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The management optimization of the technical preparation of intermediate players, in the handball game, Echelon Juniors I (girl's).

Introduction

The wise and continuous increase of the sports performances is implicitly born upon by a qualitative increase of the training process. This qualitative increase is caused by coaches ability and professional training, by the competitive system, by the contribution and the role of the complementary sciences in establishing some efficient means and ways for the players scientific training, and also by the players motivation for performance sport, by the materials basis and the training conditions.

Watt stated in 2003 that, "the sport was born from the human ideal, it represents more than a religion, culture or sub-culture and it has to be defended and enforced for the values it stands for" (Watt quoted by Santa-Moldovan, 2010, pg. 6).

In 2009, Teodorescu wrote that the performance sport is, "a phenomenon of the modern life, prtactised by hundreds of milions and watched as a show in the big sport arenas by bilions of viewers. It developed a huge activity area, because there is no town in this world where the sports don't have enough room and special places to train and compete" (Teodorescu, 2009, pg. 7). All these contribute to the human need for competition and, implicitly, for obtaining high performances and a remarkable emotional state.

However, "the high performance, the exceptional results, the ever increased number of participants brought the coaches to establish a training system well fundamented and well led, which could provide both the fulfillment and the satisfaction for the sportsmen" (Teodorescu, 2009, pg. 7), all these being possible only by an intense, well organized training, for a long period of time.

In 2001, Bactiurea, Sarbu and Stan stated, regarding the handball game evolution, that, "this could be attributed also to the high technology which got inta sports area, this leading to the fact that both the materials and the training conditions have been improved" (Bactiurea, Sarbu & Stan, 2001, pg. 40), but also to the diversification of methods, means and ways of approaching the training and the competition.

The handball game, regarded as a performance sport, is highly demanding; the player has to make strong efforts in order to cope with some difficult and complex training tasks, whose solving requires a full use of all the physical, moral and intelectual skills. The individual has to be also strong-willed in order to succeed.

The handball game played for performance, "also implies psychic and mental qualities, some related to both will and morals, like intelligence, strong motivation for victory, tenacity, resoluteness, fair-play spirit, poise, etc." (Cicma & Rata, 2012, pg. 26).

The continuous increase of the sport performances is influenced by a qualitative evolution of the training process. This evolution depends on the coach capability and professional training, on the competition system, on the contribution, help and implication of the subsidiary sciences in establishing and adopting some new efficient means and methods of scientific training for the players. It also depends on the materials basis and the training conditions.

The complexity of this process relies in the fact that it is accomplished on the one side, by the content of each training parameter and, on the other side, it's also accomplished based on the opponent and the game evolution.

Continuous researches are made in the field area of the handball game, concerning the efficiency of the modern means and methods, used both in the process of sports training and in the educational process. New structure methods for training and competition specific effort are being established and also correlated to the annual and multiannual training periods. New means for the optimiyation of the training process are also being looked for; the researches and the studies keep a check on the most efficent and the best means for a specific training, directly related to the players peculiarities and skills, which can lead to a practical position specialty.

Nowadays, the handball game stands out in relief by a remarkable competition at the important contests; a continuous evolution tendency is to be noticed and it's being determined by the researches having a broad creative nature, carried out by the specialits in the field area, from different countries, in view of a specialization of all the components which are parts of the specific training system, like the organizational system, the technical materials basis and especially the scientific and methodical ones. All these contribute and carry on, in the same time, a peculiar emphasis on the observation, study and research of some new tendencies of developing the position specialty.

If we refer to the evolution of the modern handball game, we may assert that the classical training methods are already overdue; they have to be merged or even replaced by modern methods, based on a scientifical training, on the help of modern technics and on an innovatory thinking of the coaches that are directly involved in the training process of the Junior 1 teams.

Within the framework of the scientific manifestations form this field, we may notice that there are only few works which approach the training of the junior players also from the perspective of some other training methods, keeping the same training line, that of the old classical methods.

The paper wants to contribute to the enrichment of the training methods for the sports training domain, at he level of Junior 1 teams (girls), by approaching, experimentation and presenting the results of the management implementation within the junior 1 handball players training, the players being intermmediate ones.

The theoretical importance of the paper consists in the fact that by applying an effecient management during the players training, we can optimize the training of the junior 1 players who play in the intermmediate position and, implicitly, to improve their performances.

The sports training--Teodorescu in 2009 states that the sports training may be defined as a "complex process which runs its course in a systematic manner and cobntinuously, gradually adapting the human body to intense efforts, boths physical and emotional, triggered by participating in different contests, organized for different sports disciplines" (Dragnea, 1996, pg. 9).

Another definition of the sports training says that, "by training we understand the planned and systematic process of the players physical exercises, in order to achieve the best results for their sport discipline specialty" (http://www.scribd.com/doc/130834486/teoria-antrena mentului-sportiv).

In 1984 Menschel, Stein and Fahrman in Sportverlag state that the sports training is a, "pedagogical process led according to scientific principles, which uses the planned and systematic influence upon the capacity of achieving performance to guide the players towards remarkable results, in a branch or sport discipline" (http://www.scribd. com/doc/130834486/teoria-antrenamentuluisportiv).

The content of the sports training establishes the structural elements which, on the basis of some laws and some functional and methodological rules lead to the sports performance accomplishment. The complexity of the sports training increases continuously, as both the sports performance and the sports branches evolve.

As a conclusion to those we scpecified previously, in 1996 Dragnea A states that, "physical exercises differenced by their specialty and their addressabilty, applied according to some precise rules, constitute the content elements of the sports training" (Dragnea, 1996, pg. 133).

The players performance capacity increases due to the influence of the training process, to the competitions but also due to other forms that lead to achieving an optimal efficiency. The training status implies certain components, also named the components of the sports training.

These are the physical component, which refers to the physical qualities, both the general and the specific ones for the handball game, the technical component, referring to the players technical skills, the tactical component, referring to the players tactical skills, the theoretical component, referring to the theoretical knowledge about the game, regulations, arbitration etc and the psychological component, referring to the players psychological qualities, which are indispensable in practsing the performance and high performance sport.

In 1973, Harre Stated that the optimal training status, "corresponds to the training stage and it is characterized by the unity and the harmonious relation between these components, a very important role being also played by the player's ability to mobilize his physical reserves with the help of some utmost will efforts during the competition" (Harre, 1973, pg.58).

In view of planning the training process, the principal matter is that the coach notices the evolution of the players training status, usually incarnated by the results achieved by the players, and also by the team during the sports contests and competitions. The comparison between the results achieved on the score of the researches we made and the results achieved in contests and competitions lead to getting some conclusions referring to the relation between the main training components in competition conditions; these relations cannot be estanblished in an effective manner without the specific training efforts, in the competion conditions and also by participating in competitions.

The management of handball training expresses a correlation between science and leadership and may be translated by, "leadership science" or, "scientifical leadership" of an activity in a certain activity field. The word etymology hails from Latin, coming from "manus", that means drawing rein of some horses that pull a cart.

In English that derived in the verb, "to manage", that can have multiple meanings like, "to conduct", "to administatrate", "to carry on".

The management implies, "the wholeness of principles, rules, knowledge, requirements and means; as a leadership art involves the talent, the knowhow, of making possible the transformation of practical activity into best effciency parameters and indices" (Gevat & Larion, 2008, pg. 612).

The management has become a science because, "it represents a set of knowledge, concepts, principles, methods and techniques that explain, in a systematic manner, the phenomena and processes that take place within the administration of an organization, company, or, in our practical example, of a team and its training process" (Cicma & Ra$, 2012, pg. 2).

The efficiency, as a management component, represents the extent to which an activity satisfies a necessity or generates an objective. In this case it represents the extent to which organizing, accomplishing and leadership an optimal training for a Junior 1 team, leads to performance optimization, and this can be positive, nought or negative.

If we gerneralize and annalize the practice of the performance sports training from countries that have a tradition from this point of view, like Sweden, Norway, Germany, etc., the results of many researches in the field of theory and sports training, carried out in the latest years by Filin in 1968 si 1974, by Stein, Federhoff in 1975, by Trosse in 1977, by Bastian, Kreher in 1978, de Pollany in 1978, by Filin and Fomin in 1980, by Platonov in 1980, 1984 ci 1998, by Matveev in 1997, (quoted by Bompa, 2002, pg. 28) and many other specialists, allow us to characterize the main directions that determined the progress and the evolution of this sport worldwide.

The theoretical analysis and generalization of the data from scientifical and methodical literature, carried out in the given research, show us that for training in performance sport, at present conditions, both the problem of the specialty training position and that of a much more effcient organization and training management during the training and competing season aren't studied enough. This has become the basic premise and the main factor for formulating the hyphotesis, the goal, the tasks and determining the methods for the given research.

The principles of sports training--in 2009, Teodorescu defined the principles of sports training as being, "theses or norms having a general character that conducts the whole activity involving sports training" (Teodorescu, 2009, pg. 95).

In 1993, Alexe stated that, "the principles of sports training may be formulated keeping a certain criteria taxonomy in mind, that is to start from the most general aspects of sports activity and its objectives, in order to continue with the content, methods and suitable strategies" (Alexe, 1993, pg.106).

He training management has been correlated to the principles of the sports training, especially to the individualization principle, which prevailed. Using this principles implies the knowledge of all the players peculiarities, the permanent control of their behaviour, of harmonizing the training efforts with the physical and psychical possibilities. He individualization principle "canot be mistaken for the working procedure, otherwise widespread in the practical activity, namely the instructor individual work with every single player" (http://www.aikido.ro/index_html_files/ANTREN_SPORTIV.pdf).

Methods

In fact, the individualization principle implies the, "maximum exploitaition of the player's availabilities, thus assuring the optimal developing of the performance capacity" (Teodorescu, 2009, pg. 99). In turn, the individuality, "is based also on the subjective information and the psychic reactivity at special stimuli, at suggestions, placebo effect etc. Finally, the individualization principle operates in the sports training, but also completed by some other sides, mainly withdrawn from the complexity of the human body" (Dragnea, 1990, pg. 117).

The trainig management is realized by, joining together the principles of management and the pricipes of sports training, thus leading to an optimization of the handball players training so that they can take part in official competitions" (Cicma, 2014, pg. 78).

The experiment took place at the Sports High School in Braila and ran its course during the Nation Junior 1 Championship, 2014-2015 edition, at the same high school junior 1 team. In the experiment took part four players who are in the intermediate position, all these four players playing for the same amount of time in all the official games.

During the whole championship we kept track of the efficiency of the four players and we noted down their efficiency, the number of goals reported to the number of throws, for the first and the last championship game, in order to demonstrate the evolution of their efficiency.

He training management consisted of joining together the individualization principle and a leadership, supervising and efficient deployment (management) of training that consisted of increasing the time allocated for the fundamental part in the detriment of the other two, increasing the number of performings and cutting out the idle times.

Results

Analysing the table we may notice that the efficiency of the four players has evolved significantly, from 38.85% in the first official game, to 59.02% in the last championship game. This demonstrates that the demarche we used was efficient.

The graphic number 1, shows us clearly that in the first game the efficiency was of 7 goals out of 18 throws, and for the last game was of 10.5 goals, on an average, from 17.7 throws on an average.

The graphic number 2, shows us the average difference between the players efficiency during the first game and their efficiency during the last same.

Discussions

The studies related to this subject aren't very numerous, especially int training management domain, but we can compare the results we got from the point of view of individualization principle with the results we got in 2004, by Cicma & Mereja, in their work, "Using the individualization principle in increasing intermediate players goal throws efficiency in the handball game", published at the Intenational Conference from Galati, as well as with the results at the level of a whole team of Junior 1 players, from the doctoral thesis called, "The management of training optimization for the junior 1 handball game", written by Cicma, presented in 2014, at U..N.E.F.S, in Bucharest.

Conclusions

In conclusion, we can say the demarche used was it efficient and has achieved the objective proposed.

Aknowledgements

Thank you for all of subjects who participated in my experiments.

References

Alexe N, 1993, Antrenamentul sportiv modern, Editura pentru Tineret ci Sport, Bucurecti.

Bactiurea E, Sarbu D, Stan Z, 2001, Handbal pas cu pas Editura EVRIKA, Braila.

Bompa TO, 2002, Periodizarea: teoria ci metodologia antrenamentului, Editura Ex Ponto, CNFPA, Bucurecti.

Cicma IT, Rata G, 2012, The coach's role and efficiency in the management of 9 meter handball players' training (Jun. I), Editura Galati University Press, Galati.

Cicma IT, 2014, Managementul optimizarii pregatirii in jocul de handbal la Junioare I, Teza de Doctorat, U.E.F.S. Bucurecti.

Cicma IT, Rata G, 2012, The coach's role and efficiency in the management of the 9-meter handball player's training (Juni I, Editura Univerity Press, Galati.

Dragnea A, 1990, Teoria antrenamentului sportiv, Editura UNEFS, Bucurecti.

Dragnea A, 1996, Antrenamentul sportiv, Editura Didactica ci Pedagogica, Bucurecti.

Gevat C, Larion A., 2008, Metode de crectere a procesului managerial in activitatile sportului pentru toti, Editura Academica, Galati.

Harre D, 1973, Teoria antrenamentului, Editura Stadion, Bucurecti.

Menschel C, Stein HG, Fahrmann L, 1984, Bazele ctiintifice ale antrenamentului (Vol. X), Centrul de cercetari pt. ed fiz ci sport, Bucurecti.

Santa-Moldovan IC, 2010, Perfectionarea managementului echipelor de jocuri sportive de mare performanta, Teza doctorat, Universitatea "BABES--BOLYAI", Cluj-Napoca.

Teodorescu S, 2009, Antrenament ci Competitie, Editura ALPHA MDN, Bucurecti.

Teodorescu S, 2009, Antrenament ci Competitie, Editura ALPHA MDN, Bucurecti.

http://www.aikido.ro/index_html_files/ANTREN_SP ORTIV.pdf.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/37606698/TAS-TeoriaAntrena mentului-Sportiv.
Table no. 1--The evolution of the intermediate players efficiency
form the first game to the last game from the National Junior 1
Championship, 2014-2015 edition

Nr.                        The first tour game (game no 1)
crt.
                            Number of    Number   Effieciency
                           goal throws     of     (in proc. %)
                                         goals

1                              19          7          36.8
2                              20          8           40
3                              17          7          41.1
4                              16          6          37.5

The
arithmetical mean of the       18          7         38.85%
used items (X)

Nr.                        Ultimul joc din retur (jocul nr. 18)
crt.
                            Number of    Number   Effieciency
                           goal throws     of     (in proc. %)
                                         goals

1                              20          12          60
2                              18          11         61.1
3                              16          9          56.2
4                              17          10         58.8
The
arithmetical mean of the      17.7        10.5       59.02%
used items (X)

Graphic no. 1

Evolution averages shot on goal and accomplishments
recorded between the first and last game

                                            1     2

Efficiency shot on goal in the first game   18   17.7
  (throws number--total goals))
Efficiency shot on goal in the last game    7    10.5
  (throws number--total goals)

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Graphic no. 2

Evolution inside efficiency between the first and last game

Efficiency INTER first game   38.85%
Efficiency INTER last game    59.02%

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Title Annotation:Original article
Author:Cicma, Ioan Teodor; Mereuta, Claudiu
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 15, 2016
Words:3025
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