conducting projects and programs in the education field.
Later, in school, the design and project management are activities that can support particularly from the methodic point of view (procedural organization), structural (structural organization) and human resource management, a complex task in a dynamic environment (Mocanu & Schuster, 2001). Neacsu also indicated strengths in students learning and we consider that these advantages are useful in their intercultural education (Neacsu, 2006; 18-19):
--rapidly widened access to modern information sources, allocation of free time differently as quantitative and use index value (either the social exerting pressure or creating opportunities to high standards);
--broad communicational experience based on direct use of 2-3 languages in documentation, in rapid access to intercultural values or by applying complex and powerful operating system packages (word processing, graphical user interfaces with multiple use);
--increased role for IQ, not only cognitive, but also intelligence emotional, consisting of empathic capacities, control and emotional self-control, communication etc.;
--enriched methodological and attitudinal experience, also social experience.
The media and the New Technologies of Informatics and Communication provide opportunities for remote interaction through various means of access that young people have joined very fast and they use frequently in the social communication.
The post-modern approach in Pedagogy takes into account the following: acceptance variants, indeterminacy, ambivalence, nonconformity, contextualism, decentralization, interdisciplinarity, changing strategies, relationship democratization, concern for the organization of knowledge and the main values promoted are: freedom, tolerance, unselfishness, originality, performance, interculturalism.
Antonesei, L., (1996). Pedagogy. Cultural Foundations of Education. Iasi: Polirom.
Barzea, C., (2005). European Citizenship. SNSPA: Politeia.
Cucos, C., (2000). Education. Cultural and intercultural dimensions. Iasi: Polirom.
Coombs, Ph. (1968).The world educational crisis. Paris: P.U.F.
Dasen, P., Perregaux, C., Rey, M., (1999). Intercultural education. Iasi: Editura Polirom.
Delors, J., (2000). Inner treasure. The report to UNESCO of the International Commision for Education in XXI century. Iasi: Editura Polirom.
Held, D. et al., (2004). Global transformations. Policy, Economics and Culture. Iasi: Polirom.
Henson, K.T., (2004). Constructivist Teaching Strategies for diverse middle- level classrooms. Boston: Pearson Education.
Ilie, V., (2011). Forming the teaching style from the perspective of the new educationsi. Craiova: Universitaria.
Ivasiuc, A., Koreck, M., Kovari, R., (2010). Intercultural education: from theory to practice --implementing the intercultural education in multiethnic schools from Romania-- The research Report of the Community Development Agency "Together" retrieved from http://www.ardor.org.ro/content/ro/educatia_interculturala.pdf (accessed on 25.03.2014)
Kaivola T. & Melen-Paaso M., (eds.) (2007). Education for Global Responsibility- -Finnish Perspectives. Publications of the Ministry of Education. In http://www.minedu.fi/export/sites/default/OPM/Julkaisut/2007/liitteet/opm31.pdf7 lang =en (accessed at 02.03.2014)
Lewin, K., (1989). Management in Organization. London: Free Press.
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Marlow, B.A., Page, L., (2005). Creating and Sustainig the constructivist Classroom. Thousand Oaks California: Corwin Press 4, SAGE Publications Company.
Neamtu, C., (2003). Scholar deviance--Intervention Guide in the case of the behavioral problems of the pupils. Iasi: Polirom.
Richardson, V (1997). Constructivist Teacher Education. Building a World of New Understandings. London: Rutledge Falmer.
Sartori, G., (2007). What should we do with strangers. Pluralism and multiculturalism. Bucharest: Humanity.
Voiculescu, F., (2004). Resources -Needs Analyses and the strategic management in education. Bucharest: Aramis.
Received: April 20 2014
Accepted: April 30 2014
*** (2001). Sustainable Development. Critical Issue. OECD Report In www.oecd.org (accessed at 11.03. 2012)
*** Intercultural education retrieved from http://www.ardor.org.ro/content/ro/educatia_interculturala.pdf (accessed on 31.03. 2014)
**** The Syllabus for the optional class "The Intercultural Education". Curriculum by the decision of the school for the high school approved by the Minister Order No. 5817/06.12.2010.
Ecaterina Sarah Frasineanu, Lecturer, Ph.D., University of Craiova, Department of Teacher Training, Pedagogy Specialization, Phone: +40 251 422567; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. The correspondence between the specialized studies and specialty of the teaching position Communication Sciences. Communication and public relations--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education Sciences of Education. Pedagogy of Primary and Preschool Education- position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education, position of Pedagogy-Social Studies, High School Philosophy--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education Sociology--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education, position of Sociology, Sociology--Social Studies high school education Communication Sciences: Journalism--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education Political Sciences--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education Law Sciences--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education History--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education International Relations and European Studies--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education Administrative Sciences: Public Administration--position of Civic Culture, gymnasium education, high-school education Source: Author's own compilation
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|Title Annotation:||Original Paper|
|Author:||Frasineanu, Ecaterina Sarah|
|Publication:||Revista de Stiinte Politice|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2014|
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