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The merging of the Folk-Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society: amalgamation or takeover?

Abstract

In 1932 the Folk-Song Society (FSS) and the English Folk Dance Society (EFDS) amalgamated to become the English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS). The idea for an all-embracing folk society was an ambition harboured by Cecil Sharp and was first publicly mooted in 1919. Following the death of Sharp in 1924, the establishment of a Memorial Fund to commemorate his work provided the ideal opportunity for his disciples and supporters in the EFDS to pursue the founding of such a society. This article will show how, eventually , the leaders of the EFDS were able to realize Sharp's ambition and bring about the amalgamation of the two societies, and will show how eventually this led to what can be described as a 'takeover' of the FSS and the sidelining of the major folk song collectors who helped found that society.

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At the time of amalgamation of the Folk-Song Society (FSS) and the English Folk Dance Society (EFDS) in 1932 it was widely believed that most, if not all, folk songs had been collected and that only variants remained to be discovered. On this basis it was argued by the FSS members who favoured amalgamation that the main work of the FSS had been completed. Therefore, amalgamation with the EFDS seemed to many to be a logical next step. To most of those involved, the merger of the two societies was seen as an amicable affair which became viable following the opening of Cecil Sharp House. The collaboration would bring together people who would be able to pool their respective skills and knowledge in order to bring folk song and dance to a wider audience, in order to promote and encourage folk activities. Although folk dance was the primary concern of the EFDS, Cecil Sharp had always seen singing folk songs as part of its work and it was included in the society's activities.

Sharp had founded the EFDS in 1911 and under his leadership the society grew in size and influence. In 1919 folk dance was introduced into the school curriculum. Throughout this period, Sharp maintained an active interest in the collecting of folk songs and continued as a member of the FSS committee. The idea for a combined society was first publicly mooted in 1919, by which time Sharp had established himself as the leading figure of the folk dance movement and England's most successful folk song collector. Although Sharp entertained the ambition of creating a combined folk song and dance society, this was never achieved during his lifetime, but it would be pursued by his disciples and supporters after his death.

Sowing the seeds of a folk song and dance society

In 1919, a report was prepared by the Ministry of Reconstruction's Adult Education Committee to look into the future development of non-vocational adult education. The report encouraged the development of courses in music, drama, dance, and the creative and domestic arts, to be organized along 'W.E.A. lines'. (1) The report stated: 'The needs of young adults should, we think, be clearly studied [...] For a large number it appears to us that music, folk dances [my italics], and literature and the drama, on the one hand and creative handwork on the other will provide appropriate opportunities for self-expression.' (2)

Closely following the publication of the 1919 report, the Adult Education Committee called a meeting to discuss 'folk-music propaganda' and the founding of a School of English Folk Song and Dance. The meeting took place at the Wigmore Hall, Marylebone, London, on 21 January 1919 and was chaired by Sir Henry Hadow. The Musical Times reported that the speakers at the meeting were 'Mr. Plunket Greene, Dr. Arthur Somervell, Mr. Granville Barker and Mr. Cecil Sharp' and the following resolution was unanimously carried:

   If the English Folk Dance Society is prepared to enlarge its
   activities, and is ready to organize an appeal for funds to secure
   a suitable headquarters in London (to further the dissemination of
   folk-music and folk-dances, to establish a reference library and a
   centre for practice, experiment, and instruction), this meeting
   appoints an advisory committee of the E.F.D.S. to consider ways and
   means. (3)


The minutes of the EFDS committee for 24 January 1919 record that Cecil Sharp had been asked to serve on 'the Advisory committee elected at the Public Meeting'. (4) Lucy Broadwood had also been there and she wrote in her diary that she had attended a meeting on 'Reconstruction in Music', for the 'great glorification of Mr. C. Sharp'. (5) Indeed, Broadwood had harboured for some time the opinion that Sharp was at least as interested in his own reputation as he was in furthering the cause of folk song and dance. Sharp had spoken at the meeting in favour of a society that would promote both folk song and dance, but no immediate progress was made in this regard and it would be thirteen years before such a society became a reality.

A few days before the Wigmore Hall meeting the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), which had contributed to the writing of the 1919 report, approached the EFDS and asked it to affiliate. There is no evidence to indicate whether this was by coincidence or design. The EFDS would be required to pay two guineas and in return the society would have the right to send a representative to the General Council of the WEA. On the face of it, this would allow the EFDS to bring folk dance to a wider audience and broaden its proletarian membership base. The offer was duly accepted and it was resolved that either Cecil Sharp or May Hobbs should be the representative, to be decided between them. (6) The first meeting of the WEA at which the EFDS was represented took place on 25 January 1919, and it was Sharp who attended. (7) The affiliation was renewed annually until 1923, when the WEA informed the EFDS that the minimum affiliation fee was being raised to five guineas (5 [pounds sterling] 5s.). The minutes record that 'In view of the fact that the Society had derived no benefit the Committee decided to withdraw their affiliation with the Association.' (8)

At this time changes were also taking place within the FSS. Two of the founding members, Alfred Graves and J. A. Fuller Maitland, both retired from the committee in 1921, though they both kept up their membership of the society. They now lived in Harlech in Wales and Carnforth in Lancashire, respectively, and had only been able to attend meetings on rare occasions. (9)

The death of Sharp and preparations for a folk headquarters

Cecil Sharp died on 24 June 1924. His death was publicly mourned, even if it was not mourned by everyone in private. The journal of the Folklore Society carried an obituary written by Lucy Broadwood in which she acknowledged the great contribution he had made to folk song and dance: 'The Folk-Lore Society has lost a very distinguished member through the death of Mr. Cecil J. Sharp, well known as a collector of English folk-songs and dances and as founder and Director of the English Folk-Dance Society.' (10) It is interesting to note that his membership of the FSS was only briefly mentioned--'[...] he joined the Folk-Song Society, and in 1906 some first fruits of his collecting in Somerset appeared in its Journal--and yet, in great measure due to Broadwood's influence, he had been elected to the FSS committee and had served alongside her for the previous twenty years. The piece acknowledged Sharp's contribution, but it lacks any real emotion. Broadwood made it clear that Sharp was a very successful collector, but also that he had followed in the footsteps of several others. She concluded: 'Mr Sharp was by temperament an educationalist [...] he stands out as being the first to make a life-work during twenty-five years of what has been for others a secondary pursuit or a recreation; and the first to urge the introduction of folk-song and dance into schools, whilst making it possible by his own exertions.'

In public, Lucy Broadwood expressed regret at Sharp's death. Privately, however, she wrote to her sister Bertha giving a more candid opinion of him:

   Mr. Cecil Sharp unfortunately took up old song and old dance
   collecting as a profession, and, not being a gentleman, he puffed
   and boomed and shoved and ousted, and used the Press to advertise
   himself; so that, although we pioneers were the people from whom he
   originally learnt all he knew of the subjects, he came to believe
   himself to be King of the whole movement, and was by the general
   ignorant public taken at his own valuation. (11)


Her assessment of Sharp is confirmed by John Francmanis, who characterizes Sharp's conduct as that of a 'legislator', (12) as defined by sociologist Zygmunt Bauman:

   The typically modern strategy of intellectual work is one best
   characterized by the metaphor of the 'legislator' role. It consists
   of making authoritative statements which arbitrate in controversies
   of opinions and which select those opinions which, having been
   selected, become correct and binding. The authority to arbitrate is
   in this case legitimized by superior (objective) knowledge to which
   intellectuals have a better access than the nonintellectual part of
   society. (13)


The Journal of the Folk-Song Society, on the other hand, carried an obituary written by Sharp's friend, Ralph Vaughan Williams. He contended that Sharp's work was too well known to make a critical appreciation 'any longer necessary', and wrote, 'It is difficult at such a moment to write about Cecil Sharp in the dispassionate manner fitting to an obituary notice in a scientific journal [...] It will be sufficient in this place to give the bare facts of his career'. (14) Although he did stick to the 'bare facts', one is struck by the warmth and genuine regret apparent in the opening sentence.

Broadwood was not the only one to express criticism of Sharp. Sir Richard Runciman Terry, (15) in a letter to A. H. Fox Strangways in response to his request for information about Sharp for the biography he was preparing to write, also gave a vivid description of the 'legislator':

   He started off all right in the folk-song business, but when he
   found himself in the position of High Priest of a cult he succumbed
   to the necessity of becoming an oracle. He invested (or rather
   enveloped) the simplest things with that halo of mystery that so
   fascinates female devotees. He was neither a folk-lorist nor an
   anthropologist, but lie had to keep up the pose of being both. Once
   having formulated a theory it became a dogma with his following,
   and he was more or less forced into the position of having to make
   his folk-song 'facts' fit his folk-lore theories. (16)


A year after Sharp's death, his wife, Constance, tendered her resignation from the FSS. (17) She had joined the society in 1905, a year after her husband had been elected to the committee, and no doubt she had done so in support of him. She was also a founder member of the EFDS. Fox Strangways wrote of her: 'She was far from being unsympathetic towards his work, but regretted that it should be so all-engrossing: she accepted its value from Cecil's estimation rather than from her own conviction.' (18)

The Cecil Sharp Memorial Fund

The high regard in which Vaughan Williams held Sharp is even more apparent from a statement he made in connection with the launch of the 'Sharp Memorial Fund', which Fox Strangways quoted in an article in Music and Letters. Fox Strangways was also a close friend of Sharp's--indeed, he had founded Music and Letters in response to a suggestion of Sharp's. (19) In the article, Fox Strangways advanced the view that a great many people shared Sharp's 'faith that he had given something worth having to his fellow-countrymen':

   [...] the words of Dr. Vaughan Williams express very much what they
   feel. He said:--'When the history of the English music revival of
   the twentieth century comes to be written, the most famous name of
   the period will be, I believe, not that of a composer, performer or
   theorist, but that of Cecil Sharp, who rediscovered our English
   folk songs and dances and gave them back to those to whom they
   belong [...] It is the music of the home, the amateur which finally
   makes us a musical nation: the highly skilled professional musician
   is the crest of the wave--without the wave the crest cannot exist.
   (20)


To say that Sharp had 'rediscovered our English folk songs' was, perhaps, rather a rash claim and cannot have pleased either Lucy Broadwood or Frank Kidson, who had both collected and published folk songs more than a decade before Sharp had collected his first song--a point clearly made in Broadwood's obituary of Sharp and in her letter to her sister. Nonetheless, Sharp had been the most successful collector in terms of the size of his collection. The notion that the folk song collectors, and Sharp in particular, in effect rescued and returned folk songs 'back to those to whom they belong' is one that has been challenged, on the grounds that what was returned were sanitized and edited versions of the songs that the collectors chose to collect. Furthermore, the songs were published for performance in drawing rooms, at concerts, and in schools, and there is little evidence to show that they were being sung more generally.

The idea of launching a Memorial Fund to commemorate the work of Cecil Sharp had been raised at a special meeting of the EFDS committee which took place on 1 July 1924, one week after Sharp's death. Lady Mary Trefusis, in the chair, wanted immediate consideration of a memorial as 'there was a danger of a number of different schemes being formulated'. (21) Clearly, it was important to the EFDS to take ownership of such an enterprise. The memorial, it was decided, should 'take the form of a Central Hall as Headquarters of the Society'. This was a revival of a motion that had been passed at the earlier Wigmore Hall meeting, at which Lady Trefusis had also been present.

The suggestion that a building would be the most appropriate memorial was further reinforced by a letter from Sharp's son, Charles Sharp, to the EFDS committee. This letter stated that his father had left to the society his collection of books of songs and dances, but not his manuscripts. Furthermore, 'This bequest is subject to the condition that the books should be suitably housed in such a way as to be accessible to those members of the Society and General Public who may come to make use of them.' (22) The EFDS Annual Report for 1924 recorded that the collection amounted to 'about a thousand volumes' and stated: 'Such a permanent home for English folk-music and dance had long been Mr. Sharp's own ambition and has become a necessity if the legacy of his library to the Society is to materialise.' (23) The bulk of Sharp's collection comprised song books, and the establishment of such a library by the EFDS could be seen as moving one step closer to the creation of a society for both song and dance.

At the same meeting, Vaughan Williams was asked to become Musical Adviser to the society, to which he agreed. It was also decided to invite Harry Plunket Greene and Evelyn Sharp, Sharp's youngest sister, to join the Advisory Council. (24) Evelyn Sharp was a keen folk dancer, a 'hobby' she shared with her lover Henry Nevinson. (25) She greatly admired her brother's work and had joined the EFDS as an associate member in 1917. (26) At the next committee meeting, two weeks after these invitations had been sent out, the minutes record that both Harry Plunket Greene and Evelyn Sharp had 'consented to serve on the Advisory Council'. (27) In addition to their co-option to the Advisory Council, the minutes record that Plunket Greene was admitted as a member of the society, and Evelyn Sharp's name appears as a member of the Executive Committee. No explanation is given for this. Furthermore, Plunket Greene was elected to serve on the General Council, a body elected by the Executive Committee. (28) He had been a founder member of the FSS and his election to the EFDS General Council thus further strengthened the links between the two societies. Evelyn Sharp was an established writer and journalist and would be able to use her contacts to promote the EFDS, as well as keeping the name of Sharp on the committee.

A public meeting to launch the Memorial Fund took place at the Mansion House, London, on 18 May 1925. (29) H. A. L. Fisher presided at the meeting and served as chairman of the Memorial Fund Committee throughout its existence. (30) The FSS committee decided to send Frederick Keel to the meeting as their representative. (31) At this meeting letters of support were read from the Earl of Balfour (former prime minister A. J. Balfour) and the prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald. It was announced by Lady Mary Trefusis, President of the EFDS, that approximately 5,000 [pounds sterling] had already been raised by the EFDS and that this was 'sufficient to provide for the site of the new central building'. Fox Strangways was later to state that the EFDS membership had already subscribed 'among themselves a number of pounds not far short of their total membership'. (32) It was to take five years to raise sufficient money to pay for the building, which was eventually opened in 1930 at a cost of 32,000 [pounds sterling]. (33)

Establishing contact between the two societies

Shortly after Sharp died, the EFDS, of which he had been Director, applied for membership of the FSS. The FSS minutes record that the application was proposed by Vaughan Williams and seconded by Lucy Broadwood. (34) No doubt Broadwood felt that a more amicable relationship between the two societies would be possible now that Sharp was no longer in control. Furthermore, to have the EFDS as a member of the FSS was a long way from any kind of amalgamation. In addition, it was agreed that a 'memorial number' of the Journal of the Folk-Song Society (JFSS) dedicated to Cecil Sharp should be published--but 'due to the advanced state of the Manx collection, it was decided that the memorial number to Mr. Sharp (suggested by Dr. Vaughan Williams) should be issued after the Manx collection providing that arrangements could be made with Mr Sharp's executors'.

At this time Lucy Broadwood was starting to scale down her commitment to the FSS. In 1923 she had made it known that she wished to relinquish the editorship of the journal, but had agreed to continue until she finished the work already in progress. In fact, the 'memorial number' would be delayed until 1927, because the selection from the Manx collection, made by Anne Gilchrist from the manuscripts of Dr John Clague, who was a founder member of the society, would fill three issues of the journal. Lucy Broadwood, true to her word, relinquished the editorship after the completion of this project.

A change in leadership at the FSS

The role of editor passed to Frank Howes, who had joined the society in 1924 and was co-opted to serve on the committee in 1926. (35) He was on the staff of The Times and later became its music critic, and he also lectured at the Royal College of Music. The first journal to be published under his editorship was no. 31, published in 1927. This number contained a selection of hitherto unpublished songs from the collection of Cecil Sharp. The songs were chosen by Vaughan Williams, and Sharp's literary executor, Maud Karpeles, gave permission for their publication. (36) In the preface Howes wrote, 'The English [sic] Folk Song Society will rejoice to see that in this number of the Journal the familiar initials L.E.B. still occur in the text though not at the end of this Preface.' (37) Broadwood's timely resignation from the editorship meant she did not have to contribute any editorial comment about Sharp, her contributions being restricted to informative comments on the songs and tunes. No doubt she was pleased with this arrangement.

Frank Howes's mistake made by referring to the FSS as the 'English' Folk Song Society seems to have gone unnoticed, or at least unreported. No mention is made of it in the committee meeting minutes or in the list of corrigenda printed in the next issue of the journal. (38) Such a slip had not occurred before, and for the new editor to commit such a solecism might well have marred the beginning of his editorship, particularly since the EFDS described itself as 'English'. The leadership of the FSS had always insisted that the society was not exclusively English and reserved the right to publish folk songs from other countries. (39) Perhaps the fact that the FSS had been founded and was based in England had led to the perception that it was an English society, even though the word 'English' had never been part of its title.

The JFSS for 1927 carried an obituary, written by Lucy Broadwood, of Frank Kidson who had died in November of the previous year. (40) The obituary is a reprint of that which had appeared in the Daily Telegraph of 20 November 1926. Broadwood wrote: 'The worlds of music and archaeology are the poorer through the sudden death of Mr. Frank Kidson [...] In generosity and sincerity he was unrivalled.' She concluded: 'Frank Kidson leaves many sorrowing friends, he having been a friend of unflinching loyalty and truth himself.' Broadwood had known Kidson since the early 1890s and had great respect for his scholarship. The affection she felt for Kidson is readily apparent and the tone is markedly different from the obituary she had written for Sharp. Kidson's achievements had been recognized by the University of Leeds which awarded him an honorary MA in 1923. The FSS had followed suit at that time, writing to congratulate him on his award and making him an honorary member of the society. (41)

The President of the FSS, Lord Tennyson, died on 2 December 1928. He had held the position since 1904. At the annual general meeting, which took place on 12 December 1928, Lucy Broadwood was elected President. However, her presidency was short-lived. She died at Dropmore in Kent on 22 August the following year, while staying with relatives and visiting the arts festival at nearby Canterbury. The FSS's Annual Report of the Committee for the Year 1928 was published in the JFSS for 1929 (issued in December 1928) and included the following announcement: 'With the deepest regret the Committee has to announce that Miss Lucy Broadwood passed away after a very brief illness on August 27th [sic] 1929.' Her obituary appeared in the same issue of the journal. (42) Walter Ford wrote: 'She was human as well as learned, bestowing upon the doggerel verses, which abound in folk-song, not tolerance but affection. "Even the most grotesque," she says, "when analysed, will prove to contain dramatic and noble elements in awkward disguise".' He wrote in conclusion: 'Members of this Society do not need to be reminded of their debt; scarcely a number of the Journal has appeared without some valuable contribution from her hand, and many have been almost entirely her own from beginning to end. All will agree that the Society has suffered a great loss.'

The obituary that appeared in the Musical Times also paid tribute to her scholarship: 'Miss Broadwood possessed an immense amount of varied antiquarian learning including a knowledge of early printed ballads and broad-sheets. She thus combined in herself the two parallel streams of English traditional music--the written and the oral. As an editor she was scrupulously accurate, systematic, and lynx-eyed with the result that the Journals of the Folk-Song Society are models of erudition and order.' (43) Her illness was evidently sudden and very brief, since two days before her death she had written this last entry in her diary: 'In morning I walked by myself to High St did some shopping and returned before 1. In afternoon Mary, Barbara and I drove to the Cathedral and saw a performance of Marlowe's Dr. Faustus by the Norwich Players in the Chapter House. After the end we walked back to Dropmore, had tea and remained reading and writing for rest of day. Fine weather.' (44)

Lucy Broadwood was buried in the churchyard at Rusper on the Surrey-Sussex border, near to the family home at Lyne. Inside the church, where as a young woman she had been organist and choir mistress, is an alabaster plaque which was commissioned by the family to commemorate her life. Her close friend, Mary Venables, wrote a memoir which was circulated amongst Broadwood's family and friends. (45) One of these was Lucy's eldest sister, Mary Stewart Shearme, who remarked in a letter, 'I have had Miss Mary Venables' charming monograph typed for you & 3 or 4 of dear Lucy's special friends', before going on to say that such a memoir should not be published, because 'I do not think her life was sufficiently eventful to make a memoir interesting and who is there who will care to read it even 20 years hence? She was not a mother or grandmother to be worshipped by descendants!' (46) How wrong she was! Broadwood's achievements with respect to the FSS are still the stuff of discussion and debate.

Preparing the ground for amalgamation

Lucy Broadwood was succeeded as President of the FSS by Ralph Vaughan Williams. He was nominated at the committee meeting that took place on 30 October 1929, (47) and his appointment was unanimously agreed at the annual general meeting held on 4 December 1929. (48) At the same meeting Anne Gilchrist was appointed a Vice President. These positions did not give their holders any authority in terms of decision-making or policy formation; rather, they were honorary titles bestowed in recognition of the valuable contributions that they had made to the work of the FSS. The death of Lucy Broadwood had removed from the FSS the last folk song collector who had served on the committee since the society's foundation and thus marked the end of an era. The only other founding members still serving were Lady Gomme, who also served on the committee of the EFDS, and Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who still served as Vice President.

In effect the 'old guard' had now gone. Lady Gomme and Vaughan Williams both held an equal allegiance to the EFDS. This change in circumstances provided the opportunity for a change in the policy and direction of the FSS. The momentum for this was soon to gather pace. The membership of the society was ageing and as members died their places were not being filled by new members. The average age of the committee was fifty-seven; the youngest member, Ernest Moeran, was thirty-eight, and the oldest was Fox Strangways at seventy-three. The average age of the EFDS committee was forty-seven. Its youngest member was Douglas Kennedy, at thirty-nine, and the oldest was Evelyn Sharp who was sixty-three. (49) However, the age profile of the EFDS membership was much younger than that of the FSS, and the EFDS minutes show that there was a steady stream of new recruits.

The total membership of the FSS in 1929 was just over two hundred. With the death of Broadwood the EFDS saw an opportunity to broach the idea of amalgamation. At the FSS committee meeting that took place on 4 April 1930 a letter was read from Douglas Kennedy, written in his capacity as Director of the EFDS. (50) This stated that the building in memory of Cecil Sharp was 'nearing completion' but had not yet been officially opened, and work was still taking place on part of it. (51) Kennedy proposed that a conference be held in the finished part of the building between representatives of the two societies to examine the possibilities for closer cooperation. Holding the meeting there would illustrate the 'benefits and amenities the building will offer'. His letter concluded by stating that the EFDS had already appointed their representatives, who were 'Miss M. Karpeles, Mrs Shuldham Shaw, Dr. R. Vaughan Williams and myself'. The inclusion of Vaughan Williams, who had acted as musical adviser to the EFDS since 1924, (52) and who was now President of the FSS, was most likely a ploy to allay any misgivings the FSS might have that this invitation was really a takeover bid.

After discussion, the FSS committee voted in favour of a motion, proposed by Frederick Keel and seconded by Fox Strangways, to accept the invitation to a joint meeting with the EFDS and to elect delegates to attend. (53) The delegates elected were 'Mr. Martin Freeman, Mr Howes, Mr. Arthur Pearson, and the Hon. Secretary [Miss Lydia John]'. The two delegations met the following month, on 19 May 1930, at Cecil Sharp House. (54) The EFDS party included an extra delegate, Lady Gomme, who (as already noted) was also a member of the FSS committee. No explanation was given for this and whether or not her presence was a surprise to the FSS delegation is not known. Nonetheless, the minutes record that she attended as one of the delegates 'For the English Folk-Dance Soc.'. (55)

The meeting got under way and Vaughan Williams was elected to the chair. Douglas Kennedy outlined the advantages to the FSS of 'cooperation'; the issue of the journal was raised and Kennedy stated the FSS could have 'a larger or smaller portion of the EFDS Journal according to their material'. Frank Howes stated that he was in favour of amalgamation but wanted to delay it for 'some little time in case new material came in'. He was referring here to material that might be suitable for inclusion in the FSS journal, since as editor he wanted the freedom to be able to add to the material he had already prepared for the next issue. Presumably he was thinking that if amalgamation took place in the near future, then he would not have the same degree of editorial control.

Douglas Kennedy made the point that the EFDS was exclusively English but the FSS was not, and this would pose a difficulty for amalgamation. Maud Karpeles stated that collecting in foreign countries should 'be done by people resident in foreign countries and not undertaken by British Collectors'. Clearly she excluded her expedition to the Appalachians with Cecil Sharp and her own trips to Newfoundland--she was to return to Newfoundland just two months after the meeting. (56) Her justification was, no doubt, that the singers were English-speaking and many of the songs were of British origin and therefore not really 'foreign'. Nevertheless, her position does seem a little hypocritical.

Lady Gomme expressed the opinion that 'there was not much more material to be collected with the exception of variants'. Lady Gomme had not been engaged in field collecting for many years, (57) and it is not known on what evidence, if any, she based her opinion. Vaughan Williams asked Kennedy to provide some detail of what he meant by amalgamation, and Kennedy explained that members of the FSS would become members of the EFDS and enjoy all 'the same facilities and privileges'. The editorial board of the EFDS journal could be supplemented by members of the FSS. On the matter of subscription Kennedy explained, 'The EFDS Town Members paid a guinea annually and its country members half a guinea annually. The FSS members would be regarded as Country Members of the EFDS and pay 10/6 annually. As to the Journals it would be much cheaper to embody both in one journal.'

The membership fee for the FSS had remained at 10/6 since the society's foundation. The proposal by the EFDS to keep it at that rate for FSS members effectively prevented the membership fee becoming a reason for FSS members to object to amalgamation. Lady Gomme stated that she 'was not in favour of amalgamation as it would mean the extinction of the F.S.S. which had done excellent work for 32 years'--presumably she felt that the bigger society would overshadow the smaller, and that dance would take priority over song. Vaughan Williams said that he was in favour of 'practical amalgamation', though he offered no explanation as to what he meant by that. Kennedy told the FSS delegates, 'The FSS could make a stipulation that their Editorial Board should be represented on the E.F.D.S. editorial board.' In the event of amalgamation, the EFDS delegation suggested that the new organization should be known as The English Folk-Song and Dance Society'. The proposed name was underlined in the minutes. The EFDS committee agreed to draw up a form of 'Cooperation on Amalgamation', which would be sent to the FSS for consideration.

In June, the EFDS sent a letter containing a formal invitation to the FSS to 'consider the possibility of amalgamating the two Societies'. (58) This letter made it clear that the words 'English--Folk--Dance should appear in any title to be considered'. The subscription rate of 10/6 that FSS members were currently paying would be honoured for existing members and there would be 'no difficulty over the matter of the Journal or the constitution of the Editorial board'. It concluded by stating that there were two vacancies on the executive for FSS members, which could be reserved for a short time. The letter was read at the FSS committee meeting on 13 June 1930 and was discussed at length. Lady Gomme moved that the proposal should be rejected, but this motion was lost. A sub-committee was appointed to 'decide the conditions on which the invitation should be accepted'. The sub-committee was made up of Frederick Keel, Martin Freeman, and Frank Howes.

The sub-committee met a week later and formulated the following resolutions for amalgamation. (59) The FSS journals currently in preparation for 1930 and 1931 must be finished, and issued and paid for by the amalgamated society. Miss Lydia John, the present Honorary Secretary, should remain in charge of business connected with the FSS and continue to receive the 10 [pounds sterling] honorarium paid to her annually until such time as the printing of the FSS journals was discontinued. The new journal should be published at least once a year, and should have adequate space 'alloted [sic] to any Folk-Song material that may come to hand'. The suggested title for the new society, 'The English Folk-Song and Dance Society', was agreed, with the proviso that the use of the word 'English does not preclude the inclusion of foreign folk song material in the Journal'. It was also decided that the two persons elected by the FSS should hold office on the executive committee of the new society 'for the period for which such members are elected'.

When the FSS committee next met, the resolutions formulated by the sub-committee were tabled and discussed. (60) Vaughan Williams proposed that the report be sent to the EFDS secretary 'as it stands', and this was seconded by Fox Strangways. Lady Gomme proposed that an additional clause should be added to the effect that any income accruing from the sale of past journals should be set aside and used 'for the purposes of Folk-Song collection, research and publication so that the identity of the Folk-Song Society may be preserved'. This was agreed, and Lydia John was instructed to write to the EFDS secretary to inform her that the FSS had decided to put before the FSS membership 'the terms on which they are prepared to recommend the acceptance of the invitation of the English Folk Dance Society to amalgamate'.

The next FSS committee meeting took place on 17 October 1930, and Lydia John reported that Douglas Kennedy had called on her to say that the EFDS committee 'could not agree to the title suggested by the Folk-Song Committee--"The English Folk-Song and Dance Society". They did not want to change the letters E.F.D.S. as they were too well known by it. Also [...] they could not agree to set aside nor earmark any particular sum of money as suggested in clause iv of the resolutions formed by the sub-committee of the FSS on July 4th.' (61) The objection to the suggested title for the new society was strange, since that had been the title suggested by the EFDS delegation at the joint meeting and highlighted by underlining in the minutes. Nonetheless, the FSS committee elected Vaughan Williams and Fox Strangways to meet with two members of the EFDS as soon as possible after the 24th (one week later). It was decided that the title 'The English Folk Dance Society and the Folk-Song Society' should be suggested when the representatives met. It was also proposed that until completion of the 1930 journal and that for 1931, the affairs of the two societies should continue as at present, and that the 'FSS should be represented for a reasonable number of years on the Editorial Committee'.

The meeting took place on 31 October and, after discussion, it was proposed that the name of the new society should be 'The English Folk Dance and Song Society'. (62) It was also proposed that the editor of the FSS journal and three members of the executive committee be included on the editorial board when the amalgamation was completed, and that money from the sale of past FSS journals should be 'earmarked for research in and publication of Folk Music'. Clearly a compromise had been reached here: the change in wording from 'folk-song' to 'folk music' would mean that any money that was accrued could now be used for the research and publication of folk dance tunes as well as folk songs.

A letter from Douglas Kennedy was tabled at the next meeting of the FSS committee. (63) This letter informed the committee that the EFDS executive committee had accepted the proposals drawn up by the representatives of both societies and that these would be put before the EFDS membership at the next general meeting. The letter was discussed at length and it was agreed to accept the proposals, with the amendment that 'the FSS should appoint its Editor and three other members of its present Executive to serve on the Editorial Board of the joint Society'. Presumably this was to ensure that the interests of the FSS would be properly represented. Furthermore, amalgamation could only be agreed if the clause relating to 'earmarked money' was accepted by the EFDS membership. If the EFDS membership accepted these revisions, then the FSS would put the matter of amalgamation on those terms before their membership at a special general meeting, giving the FSS membership one month's notice.

At the next FSS committee meeting, which took place on 9 February 1931, a 'follow-up' letter from Douglas Kennedy was tabled. (64) This letter informed the committee that the EFDS committee had decided, 'owing to a number of matters affecting the constitution', to leave the matter of amalgamation until the 'normal Annual Meeting', to be held in November. As a result of this, the FSS committee decided to postpone the arrangements for a special general meeting; if it was considered necessary, a special meeting could follow the annual general meeting planned for October. It was further decided that a letter, drafted by Vaughan Williams as President of the FSS, should be sent to all members of the FSS explaining the conditions upon which the FSS committee had recommended approval of the amalgamation of the two societies. Included with this letter should be a letter from Fox Strangways outlining the advantages of amalgamation, and a letter from Lady Gomme outlining the reasons against amalgamation. Lady Gomme also proposed at this meeting that a comprehensive index of the contents of the FSS journal 'from its first to its last number should be prepared for publication'. This was approved, with the added suggestion that members be asked to 'subscribe to the cost of the editing of the index', but 'owing to the late hour' no vote was taken on this resolution and the matter was not finally settled.

The FSS committee did not meet again until June, and at this meeting a letter from Leo (Leopold) Broadwood, Lucy Broadwood's nephew and executor, was read. (65) This explained that Lucy Broadwood had left instructions that her 'material was to be made accessible as far as possible for the study of Folk Song, and therefore I really think it would be best to hand the whole of the material over to the Folk-Song Society'. The 'material' included a phonograph and cylinder recordings. At the same meeting, the three letters regarding amalgamation with the EFDS were read. Fox Strangways's letter outlining the advantages of amalgamation was felt to be understated and he agreed to re-draft it. This suggests that the committee was anxious to influence the membership as best it could in favour of amalgamation. Due to illness, Lady Gomme had been unable actually to write her letter, but she had conveyed to Vaughan Williams the points she wished to make and he had drafted a statement outlining them. This included a clause that, in the event of approval for the amalgamation, she wanted a comprehensive index for the complete run of the FSS journals to be produced, along with an acknowledgement of the work of key members of the FSS.

Lady Gomme wrote that the index should include 'a preface and historical notes on the work of the Society, paying special attention to the recognition due to such members as Mrs Kate Lee, Miss Lucy Broadwood, Mr. Frank Kidson, and others [...] It would complete its labours and form a credible ending to the Society.' (66) This statement strongly suggests that she thought that amalgamation was a foregone conclusion and that she had resigned herself to it. She was the only member of the FSS committee to oppose amalgamation. However, there is no record of her dissent in the minutes of the EFDS committee meetings, though she had made her views clear at the joint meetings she had attended.

The letters were eventually sent out to the FSS membership in July 1931. The committee met again in September, when arrangements were made for the annual general meeting and the special general meeting. As a matter of convenience, it was decided to hold both meetings on the same day in late October. This would give the membership sufficient time to consider the proposed amalgamation and to decide how they would vote.

The EFDS Memorial Book

Lady Gomme's proposal for the index and the acknowledgement of key members of the FSS is significant, because at the 1930 annual general meeting of the EFDS it had been proposed that a memorial be produced to commemorate 'traditional singers and dancers of the past as well as men killed in the war'. (67) The memorial was 'to take the form of carved and decorated panels in the Musician's Gallery [...] Associated with this Memorial it is proposed to have a book containing the names of those to whom it is dedicated.' At the committee meeting of the EFDS held on 5 March 1931 the preparation of this Memorial Book was approved, and Mrs Kennedy, Miss Karpeles, and Mrs Hobbs were 'appointed to collate and report on the matter'. (68)

At the next meeting, held on 2 June, Mrs Kennedy submitted a report on the compilation of the 'E.F.D.S. Memorial Book of Names'. (69) It was reported that 'the names mentioned in this report have been taken from membership index cards and records in the E.F.D.S. News, Journal and Reports'. It was recommended that a number of people should not be included, on the grounds that 'though mentioned in the Society's records [they] were not members of the Society'. Included in this list were Herbert MacIlwaine, Frank Kidson, Lucy Broadwood, and the Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould. Clearly, the Memorial Book was to relate exclusively to members of the EFDS.

This seems to have been a move designed to ensure that only members of the EFDS would be acknowledged as having furthered the folk dance and song movement. To produce a Memorial Book that only commemorated EFDS members, deliberately excluding FSS members such as Broadwood and Kidson, who had made major contributions to the folk movement, was, to say the least, disingenuous if not downright dishonourable. Furthermore, to take such action on the eve of amalgamation with the FSS could be construed as provocative, and provides clear evidence that the leadership of the EFDS was intent on ensuring that dance should remain the dominant feature of the new society's work.

The exclusion of Herbert MacIlwaine was also unfair, because he had collaborated with Sharp in the production of the first three (of five) parts of The Morris Book, prior to the foundation of the EFDS. Indeed, it was at his suggestion that Mary Neal had first contacted Sharp and begun his involvement with folk dancing. In this respect, Macllwaine was as much a pioneer of the dance movement as Sharp. Sharp had worked, too, with Baring-Gould. Sharp had acted as music editor for the revised edition of Songs of the West in 1905, and then they had jointly published English Folk-Songs for Schools in 1906.

Even today, there is no visible recognition of the contribution made by the FSS pioneers. Those parts of Cecil Sharp House that have names attached to them all commemorate people who had close connections with Cecil Sharp. The main hall of the building is named after Douglas Kennedy, who succeeded Sharp as Director of the EFDS. The other two halls are named after Lady Mary Trefusis, who was President of the EFDS until her death in 1926 (she was succeeded by her sister, Lady Margaret Ampthill), and Helen Storrow, who provided financial support for Sharp's American song collecting trips but was not a member of the EFDS. Following the death of Vaughan Williams in August 1958, the library, which until that time had been known as the Cecil Sharp Library, was renamed the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, 'with the consent of Mrs Vaughan Williams and the family of Cecil Sharp'. (70) Sharp and Vaughan Williams are the only people who had strong connections with both the FSS and the EFDS to be commemorated at Cecil Sharp House.

Amalgamation is agreed

The special general meeting of the FSS took place on 29 October 1931, its purpose being to decide whether or not to accept the EFDS's offer of amalgamation. Fox Strangways moved the resolution to accept the offer, and in speaking to the resolution dealt with the main objection that had been raised. This was that there were still folk songs to be collected and published, and that this work required a dedicated, independent society. To counter this objection, Fox Strangways made the assertion that 'there are no more folk-songs, only variants, to collect'--a claim that has, over the subsequent years, been found to be mistaken. Harry Plunket Greene seconded the motion and countered the claim that the smaller FSS would be 'swallowed up' by the larger EFDS. He stated that 'a similar fear had been expressed at the formation of the Federation of Musical Competition Festivals, but it had been found that big town festivals and small country festivals had worked harmoniously together and that, if anything, the smaller festivals showed the greater vitality'. (71) The resolution was put to the vote and it was unanimously agreed to accept the invitation from the EFDS and to proceed with the necessary arrangements. This meeting was followed by the annual general meeting, at which the annual report and balance sheet for 1930 were adopted. Lady Gomme's proposal for an index of journal contents seems to have been quietly dropped.

The FSS committee met a month later, on 25 November, and a letter from the secretary of the EFDS, addressed to Lydia John, was read. (72) It stated that at the annual meeting of the EFDS the membership had overwhelmingly approved the amalgamation of the two societies. The date suggested for the amalgamation was 1 January 1932. After discussion it was decided that, due to the forthcoming publication of the journal 'and because of financial matters the Committee would prefer March 31st 1932 as the date of amalgamation'. Lydia John, as Honorary Secretary, was instructed to inform the EFDS of this.

She was also instructed to write to Leo Broadwood to inform him of the amalgamation and ask for his written authority to pass on Lucy Broadwood's material to the new society. Leo Broadwood replied promptly, informing her that the amalgamation made no difference to the bequest and that he gave his written authority for the material to be removed to Cecil Sharp House. He did, however, request that 'the material should be named "The Lucy Broadwood Collection" so as to distinguish it from the Cecil Sharp collection'. (73) His letter was tabled at the committee meeting that took place on 16 December 1931-At the same meeting, a letter from the secretary of the EFDS was read, informing the FSS committee that the proposed date for amalgamation of 31 March 1932 was agreed, and requesting that the FSS 'should appoint without delay three representatives to serve on the Editorial Board of the EFDS Journal'. (74) The FSS agreed to this and Frank Howes, Martin Freeman, and Frederick Keel were elected as the FSS representatives.

The final number of the JFSS had, attached to the front cover, a slip of paper informing members that the amalgamation with the EFDS was to take place on 31 March 1932 (Figure 1). Somewhat ironically, this last issue carried the obituary of Alfred Perceval Graves. Graves had claimed that it was his idea to found the Folk-Song Society. This was acknowledged by Frank Howes in the obituary: 'At the recent Special General Meeting [which had taken place two months before the death of Graves] Mr Plunket Greene recalled the story [...] of their meeting by chance in the Strand one day sometime in 1898 [...] Mr. Graves suggested it would be a good plan to form a Folk Song Society.' (75) Given the date of Graves's death (27 December 1931) and the date of publication of the journal (December 1931), it must be assumed that the obituary was written in haste in order to be included, which would explain its brevity.

The penultimate meeting of the FSS committee took place on 21 January 1932, at which the death of Alfred Perceval Graves was formally announced. Lydia John was instructed to send a letter of condolence to his family. It was planned that the final annual general meeting of the FSS should take place on 10 March and be preceded by the final committee meeting. The FSS committee duly met for the last time at 6 p.m. on 10 March. (76) The meeting lasted for only fifteen minutes, during which time arrangements were made to finalize the affairs of the society. It was decided that a letter should be sent to the auditors, Cash Stone & Co., thanking them for their services over the previous eight years, and to the Incorporated Society of Musicians thanking them for the use of their room at 19 Berners Street, and informing them that it would no longer be required after 31 March. The final annual general meeting took place immediately after the committee meeting. The Annual Report for 1931 was 'adopted', and it was proposed that the co-option of Freeman, Howes, and Keel to the editorial board of the EFDS be confirmed. This was unanimously agreed. Fox Strangways proposed that 'Mr. Howes and the Hon. Secretary be delegated to arrange the details of amalgamation. This was carried and seconded by Mr. Pearson.' The meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to the chairman, Martin Freeman.

Following the ratification of amalgamation at their respective annual general meetings, the two societies were formally amalgamated on 31 March 1932. However, only 136 of the 199 members of the FSS transferred to the new society.77 It is not known why sixty-three members did not transfer, but it is reasonable to assume that not everyone in the FSS was in favour of the amalgamation

The new society, 'The English Folk Dance and Song Society', had its headquarters in the newly built Cecil Sharp House at 2 Regent's Park Road, London NW1. The first journal of the new society was issued in December 1932 under the editorship of Frank Howes. The front cover of the new journal (Figure 2) was much more modern in appearance than that of the FSS journal (Figure 3). Perhaps this was indicative of a new beginning.

Conclusion

Most folk song collecting had been carried out in the years before 1914, and although collecting did continue into the 1920s it was piecemeal and on a small scale. Nonetheless, the FSS had continued and filled the journals with new material when it became available, and it also had a sufficient backlog of songs to meet its requirements. This winding down of collecting activity gave rise to the belief that most folk songs had already been gathered in, and this was used as an argument for the amalgamation of the two societies.

Under Lucy Broadwood's stewardship, the minutes of committee meetings of the FSS reveal that there had never been any attempt made actively to recruit new members. The only time that recruitment was discussed was in relation to specialist song collections, such as the Tolmie collection of Gaelic songs and the Irish song collection of Martin Freeman, to which certain numbers of the journal were allocated. It was assumed that Scots and Irish people would join in order to obtain the relevant copies of the journals. It was tacitly assumed that these new members would not be permanent. Nonetheless, their temporary membership would serve to swell the society's coffers. Broadwood and the committee were content to let the membership remain at around two hundred. This generated enough income to pay for the publication of the journal.

The FSS was always a small, specialist organization, and those who led it had no ambition for it to be anything else. In this respect there was a division between Sharp and his friends and the rest of the FSS committee. Sharp realized that he could not get his own way with the FSS, particularly in the matter of folk songs in schools, and he turned his attention to folk dance. He founded a dance society, the EFDS, which quickly became a populist organization and outgrew the FSS. It employed a secretary, established a network of branches, and actively recruited members whenever possible. Under the leadership of Cecil Sharp, it kept itself in the public eye through events organized locally by its branches. It published a newsletter, but only published two journal issues in 1914 and 1915, and four further issues between 1927 and 1931.

One of the reasons put forward by the EFDS for amalgamation with the FSS was that the FSS would contribute to the new society its expertise in producing a scholarly, scientific journal. However, the real reason for the amalgamation was, I believe, to bring to fruition Sharp's long-held ambition for a single society for folk song and dance. Although he was never able to achieve this during his lifetime, his disciples could do so and, in so doing, commemorate him. It is reasonable to speculate that the amalgamation could never have taken place during Broadwood's lifetime.

When the two societies did eventually amalgamate it was the dance society that was the major partner, with its own premises and a professional structure with paid staff. The headquarters of the new society was, and still is, called Cecil Sharp House. There is no part of the building that commemorates Broadwood, Kidson, Gilchrist, or any of the other leading member of the FSS--apart from Vaughan Williams, who also had a leading position within the EFDS, and, of course, Cecil Sharp. It is the leading members of the dance society who are honoured in the building, namely Douglas Kennedy, Lady Mary Trefusis, and Helen Storrow. It seems that Lady Gomme's warning that the FSS would face 'extinction' was prophetic after all.

Acknowledgements

I am indebted to the anonymous comments of members of the Editorial Board of Folk Music Journal and to Vic Gammon for helpful criticism and advice.

Notes

(1) Bernard Jennings, Knowledge Is Power: A Short History of the W.E.A., 1903-1978, Newlands Papers, no. 1 (Hull: University of Hull, Department of Adult Education, 1979), p. 26.

(2) British Ministry of Reconstruction, Adult Education Committee (1919), Final Report (chaired by Arthur L. Smith and commonly known as 'The 1919 Report'), Cmnd 321 (1919) (London: HMSO), p. 116.

(3) 'English Song and Dance', Musical Times, 1 March 1919, p. 129.

(4) London, VWML, EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 24 January 1919.

(5) Woking, Surrey History Centre, Broadwood Papers, 6782, Lucy Broadwood Diaries, 21 January 1919.

(6) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 31 December 1918.

(7) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 24 January 1919.

(8) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 31 May 1923.

(9) London, VWML, FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 12 March 1921.

(10) L. E. Broadwood, 'In Memoriam: Cecil J. Sharp (1859-1924)', Folklore, 35 (1924), 284-87.

(11) Woking, Surrey History Centre, Broadwood Papers, 2297/9, Lucy Broadwood to Bertha Broadwood, 22 July 1924.

(12) John Valdis Francmanis, 'The Musical Sherlock Holmes: Frank Kidson and the English Folk Music Revival, c. 1890-1926' (unpublished PhD thesis, Leeds Metropolitan University, 1997), Part 3: 'Enter the Legislator' (pp. 219-308).

(13) Zygmunt Bauman, Legislators and Interpreters: On Modernity, Post-Modernity and Intellectuals (Cambridge: Polity, 1987), p. 4.

(14) R. Vaughan Williams, 'Obituary: Cecil James Sharp, born November 23rd, 1859, died June 24th, 1924', JFSS, 7.3 (no. 28) (1924), 200-01.

(15) Sir Richard Runciman Terry (1865-1938) was Director of Music at Westminster Cathedral 1901-24. He then turned his attention to music editing and journalism. He had a lifelong interest in sea songs and shanties, collected in ail the major ports of England, and published a collection of shanties in 1921. One of his informants was a retired sailor, to whom Terry was introduced by a friend who lived in Bristol. The 'old salt' is not identified but he may well have been the shanty-man John Short, of Watchet in Somerset. Previously Sharp had collected from Short, and Terry was critical of Sharp's 'inaccuracy' when he compared Sharp's notation with his own notation of the same songs.

(16) London, VWML, Cecil J. Sharp MSS, Correspondence, Sir Richard Terry to A. H. Fox Strangways, 2 November 1932.

(17) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 18 July 1925.

(18) A. H. Fox Strangways, in collaboration with Karpeles, Cecil Sharp (London: Oxford University Press, 1933), p. 21.

(19) 'Cecil Sharp', Music and Letters, 3.1 (1921), 3.

(20) The Editor [A. H. Fox Strangways], 'The Sharp Memorial Fund' Music and Letters, 6, 4 (1925), 208-209.

(21) EFDS, Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Committee, 1 July 1924.

(22) EFDS, Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Committee, 1 July 1924.

(23) EFDS, Annual Report for 1924, p. 3

(24) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 1 July 1924.

(25) Angela V. John, Evelyn Sharp: Rebel Woman, 1869-1955 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009), p. 179.

(26) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 17 January 1917.

(27) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 17 July 1924.

(28) EFDS, Annual Report for 1924, p. 2.

(29) 'The Cecil Sharp Memorial', Musical Times, 1 June 1925, p. 517.

(30) In 1925 H. A. L. Fisher was a serving Liberal MP and was the brother-in-law of Ralph Vaughan Williams.

(31) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 15 November 1924.

(32) A. H. Fox Strangways, 'The Sharp Memorial Fund' Music and Letters 6.4 (1925), 290. The EFDS Annual Report for 1925 gives membership figures of 872 full members and 416 associate members, and states: 'The total membership of the Society, including members, associates and Branch members is 8,080.' This was far in excess of the FSS membership, which throughout this period remained at about 220.

(33) F. H. [probably Frank Howes], 'Cecil Sharp House', Musical Times, 1 July 1930, p. 647.

(34) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 15 November 1924.

(35) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 30 June 1926.

(36) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 1 March 1927.

(37) Frank Howes, 'Preface', JFSS, 8.1 (no. 31) (1927).

(38) 'Corrigenda to Journal no. 31', JFSS, 8.2 (no. 32) (1928).

(39) FSS, Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting of the Committee, 16 May 1898. At this meeting the draft rules for the society were discussed and finalized. The minutes record that 'It was decided to omit the words "of the United Kingdom".' The final version of Rule II was: 'The Society shall have as its primary object the collection and preservation of Folk-Songs and Ballads, and Tunes, and the publication of such of these as may be deemed advisable.' See also 'Rules [Rule II]', JFSS, 1.1 (1899), p. iv.

(40) Lucy E. Broadwood, 'Obituary: Frank Kidson, M.A., born November 15th, 1855, died November 7th, 1926', JFSS, 8.1 (no. 3D (1927), 48-49.

(41) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 20 October 1923.

(42) Walter Ford, 'Obituary: Lucy Etheldred Broadwood, born August 9th, 1858, died August 22nd, 1929', JFSS, 8.3 (no. 33) 0929), 168-69.

(43) F. H. [probably Frank Howes], 'Obituary', Musical Times, 1 October 1929, p. 943.

(44) Broadwood Diaries, 20 August 1929.

(45) Broadwood Papers, 2297/6, Mary Venables, 'Lucy Etheldred Broadwood 1858-1929'.

(46) Broadwood Papers, 6192/2/1, Mary Stewart Shearme to unknown correspondent.

(47) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 30 October 1929.

(48) FSS, Minutes of the Annual General Meeting, 4 December 1929.

(49) Lady Gomme was seventy-six and served on both committees; in order to avoid giving a skewed figure for the average ages she has not been included in these calculations.

(50) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 4 April 1930.

(51) Cecil Sharp House was not formally opened until 7 June 1930. F. H. [probably Frank Howes], 'Cecil Sharp House', Musical Times, 1 July 1930, p. 647, reported on the opening ceremony: 'it was handed over by the organisers of the Cecil Sharp Fund to the E.F.D.S. [...] Mr. H.A.L. Fisher declared the building open.'

(52) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 11 June 1924.

(53) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 4 April 1930.

(54) Minutes of the Meeting of Delegates from the Folk-Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society, 19 May 1930, included in FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 19 May 1930.

(55) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 13 June 1930.

(56) Maud Karpeles, Folk Songs from Newfoundland, (London: Faber and Faber, 1971) p. 13.

(57) Georgina Boyes, '"A Proper Limitation": Sterotypes of Alice Gomme', p. 1. <http://www.mustrad.org.uk/articles/gomme.htm> [accessed 27 November 2014].

(58) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 13 June, 1930, containing a letter from Douglas Kennedy to Lydia John, Honorary Secretary of the FSS, 6 June 1930.

(59) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Sub-Committee, 20 June 1930.

(60) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 4 July 1930.

(61) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 17 October 1930.

(62) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 12 December 1930.

(63) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 18 December 1930.

(64) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 9 February 1931. These minutes include a letter from Douglas Kennedy to Lydia John, 16 January 1931.

(65) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 5 June 1931-The minutes include a letter from Leo Broadwood to Lydia John, 11 February 1931.

(66) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 25 November, 1930. These minutes include an outline of Lady Gomme's views on amalgamation.

(67) EFDS Annual Report for 1930, p. 8.

(68) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 5 March 1931.

(69) EFDS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 2 June 1931.

(70) 'The Vaughan Williams Memorial Library', JEFDSS, 8.3 (1958), 122.

(71) 'Report of the Special General Meeting', JFSS, 8.5 (no. 35) (1931), x-xi.

(72) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 25 November 1931.

(73) FSS, Minutes of the Meeting of the Committee, 16 December 1931. These minutes include a letter from Leo Broadwood to Lydia John, 2 December 1931.

(74) The minutes also include a letter from the EFDS secretary, Mrs M. Jenkins, to Lydia John, 2 December 1931.

(75) Frank Howes, 'Obituary: Alfred Perceval Graves, born July 22nd, 1846, died December 27th, 1931', JFSS, 8.5 (no. 35) (1931), 305.

(76) FSS, Minutes of the Annual General Meeting, 10 March 1932.

(77) EFDSS Annual Report September 1931 to August 1932, p.5.
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