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The magnet journey: opportunities for librarians to partner with nurses.

DOI: 10.3163/1536-5050.97.4.015


Developed by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), a division of the American Nurses Association, the Magnet Recognition Program represents the "seal of approval" for quality nursing care and aids in nurse recruitment and retention. During the 1980s, as a reaction to the growing recognition that the supply of nurses in practice was not keeping up with demand, the American Academy of Nursing (AAN) appointed the Task Force on Nursing Practice in Hospitals. This group noticed that while most hospitals were faced with severe nursing vacancies, other hospitals attracted and kept nurses. The AAN task force commissioned a study to identify these hospitals and the variables that allowed them to create an environment that successfully attracted and retained nurses. Of the hospitals studied, forty-one were selected and designated as Magnet hospitals [1].

The study found strong similarities between these hospitals, regardless of size or location. The common characteristics of these hospitals were participatory management, nursing autonomy, supportive nursing leadership, career development opportunities, and recognition in the hospital of the importance of the quality of patient care. The variables that made them attractive to nurses were called "Forces of Magnetism" and were mapped into fourteen categories:

* quality of nursing leadership

* organizational structure

* management style

* personnel policies and programs

* professional models of care

* quality of care

* quality improvement

* consultation and resources

* autonomy

* community and the hospital

* nurses as teachers

* image of nursing

* interdisciplinary relationships

* professional development [2]

Based on the AAN task force research, the American Nurses Association (ANA) Board of Directors approved the Magnet Recognition Program in 1990 and assigned to ANCC the responsibility of developing and maintaining the program, with the first Magnet award given in 1994. From 7 Magnet nursing programs in 2000, the program has grown to 334 organizations designated as Magnet hospitals in May of 2009, with more applications in process [3].

The goals of the Magnet Recognition Program are to identify excellence in the delivery of nursing care to patients, promote quality health care services in an environment that supports professional nursing practice, and provide a mechanism for disseminating best practices in nursing through evidence-based practice, quality improvement, and research [4].

The Magnet designation is awarded for a period of four years, after which organizations must reapply. Organizations must designate a staff member as Magnet coordinator, which may be a full-time position or a major portion of another position, such as a nursing research coordinator. Additional personnel are involved in preparing the application, planning the site visit, and monitoring activities related to continuing the Magnet designation. The activities leading up to the site visit are referred to as "the Magnet journey to excellence," with numerous opportunities for librarian participation. Current Magnet hospitals are listed on the program website [3], along with scheduled site visits. The ANCC Magnet Commission solicits input from the patients, families, clients, staff, and public with whom health care organizations interact to assist Magnet program appraisers in the evaluation process [5].

Database searches for studies on Magnet program outcomes can use the keywords "Magnet hospital" or the CINAHL heading "Magnet Hospital," as well as search terms for the specific nursing practices, interventions, and outcomes evaluated in the studies. The Resource Centers section of the ANCC Magnet Recognition Program website includes a bibliography of research connecting the Magnet environment to organizational outcomes [6]. Reports of clinical nursing research at Magnet hospitals are being presented at conferences, with some making their way into the nursing literature, which offers an opportunity for hospital librarians to assist nurses with presentations and writing for publication [7]. Sometimes opportunities and ideas for library resources and services are buried in articles about the Magnet program, such the reference to adding diversity resources found in an article about assessing readiness [8].


The most recent edition of the Application Manual: Magnet Recognition Program reflects the latest "Model for Magnet," which places great emphasis on evidence-based practice and research [9, 10]. The fourteen Forces of Magnetism originally mapped have been refined in the 2008 edition into five components: transformational leadership, structural empowerment, exemplary professional practice, empirical quality outcomes, and new knowledge, innovations, and improvements. The relationship of the fourteen forces to the new model is clearly documented in charts in the Magnet program's website [11] and in an article by Wolf et al. [12]. Woven throughout the 2008 Manual is a strong emphasis on evidence-based practice (EBP) to support all these endeavors. A major change is additional requirements for organizations applying for redesignation. There is a higher expectation for EBP and improved outcomes as well as more emphasis on "new knowledge, innovations and improvements" [9, 12].


The emphasis on EBP, continuing education (CE), and nursing research creates new opportunities for library services in institutions involved in the Magnet program, as well as for library liaisons to nursing schools. In the first article published on the Magnet program's impact on hospital libraries, Silver noted that the introduction of the program had been accompanied by increased interest in nursing research and a more educated nursing staff [13]. Nurses at Magnet hospitals are more likely to be certified in specialty areas, maintain CE, and conduct research to improve patient care and outcomes. Allen also noted an increased interest in her MLA CE course, "Finding the Best Evidence to Meet Nursing Information Needs," with hospital librarian participants reporting the impact of the Magnet program on their work load and increased requests from nursing staff [14]. Allen and Sherwill-Navarro conducted a survey of Magnet coordinators, documenting the librarian's role in the Magnet journey and coordinator's perceptions of medical libraries [15]. In view of the growing importance of Magnet and evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP), MLA, the MLA Hospital Libraries Section (HLS), the MLA Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section (NAHRS), and MLA CE instructor authors investigated and educated librarians and nurses about the contributions librarians can make to EBNP (Table 1). MLA CE courses with current or recent approval can be found in the MLA Continuing Education Clearinghouse database [16].

Follow-up evaluation for the 2003 "Evidence-Based Nursing" MLA symposium noted the synergistic value of librarians working with nursing [17]. Nurses have been invited to many of the CE offerings, and librarians have presented and exhibited at nursing conferences around the country--far too many to note here. One important outcome was a presentation by Rourke, the first MLA representative to the ANCC Magnet Recognition Program, at the 2008 National Magnet Conference in Salt Lake City [18].


The increased opportunities for new or expanded roles for librarians and for the library under the Magnet expectations are obvious. While the library and librarian are not specifically mentioned in the 2008 Manual, the need for access to the latest knowledge and literature is apparent in the sections related to EBNP [9]. For example, a thorough review of the literature for any evidence-based change requires skilled searching and even mining of the Internet and bibliographic databases to locate the latest knowledge and research to support all the expectations of the Magnet program. A comprehensive collection of the latest literature or timely access to interlibrary loan is needed to gather all the needed evidence. Research has shown that the evidence-based approach to nursing works best when nurses have access to libraries near clinical settings, current databases and research journals, and the Internet for use in clinical practice [19, 20]. Areas where the librarian can contribute include collection development to support evidence-based practice and the education of nurses and other professionals in the hospital to effectively use the search tools and available literature.

In addition to evidence-based practice, other initiatives of the Magnet program offer opportunities for librarians working with nursing. Interdisciplinary collaboration is encouraged under the requirement for Magnet nursing programs to demonstrate "exemplary professional practice." The development of comprehensive care plans necessitates that nurses work in partnership with the disciplines of medicine, pharmacy, nutrition, rehabilitation, social work, and psychology and with other professions. These interdisciplinary collaborations and the resulting care plans must rely on the latest evidence from the literature. To foster autonomous nursing practice under the "professional practice model" mentioned in the manual requires a nurse to make judgments about how to provide care based on the unique needs of patients and their families. The knowledge, skills, and resources previously identified as necessary to practice must be consistently available in the practice environment. Nurses must make decisions about care based on current evidence about safe and ethical practice. This type of model of nursing care places great emphasis on not only collaborative care, but also on the education of nurses, on patient education, and on the availability of current literature, professional standards, and other data sources to support autonomous practice. The role of the librarian in providing professional literature and ensuring the availability of current standards and data is a natural outgrowth of the Magnet program.

Nurses at all levels are encouraged to contribute to the organization and the community, and the Magnet hospital must demonstrate that it uses multiple strategies to support lifelong professional learning and role development. The advantages of access to a library and the assistance of a librarian in this endeavor should be obvious to a busy health care professional. While libraries at academic medical centers have long had responsibilities for providing assistance to researchers, community hospital libraries have not focused on these services. One of the changes that the quest for Magnet status engenders in a hospital is a new focus on identifying opportunities for research that can advance the practice environment. When research on a nursing practice is not available, the Magnet initiative encourages nurses to undertake their own research projects to establish the most effective nursing practices for their institution. They are then urged to publish the results of their research so that it can advance the practice of nursing. This emphasis on research provides opportunities for hospital librarians to assist nurses not only in reviewing their practices against the evidence, but also in creating new evidence.

The added expectations for improving outcomes as a requirement for redesignation require greater dedication to EBP and benchmarking with other organizations. This ongoing commitment should demonstrate increased use of published resources and library services, not just access to resources. This creates the opportunity for Magnet hospital librarians to participate in programs and research demonstrating the use of patient education resources and application of published research to patient care. Linking literature to the electronic health record is just one example of where librarians can serve on interdisciplinary teams.

Academic librarians serving nursing schools are seeing a parallel interest among nursing faculty in EBNP and health information literacy [21]. In addition to teaching students to work in evidence-based practice environments, nursing faculty need library support when serving as consultants to hospitals seeking Magnet status. Also, many bachelor of science in nursing, master of science, and doctoral nursing students work at hospitals on the Magnet journey and use their practice environment as the basis for their papers, graduate research projects, and dissertations. Serving hospital staff as well as students is a significant role noted in the NAHRS surveys of Magnet coordinators [15, 21] and librarians [22]. Magnet programs are creating new opportunities for academic-health care collaboration, which should extend to the libraries serving these programs.

With its emphasis on specialty certification and nursing research, the Magnet program is working in collaboration with other nursing organizations. Most notable is the partnership with the Sigma Theta Tau International Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library (VHL) [23] to include Magnet program research in the Library's Registry of Nursing Research, as noted on the Magnet program website [24]. Abstracts and "practice innovations" from the ANCC 2008 National Magnet Conference are linked from the VHL home page [23].


Librarians in hospitals seeking Magnet nursing status find that their roles and the services of the library grow and change as the organization evolves. While librarians have long functioned as content providers and as educators in their hospitals, new opportunities are provided in a Magnet hospital for consulting to researchers and becoming collaborative interdisciplinary task force members and assisting in the administrative changes that Magnet hospitals undergo. These opportunities can foster recognition of the importance of librarians and libraries, opportunities for additional library services, and new respect for librarians' roles on the health care team. While it may be possible to achieve Magnet status without a librarian, it will be extremely difficult to achieve redesignation without the services of a qualified health sciences librarian and access to resources and published literature.

Numerous initiatives by MLA, NAHRS, HLS, and individual librarians have been undertaken to collaborate with ANA and the ANCC Magnet Program and support librarians serving nursing, and information about them is available for review on the respective websites as noted in Table 1. These groups should also continue to work with the Interagency Council on Information Resources in Nursing (ICIRN) [25] to identify key resources for the nursing profession, as well as ways librarians can work with nurses to improve access to published research and support EBNP.

Submitted April 2009; accepted June 2009


[1.] McClure ML, Pouline MA, Sovie MD, Wandelt M. Magnet hospitals: attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City, MO: American Nurses Association Publishing; 1983.

[2.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Forces of Magnetism [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. <http:// /ForcesofMagnetism.aspx>.

[3.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Find a Magnet organization [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. <http:// .aspx>.

[4.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Magnet Recognition Program overview [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. < /ProgramOverview.aspx>.

[5.] American Nurse Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Public comments solicited for Magnet applicant facilities [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 19 Mar 2009]. <http://www.nursecredentialing .org/Magnet/PublicComment.aspx>.

[6.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Magnet research references [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. < /MagnetReferences.aspx>.

[7.] Kirkpatrick-McLaughlin MM, Bulla SA. Real stories of nursing research: the quest for magnet recognition. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2010.

[8.] Lewis MG. A cultural diversity assessment and the path to Magnet. J Healthc Manage. 2007;54(1):64-70.

[9.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Application manual: Magnet Recognition Program: recognizing nursing excellence. 2008 ed. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2008.

[10.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Announcing a new model for ANCC's Magnet recognition program [c] [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. <http:// /NewMagnetModel.aspx>.

[11.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. A new model for ANCC's Magnet Recognition Program [R] [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. <http://www.nursecredentialing .org/Documents/Magnet/NewModelBrochure.aspx>.

[12.] Wolf G, Triolo P, Ponte PR. Magnet Recognition Program: the next generation. J Nurs Admin. 2008;38(4):200-4.

[13.] Silver JI. Implications for librarians of magnet hospital designation. J Hosp Libr. 2004;4(2):37-46.

[14.] Allen MP. Medical Library Association (MLA) approved continuing education courses [Internet]. Stratford, WI: Health Knowledge Consultants; 2009 [cited 7 May 2009]. <>.

[15.] Sherwill-Navarro P, Allen MP. NAHRS/MLA Magnet coordinator survey July 2007--preliminary report, February 12, 2008: value of librarian in journey to Magnet: comments [Internet]. Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section, Medical Library Association; 2008 [cited 6 Mar 2009]. < /ValueCommentsPreliminary.pdf>.

[16.] Medical Library Association. MLA continuing education clearinghouse [Internet]. Chicago, IL: The Association; 2009 [cited 29 May 2009]. <>.

[17.] Allen MP, Jacobs SK, Levy J, Pierce S, Pravikoff DS, Tanner A. Continuing education as a catalyst for inter-professional collaboration. Med Ref Serv Q. 2005;24(3):93-101.

[18.] Rourke DR. Next stop in the Magnet journey: the hospital library [Internet]. Presented at: 2008 American Nurses Credentialing Center Magnet Conference; Salt Lake City, LTT; 2008 [cited 29 May 2009]. <http://www.nursinglibrary .org/Portal/Main.aspx?pageid=4024&PID=21340>.

[19.] Mohide EA, King B. Building a foundation for evidence-based practice: experiences in a tertiary hospital. Evidence Based Nurs. 2003 Oct;b(4):100-3. (Available from: <http://>. [cited 2 Mar 2009]. Registration required.)

[20.] Pravikoff DS, Pierce S, Tanner A. Are nurses ready for evidence-based practice? Am J Nurs. 2003 May;103(5):95-6.

[21.] Sherwill-Navarro P, Allen MP. NAHRS 2007 Magnet coordinator survey: final report [Internet]. Chicago, IL: Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section, Medical Library Association; 2008 [cited 29 May 2009]. <http://>.

[22.] Sherwill-Navarro P, Allen MP. Evidence-based nursing practice: is there a role for librarians? [Internet]. Presented at: Southern Chapter Medical Library Association Annual Meeting; Birmingham, AL; Oct 2008 [cited 21 Mar 2009]. < /mapping/research/>.

[23.] Virginia Henderson international nursing library [Internet]. Sigma Theta Tau International; 2008 [cited 22 Mar 2009]. <>.

[24.] American Nurses Credentialing Center, Magnet Recognition Program. Call to post research from Magnet hospitals [Internet]. Silver Spring, MD: The Center; 2009 [cited 15 Jul 2009]. < Magnet/Ca1ltoPostResearchfromMagnetHospitals.aspx>.

[25.] Interagency Council on Information Resources in Nursing [Internet]. The Council; 2009 [cited 22 Mar 2009]. <>.


Margaret (Peg) Allen, MALS, AHIP, pegallen67@, Library Consultant, Health Knowledge Consultants and Coordinator,, P.O. Box 2, 308 Kann Street, Stratford, WI 54484; Melody M. Allison, MSLIS,, Assistant Biology Librarian and Associate Professor of Library Administration, Biology Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 101 Burrill Hall, 407 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801; Margaret M. Bandy, MALS, AHIP,, Manager, Library and Media Services, Exempla Saint Joseph Hospital, 1835 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218; Joy C. Kennedy, MLS,, Librarian, Health Resource Library, Northwest Community Healthcare, 800 West Central Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60004; Pamela Sherwill-Navarro, MLS, AHIP,, Librarian, Library, Remington College of Nursing, 660 Century Point, Suite 1050, Lake Mary, FL 32746

([??]) The full version of Table 1 is available with the online version of this journal.
Table 1
Timeline of Medical Library Association continuing education
and section activities related to evidence-based nursing practice
and the Magnet Recognition Program

Date                Title                   Details

2001-2006           "Finding the Best       Allen MP: comments
                      Evidence (Answers)      on Magnet program
                      to Nursing              impact on library
                      Questions"              services, New Jersey
                                              presentation offered
                                              nursing continuing
                                              education (CE)
                                              units credit
May 2003            "Evidence-Based         MLA annual meeting
                      Nursing: Needs,         symposium with MLA
                      Tools, Solutions"       and nursing CE,
                                              cosponsored by the
                                              Nursing and Allied
                                              Health Resources
                                              Section (NAHRS)
                                              and Interagency
                                              Council on
                                              Resources in
                                              Nursing (ICIRN),
                                              San Diego, CA
2004                Symposium follow-up     Allen MP, Jacobs SK,
                      evaluation              Levy J, Pierce S,
                                              Pravikoff DS, Tanner
                                              A. Continuing
                                              education as a
                                              catalyst for
                                              collaboration. Med
                                              Ref Serv Q. 2005
2005                "Librarian Roles        Allen MP,
                      in Evidence Based       Sherwill-Navarro P,
                      Nursing Practice        as research for MLA
                      2005" survey            CE and Journal of
                                              the Medical Library
                                              Association (JMLA)
March 2005          ICIRN meeting           American Nurses
                                              Credentialing Center
                                              (ANCC) Magnet
                                              Recognition Program
                                              presentation, Silver
                                              Spring, MD; noted in
                                              ICIRN report to MLA
                                              Board; MLA ICIRN
                                              Margaret (Peg) Allen,
                                              AHIP, and Susan
                                              Kaplan Jacobs, AHIP
May 2006            "Get Magnetized:        Includes ANCC speaker
                      Magnet Recognition,
                      Libraries, and
May 2006            "Implementing           Includes invited
                      Evidence-based          paper by nurse
                      Practice in the         evidence-based
                      Real World"             practice (EBP)

May 2006, May       "Evidence-Based         De Groote S, Dorsch J,
  2009                Public Health"          Baldwin K: presented
                      [nursing]               at MLA '06 and MLA
May 2006-2007       2006/07 MLA             Shipman J: "aligning
                      priorities              our libraries as
                                              'Forces of Magnetism'
                                              for Magnet hospitals
                                              and advocating our
                                              expertise to
                                              institutional teams
                                              seeking Magnet
May 2006-2007       NAHRS Task Force to     Melody Allison, chair,
                      Create Standards        appoints cochairs
                      for Nursing             Deborah Lauseng and
                      Information             Pamela Sherwill
                      Resources and           Navarro, AHIP
                      Services in
                      Healthcare Settings
October 2006        National Magnet         Margaret Bandy, AHIP,
                      Conference in           represents MLA,
                      Denver                  sponsored by the
                                              Hospital Libraries
                                              Section (HLS); Nancy
                                              Goodwin copresents a
                                              paper at that
                                              conference with a
                                              nurse from her
                                              hospital: "PICO's
                                              Peak: A Program
                                              for Staff Nurse
October 2006,       "Finding the            Judkins DZ, O'Donovan
  November 2007,      Evidence:               P: New Jersey
  May 2008            Evidence-based          presentation offered
                      Practice in             nursing CEU credit
November 2006-      "Getting Magnetized:    Allen MP: Boston class
  February 2008       Search and Service      offered nursing CEUs
                      Strategies for
                      Nursing Excellence"
2007                First MLA               Diane Rourke, AHIP, by
                      representative          Mark E. Funk, AHIP,
                      appointed to the        MLA president; see:
                      ANCC Magnet program     Medical Library
                                              Association. MLA
                                              leaders: MLA
                                              representatives to
                                              allied organizations
                                              [Internet]. Chicago,
                                              IL: The Association;
June 2007           "Magnet Recognition     Allison MM, Bandy M
                      Program [R]
                      Proposal: The
                      American Nurses
                      Center and the
                      Medical Library
                      [white paper]
July 2007           "NAHRS 2007 Magnet      Sherwill-Navarro P,
                      Coordinator Survey"     Allen MP: report to
                                              MLA Board, Feb
                                              and May 2008
July 2007-March     Correspondence          Regarding the proposed
  2008                between MLA             revisions to the
                      Executive Director      Magnet Application
                      Carla J. Funk, CAE      Manual and the role
                      and ANCC                of librarians in
                                              supporting their
                                              organization's magnet
Fall 2007           "Evidence-Based         Blake L, Ballance D,
                      Nursing: A Seminar      Bradford K
                      in Integrating
                      Clinical Practice,
                      and Patient
October 2007        "Review for             Kronenfeld M,
                      Librarians of           Stephenson PL,
                      Evidence-based          Nail-Chiwetalu B,
                      Practice in Nursing     Tweed EM, Sauers EL,
                      and the Allied          McLeod TC, Guo R,
                      Health Professions      Trahan H, Alpi
                      in the United           KM, Hill B,
                      States"                 Shenvill-Navarro P,
                                              Allen MP, Stephenson
                                              PL, Hartman LM,
                                              Burnham J, Fell D,
                                              Pavlick R,
                                              MacNaughton E,
                                              Ratner NB. J Med
                                              Libr Assoc. 2007
November 2007       "Don't Fence Me In:     Davidson C, Wright L,
                      An Exploration of       France N
                      Barriers to Nurses
                      Using the Library
                      for Research"
March 2008          "Introduction to        Yancey T, Snow-Croft S:
                      Evidence based          in-person or
                      Practice in a           web-based lerarning
                      Magnetic World"         via National Network
                                              of Libraries of
                                              Medicine Moodle
May 2008            "Connecting             Sponsored by Hospital
                      Libraries, Nurses,      Libraries Section and
                      and Accreditation/      NAHRS, includes
                      Credentialing           papers on MLA white
                      Organizations to        paper, NAHRS surveys,
                      Improve Patient         and a play promoting
                      Care"                   importance of
                                              nursing (EBN)
2008-2009           NAHRS Standards         David Nolfi, AHIP,
                      Committee               chair, appoints first
                                              cochairs Joy Kennedy
                                              and Paul Blobaum
April-June 2008     "Role of the            Sherwill-Navarro P,
                      Librarian in            Allen MP: report
                      Evidence Based          presented at Southern
                      Nursing" survey         Chapter Meeting,
                                              October 2008:
                                              Evidence based
                                              nursing practice: is
                                              there a role for
                                              librarians? summary
                                              of survey results
                                              posted to NAHRS
October 2008        "Next Stop in the       Rourke D: presented at
                      Magnet Journey: The     ANCC Magnet Summit,
                      Hospital Library"       Salt Lake City, UT
October 2008, May   "Getting Magnetized:    Kennedy J, Allen MP,
  2009-               Search and Service      May 2009 to date:
                      Strategies for          web-based learning
                      Nursing Excellence"     via MLA Moodle
Nov 2008-           "EBP for Nursing        Batten J
March 2009          "Evidence-Based         Blake L, Ballance D,
                      Nursing: A Seminar      Bradford K
                      in Integrating
                      Clinical Practice,
                      and Patient
May 2009            "Magnet Hospital        Jones S, Suttles C
                      Designation: The
                      Integral Role of
                      the Medical
May 2009            "Magnet Fusion:         MLA'09: nurse speaker
                      from a Leadership
July 2009-          "Expert Searching for   Allen P,
                      Evidence Based          Sherwill-Navarro P:
                      Nursing"                plan to investigate
                                              possibility for
                                              nursing CEUs in 2010

Date                Category

2001-2006           MLA CE (N)
May 2003            MLA CE (N)
2004                MLA CE (N)
2005                Survey
March 2005          Allied
May 2006            Section
May 2006            Section
May 2006, May       MLA CE
May 2006-2007       MLA
May 2006-2007       Section
October 2006        MLA Board
October 2006,       MLA CE (N)
  November 2007,
  May 2008
November 2006-      MLA CE (N)
  February 2008
2007                Allied
June 2007           MLA white
July 2007           Section
July 2007-March     MLA white paper
  2008                follow-up
Fall 2007           MLA CE
October 2007        NAHRS-
November 2007       MLA CE
March 2008          MLA CE
May 2008            Section
2008-2009           Section
April-June 2008     NAHRS
October 2008        Allied
October 2008, May   MLA CE
Nov 2008-           MLA CE
March 2009          MLA CE
May 2009            MLA CE
May 2009            Section
July 2009-          MLA CE
Date                Web links
May 2003  
March 2005 report/
May 2006  
May 2006  
May 2006, May
May 2006-2007
                      president 06-07/jps-prior.html
May 2006-2007 report/
                      06-07/2006 07 ar sections.pdf
October 2006
October 2006, and www.hslanj
  November 2007,      .org/findingevidence.pdf
  May 2008
November 2006-
  February 2008       CE.htm
June 2007 
July 2007 
July 2007-March
Fall 2007 
October 2007
November 2007
March 2008
May 2008  
April-June 2008
October 2008
October 2008, May,
  2009-               archive: www.
                      CE. htm
Nov 2008- 
March 2009
May 2009  
May 2009  
July 2009-, archive: www

(N) indicates nurse attendance.
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Author:Allen, Margaret "Peg"; Allison, Melody M.; Bandy, Margaret M.; Kennedy, Joy C.; Sherwill-Navarro, Pa
Publication:Journal of the Medical Library Association
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Oct 1, 2009
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