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The music manuscripts of the Grey Collection in Cape Town and their European connections.

The Grey Collection was a gift to the National Library (formerly the South African Library) in Cape Town from Sir George Grey, governor of the Cape from 1854 to 1861, who left his collection of 5,000 books to the Library when he was transferred to New Zealand. The 114 Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts form one of the most valuable parts of the Collection, and certainly the most beautiful. Within the collection there are fourteen music MSS and they will be examined in this article.

Sir George had governed the Cape Colony for six years and had already left it for his second term of office as Governor of New Zealand when he wrote to Mr Justice E.B. Watermeyer from Government House, Auckland, on 21 October 1861, announcing his gift. In the letter he said,
   For three years one of the chief delights of my life has been to
   collect a Library, which I hoped would form the charm and
   recreation of my middle life and of my old age ... I believe South
   Africa will be a great country, that Cape Town, or its vicinity,
   will, for many reasons, be the point of chief education for its
   young men. There can, therefore, be no more fitting or worthy
   resting place for treasures, which I have accumulated with so much
   care. (2)


A year before, in 1890, Sir George had offered at least part of his library to the then-British Museum. They apparently declined the offer, and South Africa became the recipient of Grey's gift. (3)

The presence of these Western manuscripts in Africa, far removed as they are from African cultures and traditions, has often been noted as a curiosity And indeed there are very few other Western manuscripts from that period in Africa, even taking into account manuscripts in private possession. Yet the Grey Collection in Cape Town is well-known world-wide. Research on a number of the 14 music manuscripts in particular has established them among the known and cited sources of especially Western plainchant (4) and has succeeded in placing these manuscripts in the context of their European 'families'. There is much work that still needs to be done, however.

There has been no assessment of such research since 1995, when an article 'Manuscripts in the Grey Collection' by Carol Steyn appeared in the commemorative issue of the Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library celebrating its 50th anniversary. (5) Since it was an overview of the Grey Collection as a whole, this article dealt with the manuscripts, only cursorily with the music manuscripts. Although a catalogue, entitled The Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Grey Collection of the National Library of South Africa, Cape Town, appeared in 2002, (6) in which research up to that date was mentioned, there was no discussion of the content of the research as such.

The most recent research in which a manuscript from the Grey Collection was very successfully and firmly placed in a 'family' is Morne Bezuidenhout's Historia Sancti Ludgeri. (7)

Bezuidenhout edited the full Historia from eight manuscripts that include the entire corpus of chants for the Historia Sancti Ludgeri, the printed Antiphonale Monasteriense of 1537, (8) two manuscript breviaries, and the printed breviaries of 1518 and 1597. His bibliography lists 35 manuscripts as primary sources, all of them except for MS Grey 4.b.5 at present in libraries in the Munster region. MS Grey 4.b.5, dated the second half of the thirteenth century, is a composite book consisting of quires taken from a notated breviary (late thirteenth century) and an antiphonal (mid-thirteenth century). The antiphonal contains the complete rhymed office (text and music) for the feast of St Liudger on 26 March on ff. 48v and 99r. (9) The presence of St Liudger, (10) made it possible to determine the provenance of the manuscript as Munster in Westphalia. The antiphonal quires contain the historia chants for Matins, Vespers and Lauds for the feast of St Liudger (f. 47r-48v; 99r-99v). Bezuidenhout limited the sources underlying the present edition to those used in the diocese of Munster. Material for the celebration of the feasts of St Liudger in books from other areas are reserved for later study. (11) The main part of the book. The Historia de Sancto Ludgero, is a critical edition of sources that include the entire body of chants for the feasts of St Liudger of 26 March and 3 October, (12) or both.

During the 1990's Bezuidenhout placed two other music manuscripts from the Grey Collection in both a Franciscan context and in the context of having been present at the Church of Sancta Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome.

In an as-yet-unpublished D. Mus thesis, entitled 'New Roman Chant in the Grey Collection of the South African Library: Manuscript Grey 6 b 2', Bezuidenhout determined that the manuscript, which includes a calendar, psalter, hymnal, and litany, was written in Central Italy for the Franciscan order in the early fourteenth century. (13) Manuscript Grey 6.b.2 represents the Modern Roman Liturgy, the introduction of which had been propagated most strongly by the Franciscans. Written around 1300 in Central Italy, the manuscript reveals its Franciscan origin by providing four hymns for the feast of St Francis on 4 October; for Vespers: 'Proles de cello prodjjt', for Matins: 'In celesti collegio', for Lauds: 'Plaude turba paupercula', for second Vespers and the whole week: 'Decus morum dux minorum' (f. 183 r-185 r). A fifth hymn in honour of St Francis is added by the scribe of the main text on f. 197 r: 'Celorum candor splenduit'. A maximum of three hymns is provided for other feasts. A second stage in the history of the manuscript can be recognised when, during the fifteenth century, it passed into the hands of the Augustinians. This can be recognized in the calendar, where some entries or parts of entries of typically Franciscan feasts were erased and Augustinian feasts entered; for example the entry for 4 October read originally: 'Natale beati francisci confessoris Funditoris ordinis minorum duplex officium maius' [For the birth of the blessed Francis, Founder of the order minor] (f. 5v); later the words 'Funditoris ordinis minorum' were erased and the 'Octava s. Francisci' [Octave of St Francis] on 11 October was deleted. One of the added feasts at this stage was Translatio beatissimi Augustini doctoris ...' [Translation of the most blessed doctor Augustinus] on 28 February (f. 1v). (14) During the third stage Augustinian feasts were erased. Entries in this third stage do not point to any specific order.

By the early sixteenth century the manuscript was at the church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, where it was repaired. This is documented by a note in the lower margin of f. 197r, written by the Prior of Santa Cecilia: 'Restauratum de mense augusti 1518 ... ' [Repaired in the month of August 1518...] It was probably during this period that a number of the Augustinian additions (including the translation of SS Augustine added in the fifteenth century, Monica and Clare, and St Nicholas) were erased. In ca. 1420 Martin V granted both the church of Santa Cecilia and the adjoining monastery to the congregation of Sant Salvatore, founded by Saint Brigid, (15) and there is clear evidence that the monastery was in the possession of Bridgidine monks in 1425. By 1438 Humiliati monks had returned to the monastery; they remained there until 1527 when the Benedictine nuns, who still occupy the monastery today, succeeded them. (16)

The text of manuscript Grey 6.b.2 is an additional source of Franciscan liturgy in the first century of the existence of the order.

Bezuidenhout, in An Italian Office Book of the Late Thirteenth Century, published in 1990, (17) describes Manuscript Grey 6.b.4 as a late thirteenth-century secular office book from Central or Southern Italy. It contains a collectar, a calendar, a ferial psalter with noted antiphons and hymns, a noted hymnal, and some later additions. In a foreword to Bezuidenhout's book, Giulio Cattin points out that during the thirteenth century many liturgical communities that had traditionally practiced some form of Roman chant accepted the new codification propagated by the Franciscan order. Manuscript Grey 6.b.4 is an example of this development. Its contents indicate a transition from an older Gregorian tradition including a number of regional variants specifically associated with Southern Italy and the Franciscan practices. It also reflects a transitional stage between the early, pre-Haymonian Franciscan liturgy and the reforms of this liturgy initiated by Haymo of Faversham in the 1240s.

The sanctorale in the collectar includes all the feasts with proper chapters and collects that appear in the Romano-Franciscan liturgy before ca. 1250. The palaeographic appearance of the manuscript, the entries for St Dominic, St Leo and St Maximus in the calendar, and the use of the Roman version in the psalter confirm a Central Italian origin. The manuscript was written in the late thirteenth century after 1279, the year in which the capitulars of Assisi added St Elizabeth of Hungary to the Franciscan Lenten litany. Later fourteenth- or fifteenth-century additions indicate that the MS was used at Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, probably from the fourteenth century.

The majority of the texts, rubrics, and melodies in the original part of this manuscript (ff. 1-133r) are in accordance with the Romano-Franciscan liturgy--the liturgy of the papal court that the Franciscans adopted and revised during the thirteenth century. The manuscript was not written for the Franciscan order, but for a liturgical community that adopted the 'new' liturgy, while retaining elements of their local liturgy. Many of the non-Franciscan features are typical of MSS with Gregorian chant from Central and Southern Italy. (18)

Although manuscripts Grey 6.b.2 and 6.b.4 were not originally written for Santa Cecilia, both contain annotations indicating that they were at the church during the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries. According to a note on f. 197r MS 6.b.2 was repaired at Santa Cecilia in August 1518; the flyleaves in the manuscript are from an eleventh- or twelfth-century Bible and were probably taken from an old manuscript at Santa Cecilia when MS 6.b.2 was restored. (19)

Later entries on the last page of MS 6.b.4 associate this manuscript with the church of Santa Cecilia and the Ordo Humiliatorum. The use of the manuscript at Santa Cecilia is indicated by the addition to the calendar, on 3 June (f. 32v), of an entry for the dedication of an altar, erected over the body of St Cecilia by Pope Gregory VII on 3 June 1080, reading 'Dedicatio eclesie sancte Cecilie trastyberine de urbo anno domini m.lxxx indictione iii'. There is also a group of entries on f. 144v. At the top of the page one can read in large Gothic letters of the thirteenth or fourteenth century: '... do humi ...'; this would suggest an ownership note of the Ordo Humiliatorum. Another ownership note appearing on f. 144v reads, 'Iste liber ... ecclesie sante cec ... tibren ...' Later entries in the calendar of feasts that were of special importance to the Humiliati corroborate these readings. (20)

There is some evidence indicating that MSS 6.b.6-8 (s. x-xii) could have been used at the church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, or at a church following the Old Roman rite. These MSS are not music manuscripts, however, and, unfortunately, they have yet to be studied in depth. There is a colophon of possibly the fifteenth century on f. 195v of Ms 6.b.8 pointing to Santa Cecilia; unfortunately part of the text was erased at some stage and replaced with a now nearly illegible text: in the following transcript the new text appears in lower case : 'EGO BENEDICTUS/PRB. HUNC LIBRUM/ SCRIBERE IUSSI/ QUO SACR. CAECILIE/MARTI ... VEN/TER O.H ... RO vos qui le/gite orate pro me peccatore'. Another aspect that links these MSS to the Santa Cecila collection is that they were sold together with other manuscripts from Santa Cecilia at an auction in 1859. (21)

Another manuscript that is not a musical source in the strict sense of the word is MS Grey 48.b.4-5, a two-volume Legendarium ad usum ecclesiae sanctae Cecilae de Urbe that is, a collection of legends of the saints read during the offices in the church of Santa Cecilia at Rome, dating from the late eleventh or early twelfth century. This was described by Christoph Stroux in an article, 'Saint Cecilia's Books at the Cape of Good Hope: A Preliminary report'. (22)

It is apparent from the exceptionally large initials that this legendary was written for a church at which the feasts of Santa Cecilia on 22 November (vol. 2, f. 89r to f. 95 v) and Pope Urban I on 25 May, (vol. 1, f. 109 r, breaks off with f. 111r, after which eight folios are missing) were observed with special solemnity. A text on Pope Paschal I is included in the Legend of St Cecilia (vol. 2, f. 94r to f. 95 v). The identification of the place of origin of this legendary, however, can be achieved in another, surprising way. The present state of the manuscript is determined by the fact that it was divided and bound in two volumes at a time (probably the sixteenth century) when a number of leaves had already been lost,. Vol. 1 has lost its first seventeen folios and begins in the middle of the legend of St Julian of Antioch (9 January) continuing to St Aurea (24 August). The following legend (St Genesius, 25 August), begins at the top of a new folio; it was convenient to separate the two volumes at this point. There remain, however, some clues to the state of the manuscript before its division; the gatherings of both volumes are numbered continuously in a twelfth-century hand, the rubric of St Genesius at the end of vol. 1 is separated from the main text that begins in vol. 2, and vol. 1 ends with a single folio that has been cut off from the first 8-folio gathering of vol. 2.

The second volume contains the Legends for the rest of the calendar year until 31 December (St Silvester, f. 126 r-138 v), after which the scribe of the main text added the legend of St Anthony the Abbot, which is without date in the manuscript, but is usually celebrated on 17 January (vol. 2, f. 138 v-151 v). Further additions were made in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, such as the Legend of the foundation of the Roman basilica Santa Maria Maggiore (feast of Our Lady of the Snow, 5 August) written by a fourteenth-century hand on the double leaf f. 152-153. When a short note on the distribution of the texts among the two volumes had been published in the preliminary catalogue of the Grey manuscripts (23) F. Dolbeau confirms that the Grey manuscript is the long-lost original legendary of Santa Cecilia, which is known in Europe only via a copy in the Vatican Library (ms. Vat. Lat. 6075-6076). (24)

The Legendary of Santa Cecilia has much to offer to the historian of music. One interesting feature is the addition of two chant texts in honour of Santa Cecilia, in the margin of vol. 2, f. 89r, by a scribe of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, "Temporibus imperatorum" and "Sertum ter denum". (25) Secondly, the Legendary provides a nearly complete survey of the feasts of the saints celebrated at Santa Cecilia throughout the year.

Sir George Grey bought the Cape Town manuscripts from Santa Cecilia in 1859 or 1860 from Bernard Quaritch in London as part of a group of manuscripts that had originally been offered at a sale at Messrs Sotheby & Wilkinson, London. (26) The Sotheby and Wilkinson auction catalogue mainly lists manuscripts from the collection of M. Libri, but the Grey manuscripts from Santa Cecilia form part of 'a consignment from Abroad, added by kind permission of M. Libri'. (27)

The 'M. Libri' who was the source of the Sotheby and Wilkinson auction was the notorious, Guglielmo Libri. Guglielmo Icilio Timoleone Libri, Conte Carrucci della Somaia, was born in Florence on 2 January 1803 and died at Fiesole on 28 September 1869. A mathematician with a special interest in the history of mathematics, he became professor of mathematics at the College de France in 1832 and was made a member of the Academie des Sciences in 1833. In 1836, he was appointed as professor of analysis at the Sorbonne. His most important work is the Histoire des sciences mathematiques en Italie, depuis la renaissance des lettres jusqu'a la fin du dix-septieme siecle (Paris, 1838-41), for which he had made extensive studies of manuscript sources. He had by this time already formed a vast collection of manuscripts, autographs, and printed books, and was dealing in these items commercially. (28)

The bibliographical and palaeographical expertise of Libri led to his appointment as secretary of a commission for the cataloguing of the manuscript collection of all French public libraries, which had been formed by the government in 1841. Rumours began to circulate that he was stealing from the libraries to sell through his dealership, leading at first to a secret inquiry. The report submitted to the government shortly before the revolution of 1848 estimated the value of the manuscripts and printed books stolen by Libri at 500 000 francs. Shortly after the revolution, Libri fled to London with eighteen cases of books. On 22 June 1850, a French court condemned Libri to ten years imprisonment in his absence. Libri lived from 1848 to about 1860 in London, where he was active in buying and selling manuscripts. The number of manuscripts and printed books sold by Libri between 1835 and 1860 has not yet been established, but it must have been enormous. The remainder of Libri's collection in Paris, sold by order of the French court in 1855, consisted of a further 2000 or so lots; some of these were probably not sold and found their way back to Libri. (29)

There are twenty manuscripts from Libri's collections in the South African Library. Sir George Grey bought them all from Bernard Quaritch between 1858 and 1860. Nineteen of these manuscripts had been offered at the Libri sale of Messrs Sotheby in March and April 1859, the exception being MS Grey 48.b.2, which figured already in a Sotheby sale of 1849 (this is a Hebrew Old Testament codex from Spain). (30) The history of nine Italian manuscripts and one each from France and Britain cannot be traced back to the period before they came into Libri's possession. This group includes the polyphonic music manuscript 3.b.12. A further three manuscripts had been bought by Libri during the 1850s (2.a.24, 4.c.12, 7.b.13). MS 48.b.4-5 shows in some margins cuts that are characteristic of other Libri manuscripts. There is also the imprint of a rusty pair of scissors between the folios of this manuscript. This could have been Libri's instrument. (31)

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Carol Steyn wrote her doctoral thesis on three Carthusian manuscripts in the Grey collection. This was later published as Three Unknown Carthusian Liturgical Manuscripts with Music of the 14th to the 16th Centuries in the Grey Collection, South African Library, Cape Town. (32) The manuscripts are: Grey MS 4.c.7, a complete antiphonary, containing all the chants for the offices of the liturgical year, a hymnary, a tonary, and a kyriale; Grey MS 6.b.3, a Carthusian evangeliary, the main musical interest of which are the accent neumes at the ends of the pericopes; and Grey MS 3.c.23, an antiphonary for nuns, containing the chants for Lauds and Vespers

Carthusian antiphonaries are rare. The most comprehensive list that has been published up to now mentions 46 manuscripts. These three manuscripts are therefore significant within the larger context of these manuscripts.

The provenance of MS 4.c.7 is recorded in the manuscript as the Charterhouse of Dijon. The date was determined as 1398, after an assessment of the palaeographical details of the text and music and the liturgical content, as well as the books of account of the scriptorium of the Charterhouse, now conserved in the Departmental Archives of the Cote d'Or. Grey MS 4.c.7 provides direct evidence regarding its origin through an exlibris on f. 1r in a hand different from the hands of the scribes, but contemporaneous with the manuscript itself. The note of ownership reads: 'Iste liber est dom(us) s(an)cte trinitatis ordi(ni)s cartusien(sis) p(ro)pe Divionem' [This book belongs to the house of St Trinity of the Carthusian order at Dijon]. This is a clear indication of the origin as the prestigious Charterhouse of Champmol near Dijon, founded by Philippe le Hardi, Duke of Burgundy, in 1378, as a mausoleum for him and his family. The Holy Trinity was the patron of the Charterhouse and the church was consecrated on 24 May 1388. (33)

Beginning in 1384, the ducal treasury recorded disbursements for volumes necessary for Champmol, including manuscripts for the liturgy and the private devotion of the monks. The library was still intact when the Charterhouse was destroyed in 1793 in a fire. The manuscripts and books were dispersed in a sale in Paris that lasted from 21 April to 30 May 1803. A few of the manuscripts from the Charterhouse are now in Dijon, Bibliotheque municipal; further volumes are scattered in other libraries around the world and can be identified by the ex-libris of the charterhouse. Grey MS 4.c.7 is one of these volumes. (34)

Grey MS 6.b.3 is signed at the end by the scribe, Amelontius de Ercklems, and dated 1520. Features such as the liturgical content and the nature and style of the illuminations made it possible to determine as provenance the Charterhouse of Our Lady of the Twelve Apostles at Liege.

Grey MS 3.c.23 is dated 1538 at the end of the temporale. The owner's name, 'Soeur Marie Utens,' inscribed on the first folio, indicates the provenance of the manuscript: the Charterhouse of Mont-Sainte-Marie at Gosnay, near Arras, in Picardy, France, where Marie and her two sisters were nuns during the early seventeenth century. This signature made it possible also to locate two similar manuscripts in France and two in Slovenia. (35) All five of these manuscripts are antiphonaries for Lauds, the Daily Hours, and Vespers, which would have been given to nuns at the Charterhouse when they took their vows. They are the only extant Carthusian antiphonaries in manuscript for Lauds and Vespers. They are dated between 1537 and 1548. (36)

It was possible to establish the history of Sister Marie Utens because of the existence of MS Selignac 45, formerly in the Chartreuse of Selignac, near Simandre, France. The manuscript is now in the library of the Grande Chartreuse following the dissolution of the Chartreuse of Selignac. A portion of this manuscript, written by Abbe Ingold towards the end of the nineteenth century, recounts the history of the Utens family. Marie was the eldest daughter of Jasper Utens, a librarian, and a son of one of the first families of Leuven. She entered the Charterhouse for nuns at Gosnay, and Grey MS 3.c.23 was probably given to her when she took her vows in 1614 at the age of sixteen. (37) As the MS is dated 1538, we can see how successive nuns passed the MS down within the Charterhouse/ nunnery.

Grey MS 3.c.23 is an almost exact copy of MS AGC CII 817 in the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble. On the flyleaf at the end of the latter is written in the same Gothic hand as the rest of the manuscript 'The book belongs to Sister Anne de Monchy, nun of the cloister of St Mary at Gosnay, written by Brother Loys de Villebecq, humble vicar of the monastery above, 1537' (my translation). Two of the miniatures in the two manuscripts show a marked similarity. The same illumination also appears in MS Pleterje 4, f. 85r. MS Caen, Mus. Des Beaux-arts, coll. Mancel 242 is the third almost identical manuscript. It has on the last page the inscription 'This book is for the use of Dame Jacqueline de Mons, nun of the church and monastery of the Carthusian order and sacristan of this church' (my translation). MS Chartreuse de Pleterje, MS 4, as well as MS Pleterje 2 are almost identical to the other antiphonaries. On the last page of MS 4 is the inscription: 'This book is the property of sister Franchoise de la Haye, nun of the Carthusian order in the house of St Mary of Gosnay at Bethune written by Brother Jehan Marissal in the year of grace 1546' and in MS 2 the colophon on the last page reads 'The present book is for the use of sister Marie de la Fosse, professed nun of Mont St Marie at Gosnay of the Carthusian order'(my translations). MS Pleterje 2 is another manuscript written by Jehan Marissal and dated 1548. (38)

Mont-Sainte-Marie de Gosnay is unique in that many of their music manuscripts have been preserved, in contrast to almost none from the other charterhouses for nuns. In addition to the five antiphonaries mentioned there are also four small manuscripts from Mont-Sainte Marie containing the rite of the consecration of virgins. These four MSS are in Valenciennes, Bibliotheque Municipale, MS 140; Paris, MS Bibliotheque Nationale, Latin 1437; MS Bibliotheque Nationale, Latin 1438 and Douai, MS Douai 569. It has been possible to trace the histories of all the nuns to whom the manuscripts had belonged and all are linked with the Charterhouse of Gosnay. (39)

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Three further manuscripts, 7.a.27 (Premonstratensian), 6.b.12 (Augustinian) and 3.b.12 (one of the 'Libri' manuscripts), have been studied in depth but not connected to other European centres.

Of the five remaining MSS in the Grey collection, researchers are working on MS 7.a.28 and MS 48. b.3, leaving three music manuscripts awaiting closer study: MS 2. a.17, a processional for Dominican use; MS 3. c. 16, Guido delle Colonne's Historia Destructionis Troiae, which contains a fragment from a gradual; and MS 4.c.1, a Gospel lectionary with music notation

The fourteen music MSS in the Grey Collection are not only a cultural and musicological asset for South Africa but also an asset in a world wide musicological context. They, especially in the context of the work that has been done on them in establishing their connections with important changes in the western liturgy (MSS Grey 6.b.2 and 6.b.4), and their roles in completing monastic orders (MS Grey 6 b 2) and the historiae of saints (MS Grey 4.b.5) and in furthering our knowledge of the position of women in the history of the church (Grey MS 3.c.23) make a real contribution to the knowledge of the music history of Europe. The extensive and successful work that has been done up to now serves to confirm the importance of the Grey Collection for musicological research.

Carol Steyn (1)

(1) Carol Steyn is a research fellow of the Department of History of Music, Visual Arts and Musicology of the University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

(2.) O.H. Spohr, 'The Grey Collection a Century Ago', Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library, 17 (1962), 1-10, p. 6-7.

(3.) O.H. Spohr, 'More Light on the Grey Collection 1860-61: Dr Bleek at Pau', Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library 20 (1965), 1-7, p. 5.

(4.) There is one manuscript of 16th century polyphony, Ms 3.b.12.

(5.) Carol Steyn, 'Manuscripts in the Grey Collection', Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library, 50 (1995), 64-70.

(6.) Carol Steyn, The Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Grey Collection of the National Library of South Africa, Cape Town. Salzburg: Universitat Salzburg, 2002.

(7.) Morne Bezuidenhout: Historia Sancti Ludgeri (Musicological Studies; 15) Ottawa: The Institute of Medieval Music, 2010.

(8.) Antiphonarium, Omnia pia Cannonicorum horarum cantica: secundum ordinem atque vsum Ecclesie et dioceses Monasteriensis: complectens, iam primum summa diligentia excusam, Cologne: Hero Alopecius, 1537.

(9.) Steyn, The Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, 13-15.

(10.) Liudger, the first Bishop of Munster in Westphalia and the founder of the abbey at Werden an der Ruhr, was born about 742 near Utrecht and died on 26 March 809 in Billerbeck, in the district of Coesfeld. He was missionary to the Frisians and Saxons.

(11.) Morne Bezuidenhout: Historia Sancti Ludgeri (Musicological Studies; 15) Ottawa: The Institute of Medieaval Music, 2010, pp. xvi, xx.

(12.) Bezuidenhout comments (Historia Sancti Ludgeri, p. xxx) that the origin of the feast is 'shrouded in mystery'. It does not appear before the first half of the fifteenth century, but is a standard feature of liturgical books written by the Munster Fraterherren in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

(13.) Morne Pierre Bezuidenhout, 'New Roman Chant in the Grey Collection of the South African Library, Cape Town' (D.Mus thesis, University of South Africa, 1991).

(14.) Bezuidenhout, 'New Roman Chant'; Morne Pierre Bezuidenhout, 'Two Unknown Sources of Roman Chant in the Late Middle Ages: The Manuscripts Grey 6b2 and 6b4 of the South African Library, Cape Town' in Atti del XIV Congresso della Societa Internazionale di Musicologia, (Turin: EDT, 1990), 77-91, p. 78; Christoph Stroux, 'Saint Cecilia's Books at the Cape of Good Hope', Ars Nova 17 (1985), 51-63, p. 56.

(15.) The Regular Salvatoris was an adaptation of the Augustinian rule. D.R. Webster, 'Oder and Abbey of Fontrevault'. In The New Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: Appleton. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06129b.htm.

(16.) Steyn, The Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, p. 127; Bezuidenhout, 'Two Unknown Sources' 77-91, p. 78; Stroux, 'Saint Cecilia's Books, 51-63, pp. 56-57; Bezuidenhout, 'New Roman Chant', pp. 17-20.

(17.) Morne P. Bezuidenhout, An Italian Office Book of the Late Thirteenth Century Cape Town: South African Library, 1990.

(18.) Bezuidenhout 'Two Unknown Sources', 78, 79.

(19.) Stroux, 'Saint Cecilia's Books', 51-63, p. 56; Bezuidenhout 'Two Unknown Sources', 77-91, p. 78.

(20.) Bezuidenhout: An Italian Office Book, p. 6; Stroux, 'Saint Cecilia's Books', 51-63, p. 56.

(21.) Steyn: The Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts, p. 146.

(22.) Stroux, 'Saint Cecilia's Books', 52.

(23.) B.V. Churms: Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Grey Collection: A Preliminary Catalogue (South African Library Grey bibliographies; 12) Cape Town: South African Library, 1984.

(24.) F Dolbeau, 'Le legendier de Sainte-Cecile-au-Trastevere retrouve au Cap (Republique Sud-Africaine)', Analecta Bollandiana, 102 (1984), 300-303, p. 302.

(25.) Neither text is found in the Analecta Hymnica. Http://library.rice.edu/collections/eresources/analectahymnica- medii-aevi-digitalia.

(26.) Sotheby and Wilkinson, April 5, 1859, pp. 258, 259, Lots 1180, 1182, 1185, 1187, The catalogue is referred to merely as 'The auction catalogue of the MSS of Guglielmo Libri'. Sold to Quaritch. Quaritch Cat. 146, Apr. 15, 1859, pp. 40, No. 590; 41, 602; 35, no. 551; 32, no. 521. L.F Casson, 'The Mediaeval Manuscripts of the Grey Collection in Saleroom and Bookshop', Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library Vol. 14, 1959-60, pp. 3-33, 31-33.

(27.) Stroux, 'Saint Cecilia's Books', 57, 60.

(28.) Christoph Stroux, 'The Story of Guglielmo Libri', Quarterly Bulletin of the South African Library 44 (1990), 112-115, 112.

(29.) Stroux, 'The Story of Guglielmo Libri', 114.

(30.) The catalogues are those of March 29, 1859, pp. 37, 64, 68-9; March 31, 1859, p. 124; April 1, 1859, p. 153; April 2, 1859, pp. 41, 200; August 7, 1859, p. 164; August 11, 1859, p. 267; the catalogue of April 5, 1859, mentioned above, and February 23, 1849, p. 83. They are all referred to as 'The auction catalogue of the MSS of Guglielmo Libri' or 'The catalogue of one of the sales of Guglielmo Libri'. Casson, The Mediaeval Manuscripts of the Grey collection in Saleroom and Bookshop', pp. 22-33.

(31.) Stroux, 'The Story of Guglielmo Libri', 114.

(32.) Frances Caroline Steyn, Three Unknown Carthusian Liturgical Manuscripts with Music of the 14th to the 16th Centuries in the Grey Collection, South African Library, Cape Town (Analecta Cartusiana; 167) Salzburg: Universitat Salzburg, 2000.

(33.) Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 2, 11-14.

(34.) Ibid., vol. 1, p. 16.

(35.) The other MSS are MS AGC CII 817 in the Grande Chartreuse; MS Caen, Mus. Des Beaux-arts, Coll. Mancel 242; Chartreuse de Pleterje, MS 4 and Chartreuse de Pleterje, MS 2.

(36.) Carol Steyn, 'The Manuscripts of Gosnay", Studia Musicologica, 45 (2004), 225-237, p. 225.

(37.) Steyn: Three Unknown Carthusian Liturgical Manuscripts, vol. 1, p. 147.

(38.) Steyn, 'The Manuscripts of Gosnay', 225.

(39.) Carol Steyn, 'The Manuscripts of the Nuns of Mont-Sainte-Marie de Gosnay' in Moines et Moniales dans l'ordre de Chartreux. L'apport de l'archeologie. Actes du premier congres international d'archeologie cartusienne. 22-25 Juin 2006, ed. Martine Valdher (Salzburg: Universitat Salzburg, 2007), p. 327, 327-333.
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