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The many roles of hormones.

The Many Roles of Hormones

Hormone               in Body           Function

Thyroid-              Anterior lobe     Stimulates the thyroid gland
stimulating           of pituitary      to secrete its hormone
hormone (TSH)                           thyroxine.

Follicle-             Anterior lobe     In females, it stimulates the
stimulating           of pituitary      release of estrogens,
hormone (FSH)
                                        In males, it stimulates the
                                        production of sperm.

Luteinizing           Anterior lobe     In females, it secretes
hormone (LH)          of pituitary      progesterone during the second
                                        half of the menstrual cycle.

                                        In males, it acts on
                                        interstitial cells of the
                                        testes, stimulating them to
                                        secrete testosterone.

Prolactin (PRL)       Anterior lobe     After birth, it promotes the
                      of pituitary      synthesis of milk.

Growth hormone        Anterior lobe     Helps the body grow by binding
(GH)                  of pituitary      to receptors on the surface of
                                        liver walls, stimulating them
                                        to release insulin-like growth
                                        factor-1, which acts on the
                                        end of bones, promoting their

Adrenocorticotropic   Anterior lobe     Acts on the cells of the
hormone (ACTH)        of pituitary      adrenal cortex, stimulating
                                        them to produce.

Vasopressin           Posterior lobe    Acts on the collecting ducts
                      of pituitary      of the kidney to facilitate
                                        the absorption of water into
                                        the blood, reducing the amount
                                        of urine formed.

Oxytocin              Posterior lobe    Stimulates contractions of the
                      of pituitary      uterus during the time of
                                        birth and stimulates the
                                        release of milk when the baby
                                        begins to suckle.

Thyrotropin-          Hypothalamus      Stimulates the release of TSH
releasing                               and PRL.
hormone (TRH)

Gonadotropin-         Hypothalamus      Secretes during puberty and
releasing hormone                       triggers sexual development

Growth hormone-       Hypothalamus      Secretes growth hormone
releasing hormone

Corticotropin-        Hypothalamus      Acts on cells in the anterior
releasing hormone                       lobe to release ACTH

Somatostatin          Hypothalamus      Limits the release of GH and

Dopamine              Hypothalamus      Limits the release of PRL

Melatonin             Pineal gland      Helps the body sleep.
                                        Stimulated by darkness and
                                        limited by light.

Thyroxine             Thyroid gland     Increases rate/strength of
([T.sub.4])                             heartbeat. Regulates

Calcitonin            Thyroid gland     Removes calcium from the blood
                                        and stores it in bones.

Parathyroid           Parathyroid       Protein that releases calcium
hormone (PTH)         glands            from bones. Regulates level of
                                        phosphate in the blood.

Glucocorticoids       Adrenal cortex    Raises the level of blood
(cortisol)                              sugar. Has anti-flammatory
                                        effect on the body.

Mineralocorticoids    Adrenal cortex    Reduces the loss of sodium in
(aldosterone)                           sweat. Increases sensitivity
                                        in taste buds to sources. of

Androgens             Adrenal cortex    Much lower source than the
(testosterone)                          testes but excessive
                                        production can cause premature
                                        puberty in males or
                                        masculinity in females.

Adrenaline            Adrenal medulla   Triggered by nervousness by
(epinephrine)                           physical or mental stress.
                                        Causes hair to stand, "goose
                                        bumps", pupils to dilate, etc.

Noradrenaline         Adrenal medulla   Triggered by nervousness by
(norepinephrine)                        physical or mental stress.
                                        Causes hair to stand, "goose
                                        bumps", pupils to dilate, etc.

Estrogens             Ovarian           Steroids responsible for the
                      follicle          maturation of females, such as
                                        breast development.
                                        Participate in the menstrual
                                        cycle and pregnancy.

Progesterone          Corpus luteum     Steroid having many effects on
                      and placenta      the female body, but most
                                        importantly helping with
                                        menstrual cycle and pregnancy.

Human chorionic       Trophoblast and   Protein that stimulates the
gonadotropin (hCG)    placenta          ovary to produce estrogens

                                        Helps control development of
                                        fetal genitals.

Androgens             Testes            Steroid responsible for the
(testosterone)                          puberty of males.

                                        Deepens voice increases
                                        height, grows facial/pubic
                                        hair, etc.

Insulin Pancreas      Pancreas          Converts nutrients into
                                        glycogen, protein and fat
                                        Drops the leve of blood sugar.

Glucagon              Pancreas          Acts mainly on the liver,
                                        depositing glucose into the

                                        Keeps blood sugar steady
                                        between meals.

Somatostatin          Pancreas          Reduce the rate of food
                                        absorption from the intestines

Amylin                Pancreas          Lets the brain know when the
                                        body is full. Slows down
                                        stomach emptying.

Erythropoietin        Kidney            Increases red blood cell
(EPO)                                   production by acting on bone

                                        Triggered by bleeding or high

Calcitriol            Kidney            Absorbs calcium from food,
                                        Moves calcium from bone to

Calciferol            Skin              Travels in the blood to the
(vitamin                                liver to convert to
 [D.sub.3]                              vitamin [D.sub.3]).

                                        Travels to the kidneys to
                                        convert to calcitrol.
                                        Triggered by ultraviolate

Atriai-natriuretic    Heart             Lowers high blood pressure by
peptide (ANP)                           relaxing arteries.

Gastrine              Stomach and       Stimulates exocrine cells to
                      intestine         release stomach adds to break
                                        down food.

Secretin              Stomach and       Neutralizes acids in
                      intestine         intestines.

                                        Released when cells are
                                        exposed to acids of an
                                        empyting stomach.

Cholecystokinin       Stomach and       Stimulates the gall bladder to
(CCK)                 intestine         release bile to the

                                        Stimulates the release of
                                        pancreatic digestive enzymes

Incretins             Stomach and       Helps prevent a rise in blood
                      intestine         glucose when consuming a lot
                                        of sugar

Somatostatin          Stomach and       Reduces the rate in which
                      intestine         nutrients are absorbed from
                                        the contents of the

Neuropeptide Y        Stomach and       Stimulates hunger.
(NPY)                 intestine

Ghrelin               Stomach and       Secreted when one is hungry.
                      intestine         Also stimulates feeds.

PYY 3-36              Stomach and       Suppresses hunger.

Insulin-like          Liver             Stimulated by GH. When
growth factor-1                         released, the hormone helps
(IGF-1)                                 the body, mainly bones, grow.

Angiotensinogen       Liver             Helps maintain proper blood

                                        Stimulates precurser cells
                                        into megakaryocytes, which
Thrombopoietin        Liver             generate platelets for blood
(TPO)                                   clotting.

Leptin                Fat cells         Helps suppress the appetite
                      (adipocytes)      over the long term by
                                        counteracting the effects of
Retinol binding       Fat cells
protein 4             (adipocytes)      Transports vitamin A in the
([RBP.sub.4])                           blood. Counteracts effects of
Adiponectin           Fat cells
                      (adipocytes)      Regulates metabolism of lipids
                                        and glucose. Influences body's
                                        response to insulin.

                                        Has anti-inflammatory effects
                                        on cells lining walls of blood
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Publication:Nutrition Health Review
Article Type:Table
Date:Dec 22, 2009
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