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The materials of typefounding: a list of surviving collections.

METAL type, although its use survives in the arcane craft of hand printing, has long vanished from the technology of making texts for widespread reading. One of the paradoxes that have accompanied this process lies in the fact that as this has happened-and partly as a consequence--readers, who were once largely ignorant of the ways in which their text was made and even of the names of common typefaces, have now become far better informed. The names Times New Roman and Garamond and Helvetica, and their sizes in points, are familiar on computer screens. In 2007 Helvetica, the movie, won an audience far beyond the specialist world of professional designers, something that not long ago would have been unimaginable. My object here is to present a brief record of what survives of the materials that were created for this obsolete technology, some of which bear the original form of designs that are perpetuated in familiar digital fonts.

Typographical hardware was durable. Garamond's steel punches for his Greek, cut in about 1540, survive in good condition, and so do the copper matrices for many of his roman and italic types and those of his contemporaries, which were circulated in many countries as multiple strikes from the original punches, and which in some cases survived in use for the next two centuries. Some matrices in the collection made by the Enschede type-foundry in Haarlem derive from punches that were cut in the 1490s. Types can be cast from these early matrices today that are identical in their face to the originals used by printers five hundred years ago. But the trade secrets of the makers of type were often jealously guarded and only reluctantly passed on. It is notorious that when Joseph Jackson, a skilled and intelligent apprentice to William Caslon and his son, made a punch on his own initiative and showed it to his employers, they--or most likely, the son, a jealous and less talented figure--hit him and threatened to send him to jail if he did it again.' Since the processes involved in making type were rarely written down or passed on completely, there is a danger that much knowledge will be lost along with the everyday habits of the punchcutters and typefounders, and our appreciation of exactly what the makers of type did will suffer for this loss. Moreover, if we no longer possess their knowledge and their skills, it will be all the more difficult to judge what we should preserve from the materials that have survived.

The reasons why the use of metal types faded away are varied, but the process, once it began, was inexorable. An important part of the market for type for setting by hand was severely reduced at the end of the nineteenth century by the introduction of the Linotype and other keyboard-driven systems for casting whole texts in metal and recycling the slug or type after printing, and not reusing it. "The Lino is ruining us," wrote one British founder to another. It also seemed likely quite early in the twentieth century that, despite the technical difficulties that would have to be overcome, other means of placing words on paper than the use of metal type cast in relief would be developed sooner or later, since such methods, once perfected, would offer great economic advantages. Indeed, according to some forecasts, metal type would be obsolete by 1940. Early in the twentieth century photogravure and offset lithography already offered alternative technologies for printing text and images together. All that was needed was a means of generating the text without the use of relief metal, and that was achieved by the 1950s.

But what then happened was--so far as I am aware--completely beyond any forecast that was made at that time. Filmsetting or photocomposition, based on familiar photographic processes, was done with proprietary commercial systems, some of which were developed and marketed by old-established names among the typefoundries and composing machine makers like Berthold and Linotype, and this seemed to ensure their survival as companies. But filmsetting was only a brief episode, which came rapidly to a close. In early photo-composing devices, correction was done by resetting and cutting and splicing the film. This was clumsy and inefficient, and in later systems the text was captured on magnetic tape and edited via computer screens. Not long after digital typesetting was introduced, the "device-independent" page-description language PostScript enabled all the processes, from typesetting to page makeup and the integration of images to be performed with a small, affordable personal computer with a graphical user interface. A defining moment is the scene in January 1984-it can be found on YouTube-when Steve Jobs showed a digital font on the screen of the little Apple Macintosh to the cheers of an incredulous and delighted audience in San Francisco. Type had been caught up in the process, the future scale of which was still hardly apprehended, by which texts, like images, and music, and all forms of information, would be stored in digital form and accessed in multiple ways, including of course the Internet.

The present list began as a part of a project initiated during the 1980s and which is still in progress: a biographical "dictionary of punchcutters; which consists of notes on the life and work of all the known makers of typographical punches. There are nearly five hundred names in it. As an appendix to the dictionary, I added a note of what I called "the materials of typefounding; namely a summary catalogue of the major surviving collections of historical punches and matrices, and also of related documents like type specimens and type drawings, and the archives of typefoundries. Keeping this up to date caused me more trouble than any other section of my text, because it needed constant revision, as the collections changed hands within what was left of the commercial typefounding industry, or migrated into the hands of institutions, or were simply dispersed irretrievably, as in the case of the remaining materials and equipment of the American Typefounders' Company in New Jersey, which in lgg3 were put up for sale at short notice at an auction at which collectors and scrap dealers struggled for lots under a blazing August sun.

If the situation has stabilized to some extent, that is only because the makers and sellers of type are now mostly out of business and there are no more materials in their hands. The danger to what survives is no less real and in some ways it is far more insidious. During the last five years the existence of some major institutional collections has come under a real threat, and it is one that has not been resolved. I do not intend to examine the present crisis in minute detail. (1a) The main reason for publishing this list is to give some idea what remains of these materials, and where, so far as is known, they are to be found. But in this introductory note it seems useful to refer to one or two current cases; to offer a summary of some of the ways in which something can perhaps still be done to avert the disaster of the widespread destruction of these relics of letterpress printing; and to suggest why this is worth doing.

First of all, it should be said why so many collections survive virtually intact, since their sheer quantity and bulk is a part of the problem that faces us. It is partly a matter of the inertia of institutions. The seventeenth-century punches and matrices of the roman and italic types of the University Press at Oxford were preserved during a century or so when typefounding had ceased there and when they were so out of fashion that it seemed evident that there was no conceivable likelihood that they would ever be reused. Eventually, of course, the "Fell types" were indeed recast and used for printing (as they still are, occasionally), but the old matrices had been kept because the University Press, like the University, tended to keep things. Some books that had been printed there and had turned out to be slow sellers were still available and could be bought from stock a century or two later.

So we must acknowledge the role of the stable institutions, who have been willing to preserve materials simply for the sake of preservation. Here are a couple of examples from Italy. When Bonaparte needed Arabic type for urgent political purposes to serve his expedition in Egypt, he seized punches and matrices from the Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana in Florence that had preserved the Arabic and other non-Latin types cut by Robert Granjon two hundred years earlier for the Medici missionary press in Rome. (2) Some matrices that were made on this occasion with the original punches were kept by the Imprimerie nationale in Paris (who still have them), but the library got most of the materials back and has kept them safely ever since. Bodoni's punches and matrices were bought in 1840 by the state of Parma for permanent preservation in the Biblioteca Palatina as a memorial to their creator, and when during the early twentieth century Giovanni Mardersteig wished to print from Bodoni's types, a commercial typefoundry in Florence found no difficulty in casting from these matrices, like any others, and they are still in good order. During the summer of 2007 some types were cast from Bodoni's matrices, in one of his own moulds, in the Museo Bodoniano in the Biblioteca Palatina. Both of these collections are still kept carefully and seem to be under no threat, save that of being overlooked.

One famous institution above all can be cited as an example of how the problem of preservation can not only be managed but turned to advantage. The renowned sixteenth-century printing office of Christopher Plantin and his descendants declined gently during the following centuries. It remained profitable enough to survive, but not so ambitious that it felt the need to install new power-driven printing machinery nor to move from its original building. When it drifted into inactivity, it became a museum in 1876, with the support of the civic authorities of Antwerp. Under the intelligent curatorship of Max Rooses, the first director, the collection was put in order and listed. But it was not until the 1950s that its full typographical significance began to become evident. A project set in train by the energy and persuasive power of Stanley Morison led to the sorting of the original punches and matrices that Plantin had assembled, and their attribution with the help of the carefully preserved inventories to their original punchcutters, among whom were Claude Garamont, Robert Granjon, Pierre Haultin and Hendrik van den Keere. (1b) As a result many types, the work of these major artists, have been identified in the sixteenth-century and later printing of many European countries, and major progress was made in an area of the history of the book that was almost wholly unknown to Updike when he began to write his monumental work.

In 2005 the Plantin-Moretus Museum, with its library and archives and its historical printing materials, was added to the World Heritage List of UNESCO, as a site forming part of the "cultural and natural heritage with outstanding universal value:' If I have made the process seem easy and free from problems, that does some injustice to those who have looked after the collection and made some sensible decisions. Like that of the Biblioteca Palatina in Parma, the building of the Plantin-Moretus Museum was damaged by bombing during the Second World War. (And, in an episode that is less well known, some of the collections were attacked from the air as they were moved in an anonymous convoy of trucks to a location outside the city. A carefully-maintained appearance of undisturbed tranquility and safety can be delusive.) One of the additions made in the course of repairs to the building in Antwerp was a workshop in which casting of type and printing from it was possible, something that has been of lasting benefit to the study of the collections. All the same, the very popularity of the museum has in its turn brought with it some of the problems that are familiar to other historic structures, so that the treads of the original wooden main staircase have recently had to be wholly renewed.

If the Plantin-Moretus Museum, like the Biblioteca Mediceo Laurenziana and the Museo Bodoniano, are examples of institutional stability, commercial businesses are obviously more vulnerable to changes of technology and the fluctuation of their markets. In 1806, in wartime, with a change of fashion dictating the use of new designs of type, the Enschede printing office destroyed something like half of its old punches and matrices, which represented the surviving stock of the great sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Dutch typefoundries, to the great regret of later members of the family, especially Charles Enschede, who wrote a history of typefounding in the Low Countries. In the 1980s, when the current printing operation of Enschede, specializing in banknotes and a range of security printing, was moved from the centre of Haarlem to new buildings outside the town, and all typefounding had ceased, it acted with a greater sense of historical responsibility. The typefounding materials and other historic artefacts were installed in a museum under the administration of a professional curator.

I will only touch on the bigger crises that I referred to, and yet they need to be kept in view because they are current, and we do not know how they will end. In a sense, all of us who have any concern with the history of books and other printed matter will be responsible for the fate of the materials that survive so precariously.

The locations that especially concern me are London and Paris. Events in Paris were made public by an active support group which made sure that there was ample online material, including stories from the media that give a detailed picture of events, month by month. (1c) The Imprimerie nationale began to "rationalize" its sites in 2003, and sold its building and site in central Paris in 2005. Production of printed matter moved mostly to an existing factory at Douai. The matter that was not resolved until a very late date indeed was what would become of the skilled "craft" operations, namely printing from engraved and etched copper plates (using an eighteenth-century press), direct lithography from the stone (with a massive machine made by Voirin in about 1870), letterpress printing with the proprietary handset types, and above all, because it is a unique survival, the "Cabinet des poincons," which is not only a store of many thousands of historic punches but also the working place of a professional punchcutter, Madame Nelly Gable, who uniquely in the world has learned her skill, like her predecessors, from those who were there before her, in an unbroken tradition. (1d) Late in 2005, to the relief of all concerned, these operations, with their equipment and staff, were transferred to industrial premises that were leased for the purpose at Ivry-sur-Seine, a few miles to the south east of Paris, where they form the "Atelier du livre," more fully the "Atelier du livre d'art et de festampe," and where they are intended to continue the tradition of fine printing established at the Imprimerie nationale in 1800 under Arthur Christian, who had the "Garamont" and "Grandjean" types recast from original matrices. May they flourish, and above all, may they receive our vigilant support.

The story of some the materials that are held in institutions in London is unresolved, so although they cannot be left out of this survey, the briefest of notes will have to do here. At one level, albeit a rather low one, it is encouraging. Many materials that might have been lost, and indeed were in earlier decades, were preserved. (Think of the typefoundry Miller & Richard in Edinburgh, of which the materials and archives vanished almost without trace in the 1950s.) A small selection of equipment and the whole stock of type patterns of the Monotype Corporation was acquired, with public funding, and installed at what became the "Type Museum" in south London, where they provided a service by continuing to make new matrices for Monotype machines. The equipment and stock of the wood letter makers, belittle, of York, were acquired. And the materials and archives of the major surviving British typefoundry, Stephenson, Blake & Co. of Sheffield, were also bought with public funding and added to the Type Museum. An inventory of the Stephenson Blake materials was compiled, and demonstrations of hand typefounding from the matrices were given. (2a) But the costs of maintaining the building and employing its staff were formidable, and in 2006 the museum closed to the public while a long-term solution to its problems was sought. (3)

The position of the St Bride Library is slightly more cheerful. It is managing to maintain its public service as a library without jettisoning the typographical materials assembled there of the Stevens, Shanks (formerly Figgins) foundry, the University Press, Oxford, Chiswick Press, H. W Caslon, and numerous smaller collections. These are described in some detail in the list that follows.

By way of contrast there are three events that we can salute as an example of what individual efforts can do.

In 1985, when the Stempel typefoundry ceased the production of type, its materials, some tons of punches, matrices and casting machines, together with its archives and its collection of typefounders' specimens, were transported at the initiative of Professor Walter Wilkes to the dry and ample cellars ofwhat was known as the "Technische Hochschule; now the Technische Universitat, in Darmstadt, where he led the printing department that has produced a long series of examples of finely printed books and facsimiles of valuable technical handbooks. When a general technical museum was set up in Darmstadt some years later, not only was space assigned to this material, but it also provided space for the typefounding operation that had been maintained after the closure of the Frankfurt foundry by a former member of the staff of Stempel, Rainer Gerstenberg. (1e) Today he produces type not only from matrices from Stempel but also from some of those that went to the Haas foundry in Basel, including the French foundries Deberny & Peignot and Fonderie Olive.

Shortly after the fall of the Berlin wall, Eckehart SchumacherGebler, a Munich typesetter with a passionate interest in the technological history of type and printing and a personal collection of printing presses and other machinery, acquired the historic premises of the former Drugulin printing office in Leipzig. In the same premises he created what is now the Druckkunst-Museum, which is one of the most active and rewarding to visit of the new generation of printing museums. It not only houses what was left of the materials of the Leipzig typefoundries, which had been gathered under the name of VEB Typoart, but also much of the surviving material of H. Berthold, which during the 1980s had been saved from imminent destruction by the resistente of a typefounder who barricaded the doors. (2b)

And to add one more encouraging story, there is the Tipoteca, the "Tipoteca Italiana Fondazione; at Cornuda, a little town to the north of Treviso. It is the creation of a highly sophisticated and successful family-run graphic arts business, which originates artwork and produces high-quality color printing. The Tipoteca is a museum, with printing presses and machinery that have been restored with marvellous expertise and sympathy, and the archive of type drawings of the most prominent type designer in Italy in the years following the Second World War, Aldo Novarese. For some years stories circulated about the existence in private hands in Italy of a collection of punches made by the Amoretti, the brothers who had worked with Bodoni, and no doubt made some of his types, until a disagreement led them to leave him, and to set up their own foundry in their native village of San Prancrazio close by, where they made very fine type on the same model. The original punches, it was said, had been kept by the family. It was true, and in 2006 they were acquired by the Tipoteca and added to their collection. So we can record this recent addition to the list of surviving punches.

If so much material is safe for the moment, it amounts to a huge quantity, and a heavy responsibility. Preserving means providing a safe environment. (Steel punches are vulnerable to rust.) And, as with the Stephenson, Blake material, documentation must also be added, which means matching the punches and matrices to type specimens and other records, and this can only be done by those who have some knowledge of what they are looking at.

Even if so much has been lost, there are certainly many hundreds of thousands of pieces that survive, some millions in all likelihood. What justification is there for their preservation? What use are they, now that it is unlikely that letterpress printing will ever be more than a small craft. Do we need all of them? Any of them?

Various analogies come to mind, all of which are probably misleading to a greater or lesser degree. Because we still have the Victory (laid down in 1759), at Portsmouth, and the Constitution (launched in 1797), at Boston, however they may have been refurbished and rebuilt, we are better informed, technically, about the wooden navies that did so much to shape the world we live in. Perhaps a better comparison, though still limited in its relevance (and hindered by my ignorance of both music and naval architecture), is with early music. Surviving instruments, and contemporary manuscript scores too, help to tell us more accurately what the music of, say, Handel sounded like, and to restore a tradition that had been overlaid. The result has been a revelation that is often compared to cleaning a picture (though that analogy too needs to be handled with caution). At all events, we shall hope to go on hearing this newly restored music, however the means of making and recording it may change.

At any rate, this analogy may be a little closer to the value of a thorough knowledge of the technology of type. The type used in a text gives some idea of the way in which it appeared to its early readers, and it may help to place the location and date of its printing, and the identity of the printer. One limitation on the study of the history of type lies in our lack of objective means of identifying its identity on a specific printed page. It is still mostly done, as it always has been, by eye, by claiming to recognize it. The growing sophistication of software for recognizing images and the falling cost of digital storage may mean that a means of compiling and storing a major database of typefaces--all typefaces, of all countries, during the entire lifetime of moveable type--is less visionary than it was in 197g, when Warner Barnes put forward a modest plan for such a scheme. (1f) At the very least, a comprehensive databank of showings in type specimens should be created. And since the image of type on paper is distorted by the wear of the type, the inking, the presswork, the paper quality and shrinkage, it may be equally important to record directly from surviving punches and matrices, which have the advantage over the printed page or even the type specimen of providing a more nearly complete character set for each type.

I have no idea how realistic such ideas may be. Much has been claimed for the digital facsimiles of important texts, many of which are accessible online. But those who have tried to use them to advance the study of their types know that the detail of the images is far too imprecise for them to be of much practical use, and new images must certainly be made at a far higher resolution. The important studies of the work of the major sixteenth-century French punchcutters that have been published in various specialist journals during the last decade or more by H. D. L. Vervliet, and which are coming to a consummation in his Conspectus, a summary of his work that the Bibliographical Society will publish, are based on the simple and classic formula that produced such valuable results in the era of Proctor and Haebler--repeated access to the original books, and good photographs, studied over many years, and the results put in order by a literate scholar who has trained his eyes and has a good visual memory. But most of the giants of bibliography made occasional mistakes, sometimes quite bad ones, and it would be helpful to be able to consult a less fallible resource, and one that is more widely accessible, and that will mean more images and at an adequate resolution. Moreover, we must not forget that Vervliet owes at least the foundations of his knowledge to the intense period of work when he collaborated with Harry Carter (and Mike Parker, later the Type Director of Linotype, and Harry's son Matthew, who now designs types) on the sorting of the original materials of the Plantin-Moretus Museum, then as now happily preserved at Antwerp, and these too should be recorded.

In the end, the responsibility is probably too great for any one institution. One purpose of publishing this list is to indicate what remains to us of this material. I hope that it may help to encourage cooperation among the institutions, and also among the individuals who have a special interest in typography and the history of the printed book, to make something of it while we have it.

INTRODUCTION TO THE LIST

I have explained the origin of the list that follows. It is inevitably an imperfect document, and the most that I can claim is that it is as complete and up to date as I and a number of trustworthy and expert sources have been able to make it. Some use has indeed been made of the printed sources that I list with each entry wherever this has been possible, but few of these are recent in date. More importantly, as many entries as possible are based on personal and current knowledge of the collections, my own and also that of others. In some cases there are sensitivities involved which I have done my best to respect. I thank my many informants, official and unofficial.

I offer this information, therefore, in good faith, and with some hopes, but with no guarantee, that it is correct and currently valid. I have given the name of the place where each collection is located, but not detailed addresses nor contact names since I am all too well aware that these tend to be ephemeral. A good search engine should enable most of them to be found online.

I should explain why I have kept some headings (marked with a ([dagger])) for bodies that no longer exist, like American Type Founders, H. Berthold, or Stephenson, Blake. When the list was first compiled they were still discrete collections, however limited their future seemed likely to be. When they ceased to operate, it was to some extent inertia that discouraged me from incorporating the whole entry in another one, let alone dividing it up among several others. But in a few cases it seemed to me helpful to retain an account of the materials, their history and its sources in one entry, and to say where possible what has happened to them.

Given its origins in a list of punchcutters, at first the object of this list was to record collections of handmade punches, the matrices derived from them, and the specimens and records of the traditional typefoundries. I did not attempt to list surviving sets of matrices made for the composing machines from the late nineteenth century onwards, such as Linotype, Monotype, and related systems like Typograph, Intertype, and Ludlow They were identical industrial products that were made in huge quantities, and there are still sets of them in the hands of people, many of them former typesetters, who have preserved the machines and who still operate them, more as enthusiasts than as directors of a commercial operation.

I did make an exception for the "masters" that were used to make these matrices, and included a note of the comprehensive set of matrices that was deposited as a record by Mergenthaler Linotype at the Rochester Institute of Technology, and passed on by them to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. I have noted the fact that among the materials acquired by the Type Museum in London from the Monotype Corporation was a comprehensive set of the copper patterns that are used to guide the pantographic punchcutting machines. And I have added two further locations to my list for its present publication. One is Monotype Imaging, with its offices at Salfords in Surrey, which was the site of Monotype's British factory, where they not only preserve the master drawings that were used to make the patterns from which the punches and matrices derive, but also some of the original artwork by designers such as Eric Gill and Bruce Rogers. The other is the Museum of Printing, North Andover, Massachusetts, which houses the surviving file of drawings for Linotype faces.

Since the scope of the list has been extended in this way, it is only appropriate to salute the many private individuals who operate their own casting machines and to acknowledge what they have done and are still doing to keep alive the skills of typefounding with their expertise and enthusiasm.

Many of them are members of the American Typecasting Fellowship, the group which perpetuates the initials ATF that once referred to the American Type Founders Company. It holds meetings at which members assemble to exchange advice, stories and spare parts. (1g) There are comparable groups in other countries.

Perhaps I should record here the existence at least two major sets of Monotype matrices (die cases) which include some that were preserved by individuals when they were no longer of practical use to the original company. Harold Berliner, of Nevada City, California, bought a set that had been used in the printing office of the Monotype Corporation at Salfords, where they had been used to set the Monotype Recorder and Monotype Newsletter and the Monotype specimen sheets. His material was bought in 2004 for use at the Offizin Parnassia, the printing and typecasting operation of Hans-Ulrich Frey and Stephen Burkhardt in the little alpine village of Vattis in Switzerland. A comparable set of English Monotype materials was assembled from several sources, including Monotype's own European loan library of matrices, by Eckehart SchumacherGebler. A third set of Monotype matrices worth noting was assembled at the University Press, Oxford and, after printing ceased there during the 1980s, was acquired by John Randle for the Whittington Press, near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, letterpress printers and publishers of the journal Matrix, which has also printed with some of the "Fell" types from the University Press.

The first printing of the list that follows was in 1888, when it was reproduced in A5 format by photocopying pages produced with two examples of obsolete technology, a Qume daisywheel printer that was driven by an Amstrad PCW word processor. A few of its keystrokes probably survive in the present text. Other impressions have followed, in small editions, randomly distributed. Since 2006 it has been located on my blog, at http:// typefoundry.blogspot.com. This limited publication has resulted in useful additions and necessary corrections. I need hardly say that I shall be grateful to receive any that this new printed text may generate.

BELGIUM

Museum Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp

The house and printing-office of Christophe Plantin (died 1589) and his successors became a museum in 1876. The collection of typefounding materials comprises 4,477 punches,15,825 justified matrices and 4,681 strikes. Among the punchcutters whose work is represented are Claude Garamont, Robert Granjon, Francois Guyot, Pierre Haultin, Ameet Tavernier, Guillaume I Le Be, Hendrik van den Keere and J. M. Schmidt. There are 62 moulds from the original collection; another 200 were added in 1956 from the Van der Borght foundry of Brussels. An English-made pivotal caster was acquired for casting new type. The punches and matrices were sorted and catalogued in 1954 and succeeding years.

The museum, with its library and archives and its historical printing materials, was added in 2005 to the World Heritage List of UNESCO, as a site forming part of the cultural and natural heritage with outstanding universal value.

REFERENCES: Mike Parker and K. Melis, comps., Inventory of the Plantin-Moretus Museum Punches and Matrices (Antwerp: Museum Plantin-Moretus, for private circulation, 1960). viii, 170 pages. [paragraph] Mike Parker, K. Melis, and H. D. L. Vervliet, "Early Inventories of Punches, Matrices, and Moulds, in the Plantin-Moretus Archives," De gulden passer 38 (1960): 1-139. [paragraph] Index characterum Architypographiae Plantinianae: proeven der letter soorten gebruikt in de Plantijnsche drukkerij (Antwerp, 1905). A specimen printed under the direction of the Director, Max Rooses, from early types preserved in the museum. [paragraph] L. Voet, The Golden Compasses: A History and Evaluation of the Printing and PublishingActivities of the Officina Plantiniana at Antwerp, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1969-74). [paragraph] Mike Parker, "Early Typefounders' Moulds at the Plantin-Moretus Museum," The Library 5th ser., 29 (1974): 93-102. [paragraph] John A. Lane, Early Type Specimens in the Plantin-Moretus Museum: Annotated Descriptions of the Specimens to ca. 1850 (Mostly from the Low Countries and France) with Preliminary Notes on the Typefoundries and Printing-offices (New Castle, Del.; London, 2004).

FRANCE

Archives Nationales, Paris

Among the documents relating to typefounding in the national archives are several notarial inventories of the stock of typefoundries, including two for the Le Be foundry, c. 1620 and 1685 (Minutier Central des Notaires, Etude LXV, 229, and Etude LXX, 182) and the record of the contents of the domicile of P. S. Fournier le j eune, including the foundry, 1768 (Etude LXIV 400). AJ18 is a series of documents relating to the Imprimerie Nationale, including records from the Imprimerie Royale of payments made to its appointed punchcutters, the graveurs du roi, 1693-1789.

REFERENCES: Jeanne Veyrin-Forrer, "Apercu sur la fonderie typographique parisienne au XVIIIe siecle," The Library, 5th ser., 24 (1969): 199-218. Provides a guide to some of the inventories.

Atelier Louis Jou, Les Baux (1h)

Louis Jou (born Barcelona 1881, died 1968) worked as a wood engraver in Paris and set up his own press. He produced types to his own designs with assistance from other engravers, and had them cast in Barcelona. Punches for his later types were cut by Charles Malin. Jou moved to Les Baux in 1940. The Fondation Louis Jou was created in 1976 to maintain his workshop, which houses his punches, matrices and type, as a meeting place for engravers and printers.

REFERENCES: "Louis Jou," special issue of Tramontane, revue mensuelle du Rousillon, nos. 436-38 (1960). [paragraph] Andre Feuille, Louis Jou: biobibliographie (Bordeaux, 1984).

Bibliotheque Forney, Paris

Shortly before the typefoundry Deberny & Peignot ceased production in 1975, a collection of their business records, type specimens and other related material was donated to this library by Charles Peignot and by the Librairie Paul Jammes. In February 2005 Jean-Luc Froissart, a member of the Peignot family, donated the archival material on which he based the book about the family that he published in 2004.

REFERENCES: "Le Don Charles Peignot," Bulletin de la Societe desAmis de la Bibliotheque Forney, no. 50 (1976): 1-35. [paragraph] Jean-Luc Froissart, L'or, lizme et les cendres du plomb: l'epopee des Peignot 1815-1983 (Paris: chez fauteur, 2004).

Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Paris

The Reserve of the department of printed books at the Site Francois-Mitterand (Tolbiac) has one of the most important collections of French type specimens. However the "Collection Anisson" (see below) is in the department of manuscripts at the Site Richelieu.

REFERENCES: For references to many of these materials, and also to material relating to typefounding in the Archives Nationales, see Jeanne Veyrin-Forrer, "Apercu sur la fonderie typographique parisienne au XVIIIe siecle," The Library 5th ser., 24 (1869):199-218, with a corrected reprint in her collected essays, La lettre et le texte (Paris,1987), pp. 89-108. [paragraph] A catalogue of the contents of the "Collection Anisson" (Mss. fr. 22061-22183, etc.), a part of which was assembled by Joseph d'Hemery (1722-1806), Inspecteur de la Librairie, which contains type specimens and many printed and manuscript documents relating to the history of typefounding, is given in Ernest Coyecque, Inventaire de la Collection Anisson sur l'histoire de l'imprimerie et de la librairie, principalement a Paris (Paris, 1900).

A collection of early types was found on the bed of the Saone at Lyon in 1868. Most of these types (222 sorts) were originally deposited in the department of printed books of the Bibliotheque Nationale, transferred to the Musee de l'Imprimerie, Lyon, in 1864, and reclaimed by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France in 2002.

REFERENCE: Maurice Audin, Les types lyonnais primitifs conserves au Department des Imprimes (Legs Seymour de Ricci) (Paris, 1955).

Imprimerie Nationale, Atelier du Livre et de l'Estampe, Ivry-sur-Seine The Imprimerie Nationale, established as the Imprimerie Royale at the Louvre in 1640, maintained a typefoundry of its own. Having had different locations during the Revolution, it was established during the nineteenth century in the district known as the Marais. New premises that were built for its operation in about 1810 in the Rue de la Convention were sold and vacated in 2005. The materials of the Cabinet des Poincons, together with a large part of the Library (with the exception of some publications taken to the main factory of the Imprimerie nationale at Douai), the stock for type for hand setting and the equipment for typefounding, and letterpress, lithographic and intaglio printing, are all currently housed in new accommodation at Ivry sur Seine.

The earlier materials include punches by Claude Garamont for the grecs du roi (1543-50), matrices for three sizes of roman and italic types known as the caracteres de l'universite, which were bought from Jean Jannon in 1641, punches and matrices for the romain du roi made by the graveurs du roi, Philippe Grandjean, Jean Alexandre and Louis Luce, between 1696 and 1750, and for the later official roman and italic types cut by Firmin Didot and Marcellin Legrand. It possesses one of the largest extant collections of punches and matrices for non-Latin types, some of which were struck from punches seized from the oriental collections in Rome and Florence in 1798 and 1811; many others were added during the 19th century.

The Cabinet des Poincons was reorganized after the Second World War. The last complete type cut by hand was Le Gauthier, the work of Louis Gauthier (died 1992). His successors were Jacques Camus and Jean Portron, both of whom died early in 2005, and more recently Christian Paput, who took early retirement in August 2005, and Nelly Gable. Madame Gable, punchcutter in the Cabinet des Poincons, supervised the removal of the collection to Ivry and has responsibility for it there. Some punches from Deberny & Peignot were deposited after the foundry closed in 1975, and more sets of punches from the same foundry were brought back to France from the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei in August 1989. The total number of punches in the collection is estimated at between 300,000 and 500,000.

REFERENCES: An inventory of typefounding and printing materials was drawn up in 1691 when Jean Anisson (died 1721) was appointed director (BnF M s. Nouv acq. fr. 2511). Inventories of the oriental and Greek punches and matrices were made in 1787 (BnF MSS. Nouv. acq. fr. 141, 142). [paragraph] Type specimen books were produced in 1760, 1810, 1819, 1845, 1878, etc. Non-Latin types were shown in detail in Le Cabinet des poincons (1948, 3rd ed. 1963). The most recent specimen of types is Les caracteres de l'Imprimerie nationals (Paris, 1990). [paragraph] See also the exhibition catalogue Le romain du roi: la typographic au service de Z etat (Lyon: Musee de fimprimerie, 2002). [paragraph] For a summary of early specimens and inventories see James Mosley, "The Type Specimens of the Imprimerie Royale 1643-1828," Bulletin du bibliophile 1(2002): 70-g9.

Moulin Richard de Bas (Musee Historique du Papier), Ambert

A paper mill in the Auvergne, a traditional paper-making district, at which demonstrations of hand paper-making are given. The collection of artifacts includes nineteenth-century punches and matrices from the Parisian printing firm Lahure, of which there are about fifty drawers, some of which are on exhibition.

Musee de l'Imprimerie, Lyon

The museum was established in 1964. It has some typefounding materials, including punches by Vibert. It has a working printing-office for demonstrations of printing and typefounding, for which a hand-mould was made by Stan Nelson.

In the library there is an important collection of type specimens, including many from the personal collection of Marius Audin which was acquired by the museum.

Musee de l'Imprimerie, Nantes

Materials from the Fonderie Caslon, Paris, were transferred in 1995 to this museum of printing, which was established in 1886. The older matrices of the Fonderie Caslon, including all sizes of Caslon Old Face in its late-nineteenth-century form, were from the Paris branch of H. W Caslon & Co. The former manager of the branch, Radiguer, had a foundry under his own name and acted as agent for types from the Caslon foundry. This arrangement was formalized in 1939 after the closure of the Caslon foundry in London by an agreement between Radiguer & Cie, Caslon Machinery Ltd., and Caslon, Chitson Co. During the Second World War the premises were bombed, and the Fonderie Caslon, having absorbed the foundries of Ruffin, Calenquin (which made only spacing materials), Olliere, Warnery and Ribaudeau-Dumas, moved to the building of the last of these in Rue Abbe Carton, Paris 14e. Type was last cast in May 1993.

GERMANY

H. BertholdAG, Berlin ([dagger])

In 1858 Hermann Berthold (died 1904) established an electrotyping plant in Berlin, to which he added a typefoundry. Branches of the typefoundry were created through the purchase of existing foundries in Stuttgart (Baver & Co., 1897), St. Petersburg (Georg Ross & Co., 1900), Vienna (J. H. Rust & Co., 1905) and Prague (A. Haase,1907). Two Berlin typefoundries were also acquired: Gustau Reinhold (who had purchased the foundry of Emil Berger, Leipzig, 1893) and Friedrich Theinhardt (1808). A Leipzig branch was created in 1918 with the purchase of the Leipzig foundries of Gottfried Bottger, F. A. Brockhaus, C. F. Ruhl, and also A. Kahle, Weimar, to which were added Julius Klinkhardt (1920) and C. Kloburg (1922). These branches were later given up or taken over, and in February 1945 some material was lost when the Berlin foundry was bombed. It was rebuilt after the Second World War and a new branch was created in Stuttgart. Many punches and matrices, together with patterns, matrix-making and typecasting machinery, were stored in the former premises of the foundry in Berlin after typecasting ceased in 1978. The larger part of these, together with matrices from which type continued to be cast for some years by the foundry Johannes Wagner, Ingolstadt, were transferred to the Druckkunst-Museum in Leipzig.

REFERENCES: Das Haus Berthold 1858-1921 (Berlin, 1921). [paragraph] 100 Jahre Berthold: Festschrift zum einhundertjizhrigen Jubilizum der H. Berthold Messinglinienfabrik and Schri, ftgiesserei AG (Berlin, 1958). [paragraph] Hanno Mobius, Vierhundert Jahre technische Sammlungen in Berlin (Berlin, 1983), p. 148.

Deutsches Technikmuseum, Berlin (1i)

This museum, which opened in 1883 in the former Anhalt railway station has an exhibit devoted to printing and typefounding. There are typefounders' tools, an early typecasting machine (about 1880), and a dressing bench.

The display includes a cupboard for punches, with contents, from the former Reichsdruckerei.

The museum had an interest in the punches and matrices of H. Berthold AG, but its current holdings from Berthold appear to consist mostly of materials for photocomposition.

Druckkunst-Museum (formerly Werkstiztten and Museum fur Druckkunst), Leipzig

The museum was set up in 1994 in the premises of the printing office Andersen Next in Nonnenstrasse, to which Eckehart SchumacherGebler, who had acquired it in 1992, had restored its former name of Haag-Drugulin. There are punches and matrices for founders' types from various sources, a total of some 60 tons in weight. Some matrices are from the Bauer foundry, Frankfurt am Main. There are also materials from the former Reichsdruckerei, Berlin, including a set for the small Fraktur type, probably cut by Jacob Sabon before 1575, which appears at the foot of the specimen sheet of the Berner foundry, Frankfurt am Main, 1592. There are matrices for roman and italic types by Joseph Gille in the style of Fournier le jeune, from the foundry of Georg Jacob Decker, established 1767, and roman and italic types by Josephe Gille. The collection also includes materials from Schriftgiesserei Flinsch, Frankfurt am Main; Benjamin Krebs Nachfolger, Frankfurt am Main; Ludwig & Mayer, Frankfurt am Main; Typoart, Leipzig and Dresden; Otto Weisert, Stuttgart; J. Ch. Zanker, Nurnberg. There are working typecasting machines and a facility from Ulmer & Schreek for making wood type.

There have been some changes in the administration and the status of the museum during the last few years. Its conception and establishment are due to Eckehart SchumacherGebler.

REFERENCES: Manfred Sack, "Nonnenstrasse 38; Die Zeit, 19 July 1996 p. 34. [paragraph] Helfen Sie uns, das Museum fur Druckkunst in Leipzig auszubauen: ein Aufruf der Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Druckkunst (Leipzig, [2002]).

Gutenberg Museum, Mainz

The museum has the tools of August Rosenberger (1893-1980), punchcutter at D. Stempel AG, 1927-63. Its library has type specimens, some of which are from the Mori Collection (see Stadt- and Universitatsbibliothek, Frankfurt am Main), and it has Gustav Mori's own working library. Working demonstrations of typecasting are given.

Haag-Drugulin, Leipzig

Eckehart SchumacherGebler, typesetter and printer in Munich, bought the printing establishment of Andersen Next in Leipzig in 1992, and combining its facilities with the range of English Monotype matrices and the machinery in Munich, he restored its old name of Offizin Haag-Drugulin and continues letterpress typesetting and printing. The materials now include matrices from the Monotype printing department, including faces that had not been sold in Germany, and from the different loan libraries (Salfords, Frankfurt, Bern, etc). There is also a wide range of Monotype punches for Fraktur faces, which were formerly in use at Frankfurt. The Offizin Haag-Drugulin is also able to cast types from foundry matrices. There is a range of foundry types from the designs of Ehmcke, Frutiger, Jost, Koch, Renner, Schneidler, Tiemann, Trump, Tschichold, Weiss and Zapf. Among the historical faces cast from original matrices are Drugulin-Fraktur, FleischmannGotisch, Tauchnitz-Fraktur (Luthersche Fraktur) and Bessemer Versalien.

Haus fur Industriekultur, Darmstadt (1j)

An industrial museum, opened in December 1996, that is a part of the Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt (the museum of the Land or regional authority of Hesse). It includes a "department for typefounding, typesetting and printing processes" (Abteilung Schriftguss, Satz and Druckverfahren) which has punches, matrices, patterns, and casting machines from the typefoundry D. Stempel AG, Frankfurt am Main, and also typesetting and printing machines from other sources.

Type is currently cast at the museum by Rainer Gerstenberg, a former member of the Stempel foundry staff, under the name of Schriften-Service D. Stempel, using matrices from Stempel and others from the Fruttiger, formerly the Haas typefoundry, Basel.

The Stempel foundry, established in 1895, had acquired the materials of older foundries, notably the stock of the Leipzig printer and typefounder W Drugulin in 1919, which possessed matrices for the so-called "Janson" roman and italic types now attributed to Miklos Kis, and for numerous non-Latin types. When the Stempel foundry ceased production of type in 1986, some machinery and the matrices and other materials, including specimens and business correspondence, were all moved to the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, and this is the source of the collection in the Landesmuseum.

REFERENCES: Vom Schriftgiessen: Portrat der Firma D. Stempel, Frankfurt am Main, fotografiert von Ronald Schmets (Darmstadt, 1987). [paragraph] Die Werkstiztten fur Schriftguss, Satz and Druck im Haus fur Industriekultur, Darmstadt. Zwischenbericht Juni 1995 (Darmstadt, 1995).

Klingspor Museum, Offenbach am Main

Established in 1953. The basis of the collection is the library of Karl Klingspor (1868-1950), owner of the Klingspor typefoundry in Offenbach. Among additional collections that have been added, are drawings, including designs for type, by Rudolf Koch (1876-1934), F. H. Ernst Schneidler (1882-1953), E. R. Weiss (1875-1942), F. H. Ehmcke (1878-1965) and Georg Trump (1896-1985). There are some hand moulds.

REFERENCE: Christian Scheffler, "Klingspor Museum," Fine Print 12 (April 1886):110-11.

Stadt- und Universitiztsbibliothek, Frankfurt am Main

This library has portfolios containing the Mori Collection of broadside type specimens, which were once believed to have been lost in the Second World War and only gradually came to light again, largely intact.

REFERENCES: A part of this collection, which was formerly the property of Ernst Justus Haeberlin (died 1925) and is also known by his name, was described in a catalogue compiled by Gustav Mori, Schriftproben deutscher Schriftgiessereien and Buchdruckereien aus der Jahren 1479 bis 1840: Bin Fuhrer durch die Schriftproben Ausstellung im Kunstgewerbe-Museum zu Frankfurt am Main (1926). [paragraph] A set of facsimiles of specimen sheets from the collection was published in a small edition in 1926 by Gustav Mori, and republished in 1955: Frankfurter Schriftproben aus dem 16. bis 18. Jahrhundert: eineEntwicklung in ausgewizhlten Beispielen, gesammelt von Gustav Mori, mit einer Einleitung von Dr Robert Diehl (Frankfurt am Main: D. Stempel, 1955).

Johannes Wagner, Ingolstadt ([dagger])

The foundry incorporated several firms which originated in Wagner & Schmidt, matrix makers and punchcutters, established in Leipzig in 1875, also the Norddeutsche Schriftgiesserei in Berlin. Johannes Wagner (18881865) transferred his foundry from Berlin to Ingolstadt in 1848. In 1871 it acquired a large part of the materials of C. E. Weber, Stuttgart. In 1978 the foundry took over the current production of H. Berthold, Berlin, casting types from Berthold matrices, including those of J. E. Walbaum. These matrices were bought in 1999 by the Druckkunst Museum in Leipzig.

REFERENCE: Einhundert Jahre Wagner-Schriften (Die Handsatzletter, Heft 8), Ingolstadt, November 1975.

GREAT BRITAIN

Bodleian Library, Oxford

The type specimens which had accumulated at the Oxford University Press since its establishment, and which were kept in its Typographical Library, were transferred to the Bodleian Library in 1889.

REFERENCE: J. S. G. Simmons, "Specimens of Printing Types before 1850 in the Typographical Library at the University Press, Oxford," Book Collector 8 (1859): 397-410.

British Library, London

There are type specimens, chiefly British, with some early examples in the so-called "Bagford Collection" (accessible on microfilm), notably in Harley Ms 5915. Type specimens from the Patent Office were transferred to the British Library in about 1880.

REFERENCE: A. W Pollard, "A Rough List of the Contents of the Bagford Collection," Transactions of the Bibliographical Society 7 (1904):143-59.

The India Office Library, integrated in the oriental collections of the British Library, has matrices for Modi and Bengali types, c. 1810, made for Sir Charles Wilkins (174g-1836). They appear to be of professional English workmanship, by two different hands. Types cast from them at the University Press, Oxford, in 1881 are now at the St Bride Library.

REFERENCE: Fiona Ross and Graham Shaw, "An Unexpected Legacy, and Its Contribution to Early Indian Typography," Matrix, no. 7 (Winter, 1987): 69-79.

Monotype Imaging, Salfords, Surrey

The UK office of Monotype Imaging, an international organization making digital fonts and a wide range of related systems and software, is located where the factory of the Lanston Monotype Corporation was built in about 1900 for the making of punches and matrices and the keyboards and casters for the Monotype machine. The British company was established with British capital and was independent of the original Lanston Monotype Company at Philadelphia, with which, by agreement, it served a global market that excluded North, Central, and South America. The original technical director, Frank Hinman Pierpont, was responsible for the design or redesign of the technology for making punches and matrices, and for the supervision of the Type Drawing Office.

When the manufacture of Monotype machines for hot-metal composition ceased, the whole archive of copper pantograph patterns and some representative examples of machines were moved to the Type Museum, London, for use in making and supplying new matrices. The ten-inch type drawings for Monotype typefaces, the surviving original artwork for them, and the original records for type manufacture, remain at Salfords.

REFERENCES: Much information about the development of the company and its products is given in its two periodical publications, the Monotype Recorder and Monotype Newsletter, the latter of which was designed to give information about new types or additions to existing series as they were produced. A history of the company is in preparation. [paragraph] On Pierpont, see Lawrence W Wallis, "Frank Hinman Pierpont (1860-1837): An Unsung Pioneer of Mechanical Typesetting," Printing Historical Society Bulletin, no. 36 (Spring, 1994): 8-14. [paragraph] On Morison, who advised on the making of some series: Nicolas Barker, Stanley Morison (1972), and Stanley Morison, A Tally of Types Cut for Machine Composition and Introduced at the University Press, Cambridge 1922-1932 (Cambridge: privately printed, 1953), new edition, "with additions by several hands," 1873 (reprinted, with introduction by Mike Parker, 1999).

Oxford University Press, Oxford

The University acquired materials for typefounding in the early seventeenth century, but the establishment of the press and its typefoundry is due chiefly to John Fell (1625-86), Dean of Christ Church and Bishop of Oxford, for whom matrices were bought in Holland in 1670-72 and who established a resident punchcutter in Oxford (Peter de Walpergen). In addition to Walpergen's punches and matrices, the earlier materials in the collection include matrices for types by Robert Granjon, Pierre Haultin and (possibly) Claude Garamont. The foundry fell into disuse in the early eighteenth century but was revived in 1853. Further matrices, chiefly for non-Latin types, were acquired from German sources in the later nineteenth century, together with some British matrices for roman and italic.

The typefoundry was closed in early 1987, and the printing of books at the press ceased in 1989. Some three tons of packets of types and types in case were transferred to the St Bride Printing Library, but much newly cast and unused type was melted. A small museum was opened in 1988 but closed shortly afterwards. Most of the type specimens in the Typographical Library, which had been catalogued by J. S. G. Simmons, were transferred to the Bodleian Library.

Space for a new museum was created in 1992 in the substantial new buildings that were added to accommodate the publishing offices that were brought to Oxford from London. This museum, which is in the charge of the Archivist, includes a display of historic artefacts and provides storage for the archives of the Press, and of the punches, matrices, wood blocks, copper plates, and some types. There are no facilities for casting type.

REFERENCES: Two publications provide a detailed account of the early materials. Stanley Morison, with the assistance of Harry Carter, John Fell, the University Press, and the Fell' types (Oxford, 1967), includes notes on matrices that were added before John Fell established the Press. Horace Hart, Notes on a century of typography at the University Press, Oxford, 1693-1794 (Oxford, 1900) is a beautiful book, printed in a very small edition. It was reprinted, with additional notes by Harry Carter, in 1870. [paragraph] Hart's habit of printing very small editions of specimens was continued as long as the Press printed from type. The type specimens printed during the "first century" of Hart's title are recorded in these two books and in other lists of type specimens, but a series of almost unknown specimens was produced for "in house" use, and they contain valuable information about the collection that is not recorded elsewhere. Two of these are Learned Press Jobbing Founts, Initial Letters, Typographic Ornaments, etc. (1902) and Bible Press Founts Both for Bookwork and Display, Initial Letters, etc. (1904). There was also a List of Ancient and Modern Greek and Oriental Founts at the University Press, Oxford (1957, reprinted 1959), which gives a detailed account of non-Latin types that were acquired in the nineteenth century and later, and for which matrices were sometimes bought for use in the typefoundry. [paragraph] Some large-format annotated specimens of the early types were printed for very select circulation, including A Specimen of the Types Cast at the University Press, Oxford in Matrices Believed to Have Been Bought at Leyden in 1637 (1957), The Types Bought in Holland by John Fell and Thomas Yate for the University of Oxford 1670-1672 (1959), and an undated broadside, Specimen of the Types Attributable to Peter de Walpergen, Cut for the University of Oxford 1676-1702.

St Bride Library (formerly St Bride Printing Library), London Established 1895. Since c.1960 the library has built up collections of various printing artefacts, including materials for typefounding.

I. PUNCHES AND MATRICES

There are three major collections:

(1) CASLON. About 1,050 boxes of punches acquired in 1936 by the Monotype Corporation at the liquidation of H. W Caslon & Company Ltd. The collection was deposited at the University Press, Oxford, in 1964 and transferred to the St Bride Printing Library in 1873. The punches are mostly of the nineteenth century, but there are some sets from the seventeenth, eighteenth, and twentieth centuries, including a runic attributed to Peter von Selow (early seventeeth century) and the machine-cut punches for Eric Gill's Bunyan (1934). Among the punchcutters represented are William Caslon I and II (1692-1766 and 1720-1778), Anthony Bessemer, Eugene Boileau, Isaac Drury, Hugh Hughes and J. Rochaix.

There are loose-leaf files of records made by H. W Caslon & Co., c.1910-30. Also smoke-proofs, a card index, and a typescript and manuscript catalogue compiled by Harry Carter in 1965, entitled "Alphabetical and Chronological Index to Punches Formerly Belonging to H. W Caslon & Co." Forty-three sets of these punches were distributed by the Monotype Corporation to printing schools in 1957-58; ten of these have been recovered and restored to the collection.

Only a few sets of matrices are present. They include some eighteenth-century Greeks, and also Pearson's music, c.1699. There are also 23 alphabets of decorative wooden pattern letters from the foundry of L. J. Pouchee, c. 1823.

REFERENCES: Harry Carter, "The Caslon Punches: An Interim Note," and James Mosley, "Introduction" to Ornamented Types, Twenty-three Alphabets from the Foundry ofLouis John Pouchee (London, 1993).

(2) FIGGINS. Material from the foundry established by Vincent Figgins (1766-1844), which passed to Stevens, Shanks & Son Ltd.; deposited 186-873.

Sixty-one boxes of punches, chiefly nineteenth-century, in packets inscribed with dates of cutting and names of punchcutters (including Boileau, McAdam, and Prince) comprising about 450 fonts. About 320 sets of matrices dating from c. 1785 to c. 1800. There are NIS. inventories compiled 1869-1986, and some business records.

(3) CHISWICK PRESS. Fifty-seven sets of matrices and 14 sets of punches, including punches and matrices for two types made for the press, the "Caxton" and "Basle" types. There are NIS. inventories, compiled c.1870, c.1900, and 1884. There are also 2,600 ornaments and decorative initials engraved on wood c. 1795-1876 (album of proofs, compiled 1863). The collection was deposited with the library in 1862.

There is a small collection of punches (11 sets), early nineteenth-century, supposedly from the Pavyer foundry. The library also has punches for a roman and a Hebrew type cut by Harry Carter, together with other punches for special sorts cut by him on different occasions.

II. TYPE

About 300 fonts of type, some of them associated with punches, matrices, or type drawings in the collection. They include the Chiswick Press "Caxton" and "Basle" types, the Golden Cockerel Press 14-pt. roman and italic, and many types transferred from the University Press, Oxford, including Etruscan, black-letter and Hebrew cast by William Caslon, Baskerville's Great Primer Greek (1761), Proctor's Otter Greek, and the "Icelandic" (Schwabacher) type bequeathed to the University Press by Francis Junius in 1677.

III. TYPEFOUNDING EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS

Seventy-two hand moulds, also furniture moulds and a "tumbler" mould for casting large type, matrix striking press and jig, c.1890, dressing bench and planes, sundry gauges and other tools, chiefly from Stevens, Shanks & Sons Ltd. Two Davis pivotal casters, with moulds.

IV. TYPE DRAWINGS AND OTHER PREPARATORY MATERIALS

Drawings by Eric Gill for Gill Sans, the Golden Cockerel Press types, and some characters of Joanna, Aries, and Jubilee; by Victor Lardent for Stanley Morison, c. 1931, relating to Morison's work for The Times; by Reynolds Stone, for Minerva, 1852 (Linotype & Machinery Ltd.); by Matthew Carter, preliminary designs for several types, c. 1876, including Galliard; original film "stencils" for typefaces made by Letraset Ltd, London.

V. TYPE SPECIMENS

About 10,000 items, dating from the early seventeenth century to the present day. Most of the earlier items were acquired with the libraries of William Blades (1824-1890) and Talbot Baines Reed (1852-1893).

Science Museum, London

The Printing and Papermaking Collection has a representative collection of typefounding materials and casting and composing machines. It includes a collection of 372 punches presented by T. Bolas, 1900, hand moulds, ladles, Bannerman pivotal casting machine with matrices, Grant and Legros style punchcutting machine (Williams Engineering Co), Linotype and Monotype machines (including early models), Typograph composing machine, and Wicks rotary type casting machine, with matrices.

The museum has a collection of punches and matrices made by John Jones, a printer of Llanrwst, North Wales, in about 1809-15. These were on exhibition for some years and then transferred to the Welsh Folk Museum, St. Fagans. They were returned to the stores of the Science Museum in January 1996.

REFERENCES: Ellic Howe, "The Printer and the Museum," Penrose Annual 40 (1938): 80-83. [paragraph] Gerald Morgan, Y dyn a wnaeth argraff: bywyd a gwaith yr argraffydd hynod John Jones, Llanrwst (Llanrwst, 1982).

Stephenson, Blake & Co. Ltd, Sheffield ([dagger])

Ceased making type in 1997 and ceased trading in December 2004. Typefounders, established as Blake, Garnett & Co., 1818. Acquired the foundry of William Caslon IV (1818), Sir Charles Reed & Sons (1906), and materials from H. W Caslon & Co. Ltd., including some punches by William Caslon I (1936) and Miller & Richard (1952). Sir Charles Reed & Sons were the last owners of the Fann Street Foundry, which comprised the materials of Robert Thorne and his successors William Thorowgood and Robert Besley.

Through the purchase of the materials of Edmund Fry (1828), it had acquired punches and matrices bought at the sale in 1782 of the foundry of John James (died 1772), including materials of English typefounders of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

REFERENCE: Edward Rowe Mores, A Dissertation upon English Typographical Founders and Founderies, 1778, with a Catalogue and Specimen of the Typefoundry of John James (1782), ed. Harry Carter and Christopher Ricks (London, 1961).

Much of this early material appears to survive.

The materials of the foundry were acquired by the Type Museum, London, in 1997 with the help of a grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund, and a catalogue was being compiled in the form of a database by Justin Howes during 2003-05.

REFERENCES: A history of Stephenson, Blake & Co. was written by the economic historian Sidney Pollard. A few copies were printed in about 1960 but not published: there are copies at the St Bride Library and the Type Museum. [paragraph] Roy Millington, Stephenson Blake: The Last of the Old English Typefounders (New Castle, Del., and London, 2002).

The Type Museum, London

A body called the Merrion Monotype Trust (from 1994 Type Museum Trust) was originally formed by Susan Shaw in order to preserve the punches, matrix-stock, patterns and matrix-making capacity of the hot metal division of the Monotype Corporation, Salfords, Surrey. A building was acquired in South London and named "The Type Museum," with the object of creating a working museum demonstrating all the processes employed for making printing type. The Monotype materials were acquired in 1992, with the aid of a grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. The materials of Stephenson, Blake & Co. Ltd., typefounders, Sheffield, and their archives and type specimens, were acquired in 1996 with the aid of a grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund. Further material from belittle, wood type makers in York, was added in the following year.

The museum has been closed to visitors since May 2006.

University Library, Cambridge

The library has the type specimens of the Broxbourne Library (the collection of Albert Ehrman) and the minutes of the London Society of Master Letter Founders, 1793-1820, from the same source.

Typographical materials were transferred from the University Printing House, where a collection of punches and matrices made for private or notable presses had been assembled. These include the following items. Punches cut by Edward Prince for the Kelmscott, Ashendene, and Cranach Presses and their matrices. Punches for Perpetua cut for Stanley Morison by Charles Malin, Paris, from designs by Eric Gill; matrices by H. W Caslon & Co. for Gill's Golden Cockerel and Joanna types and the punches for Aries. Seven punches cut by P. H. Riidisch under the direction of Jan van Krimpen as a guide to Monotype in cutting Van Dijck, 1934, and punches for 12-pt. figures to work with Monotype Van Dijck cut by Matthew Carter for Rowley Atterbury (Westerham Press) and subsequently adopted by Monotype. Punches made for John Baskerville were presented to the University Press by Deberny & Peignot, Paris, in 1953. There are fonts of the Golden (Kelmscott Press) and Brook (Eragny Press) types in case, and a collection of types formerly used at the University Press, including the facsimile type cut by Joseph Jackson for printing the Codex Bezae (17g3) and the "Scriptorial" type of Ichabod Dawks. The collection includes some music types cast from old matrices for H. Edmund Poole.

Manuscript materials include: Cranach Press papers, including letters and type drawings by Edward Johnston (complementary photocopies of items at Newberry Library, Chicago). Emery Walker's correspondence with Robert Proctor relating to his Greek type. The correspondence and personal papers of John Dreyfus (1918-2002), typographical adviser to the Monotype Corporation and Assistant University Printer, and a selection from his library.

There is a Monotype keyboard and caster (not presently operated) and a small teaching collection which includes a hand mould.

REFERENCES: Alan M. Fern, "Typographical Specimen Books: A Checklist of the Broxbourne Collection." Book Collectors (1956): 256-72. [paragraph] Thomas Balston, The Cambridge University Press Collection of Private Press Types (Cambridge, 1951).

ITALY

Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana, Florence

The library has the surviving typographical materials of the Typography Medicea, the oriental-language missionary press established in Rome in 1584 by Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici. The punches, having been brought to Tuscany in the seventeenth century, were seized in 1811 by order of Napoleon and taken to Paris where matrices were struck from them (see Imprimerie Nationale, Paris). The larger part of the collection was returned to Florence in 1816 and placed in the Laurenziana library.

The collection is now housed in 39 wooden boxes bearing labels that were apparently printed during their period in Paris. They contain some 5,345 punches. The scripts include Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Coptic and Armenian. Some of them can be attributed to Robert Granjon, whose work for the press is recorded in its papers, now in the Archivio di Stato, Florence. There is also a substantial amount of type in case, mostly Arabic and Syriac, apparently cast during the first half of the nineteenth century.

REFERENCES: G. E. Saltini, "Della Stamperia Orientale Medicea e Giovan Battista Raimondi," Giornale Storico degli archivi toscani 4 (1860): 257-308. [paragraph] H. D. L. Vervliet, Cyrillic and Oriental Typography in Rome at the End of the 16th Century (Berkeley, 1981), revised translation of "Robert Granjon a Rome," Bull. de l'Inst. hist. belge a Rome, 38 (1967):177-231.

Museo Bodoniano, Parma

The materials of the typefoundry of G. B. Bodoni (1740-1813) were acquired by the government of the state of Parma in 1843. A contemporary inventory lists 25,481 punches, 50,283 matrices and 147 moulds. The collection escaped damage during the Second World War save for the loss of some of the original cupboards made for it.

Some punches, matrices, and moulds are displayed in the Museo Bodoniano, opened in 1963, which was created in order to house Bodoni's materials and to provide a permanent exhibition of his printed work. Some listing and ordering of the typographical materials was begun by Afro Soncini in the early 1960s, and continued by Professor Valerio Pavarani.

REFERENCES: "Prontuario della precisa collocazione dei Punzoni e dells Matrici della collezione Bodoniana distribuiti nei varu armadi the la contengono per facilitarne il pronto ritrovo. 20 Gennajo 1840" (MS. Biblioteca Palatina, cited by Lane, below). [paragraph] "Inventario della collezione dei polzoni, matrici, ed altri oggetti relativi aliarte tipografica del Cavaliers Giambattista Bodoni, ora appartenenti alla Siga. Vedova. Parma, 8 maggio 1843" (MS. located in Museo Bodoniano). [paragraph] Robert F. Lane, "The Bodoni Punches, Matrices and Molds at Parma," Printing and Graphic Arts 5 (December 1957): 61-69. [paragraph] Catalogo del Museo Bodoniano di Parma (Parma, 1968, reprinted 1986); textbyAngelo Ciavarella.

Museo Universals della Stampa, Rivoli ([dagger])

A collection of artefacts was assembled by a maker of printing machinery, Ernesto Saroglia (died 1989), with the intention of establishing a comprehensive museum of printing, and a former convent and hospital has been provided as premises by the comune of Rivoli, near Turin. The museum was presented to the press in September 19g0, but was subsequently closed and the materials are dispersed. Among the typefounding materials were the punches for the occhio di mosca (3-pt.) type cut by Cesare Antonio Farina (1790-1873).

Officina Bodoni, Verona

Giovanni Mardersteig (1892-1977) established the Officina Bodoni at Montagnola di Lugano in 1822, moving it in 1827 to Verona. Initially he made use of types newly cast from the Bodoni matrices kept at Parma, and some relics of these fonts still survive. Three roman types (Zeno, Griffo, Dante) and a titling (Pacioli) were later cut for the press by Charles Malin, Paris. Punches, matrices and fonts of these types, with the other material of the Officina Bodoni, are at the Mardersteig family house in Verona where the press is located.

REFERENCES: Giovanni Mardersteig, The Officina Bodoni: An Account of the Work of a Hand Press,1923-1977, ed. and trans. Hans Schmoller (Verona and London,1980). [paragraph] John Dreyfus, "Il creators di caratteri da stampa," in GiovanniMardersteig, stampatore, editors, umanista (Verona, 1989), pp. 49-96; original English text in John Dreyfus, Into Print (London, 1994), pp. 139-89.

Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, Rome

The foreign-language press of the Propaganda Fide was established in 1626 and many non-Latin types were made for it during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The punches and matrices were added to those of the Vatican Press in 1909 to form the Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana. In the archives of the Propaganda there are still some records relating to the Press, including inventories.

REFERENCES: "Inventario de madri, ponsoni de caratteri, fregi a figure diuerse in rame ... poste nel Collegio Vrbano de Propaganda Fide," 2 October 1676 (Arch. Stamperia I, ff. 468-72). [paragraph] "Inventario generale della Stamperia della Sacra Congregazione de Propaganda Fine. Fatto nelf Anno 1768" (Arch. Stamperia II, ff. 697-781).

Tallone Editore, Alpignano (Torino)

In 1938 Alberto Tallone (1898-1968) acquired the materials of Maurice Darantiere, from whom he had learned printing, and transferred them to Paris where he continued to print books on a hand press. In 1949-50 he commissioned Charles Malin to cut a new type from his designs. The press was transferred to Alpignano, near Turin, in 1860, where it is still continued by members of the Tallone family. The printing office has extensive fonts of Caslon type (cast in Paris), Garamont (Deberny & Peignot), Janson, and the Tallone types, of which the punches and matrices are preserved. There are also some matrices (late nineteenth and early twentieth century) from the former Nebiolo typefoundry, Turin.

REFERENCES: John Dreyfus, "Alberto Tallone and His New Type," Signature NS no. 16 (1952): 46-47. [paragraph] Maurizio Pallante, I Tallone (Milan, 1989).

Tipoteca Italiana Fondazione, Cornuda (Treviso)

Established in 1996. An actively developing collection of printing materials and historic hand presses and printing machines, with a library and an educational program. It houses the archive of the type designer Aldo Novarese. A recent acquisition is a collection of punches, matrices and some documentation relating to them from the type foundry established by the Amoretti, assistants to G. B. Bodoni and later independent typefounders at S. Pancrazio, near Parma, and in Bologna.

Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, Citta del Vaticano

The Stamperia Vaticana was established in 1587 by an act of Pope Sixtus V but lost its separate identity when it was merged with the printing office of the Reverenda Camera Apostolica in 1610. A type specimen book was issued in 1628. The Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide established a foreign-language printing office in 1626 which became the most prominent Catholic rival to the Protestant missionary presses. Both institutions had changes of location and periods of activity during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

The two institutions were united in 1909 to form the Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana. An inventory of their combined typographical materials drawn up in 1911 lists 6,270 punches and 31,187 matrices. The typefounding materials now consist of punches and matrices contained in a typotheque of oak supplied by Foucher, Paris, and also a box of moulds (for type and furniture) and dressing planes. These are currently in storage in Trastevere. There was at one time a hope that they might eventually be displayed in a small museum within the Vatican printing office.

REFERENCES: Catalogo dei punzoni e delle matrici orientali e latini esistenti nella Tipograf a Poliglotta Vaticana (1911). Printed inventory of punches and matrices, with smoke proofs of punches and manuscript annotations. The original document is located in the offices of the Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana. There is a photocopy at St Bride Library. [paragraph] Campionario caratteri (1980). The last specimen of the letterpress materials. [paragraph] The Type Specimen of the Vatican Press, 1628: A Facsimile with an Introduction andNotes by H. D. L. Vervliet (Amsterdam, 1967).

NETHERLANDS

Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum, Den Haag

Also known as the Museum van het Boek. Its collections include drawings by Jan van Krimpen for his Romulus type.

Stichting Museum Enschede, Haarlem

The printing firm of Joh. Enschede en Zonen, established in 1703, began typefounding when it purchased the stock of Hendrik Floris Wetstein in 1743, and it continued Wetstein's patronage of the German punchcutter J. M. Fleischman. With the purchase of part of the stock of Jan Roman, Amsterdam, successor to Christoffel van Dijck, the foundry added much early material, including include matrices for the textura gothic of Henric Lettersnider, c. 14g0, some of the oldest known surviving Western typographical materials; also matrices for types by Granjon and Tavernier, and some from the foundry of Willem Janszoon Blaeu which may be attributed to Nicolas Briot. In 1769 the foundry of Willem Cupy, Amsterdam, possessing an extensive collection of Hebrew types, was acquired. About half the early materials, including most of the work of Christoffel van Dijck, were destroyed in 1808. The purchase of the Fonderie Normale, Brussels in 1850 added materials for types made for Pierre and Jules Didot between about 1820 and 1830. There is also an extensive collection of German Fraktur, Schwabacher and current-script types. Some oriental types were made for the firm in the nineteenth century, and in the twentieth century the foundry made types to the designs of Jan van Krimpen using the services of their resident punchcutter, P. H. Radisch.

REFERENCES: The earlier typefounding materials which survive in the collection were listed, illustrated and discussed by Charles Enschede in his Fonderies de caracteres et leer materiel dans les Pays-Bas du XVe au XIXe siecle (Haarlem, 1908), a work that was translated and revised by Harry Carter, with assistance from Netty Hoeflake and under the editorship of Lotte Hellinga, as Typefoundries in the Netherlands from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Century (Haarlem, 1978). [paragraph] Charles Enschede also prepared a series of specimens of some of the other types for which his firm had matrices, many of which do not appear in the larger work: (a) Specimen des caracteres de la Fonderie Normale de Bruxelles provenant de la fonderie de Jules Didot et de son frere Pierre Didot (1914, reprinted 1931). (b) Specimen des caracteres de lafonderie deN. P. Gando a Paris et de son fils Th. S. Gando a Bruxelles (1917). (c) Die hochdeutschen Schriften aus dem 15ten bis zum 19ten Jahrhundert (lglg).

The archives of the firm, which include a substantial collection of early type specimens (about 100 examples dated before 1800), are an important source for the history of typefounding in the Netherlands.

The materials of the foundry and its archives, together with much other historical material relating to the firm's other activities such as security printing, constitute the "Stichting Museum Enschede" which is now housed in premises to which the firm moved in about 19g0.

REFERENCES: De Lettergieterijvan Joh. Enschede entonen: gedenkschrift to gelegenheid van haar honderdvijftig-jarig bestaan (Haarlem, 1893). [paragraph] Catalogue van de typographische verzameling van Joh. Enschede en Zonen (Haarlem, 1916). [paragraph] The Enschede Type Specimens of 1768 and 1773: A Facsimile, ed. John A. Lane (Haarlem, 1993).

Tetterode-Nederland BV, Amsterdam ([dagger])

This firm formerly operated the Tetterode or "Amsterdam" typefoundry.

Among early materials in its possession are 90 sets of Hebrew matrices and strikes and 12 sets of punches, many of which are for types used by Joseph and Emanuel Athias in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. One set of punches and matrices from this collection is at the Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam. The library of type specimens and some matrices were acquired by the University Library, Amsterdam. Many of the matrices and some machines are in storage in the northern Netherlands, and there was an intention on the part of a cooperative group to begin the casting of type at some unspecified date.

University Library, Amsterdam

The library has the type specimens of the (now Royal) Book Trade Association (Koninklijke Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Belangen des Boekhandels). The library of type specimens and some working drawings and documentation files of the "Amsterdam" (Tetterode) typefoundry were acquired by this library in 1971. There are also type drawings by and correspondence of Jan van Krimpen.

REFERENCE: John A Lane and Mathieu Lommen, Dutch Type Specimens from the Library of the KVB and Other Collections in the Amsterdam University Library, with Histories of theFirms Represented (Amsterdam, KVB: Koninklijke Vereeniging ter bervordering van de belangen des Boekhandels to Amsterdam, 1998).

University Library, Leiden

Has a collection, including thirty-five early type specimens (press-mark 744D.19), acquired from Prosper Marchand (1678-1756).

SPAIN

Fundicion Tipografica Baiser (formerly Fundicion Tipografica Neufville), Barcelona

Fundicion Tipografica Neufville was established by Jacob de Neufville in 1885, and became the Spanish branch of the Baiser foundry, Frankfurt am Main, being managed by members of the Hartmann family. In 1872 it acquired much of the material of the Baiser foundry in Frankfurt, and also materials from the following foundries: Fundicion Tipografica National (1972), Fonderie Typographique Francaise (1974), Ludwig & Mayer (1985), Fonderies Typographiques Reunies, Fonderie Dib, Lebanon (1987). Fundicion Tipografica Neufville was dissolved and the present Fundicion Tipografica Baiser continues to cast its types at Calle Selva de Mar, 50. Some matrices were transferred to the Departament de Disseny i Imatge, University of Barcelona.

REFERENCE: "100 Years of Fundicion Tipografica Neufville; Export Polygraph International 33 (June 1985): 16-17.

Museu del Llibre i de ZesArts Grafiques (Museo de las Artes Graficas), Barcelona

Formerly known as the Museo del Grabado, Pueblo Espanol. The museum has punches and matrices that were originally in the possession of the Imprenta Real, Madrid, including punches cut by Jeronimo Gil and matrices from Firmin Didot and Giambattista Bodoni. The materials of the Imprenta Real, including the punches and matrices, had passed to the Calcografia National, and in 1930 the typographical materials were moved to the Escuela National de Artes Graficas. In about 1975, at the request of Enric Tormo, director of the Museu del Llibre, they were sent to Barcelona and were sorted and catalogued by him. There are type specimens, catalogues, etc. The museum is currently closed and inaccessible.

REFERENCE: Noticia del Museu del Llibre (Barcelona, 1980).

SWEDEN

Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm

The Royal Library has the collection of its former director Peter Sohm (1750-1819), which includes type specimens and other typographical literature acquired from the Leipzig printer and typefounder J. G. I. Breitkopf.

REFERENCE: Musaeum typographicum Sohmianum, 2nd ed. (Stockholm, 1815).

Nordiska Museet, Stockholm

The Nordiska Museet has the materials of the Norstedt foundry, including 20,000 matrices made between about 1500 and 1800, chiefly imported from Germany. Among the punchcutters represented are Francois Guyot, Robert Granjon, Ameet Tavernier, J. P Artopaeus, Pancratz Lobinger, J. K. Muller and Christian Zinck.

The typefounding materials are not on display. About 1980 they were moved from the Tyres Castle outside Stockholm to a closed storage area for the museum's collections at the manor Julita Gard, which belongs to the Nordiska Museet, about 150 km southwest from Stockholm.

REFERENCE: Christian Axel-Nilsson, Type Studies: The Norstedt Collection of Matrices in the Typefoundry of the Royal Printing Office: A History and Catalogue (Stockholm, 1983). Includes at pp. 169ff an "Inventory of the stock of matrices of the Norstedt typefoundry" transcribed from a list made c.1900 and listing 100,000 matrices.

SWITZERLAND

Basler Papiermuhle, Basel

A museum which opened in 1980. It is chiefly concerned with papermaking, but there is a display of punches, matrices, tools and machines from the Haas typefoundry (now Fruttiger). There is a collection of nineteenth-century punches and of wood-blocks kept as patterns for polytyping from the collection of Deberny & Peignot.

Schriftgiesserei Fruttiger (formerly Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei), Munchenstein bei Basel

A typefoundry established by Johann Wilhelm Haas in 1740. Most of the early materials, including those of the Pistorius foundry which it absorbed in 1770, were destroyed in the 1890s. It acquired materials of Deberny & Peignot, Paris (1975), and Fonderie Olive, Marseille (1978). The former head of the foundry, Walter Fruttiger, acquired its premises and stock.

Type is cast from its matrices at the Haus fur Industriekultur, Darmstadt.

REFERENCES: Albert Bruckner, SchweizerStempelschneiderundSchriftgiesser (Basel, [1943]). [paragraph] Gustaf Adolf Wanner, "400 Jahre Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei," Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1979), Beilage, p. XVI, between pp. 324 and 325.

UNITED STATES

American Type Founders Co, Elizabeth, New Jersey ([dagger])

The company was originally formed in 1892 from an amalgamation of 23 typefoundries under the threat of competition from the new Linotype machine. In 1970 about 6,000 sets of "obsolete" matrices for the older types and some drawings were given to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. In 1993 a further 1,400 sets of matrices were transferred to the Smithsonian Institution by the division known as ATF-Davidson.

The residue of typographic materials was owned by the firm of ATF-Kingsley, which was liquidated and its stock sold at auction on 24 August 1993. Some of it was dispersed among various individuals and institutions, but much was also destroyed. "The sale was conducted in, some thought, an indecently hasty manner, and afterwards by far the majority of the matrices and machines were swept up by the attending scrap-metal dealers.... Some 30 tons of matrices were dumped from their drawers into huge bins" (Elizabeth Harris).

REFERENCES: Elizabeth Harris, "ATF and the Smithsonian Institution," Type & Press, no. 78 (Fall, 1993). [paragraph] American Typecasting Fellowship Newsletter, no. 18 (June 1994). [paragraph] Gregory Jackson Walters, The Auction of the Century [Piqua, Ohio, 1994]. [paragraph] Theo Rehak, The Fall of ATF. (North Howell, N.J., 2004).

Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia

Among the materials belonging to the Printing Office of this reconstructed eighteenth-century town are five hand moulds, apparently of the early nineteenth century (one has the date "June 1831" inscribed on the jet), and a set of eight justifiers' moulds ranging in size from about Bourgeois to French Canon. There are three eighteenth-century punches from the Caslon foundry. Eighteenth-century type has been found in excavations near the various former printing offices of the town.

Columbia University Library, New York

The library of the American Type Founders Company which had been assembled by H. L. Bullen was deposited at Columbia University and formally acquired by the University Library in 1941. There is a major collection of type specimens, also 85 sets of punches dating from 1832 to 1890.

REFERENCES: John Peters and Peter M. VanWingen, The Type Punches at Columbia University: An Inventory (New York, 1974). [paragraph] The History of Printing from Its Beginnings to 1930: The Subject Catalog of the American Type Founders Library in the Columbia University Libraries (Millwood, N.Y, 1980).

Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Among the typographical materials are the type specimen collections of Philip Hofer and William Bentinck Smith.

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

The Iowa Center for the Book has a collection of equipment for matrix making and other typefounding materials owned by R. Hunter Middleton (died 1985).

Margaret I. King Library, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

The papers of C. H. Griffith (1879-1956), Vice-President in charge of typographical development at Mergenthaler Linotype Company to 1950, include type specimens, notes relating to type designs and correspondence with designers (extensive correspondence with W. A. Dwiggins). The Hammer collection has the larger part part of the materials of Victor Hammer (1882-1967), comprising designs for type, punches, matrices and type in case.

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts

The Society has thirty matrices of a titling letter from the typefoundry of Claude Mozet, c. 1740, which is all that survives of the materials for typefounding acquired in Paris by Benjamin Franklin and used in the foundry of his grandson Benjamin Franklin Bache (died 1788) in Philadelphia. They were presented to the Society in 1838.

REFERENCE: Rollo G. Silver, Typefounding in America 1787-1825 (Charlottesville, 1965), pp. 37-38.

Museum of Printing, North Andover, Massachusetts

The Museum of Printing, established in 1978, has specialized in acquiring examples of typesetting systems, including hot metal machines (Linotype, Monotype, Ludlow), filmsetting, and typewriter composition (impact, or cold type setting). It has the type drawings of Mergenthaler Linotype, established in Brooklyn, N.Y, comprising about 300,000 sheets, donated by Heidelberg Druckmaschinen AG.

National Museum of American History (Smithsonian Institution), Washington, D.C.

The Division of Information Technology and Communications has a collection of typefounding tools and equipment, and typefounding and composing machines that were formerly a part of the Division of Graphic Arts. The museum's section on printing and related technology was downgraded and its specialist staff were retired. Much of the material in storage is currently inaccessible until asbestos has been cleared from the buildings.

In 1970 the museum was given 6,000 sets of "obsolete" matrices for 500 type families and a quantity of type drawings from the American Type Founders Company. The "Morgan Press Type Fount Collection" purchased in 1981 comprises 4,500 fonts of metal type and about 450 of wood type, largely American and dating from the nineteenth or early twentieth centuries, collected by Willard D. Morgan, New York. There is a small collection of punches, matrices, moulds and punchcutters' tools given by Dard Hunter. A comprehensive specimen set of Linotype matrices, deposited with the Rochester Institute of Technology by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company in about 1970, was transferred here.

REFERENCES: Elizabeth Harris, The Fat and the Lean: American Wood Type in the 19th Century (Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American History, 1983). [paragraph] Elizabeth Harris, "Typographic Collections at the Smithsonian," Matrix, no. 8 (1888): 81-88. [paragraph] Elizabeth Harris, "ATF and the Smithsonian Institution," Type & Press, no. 78 (Fall, 1993): [1-2].

Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois

The Wing Collection has designs for the types of the Doves Press, drawings by Bruce Rogers for Centaur, by Frederic Warde for Arrighi, correspondence and drawings relating to Cranach Press types, and some papers of R. Hunter Middleton (died 1885), type director of Ludlow Inc., with his drawings for Eusebius. There is a collection of type specimens.

Providence Public Library, Providence, Rhode Island

Has the library of D. B. Updike, including his type specimens. These were listed in a set of unpublished galley proofs with the heading: "Rough list of printers' specimens belonging to D. B. Updike; 1939. The collection also includes punches and matrices of two types made for Updike, Montallegro and Merrymount.

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York

The Melbert B. Cary Graphic Arts Collection in the School of Printing has matrices for Rogers's Centaur Titling (12, 20, 24, 30 and 48 pt.), the punches and matrices of the Arrighi type made for Frederic Warde (punchcutter: Charles Plumet, Paris), punches, matrices, and unjustified strikes of the type of the Spiral Press, cut by Louis Hoell (died 1936) for Joseph Blumenthal, also an album of "Proof sheets of the Spiral Press type in preparation." There are drawings by M. F. Benton for ATF Bodoni and by Frederic Goudy for (U.S.) Monotype Garamond (series 248). Hand moulds: two English-style, probably nineteenth-century; one probably German, modern, about 20 pt.; and a justifier's mould, modern, about 16 pt. Also at RIT are sets of matrices for Goudy types, chiefly cut for him by Robert Wiebking, Chicago, together with type patterns, and some Goudy types in case.

REFERENCES: For an account of the materials of the Arrighi type see H. Johnson, "Notes on Frederic Warde and the True Story of His Arrighi Type," Fine Print 12 (July 1986): 158ff., to which there is a "Rejoinder and Extension" by John Dreyfus in Fine Print 13 (April 1987): 69-72, 105. On this type see also Nicolas Barker, The Printer and the Poet (Cambridge: privately printed, 1970).

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

The University Library has tools, drawings, punches, matrices and a German hand mould formerly in the possession of Warren Chappell (died 19g1), a professional calligrapher, illustrator and type designer who had learned punchcutting and worked for a time in the Koch workshop in Offenbach am Main.

The University of Virginia is the home of the Book Arts Press of the Rare Book School, which moved from Columbia University, New York, in 1992. There is a teaching collection which includes representative examples of punches and matrices and a hand mould made by Stan Nelson which is used for demonstrations. The collection includes a small quantity of old type on a Long Primer body, certainly no later than the eighteenth century and possibly earlier, bought in the Netherlands.

Wells College, Aurora, New York

The punches for Victor Hammer's Pindar and Samson types and matrices for American Uncial, originally donated by Carolyn Hammer to the University of Southern California, were later transferred with her permission to the Victor Hammer Collection at Wells College, where Hammer had taught from 1939 to 1948 and where he founded the Wells College Press in 1941.

INDEX

American Type Founders Co, Elizabeth, N.J., United States ([dagger])

Archives nationales, Paris, France

Atelier Louis Jou, Les Baux, France

Basler Papiermuhle, Basel, Switzerland

Berthold (H.) AG, Berlin, Germany ([dagger])

Biblioteca, Mediceo-Laurenziana, Florence, Italy

Bibliotheque Forney, Paris, France

Bibliotheque nationale de France, Paris, France

Bodleian Library, Oxford, Great Britain

British Library, London, Great Britain

Colonial Williamsburg, Va., United States

Columbia University Library, N.Y., United States

Deutsches Technikmuseum, Berlin, Germany

Druckkunst-Museum (formerly Werkstatten and Museum fur Druckkunst), Leipzig, Germany

Fundicion Tipografica Bauer (formerly Fundicion Tipografica Neufville), Barcelona, Spain

Gutenberg Museum, Mainz

Haag-Drugulin, Leipzig, Germany

Haus fiir Industriekultur, Darmstadt, Germany

Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., United States

Imprimerie Nationale, Atelier du Livre et de l'Estampe, Ivry-sur-Seine, France

Klingspor Museum, Offenbach am Main, Germany

Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm, Sweden

Margaret I. King Library, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., United States

Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

Monotype Imaging, Salfords, Surrey, Great Britain

Moulin Richard de Bas (Musee Historique du Papier), Ambert d'Auvergne, France

Musee de l'Imprimerie, Lyon, France

Musee Pro Arte Graphita, Nantes, France

Museo Bodoniano, Parma, Italy

Museo Universale della Stampa, Rivoli, Italy ([dagger])

Museu del Llibre i de les Arts Grafiques (Museo de las Artes Graficas), Barcelona, Spain

Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum, Den Haag, Netherlands

Museum Plantin-Moretus, Antwerp, Belgium

Museum of Printing, North Andover, Mass., United States

National Museum of American History (Smithsonian Institution), Washington, D.C., United States

Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill., United States

Nordiska Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

Officina Bodoni, Verona, Italy

Oxford University Press, Oxford, Great Britain

Providence Public Library, Providence, R.I., United States

Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y., United States

Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, Rome, Italy

Schriftgiesserei Fruttiger (formerly Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei), Munchenstein bei Basel, Switzerland

Science Museum, London, Great Britain

St Bride Library (formerly St Bride Printing Library), London, Great Britain

Stadt- and Universita,tsbibliothek, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Stephenson, Blake & Co Ltd., Sheffield, Great Britain ([dagger])

Stichting Museum Enschede, Haarlem, Netherlands

Tallone Editore, Alpignano (Torino), Italy

Tetterode-Nederland BV Amsterdam, Netherlands ([dagger])

Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, Citta del Vaticano, Italy

Tipoteca Italiana, Cornuda (Treviso), Italy

Type Museum, London, Great Britain

University Library, Amsterdam, Netherlands

University Library, Cambridge, Great Britain

University Library, Leiden, Netherlands

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., United States

Johannes Wagner, Ingolstadt, Germany ([dagger])

Wells College, Aurora, N.Y., United States

([dagger]) Firms or institutions that are no longer active

(1.) Jackson is an under-documented figure among eighteenth-century typefounders. No type specimen with his name is known, but the specimens of William Caslon III, who bought his foundry at his death in 1792, issued from 1795 to 1798, show many excellent types that were undoubtedly cut by Jackson.

(1a.) I have attempted to do this in a number of places: "Preserving the Typographical Patrimony," Bulletin du bibliophile 1(2005): 3-10 (http://www.garamonpatrimoine.org/coupures presse/bibliomosley.html);HandmadeType:ThoughtsontheFutureofTypographic Materials (Oldham: Incline Press, for the Justin Howes Memorial Fund, 2007).

(2.) When a project for printing a book of Arabic poetry with these types was initiated shortly after the return of the matrices, rather than let them out again the library installed its own printing press. It is still there, hardly used, and is now a precious relic in its own right, a unique surviving example of a conventional wooden printing press made in Italy, although the romantic notion that it was contemporary with Granjon's types was disproved in an essay by the director of the library: Teresa Lodi, La vera storia di un presunto cimelio cinquecentesco: il cosiddetto torchio della Tipografa Medicea Orientale (Rome, 1949), reprinted from C. Arcamone, ed., Studi di bibliografa e di argomento romano in memoria di Luigi de Gregori (Rome, 1949). It was shown in an article by Conor Fahy, "Descrizioni cinquecentesche della fabbricazione dei caratteri e del processo tipografico," La Bibliofilia 88 (1986): 47-86, and it was the model for the press made in the 1930s for the Stamperia del Santuccio of Victor Hammer which is now at the Margaret I. King Library, the University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.

(1b.) An immediate fruit from this project was the paper by Carter, "The Types of Christopher Plantin," The Library 5th ser., 11 (September 1956): 170-79, and Vervliet's Sixteenth-Century Printing Types of the Low Countries (Amsterdam, 1968). There has been much more since, including Carter's A View of Early Typography (Oxford, 1969) and Vervliet's more recent studies of punchcutters, referred to below.

(1c.) http://www.garamonpatrimoine.org

(1d.) Dan Carr, "Typographic Sculpture: The Survival of Punchcutting at the Imprimerie Nationale," Matrix, no. 20 (2000): 127-52.

(2a.) Justin Howes, whose premature death in 2005 was a blow to typographical scholarship in so many ways, was responsible for these.

(3.) If the ideal aim, which is evidently that of keeping the museum active and accessible to visitors, cannot be achieved, there is every likelihood that both main collections, having been bought with public money, will he preserved at the permanent store of the Museum of Science and Industry.

(1e.) http://www.schriftenservice-d-stempel.de/index_en.html

(2b.) The story is told in Hanno Mobius, VierhundertJahre technische Sammlungen in Berlin (Berlin, 1983), p.148.

(1f.) Warner Barnes, Philip Gaskell, Richard Murphy, and Arthur Norman, "Project MAP: Computer Identification of Typefonts," Direction Line, no. 9 (Winter, 1979): 4-6. I am grateful to David van der Meulen for tracing this reference for me.

(1g.) APHA's Institutional Award for Distinguished Achievement, 2004: acceptance remarks of Richard L. Hopkins, 24 January 2004 (http://www.printinghistory.org/htm/ mist/awards/2004 ATF.htm). See their journal, ATFNewsletter, printed and largely written by Hopkins. And see also Practical Typecasting (New Castle, Del., 1993) by Theo Rehak, typefounder and printer at the Dale Guild Press, who put in writing and images the expertise that he acquired during his years at the American Type Founders Company.

(1h.) 13250 Les Baux de Provence.

(1i.) 10963 Berlin-Kreuzberg, Trebbiner Str. 9.

(1j.) Kirschenallee 88, 64293 Darmstadt. Tel +49 61 51 89 9176.

JAMES MOSLEM is Visiting Professor in the Department of Typography and Graphic Communication in the University of Reading. He was appointed as the Librarian of the St Bride Library, London, in 1958, a post from which he retired in 2000. At Cambridge he printed with Philip Gaskell at the Water Lane Press in King's College, and he had a brief experience of working at the typefoundry Stevens, Shanks in London.

He will deliver the opening address at this year's aria conference--the theme of which is "Swing the History of Printing"--in New York City, 10-12 October 2008.
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