The main factors determining the choice of self-presentation strategies in negotiations and business meetings/Dalykiniai verslo pokalbiai ir derybos: pagrindiniai veiksniai, apsprendziantys prisistatymo strategiju parinkima.
Under some business situations difficulties may develop connected with performing the selected or attributed role, when keeping to the selected presentation strategy. There exist clear differences of self-presentation, when adapting to situation requirements (Baumeister et al. 1989).
After generalization of different self-presentation investigation data (Baumeister ef al. 1989; Leary, Kowalski 1990), the factors determining the choice of self-presentation strategies are divided into three basic groups: individual personal factors, inter-individual factors, situational factors of social environment, which may be conditionally attributed to the outside factors. All these factors are closely interconnected and interacting not only during the presentation, but also when selecting goals and ways to achieve them. Thus, first of all it should be necessary to define stimuli affecting the person's motivation for creating his own image in publicity and including not only the choice of a desirable image, but also a decision about what forms of behaviour are the most suitable for developing such an image, i.e. to select self-presentation strategies. It is also important to take into account some outside situational factors and the existing in the society social norms, which could influence the presentation planning and performance.
2. Personal factors determining the choice of Self-Presentation
The persons once motivated to create their own image may change their behaviour trying to influence other people's opinion about themselves (Leary, Kowalski 1990). The research discloses that some people are more motivated to manage the impressions developed for outsiders than others. For instance, the Machiavelli-type individuals are inclined to influence others by a strategic presentation (Leary, Kowalski 1990). Personal, individual factors are one of basic sources of presentation dynamics (Smith 1987).
We are to review the basic characteristics of the presenting individuals for developing a desirable image.
1. Self-confidence. By Baumeister (1989), a self-confident person should not be inclined to apply defensive strategies of presentation. On the contrary, a non-self--confident person may successfully use the disturbing public circumstances in order to avoid responsibility for possible failures. Such a person always observes other people and is directed by their reactions as social allusions, thereby changing his behaviour correspondingly (Buss 1986). Buss (1986) also states that often the presentation goal is not a manipulation of other people, when seeking economic or social profit, but rather forming an impression of himself, when the person does not sufficiently rely on his own spontaneous behaviour or social skills. Also, the presentation quality depends on the reliance upon himself: lack of confidence in his own strength is reflected in non-verbal behaviour (restriction of movements, irresolution, the tension of the whole body, etc.), also in the information presented for the surrounding people in a verbal form (self-criticism, reserve, self-humiliation) (Baumeister et al. 1989).
2. Self-consciousness. A high self-consciousness is tightly connected with the human inclination to concentrate himself on his own publicly observed peculiarities (Baumeister et al. 1989). Knowing that you are an object of other people's attention, reinforces the fear of refusal and vulnerability possibilities and personalism tendencies, i.e. the inclination to react personally to signals of social environment or to understand events as purposely directed to a definite man. Thus, taking into account how he is seen by the surrounding people (i.e. with high self-consciousness) the person is more inclined to apply the self-presentation strategies. High self-consciousness reinforces the sense that you are observed. On the other hand, the observation itself by the surrounding people reinforces a sense of consciousness and motivation of the self-presenting person to create a certain image.
Also, it is necessary to mention the realization degree of other persons' reaction connected with the public self-consciousness. According to the investigation data the persons whose realization of themselves as a social object is not strongly expressed, rarely take interest in the impression they make on the surrounding people. Their behaviour corresponding to their inner disposition is characteristic of spontaneity, frankness, cordiality and stability, i.e. these persons are less inclined to change their behaviour because of social context, and otherwise than people with a strong realization of reactions (Leary, Kowalski 1990).
3. Extroversion, other-directness is closely connected with the above-mentioned factors; it predetermines adapting themselves to circumstances, the conformism, social wishes, desires, and reflects itself on the behaviour directed to social hints searching, when observing the reactions of surrounding people, when people in a public situation are not certain of their role performance and understanding (Buss 1986). This personal factor presents a possibility for an introducing person to choose a more suitable self-presentation strategy oriented to people's expectations and social norms.
4. Self-esteem. It is found by different investigations that the self-esteem level and self-esteem stability have influence on the self-presentation process. Schneider and Turkat (1975) note that defensive, high-esteem possessing persons more appreciate their capabilities and strive for recognition of surrounding people, whereas the self-estimation of persons with firm self-esteem is high, but the need for acknowledgment is expressed weaker (Baumeister et al. 1989). Low self-esteem conditions of the self-presentation strategy are based on striving to avoid failure The high self-esteem level stimulates to apply tactics, connected with striving for a higher status, prestige and competence (Baumeister et al. 1989). People with high self-esteem strive to create and consolidate a positive Ego image, but people with low self-esteem, though striving for a desirable image, are inclined to act indirectly and cautiously. When the return connection is negative, the defensive persons with unstable self-esteem try to present themselves more positively than those people with stable self-esteem.
5. Perceived self-efficiency. Such efficiency stimulates a more active work; the accepted solutions to present themselves in a definite manner are of a higher risk (Bandura 1989, citation according to Hybels, Weaver 1989). When analysing the social conditions, the situation advantages are more pronounced, stressed and benevolent for the presenting persons, but not their threats and shortages to which most of the attention is paid by a low perceived Ego efficiency degree (Fukushima 1994). The perceived Ego efficiency influences the choice of a person to behave officially in a particular manner and his capabilities and efforts to reach a goal.
6. The style of reasons explanation. It also may be an important inner factor based on which the causes of success and failure are ascribed to inner or outer factors (Smith 1987). As a constant construct of the personality, the style of reasons explanation has a direct connection with the person's self-esteem level and self-praise. By Seligman's words, for persons with the characteristic style of pessimism when explaining reasons, the failure may strongly affect their self-esteem level (Smith 1987). Thus, the style of reasons explanation may be an important variable influencing the choice of presentation strategy and objective results.
7. Social anxiety. This sense appears when the assimilation of people's reaction is so strong that it arises the insecurity sense among the surrounding people and unnatural social behaviour conditioned by psychological discomfort and resulting in restraint, suppression and avoiding cooperation (Buss 1986). According to the investigation data, socially worried people are inclined to treat the social situation as a threat for them; therefore during the self-presentation they experience a strong physiological and psychological stress.
On the other hand, the social anxiety develops when persons wish to impress the surrounding people, but they do not hope to be successful (Schlenker, Leary 1985, citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990). Anxious people apply cautious, reliable strategies of interpersonal behaviour, which could present a possibility to associate avoiding failure (pushing away, confusion, humiliation). In this case it is more desirable to avoid failure than to be successful. The concept of social anxiety connects closely the defensive presentation strategy and a low level of self-esteem.
Another group of personal factors is connected with individual capabilities and skills of self-presenting persons; by applying them the person may create many images (Baumeister et al. 1989). Snyder (1974) indicates, that individuals differ by their abilities to present themselves according to the public requirements (Hybels, Weaver 1989). When presenting themselves, the basic capabilities and skills of the person are included:
1. Presentation performing capabilities, i.e. capabilities to play and improvise, when creating required images for surrounding people (Briggs, Cheek, Buss 1980) as well as abilities to rule his own body: gestures, expression of the face, pose and other non-verbal expressions as well as his own voice (citation according to Buss 1986).
2. Self-regulation skills; they give a possibility for the self-presenter to direct his activities towards a minimisation of the disagreement between the real and the desirable. When this disagreement is minimised up to the desirable level, the self-regulation ends. In self-presentation situations this characteristic is important for overcoming the social anxiety, for minimizing the fear of failure and to react constructively to criticism, rejection and humiliation (Adler, Towne 1987). Self-regulation is closely related to the self-control. When the latter appears, the self-presentation starts with the suppression of spontaneous, natural behaviour. During self-presentation the self-control suppresses spontaneous behaviour and presents a possibility for a self-presenter to concentrate the attention only to those aspects of behaviour in public life which are compatible with his image (Buss 1986).
3. Abilities of social perception; the flexibility of public behaviour and the ability to change the self-presentation strategy are connected with the person's sensitivity to other people's behaviour, i.e. an ability to perceive and understand their emotions, needs and motives based on verbal and nonverbal expressions (Buss 1986). Abilities of social perception present a possibility for a self-presenter to adapt his behaviour to the requirements of the social situation, different needs and expectations of people, when developing a desirable image or changing it by a better one.
The third group of factors, reflecting the inner and outer interaction and influencing the self-presentation process, is connected with the individual socialization of a person and (because of earlier experience and expectations) is based on personal behaviour as well as on information signals from the evaluating environment.
3. The role of personal experience in choice of Self-Presentation
The persons, who get more often into situations requiring the self-presentation, have more often better abilities and skills and can select more adequate strategies for these situations by experiencing less social anxiety. They are able to manipulate their behaviour and reactions of other people (Leary, Kowalski 1990). Therefore it is possible to state that one of the factors, conditioning the self-presentation quality and its course, is a history of socialization of an individual, embracing adequate and non-adequate supports (when incentives are presented without regarding the quality of performed actions), punishment and evaluation, successes and failures (Baumeister et al. 1989).
Jones and Berglass (1978) explain that, when experiencing a success independently of performance quality, it is developing a positive, but unstable comprehension of person's possibilities, and the person by the later behaviour seeks to defend this positive comprehension (citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990). The history of feedback, i.e. the positive and negative evaluations of public activities in the past are shaping his own Ego efficiency (Bandura 1989; citation according to Hybels, Weaver 1989). Therefore the later self-presentation tactics may depend on the feedback's adequacy, its riskiness and comprehension of the public situation--stressing its shortages and merits.
By the opinion of Baumeister et al. (1989), depending on the social conditions the presented enforcements and punishments, defensive or reinforcing strategies may be perceived already in the childhood. For instance, in some cultures, societies and families there exist social norms, suppressing or even prohibiting a boastful self-praising, but in other cultures these consolidating tactics are supported and stimulated.
Goffmann (1959) in his self-presentation concept was inclined to reject the importance of inner, psychological factors in symbolic interactions, meanwhile stressing the importance of outer factors (citation according to Buss 1986). When analysing the acting history of the person's socialization, it is necessary to pay attention to the main outer factors.
4. Outer factors determining the choice of Self-Presentation
There are some different outer factors determining the choice of self-presentation:
1. Social and cultural norms. Investigation of different cultures discloses that there exist different social norms conditioning the limits of public behaviour and its evaluation possibilities. By the data of Powers and Zuroff (1989), some cultural norms prohibit the open evaluation of his own positive properties and their demonstration (Baumeister et al. 1989). For instance, the investigations in the Western society demonstrate enforcing or defensive self-presentation strategies diffusion, and comparative investigations in Japan--the humiliating himself tactics prevailing in this country (Fukushima 1994). It is explained by Markus and Kitayama's (1990) theory of cultural aspect of Ego (citation according to Fukushima 1994). In Japanese culture the dependency upon their culture and the point of view of himself as a member of the society are stimulated; therefore it is avoided in any case to stress his own exclusiveness and preference to others. As in Western culture, the presence of other people stimulates their own benevolent self-presentation , in the same manner, although in the Orient culture the public social environment stimulates to behave in a self-humiliating manner (Fukushima 1994). Thus, because of the influence of cultural norms, the strategy of self-humiliating may be considered as the tactics of self-regulating inner standards.
The interpersonal factors may also be conditionally attributed to the outside factors, which influence the self-presentation motivation, the choice of strategies, the performance of self-presentation depending on a definite public situation and its participants.
2. The interaction between audience and the expectations of self-presenting people. In the context of social norms, earlier experience and individual properties, the individual expectations are formed--a cognitive prevision how to reach social approval and to become attractive for neighbours. The expectations of an individual in a self-presentation situation are connected with a success or failure probability, with his ability to correspond to his own requirements and with the presentation limits (Baumeister et al. 1989). The choice of self-presentation depends on the fact what evaluation of the surrounding people is expected and on a presentiment what is expected by them. If a self-presenting individual knows that the observers believe in his success, it may cause the tension, and this in turn, may predetermine the choice of defensive strategy. The expectations of the person and the audience condition the probability how successfully this person will perform the selected role.
It is possible to distinguish four moments of expectation influence on self-presentation:
a) the content of self-presentation is influenced by expectations of a self-presenting individual, connected with the evaluation in future. They are expectations of results--discussions about events after the self-presentation and when people have some information. For instance, the probability of future failure stimulates preliminary attempts to speak about a potential possibility of failure (Leary, Barnes, Grybel 1986; Quattrone, Jones 1978; citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990);
b) for self-presentation it is important to foresee the public success caused by audience expectations, as there appears social pressure to behave in correspondence with these expectations, also, there increases the probability that, in case of a failure, the audience's hostility and disappoitment to the self-presenting person can arise (Baumeister, Hamilton, Tice 1985, citation according to Baumeister et al. 1989). Especially in case of failure, earlier boasting and official praising of themselves increase the refusal and humiliation probability, because the failure attracts the attention and unrealised awaitings of listeners increase a more intensive negative attributions process than the events approving the expectations (Baumeister et al. 1989);
c) the fact that in the mentioned case after the success forecast a failure follows, shows the overestimation of the self-presenting man and conditions some attributions development, for instance, that the man is egoistic, arrogant, etc. A failure after praising himself becomes an argument that earlier statements about himself were mistakes, based on non-adequate Ego picture (Baumeister et al. 1989). Because of these reasons the preliminary forecast of the success is a risky self-presentation strategy;
d) on the other hand, the expectations of the audience concerning the success or failure may disturb further development process of creating impression and restrict the self-presentating person (Hybels, Weaver 1989). Other people are a potential source of positive or negative estimation, therefore they influence the tactics of self-presentation by their behaviour when looking for social agreement and avoiding the disapproval of surrounding people.
The discussion of estimators in the self-representation situations allows to speak in general about the influence of other people on the self-presentation strategies selection and their performance. One of the means, by which the surrounding people influence the motivation of a person, his behaviour, Weinstein and Tanur (1976) call altercasing, i.e. the behaviour, by which the person changes according to wishes of other people by performing roles expected by them (citation according to Smith 1987). This kind of impact may be described as a certain way of education, when other people present symbolic hints in order to arise a desired behaviour of the self-presenting person. McCallas (1978) has noted that a desired change differs from self-presentation. He also indicates that self-presentation expresses something who we are, and the desired change shows how we react when interpreting reactions of other people (citation according to Smith 1987).
3. The qualities of estimators. When a person depends on other people with whom he is connected by the results to be obtained, then he selects the ingratiating strategies, striving for benevolence of other people (Pohra, Pandey 1984; Hendricks, Brickman 1974, citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990). Therefore, there is a stronger inclination of a self-presenting person to ingratiate himself to authoritative, of a high status, attractive and competent persons, because they have more power when distributing valuable results (Leary, Kowalski 1990).
First, the estimators of the high status and power most often occupy a position, which can present valuable results (Leary, Kowalski 1990). Also, it is confirmed, that the persons of higher rank are less motivated to develop impressions for a person of a lower rank.
Second, the qualities of other people may also affect the choice of self-presentation strategies and their change: a positive evaluation of more desirable, attractive and powerful people is more important, but disregard, repulsion, taking no interest in the self-presenting person is more offensive than from persons of a lower status (Baumeister et al. 1989).
Third, some characteristics of estimators (it may be personal qualities and social positions, profession) are important for recognizing the identity of the self-presenting person. For instance, for a student of psychology it may be more important to create a good impression on a psychologist than on his/her parents or other specialist, because creation of such an impression could influence the student's, as a future psychologist's, identity development (Baumeister et al. 1989).
4. Other values of people. By some data of investigations, public images are often developed and reformed according to perceived "the important other" values (Carnevale, Pruitt, Britton 1979; Forsyth and others 1977; Gaes, Tedeschi 1978; Gergen 1965, citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990). Therefore, when believing that the surrounding people value negative qualities, self-presentation may be assisted by accenting also his own negative features (Jellison, Gentry 1978; citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990).
But disclosing other persons' values influence on self-presentation does not present a reason to state that the images created in this way are deceptive or erroneous. When presenting himself, a person takes into account everything that is acceptable for the surrounding people, but out of potenti-ally possible images variety he selects those, which could be approved and evaluated favourably. The self-presentation in such cases is tactic, but not necessarily untruthful.
On the other hand, the person may consciously present himself by the way, which does not represent the other person's values and positions, either evading this person or wishing to repulse him or trying to develop the sense of his own independency (Leary, Kowalski 1990).
5. The behaviour of other people. Social norms require that the self-presentation must be coordinated with the behaviour of the surrounding persons, for instance, with disclosing of other people (Leary, Kowalski 1990). For instance, by restrained behaviour the person answers to restrained disclosure of another person. A person, who does not take into account other persons, may be considered as violating the public order of communication.
6. Norms of estimators' group. In Hollander's opinion (1958), when adapting himself to social group norms, people accumulate some credits, which in future may give an opportunity to deviate from those norms (citation according to Smith 1987).
7. Information of estimators on self-presenting. Personal image creation is influenced by the fact how a self-presenter considers to be appreciated by other people during the presentation and how he believes to be considered by them in future. Sometimes the information concerning a self-presenter may limit his later efforts to make an impression, conditioning the choice limits of definite strategies. It is the problem of the already developed image. First of all, people are not inclined to present themselves as those who contradict the information about them because of a small probability to present the opposite impression (Schlenker 1980, citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990).
The present image of a person may influence the choice of corresponding self-presentation strategies. For instance, when the achievements and abilities of a person are known publicly, there arises social pressure to minimise their values by showing modesty and reserve (Ackerman, Schlenker 1957, citation according to Buss 1986). By the data of Schlenker and Leary (1982), people are estimated more favourably, when they devaluate their achievements, abilities and talents or do not stress them in public conditions (citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990).
In different contexts of social presentation people are inclined to behave basing on constant, long-term personal dispositions or to act on momentary impulse, when expressing their emotional reactions to the social environment (Buss 1986). Therefore it is necessary to identify not only the personal traits and other human peculiarities influencing the self-presentation process, but also the conditions under which the self-presentation can arise and develop. The importance of a situation sometimes is great, because the self-presentation, which does not correspond to the situation, diminishes the role of a self-presenter (Suslavicius 1995). We shall review basic factors, predetermining the choice of strategies.
5. Situational factors determining the choice of Self-Presentation
The main situational factors determining the choice of self-presentation can be represented by:
1. Public conditions. Publicity of personal behaviour is a function of probabilities that the person's behaviour will be observed by other people (Kolditz, Arkin 1982): the more public is the person's behaviour, the more probable is that he will take care of the impression on surrounding people and will be more motivated to produce an impression during self-presentation (Leary, Kowalski 1990). The publicity of situation influences the self-presentation motivation, because for achieving some special goals the open behaviour is more important than a private one.
On the other hand, closed behaviour may also be influenced by the motives of self-presentation. For instance, a person may individually prepare himself for self-presentation to other people. In addition, public behaviour, developing because of the social pressure, may become so usual that the man will transfer a large part of its elements to his own private environment (Leary, Kowalski, 1990).
Thus, public conditions are one of the basic appreciating context factors, increasing the probability of the self-presentation when trying to retain a positive opinion concerning himself (Baumeister 1982; Schlenker 1980; Tedeschi 1981, citation according to Baumeister et al. 1989). Due to publicity in an open social environment there develop behavioural differences, connected with different self-esteem levels. By Schrauger's (1972) opinion, the self-humiliating strategy of low self-esteem possessing individuals appears only in public self-presentation situations (citation according to Baumeister et al. 1989). According to data of Buss and Briggs (1984), it is also displayed most often, when people are engaged in public activities (for instance, they become politicians, teachers, traders, confessors, etc.; (Leary, Kowalski 1990).
2. Limitations of a social role. Social roles predetermine expectations, connected with the behaviour of performers of these roles (Sarbin, Allen 1968, citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990). Many roles require special qualities for performing them, for instance, the efficiency of a high status person depends on his ability to openly create a competent leader's image (Calder 1977, citation according to Leary, Kowalski 1990). The failure of transferring the corresponding social role image not only diminishes the efficiency of self-presenter's role , but may even predetermine the loss of the right to perform this role (Goffman 1959, citation according to Buss 1986). Because of these reasons people endeavour to do their best , that a public image would correspond to the requirements of the performed role under certain situations.
3. The value of goals sought by the presentation. When preparing for the presentation and during it, more attention may be paid to the result of success , but not to the fact, by what ways this success should be reached. In many theories of motivation it is noted that the motivation increases with the goals value (Leary, Kowalski 1990). Thus, the motivation of self-presentation may be caused by the value of goals to be reached. For instance, the investigations by Pandey, Rastagio (1979) showed, that toadyism of the person, whishing to get a job, increases, if the competition for the duties increases (Leary, Kowalski 1990). Therefore, Pandey (1981) states, that the development of impression by self-presentation should be natural and usual phenomenon in societies with characteristic limited economic and political possibilities (Leary, Kowalski 1990).
Along with the goals to be achieved, the subjective value of the activities performed should be also mentioned (Leary, Kowalski 1990). It follows from the investigations conclusions that the motivation of self-presentation rises when experiencing a failure in activities, that are personally important. Then it is strived to shape a benevolent impression about himself by underlying his own positive qualities and stressing failure causes favourable for him (Baumgardner 1985) or by devaluating other people.
4. Failure acceptance. This event mostly impresses the change of self-presentation strategy. The people having experienced the failure strive to reconstruct their lowered image by different means, for instance, accenting his/her positive traits (Baumeister, Jones 1978; Schneider 1969), expressing their benevolence and approving other people (Apsler 1975), associating themselves with other persons experiencing success (Cialdini and Richardson 1980) or making self-serving attributions and thus explaining their own failure by accusing outside factors (Baumgardner et al. 1985; Weary, Arkin 1981, citation according to Baumeister et al. 1989). In case of failure, the person becomes motivated to present himself by expressing resistance to a non-benevolent image. An understanding that by an image creation the desirable effect has not been achieved, stimulates different strategies of earlier image presentations. It is stated that when the failure is not apprehended, it does not influence the self-presentation behaviour, i.e. only a subjectively apprehended public failure may determine the choice of new self-presenting strategies (Baumeister et al. 1989).
5. The feedback. In every situation of personal contacts the person is inclined to have feedback from a partner to know what impression has been produced (Adler, Towne 1987). When feedback or even hints about a positive social behaviour of the person are not obtained , the situation becomes indefinite; it results in the non-adequate attribution to the surrounding people, unsafety feelings and lack of confidence in his own abilities to produce a favourable impression on other people. Meanwhile, knowing of the estimation results and the potential of estimating person gives the possibility to prepare himself appropriately and to control the situation of self-presentation.
However, when explaining the importance of feedback, it is necessary to take into account that different people react differently to the same stimuli of positive or negative feedback.
6. The stage of personal relations. Buss (1986) states that some strategies of self-presentation have characteristic short-term effects, because it is possible to suppress emotions and spontaneous behaviour only for a limited time. Therefore it is possible to ascertain that such ways of outwardly desired behaviour are characterized as "holy" lying, worming himself in somebody's favour and are limited not only by time, but also by the development. According to investigations, the creation of impression is mostly used during the first meeting, when the relations are supposed to be continued only superficially (Buss 1986). In that case the image to be developed may not correspond to the actual Ego. In close relations, in a diad, when social behaviour develops in close surroundings (with no direct observers), the need for active controlling the mutual impressions weakens in time. The strategies of impression development and worming himself in such relations are less connected with manipulations. Thus, in a formal context the need for demonstrative behaviour is expressed in a weaker form (Buss 1986).
The results of self-presentation are perceived to be more important depending on how many times the person expects to meet another man or a group of people. The investigations disclose, that the people who expect further communication with the other man, are more inclined to control this man's created impression about himself (Leary, Kowalski 1990).
The self-presentation motivation and behaviour in public social surroundings is influenced by many connected and interdependent factors. Some of them are connected with individual qualities of man's behaviour, predetermined by personal variable and specific abilities and skills (they were conventionally called internal factors), while others with such social situation characteristics as norms existing in the society, regulations, expectations are interpersonal (outer) factors. Each of these factors predetermines, how intensively and by what ways the person seeks to control the impressions of the surrounding people , because every factor mentioned may take part in the process of striving for desirable results, maintaining the self-esteem and developing the desirable identity.
The public evaluation situation determines the concentration on your own publicly seen sides and concerns about the impression produced on surrounding people. In this way the environment motivates an individual during self-presentation to control apprehension and evaluation of other people. During the self-presentation public information about himself is presented, his own image for surrounding people created and the individual identity solidified.
The start of developing a man's image means a resolution what concrete image is to be produced. Here it is important not only the fact, that a person is motivated to create an impression on other people, but also what impression he wishes to produce reaching his own goals. The second step is the selection of strategies, which could help in reaching these goals. In this work the mentioned strategies are most often applied not separately, but combined into definite combinations. The third step is the performance of self-presentation and its evaluation, depending on many inner or outer factors, among which not only the qualities of self-presenting people, associated skills and style, but also the situation of self-presentation perform an important role.
The strategies of self-presentation reflect a great variety of possible impressions created by active human behaviour in public. Their goals depend on the self-presenting person's inner structures, individual skills and capabilities to present himself and on the outer situational factors. By self-presentation it can be tried to achieve social and material results; self-presentation also may be used for strengthening the person's self-esteem and his identity.
The main strategies of self-presentation are those of self-strengthening, defensive, worming themselves into somebody's favour and humiliating themselves and are known by potential profit from their application and the risk to receive opposite evaluations contrary to expectations. Following after self-presentation the public behaviour evaluation influences the later behaviour of self-presenting person, the choice of new self-presentation strategies, and by feedback also influences the impression creating motivation and inner factors determining the contents. Personal (individual, inner) factors, interpersonal and situational (outer) factors, determining the strategies selection, are closely interrelated not only during self-presentation, but also when selecting goals and means to reach these goals.
In earlier self-presentation investigations insufficient attention was paid to perceptional and cognitive processes, when the participants selected the self-presenting strategies. Many investigators present data about the attempts to create "the best" images and following them clear feedback from the auditorium going round these stages, when a person begins to take interest in his own public image and on the basis of his own public image and other persons response to consider how his behaviour could correspond to expectations of the surrounding people. It remains a non-answered question, in what way these initial stages of development and management take place in planning the representation process itself during which the preconditions for creating a desirable image are researched giving a possibility for presenting himself successfully and ensure support and approval of its audience.
After a discussion of self-presentation motivation and factors which influence strategies selection, a question also arises, which of these factors are more important for self-presenting person's behaviour, when developing a favourable image and which of these factors help or disturb to represent himself successfully--the individual qualities of the self-presenting person or public social environment with its existing values and standards. In further investigations of self-presentation studies it would be interesting to analyse, how the behaviour is changing in public, depending on hints, on a social situation, what behaviour is to be awaited, when the outside factors influence is stressed and a precondition is considered that there exist great individual differences, when adapting to situational requirements. Based on the discussed inner and outer self-presentation conditioning interrelated factors, it can be stated that not so much the person himself with his own qualities and values, than the social pressure under public situation conditions influences the orientation of the self-presenting person to accept adopted social norms; thus, public images (of political leaders, prominent artists, etc.) are created in advance and only later personalities corresponding to desirable images are "selected".
All the earlier discussed theoretical self-presentation models are based on investigations performed in Western countries. The investigations in Lithuania could present a possibility to analyse an additional aspect of self-presentation: how in the society living and experiencing a transitional period from one social, economic and political system to another one, with characteristic tension between old and newly developing values, the discussed theories corroborate, i.e. which reactions and changes they can develop in this context.
Thus, when introducing himself, does the person manipulate his social environment or, on the contrary, this environment (cultural and social norms, other people's regulations, expectations, etc.) presents the direction of the efforts of the self-presenting person, when consolidating himself in the society? The question should be answered by further self-presentation investigations.
Adler, R.; Towne, N. 1987. Looking Out, Looking In: Interpersonal Communication. New York: Holt. Rinehart a. Winston.
Baumeister, R. F.; Heatherton, T. F. 1996. Self-regulation failure: An overview, Psychological Inquiry 13(7): 1-15. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0701_1
Baumeister, R. F.; Tice, D. M.; Hutton, D. G. 1989. Self-Presentational Motivations and Personality Differences in Self-Esteem, Journal of Personality 53(3): 547-579.
Buss, A. H. 1986. Social Behavior and Personality. Hillsday, New Jersey: Erlbaum.
Fukushima, O. 1994. Effects of an Instructed Norm and an Anticipation of Audience on Self-Presentation, Tohoku Psychologica Folia 53: 76-80.
Hybels, S.; Weaver, R. L. 1989. Communicating Effectively. New York: Random.
Leary, M. R.; Kowalski, R. M. 1990. Impression Management: A Literature Review and Two Component Model, Psychological Bulletin 107(1): 34-47. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.34
Leary, M. R. 1996. Self-Presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Moore, F. 2006. Strategy, Power and Negotiation: Social Control and Expatriate Managers in a German Multinational Corporation, International Journal of Human Resource Management 17(3): 399-413. doi:10.1080/09585190500521359
Muraven, M.; Samueli, D.; Burkley, E. 2006. Conserving self-control strength, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(3): 524-537. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1684
Robinson, M. D.; Johnson, J. T.; Shields, S. A. 1995. On the advantages of modesty: The benefits of a balanced self-presentation, Communication Research 22: 575-591. doi:10.1177/009365095022005003
Rosenfeld, P.; Giacalone, R. A.; Riordan, C. A. 2002. Impression Management: Building and Enhancing Reputations at Work. London: Thomson Learning.
Smith, H. W. 1987. Introduction to Social Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 205 p.
Suslavicius, A. 1995. Socialine psichologija. Kaunas: Sviesa.
Tice, D. M.; Butler, J. L.; Muraven, M. B.; Stillwell, A. M. 1995. When modesty prevails: Differential favorability of self-presentation to friends and strangers, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69(6): 1120-1138. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240
Vohs, K. D.; Baumeister, R. F.; Ciarocco, N. J. 2005. Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory processes, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88(4): 632-657. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1992
Vonk, R. 1999. Impression Formation and Impression Management: Motives, Traits, and Likeability Inferred from Self-Promoting and Self-Deprecating Behavior, Social Cognition 17(4): 390-412.
Aiste Mazeikiene (1), Valentina Peleckiene (2), Kestutis Peleckis (3)
(1) Mykolas Romeris University, Ateities g. 20, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lithuania
(2, 3) Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania
E-mails: (1) firstname.lastname@example.org; (2) email@example.com; (3) firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 22 December 2008; accepted 3 May 2010
(1) Mykolo Romerio universitetas, Ateities g. 20, LT-08303 Vilnius, Lietuva
(2, 3) Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, Sauletekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lietuva
El. pastas: (1) email@example.com; (2) firstname.lastname@example.org; (3) email@example.com
Iteikta 2008-12-22; priimta 2010-05-03
Aiste MAZEIKIENE. Master of Organisational Psychology, Lecturer at Mykolas Romeris University, Department of Psychology, and lecturer at Vilnius Academy of Business Law. The author of more than 70 publications. Research interests: human resourse management, psychology of effective management, and practical development of rethoric' and self-presentation' competencies.
Valentina PELECKIENE. Doctor of Social Science (Economics). Department of Social Economics and Management, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The author of more than 30 scientific publications. Research interests: insurance economics, mortgage insurance, pension systems, strategic management.
Kestutis PELECKIS. Associate professor, Doctor of Social Sciences (Economics), Department of Enterprise Economics and Management, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The author of more than 80 scientific publications. Research interests: increase of efficiency of business decisions and negotiations.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Mazeikiene, Aiste; Peleckiene, Valentina; Peleckis, Kestutis|
|Publication:||Business: Theory and Practice|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2010|
|Previous Article:||Marketing strategy process: quantitative analysis of the customers' satisfaction/Marketingo strategijos procesas: vartotoju pasitenkinimo kiekybine...|
|Next Article:||Evaluation of investment projects' effectiveness by the net present value method/Investiciniu projektu efektyvumo vertinimas grynosios dabartines...|