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The lichen flora of the Joliet Military Training Area.

ABSTRACT

Sixty-nine species of lichens are reported from the Joliet Military Training Area, near Elwood, Illinois. Thirty-one species are of the crustose growth form, 27 are foliose, 8 are fruticose and 3 are squamulose. Twenty-six species are considered to be rare, 19 are common, 13 are occasional and 11 are frequent. Crataegus mollis is the most commonly occupied corticolous substrate, weathered dolomite is the most common saxicolous substrate and weathered wood is the most common lignicolous substrate. Lichens were also found growing on other substrates such as deer bones, prickly pear cactus pads, rusted metal, caulking and aluminum foil. Nearly 2/3 of all lichens known from Will County were found in this study indicating that lichens are a key componant of the ecosystem here. A key to the lichen flora of the Joliet Military Training Area is provided as well as information on their habitats, abundance and distribution.

INTRODUCTION

This project was undertaken to document and collect voucher specimens of the lichen flora of the Joliet Military Training Area, develop an identification key to the lichen flora there and provide information on their habitats, abundance and distribution. No previous work has been devoted to the lichen flora of the Joliet Military Training Area.

The Joliet Military Training Area (JMTA) is a Federally owned natural area managed by the United States Army. It is located approximately 80 km southwest of downtown Chicago, near the city of Elwood, in Will County, Illinois (Figure 1). With its' close proximity to the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, and other natural areas in Will and surrounding counties, the JMTA lies within the Prairie Parklands Ecosystem Partnership, an area of approximately 382,500 hectares of land largely consisting of agricultural and natural areas (Illinois Department of Natural Resources, 2001).

According to Swink and Wilhelm (1994), the natural divisions described for the Chicago region that occur at the JMTA include the Grand Prairie Section and the Bedrock Valley Section of the Grand Prairie Natural Division. The topography is gently rolling to nearly level. Elevations range from 159 meters to 195 meters above sea level. Jackson Creek and its' tributaries drain the southern half of the JMTA before entering the Des Plaines River in the northwest section.

The climate is considered temperate with cool winters and hot summers (Wood, 2001). The average temperature in January ranges from a high of -1.67[degrees]C to a low of -10.6[degrees]C. The average July temperature ranges from a high of 28.7[degrees]C to a low of 17.0[degrees]C. Average precipitation is 91 cm with 97 cm occurring as snow.

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

The JMTA is divided into 6 management units ranging in size from 101 hectares to 405 hectares. These management units serve as tactical areas for military training, pistol ranges for police department target practice and management zones for deer and bird hunting. Two additional management units owned by the United States Forest Service, which abut the JMTA, are also included in this study. Total combined land area of the JMTA and U. S. Forest Service lands is approximately 1,775 hectares.

A brief description of each management unit follows and includes lichen substrates, location and size:

Management Unit 1

Topography is somewhat level with elevations averaging 152 meters to 159 meters above sea level. The woody vegetation consists mainly of thickets of Crataegus mollis. Throughout this unit, exposed beds of dolomitic flagstone occur, as well as granitic erratics. Human influences include abandoned buildings, concrete roadbeds and a gravel pit.

Management Unit 2

Topography is gently rising with elevations averaging 168 meters to 183 meters above sea level. The woody vegetation includes second growth woodlands (Celtis occidentalis, Crataegus mollis, Maclura pomifera and Populus deltoides) as well as a few groves of oaks (Quercus alba, Q. imbricaria and Q. macrocarpa). In these woodlands however, the ground layer was shaded and lichens were uncommon. The remaining habitat consisted of old fields dominated by a weedy native and alien flora. Along the western edge of this unit, exposed beds of dolomite occur as well as granitic erratics. Human influences include gravel roads and old building foundations.

Management Unit 3

Topography is gently rising with elevations averaging 162 meters to 183 meters above sea level. Some habitats included upland woodlands (Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, C. ovata, Prunus serotina and Quercus alba) and flood plains near ponds and low areas (Acer saccharinum, Juglans nigra and Ulmus americana). The understory of the woodland habitats was shaded and lichens were uncommon. The remaining habitat consisted of old fields dominated by a weedy native and alien flora. Human influences included concrete and dolomite gravel roads.

Management Unit 4

Topography is gently rising with elevations averaging 170 meters to 183 meters above sea level. Exposed beds of dolomitic gravel deposits occur. Mature forests (Prunus serotina and Quercus spp.) and second growth woodlands (Acer negundo, Crataegus mollis, Populus deltoides and Ulmus americana) also occur throughout. Lichens were more common in sunnier areas along edges of woods or on open grown Crataegus mollis and Rhus glabra. Human influences include the planting of corn (Zea mays) to attract wildlife.

Management Unit 5 North & 5 South

Topography is gently rising with elevations averaging 178 meters to 195 meters above sea level. Jackson Creek flows through parts of Unit 5 dividing it into north and south sections. Old fields dominated by a weedy native and alien flora occur in the northern half of Unit 5. Second growth forests (Acer negundo, Crataegus mollis, Gleditsia triacanthos, Maclura pomifera, Populus deltoides, Prunus serotina, and Ulmus americana) cover most of the remainder of this site. Oak woodlands (Quercus spp.) occur at the southeast corner. Human influences include the planting of corn (Zea mays) to attract wildlife.

Management Unit 6

Topography is relatively level with elevations averaging 186 meters to 189 meters above sea level. Mowed grass fields for military training are found here dominated by alien species (Poa spp.). Scattered second growth woodlands (Acer negundo, Celtis occidentalis, Crataegus mollis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Juglans nigra and Maclura pomifera) also occur. Old fields with a weedy native and alien flora dominate much of the remainder of this unit. Lichens were mainly found in a few scattered groves of trees.

Management Unit 7--U.S. Forest Service Property

Topography is gently rising with elevations averaging 162 meters above sea level. Vegetation in this unit consists mainly of brush thickets (Crataegus mollis and Gleditsia triacanthos) and abandoned farm fields influenced by a weedy native and alien flora. Some Acer / Quercus woodlands occur on the east side of Jackson creek.

Management Unit 8--U.S. Forest Service Property

Topography is gently rising with elevations averaging 182 meters to 194 meters above sea level. Vegetation consisted mainly of second growth woodlands (Acer negundo, A. saccharinum, Crataegus mollis and Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima) with a mixture of oak forest (Quercus alba, Q. imbricaria, Q. macrocarpa). Human influences include abandoned farm fields and old home sites.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

On 6 occasions during the summer and fall of 2000, 6 occasions during the summer and fall of 2001, and 4 occasions during the fall of 2003, the JMTA was surveyed to document the lichen flora found there. An attempt was made to collect and identify lichens from as many types of habitats as possible, ranging from woodlands and grasslands, to human influenced landscapes. Surveys were conducted by walking each of the management units for 2 hours with all lichens found identified in that period. This technique was repeated at all 8 management units.

To assist in lichen identification, tests for chemical substances produced by lichens were made on specimens with two chemical reagents: calcium hypochlorite [Ca(ClO)2, abbreviated as C] and potassium hydroxide [KOH, abbreviated as K] and follow Hale (1973). Some species of lichens contain acids, which react to these reagents, resulting in color changes of their upper cortex (upper fungal layer) or medulla (middle fungal layer). The presence or absence of reactions between these acids and these reagents were used to identify some lichen species.

The abundance and distribution of the lichen flora was determined by counting the number of management units each lichen was found in and assigning that species an abundance category. Assignment of abundance categories was based on the following criteria: rare (found at 1 management unit), occasional (2-3 management units), frequent (4-5 management units) and common (6-8 management units). These abundance categories refer to values relative to the management units in this study and not necessarily to the rest of Will County.

The growth form of each lichen was determined: foliose (leaf-like), crustose (crust-like), fruticose (shrub-like) or squamulose (scale-like). The substrates upon which each lichen was growing were also noted: terricolous (clay or soil), saxicolous (concrete, dolomite, or granite), corticolous (the bark of trees or shrubs), lignicolous (wood or decorticate logs) or other (rusted metal, animal bones, fungi, mosses, etc.). Nomenclature and species concepts for vascular plants identified as substrates follow Dirr (1998) or Swink and Wilhelm (1994).

All lichen collections are deposited in the herbarium at the Morton Arboretum (MOR), Lisle, Illinois.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Sixty-nine species of lichens in 37 genera are reported for the Joliet Military Training Area. Thirty-one (45%) lichens are crustose, 27 (39%) are foliose, 8 (12%) are fruticose and 3 (4%) are squamulose. Twenty-six species (38%) are considered to be rare, 19 (28%) are common, 13 (18%) are occasional and 11 (16%) are frequent. Eight lichens (Arthonia caesia, Caloplaca cf. crenulatella, Candelaria concolor, Lecanora dispersa, Phaeophyscia pusilloides, P. rubropulchra, Physcia millegrana and P. stellaris) were found at all management units and are generally common throughout Will County. No lichens found here are threatened or endangered in Illinois.

Of the 26 lichens that are rare, 19 of them, though routinely found in northern Illinois, were rare at the JMTA because substrate material was limited. Field work by the author, and a search of herbarium collections at the Morton Arboretum (MOR), Lisle, Illinois and Field Museum of Natural History (F), in Chicago, Illinois, indicate that the remaining seven species are generally rare or uncommon in northern Illinois: They include: Flavopunctelia soredica, Punctelia missouriensis, Usnea strigosa subsp. major, Verrucaria calciseda, V. fayettensis, V. fuscella and Xanthoria polycarpa.

Lichens were found on 44 different species of trees or shrubs (Appendix I). The 5 most common corticolous substrates included Crataegus mollis with a total of 29 lichens, followed by Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. americana (20), Populus deltoides (18), Acer negundo and Quercus macrocarpa (15). Between 1 and 14 species of lichens could be found on the remaining trees or shrubs.

Lichens were also found on saxicolous materials such as weathered dolomite (23 species), concrete (16), and granite (13). The saxicolous flora included Caloplaca spp., Endocarpon pallidulum, Lecanora dispersa, L. muralis, Sarcogyne regularis and Verrucaria calkinsiana.

Lignicolous substrates included materials such as weathered wood (11 species) and decorticate logs (10). The lignicolous flora included Flavoparmelia caperata, Phaeophyscia rubropulchra, Physcia millegrana and Trapeliopsis flexuosa.

No lichens were found on the soil in any of the old fields, but a few species were found on the gravel roads that traversed these fields. These species included Bacidia coprodes, Caloplaca cf. crenulatella and Lecanora dispersa.

Lichens were found growing on other substrates such as deer bones, prickly pear cactus pads, rusted metal, caulking and aluminum foil.

Although Calkins (1896) and Wilhelm (1998) have published lichen floras that included parts of Will County, Illinois, no known lichenological studies have been dedicated to the Joliet Military Training Area. Calkins' flora of Chicago and vicinity comprised about 440,000 hectares of land that included natural features such as morainal deposits of clay and gravel and dolomite outcroppings, as well as woodland and prairie habitats--all of which are found at the JMTA today. The northern boundry of the JMTA borders the southern boundry of Calkins study area, and thus was not included in his study. Of the 125 species of lichens reported by Calkins, however, only 28 were found at the JMTA. Wilhelm reported 222 lichens species when he revisited Calkins' study area 100 years later. Sixty lichen species, including the 28 reported by Calkins, were found here.

Nine species of lichens (Caloplaca species #1, #2 and #3 sensu JMTA study, Caloplaca cf. crenulatella, Caloplaca subsoluta, Candelariella aurella, Punctelia missouriensis, Usnea strigosa subsp. major and Verrucaria calciseda) are reported as not being found in either of the two aforementioned floras.

Nearly 2/3 of all lichens known from Will County were found in this study indicating that lichens are a key componant of the JMTA ecosystem. As in other natural areas surrounding the JMTA (e.g. Will County Forest Preserves) the lichen flora here was mainly found on the trunks and lower branches of trees and shrubs growing along sunny paths, or in open situations, where they were able to find sunlight. This growth probably occurs in these habitats due to the fact that the algal componant of these organisims is photosynthetic. While the JMTA does have some fine examples of mature oak woodlands, in some areas most of the understory is so shaded that even vascular plants were few in number. In a few circumstances lichens were found only because branches that had been growing in the sunshine of the upper canopy had fallen to the ground.

The most common tree available for lichen colonization was Crataegus mollis; a tree armed with thorns and probably passed over by grazers when this land was pastured. Any attempt by land managers to restore the JMTA to prairie would require the removal of this tree. Based on the author's personal observations, however, Crataegus mollis seems to be an important substrate for this lichen flora and removal of this tree could jepardize the lichen population.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Appendix I. A list of the lichen substrates and the lichens
associated with them.

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Amandinea Anisomeridium Arthona
 punctata polypori caesia

Acer negundo X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum X
Acer saccharum X
Carya cordiformis X
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis X
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli X
Crataegus mollis X X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera X
Malus pumila X
Morus alba X
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia X
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X
Prunus serotina X
Prunus virginiana X
Quercus alba X X
Quercus coccinea X
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra X X
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica X
Rhus glabra X
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora X
Salix interior X
Salix nigra X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana X
Ulmus americana X
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia X
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood X
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Aspicilia Bacidia Bacidina
 caesiocinerea coprodes egenula

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone X
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone X
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X X
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Caloplaca Caloplaca Caloplaca
 species #1 species #2 species #3

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood
concrete X X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Caloplaca Caloplaca Caloplaca
 cf. cf. subsoluta
 crenulatella feracissima

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt X
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone X
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone X
aluminum foil
caulking X
granite
wood
concrete X X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Candelaria Candelariella Candelariella
 concolor aurella reflexa

Acer negundo X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum X
Acer saccharum X
Carya cordiformis X
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis X
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli X
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X
Juglans nigra X
Lonicera species X
Maclura pomifera X
Malus pumila
Morus alba X
Opuntia humifusa X
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis X
Populus alba X
Populus deltoides X X
Prunus serotina X
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria X
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra X
Quercus velutina X
Rhamnus cathartica X
Rhus glabra X
Rhus radicans X
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana X
Ulmus americana X
Ulmus pumila X
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia X
clay
moss
asphalt X
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel X
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood X X
concrete X X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Cladonia Cladonia Cladonia
 coniocraea cristatella cylindrica

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss X
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Cladonia Cladonia Cladonia
 mac. var. peziziformis polycarpoides
 bac.

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay X
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel X
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood X
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Cladonia Dermatocarpon Endocarpon
 subulata miniatum pallidulum

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel X
bone
aluminum foil X
caulking
granite X
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Flavoparmelia Flavopunctelia Heppia
 caperata soredica adglutinata

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X X
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite X
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Hyperphyscia Lecania Lecanora
 adglutinata perproxima dispersa

Acer negundo X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum X
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis X
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa X
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina X
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana X
Ulmus pumila X
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt X
sand and gravel
sandstone X
limestone X
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel X
bone X
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Lecanora Lecanora Lecanora
 muralis strobilina symmicta

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Lecanora Lepraria Lepraria
 cf. umbrina lobificans species #1

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra X X
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica X
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana X
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia X
clay
moss X
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood X
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Melanelixia Opegrapha Parmelia
 subaurifera atra sulcata

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum X
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis X
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X X
Juglans nigra X
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera X
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis X
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra X
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra X
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana X X
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia X
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood X
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Parmotrema Parmotrema Phaeocalicium
 hypotropum reticulatum polyporaeum

Acer negundo

Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum X
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra X
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme X
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Phaeophyscia Phaeophyscia Phaeophyscia
 adiastola ciliata hirsuta

Acer negundo X X X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X X X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X X
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss X
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Phaeophyscia Phaeophyscia Physcia
 pusilloides rubropulchra adscendens

Acer negundo X X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum X
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis X X
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X X X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra X X
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera X
Malus pumila X
Morus alba X
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba X X X
Populus deltoides X X X
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X X
Quercus rubra X
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans X
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana X
Ulmus americana X X
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone X
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Physcia Physcia Physcia
 millegrana stellaris subtilis

Acer negundo X X
Acer nigrum X
Acer saccharinum X X
Acer saccharum X X
Carya cordiformis X
Carya ovata X X
Celtis occidentalis X X
Cornus stolonifera X
Crataegus crus-galli X X
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X X
Juglans nigra X X
Lonicera species X
Maclura pomifera X X
Malus pumila X X
Morus alba X X
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana X
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia X
Platanus occidentalis X
Populus alba X X
Populus deltoides X X
Prunus serotina X X
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X X
Quercus coccinea X
Quercus imbricaria X X
Quercus macrocarpa X X
Quercus rubra X X
Quercus velutina X
Rhamnus cathartica X
Rhus glabra X X
Rhus radicans X X
Ribes missouriensis X
Rosa multiflora X
Salix interior X X
Salix nigra X X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana X X
Ulmus americana X X
Ulmus pumila X X
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species X
Vitis riparia X
clay
moss X
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X X
rusted steel X X
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X X X
wood X X
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Physciella Physconia Placidium
 chloantha leucoleiptes lachneum

Acer negundo X X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis X
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera X
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis X
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X X
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina X
Rhamnus cathartica X
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans X
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana X
Ulmus americana X
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra X
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite X
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Punctelia Punctelia Punctelia
 bolliana missouriensis rudecta

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra X
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Sarcogyne Thelocarpon Trapeliopsis
 regularis laureri flexuosa

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone X
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs X
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood X X
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Usnea Verrucaria Verrucaria
 strigosa calciseda calkinsiana

Acer negundo
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa X
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone X
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite X
wood
concrete
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Verrucaria Verrucaria Xanthomendoza
 fayettensis fuscella fallax

Acer negundo X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata X
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos X
Juglans nigra X
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera X
Malus pumila
Morus alba X
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X
Prunus serotina X
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra X
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra X
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana X
Ulmus pumila
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood X
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel X X

Tree species/ Lichen Species
substrate
 Xanthomendoza Xanthomendoza Xanthoria
 fulva ulophyllodes polycarpa

Acer negundo X X
Acer nigrum
Acer saccharinum
Acer saccharum
Carya cordiformis
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Cornus stolonifera
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus mollis X X
Fraxinus
pennsylvanica X X
 var. subintegerrima
Gleditsia triacanthos
Juglans nigra
Lonicera species
Maclura pomifera
Malus pumila
Morus alba
Opuntia humifusa
Ostrya virginiana
Parthenocissus
quinquefolia
Platanus occidentalis
Populus alba
Populus deltoides X X
Prunus serotina
Prunus virginiana
Quercus alba X X
Quercus coccinea
Quercus imbricaria
Quercus macrocarpa X X
Quercus rubra
Quercus velutina
Rhamnus cathartica
Rhus glabra
Rhus radicans
Ribes missouriensis
Rosa multiflora
Salix interior
Salix nigra
Trichaptum biforme
Tilia americana X
Ulmus americana
Ulmus pumila X X
Ulmus rubra
Viburnum species
Vitis riparia
clay
moss
asphalt
sand and gravel
sandstone
limestone
soil over dolomite
decorticate logs
rusted steel
bone
aluminum foil
caulking
granite
wood
concrete X
Dolomite, pebbles,
gravel


ACKOWLEDGMENTS

The United States Army provided funding for this project. I would like to thank JMTA Biologist Randy Berry and the rest of the JMTA staff for their cooperation in this study. I would also like to thank Dr. Clifford Wetmore (University of Minnesota-St. Paul) for his help with identification of the genus Caloplaca, Dr. Theodore L. Esslinger (North Dakota State University) for Phaeophyscia, and Dr. John W. Sheard (University of Saskatchewan) for Amandinea.

received 11/20/06

accepted 9/30/07

LITERATURE CITED

Aptroot, A. 2003. A new perspective on the sorediate Punctelia (Parmeliaceae) species of North America. The Bryologist 106: 317-319.

Brodo, I.M., S. D. Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. xxiv + 795 pp.

Calkins, W.W. 1896. The lichen flora of Chicago and vicinity. Chicago Academy of Sciences. Bulletin No. 1

Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants: their identification, ornamental character, culture, propagation and uses. 5th ed. Stipes Publishing, Champaign, IL.

Esslinger. T.L. 1978. Studies in the lichen family Physciaceae. II. The lichen genus Phaeophyscia in North America. Mycotaxon 7: 283-320.

Esslinger, T. L. 2007. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota State University: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm (First Posted 1 December 1997, Most Recent Update 2 April 2007), Fargo, North Dakota.

Hale, M. E., Jr. 1974. New combinations in the lichen genus Parmotrema Massalongo. Phytogia 28: 334-339.

Hale, M.E., Jr. 1979. How to know the lichens. 2nd ed. W. C. Brown, Dubque, Iowa.

Harris, R.C. and W.R. Buck. 1978. Lichens of the Mackinac straites region II. Candelariella Mull. Arg. Michigan Bot. 17: 155-161.

Hyerczyk, R.H. 2005. The lichen flora of ten Chicago parks. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Sciences. (2005), Volume 98, #3& 4, pp. 97-122.

Illinois Department of Natural Resources: Office of Realty and Environmental Planning, August, 2001. Prairie Parklands: An inventory of the region's resources. http://dnr.state.il.us/orep/c2000/ ecosystem/partnerships/prairiepark.

Krog, H. 1982. Punctelia, a new lichen genus in the Parmeliaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 2: 287-292.

Lindblom, L. 2006. Xanthomendoza galericulata, a new sorediate lichen species, with notes on similar species in North America. The Bryologist. 109(1), pp. 1-8.

Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago region. 4th ed. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis.

Thomson, J.W. 1963, The lichen genus Physcia in North America. Beth. Nova Hedwigia 7:172 pp.

Thomson, J.W. 2003. Lichens of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Board of Regents, Madison.

Wilhelm, Gerould S. 1998. The lichen flora of Chicago and Vicinity: One hundred years of lichenology. Erigenia 16:3-36.

Wilhelm, G. and D. Ladd. 1992. A new species of the lichen genus Punctelia from the midwestern United States. Mycotaxon 44: 495-504.

Wood, Richard A. 2001. The weather almanac. 10th ed. Gale Group, Inc., Farmington Hills, MI.

KEY TO GROUPS & GENERA AND ANNOTATED SPECIES LIST

This section includes a key to the groups and genera of the lichens of the Joliet Military Training Area. Following this, arranged alphabetically by genus and species, is an annotated species list with abundance and distribution information and a brief description of habitat. A key is provided for each genus that is represented at the Joliet Military Training Area by more than one species. All collections were made by the author and are identified with an accession number following the substrate upon which the collection was made (e.g. (Rhus glabra (#1234)). Nomenclature and authorities follow Esslinger (2006). At least one representative specimen has been chosen to voucher each reported species.
1. Fruiting bodies at the terminal end of a slender
 black stalk PHAEOCALICIUM

1. Fruiting bodies sessile to immersed, not at the terminal end of
 a slender black stalk, or fruiting bodies absent 2.

 2(1). Thallus shrub-like or scale-like, of ascending squamules;
 fruiting bodies, if present, on simple to slightly branched
 podetia; podetia resembling resembling cups, or pointed or
 blunt clubs I--FRUTICOSE LICHENS

 2. Thallus and fruiting bodies not as above 3.
3(2). Thallus leaf-like, loosely attached to substrate by rhizines;
 or umbillicate, attached at a single point; with both an upper
 and lower cortex present II--FOLIOSE LICHENS

3. Thallus not as above 4.
 4(3). Thallus squamulose, of adnate squamules
 III--SQUAMULOSE LICHENS
 4. Thallus crust like, tightly attached to substrate, lacking a
 lower cortex 5.
5(4). Fruiting bodies absent IV--STERILE CRUSTOSE LICHENS
5. Fruiting bodies present 6.
 6(5). Fruiting body flask-like, embedded in thallus with only
 apex visible, opening by an apical pore; a perithecium
 V--CRUSTOSE LICHENS WITH PERITHECIA
 6. Fruiting body elongated, rounded or disk-like, sessile with
 upper cortex; an
 apothecium VI--CRUSTOSE LICHENS WITH APOTHECIA

I--FRUTICOSE LICHENS

1. Thallus branches hollow; squamules present CLADONIA
1. Thallus branches solid; squamules absent USNEA

II--FOLIOSE LICHENS

1. Thallus umbillicate, attached to substrate by a central cord or
 holdfast DERMATOCARPON

1. Thallus usually attached to substrate by rhizines and not a
 central cord 2.
 2(1). Thallus some shade of orange, yellow, or yellowish green 3.
 2. Thallus some shade of brown or gray 7.

3(2). Thallus K+ violet 4.
3. Thallus K- 5.
 4(3). Thallus esorediate XANTHORIA
 4. Thallus sorediate XANTHOMENDOZA
5(3). Thallus yellow (or yellow green when wet), lobes 0.1-0.3 mm
 wide; lower surface white CANDELARIA
5. Thallus yellow green, lobes 1.5-8 mm wide; lower surface brown
 to black 6.
 6(5). Upper cortex with white pores; medulla C+ red; lobes
 4-8 mm wide FLAVOPUNCTELIA
 6. Upper cortex without pores; medulla C-; lobes 2-8 mm wide
 FLAVOPARMELIA
7(2). Thallus brown, brownish gray, greenish gray, or dark gray, K- 8.

7. Thallus whitish gray to bluish gray, K+ yellow or rarely K- 11.
 8(7). Medulla C+ red MELANELIXIA
 8. Medulla C- 9.
9(8). Thallus lobes white pruinose PHYSCONIA
9. Thallus lobes epruinose 10.

 10(9). Rhizines absent, thallus tightly attached to substrate
 HYPERPHYSCIA
 10. Rhizines present, thallus loosely attached to substrate
 PHAEOPHYSCIA
11(7). Lower surface brown to black; medulla K+ yellow turning red;
 thallus sorediate 12.
11. Lower surface white to pale tan; medulla K- or K+ yellow;
 thallus sorediate or not 13.
 12(11). Upper cortex with white angular markings; margins of
 lobes eciliate, lobes with squared ends, 2-5 mm wide, rhizines
 to margin PARMELIA
12. Upper cortex without white angular markings; margins of lobes
 ciliate, lobes with rounded ends, 6-20 mm wide, wide marginal
 zone without rhizines PARMOTREMA

13(11). Thallus K- PHYSCIELLA
13. Thallus K+ yellow 14.
 14(13). Upper cortex with white pores; medulla C- or C+ red
 PUNCTELIA
14. Upper cortex without white pores; medulla C- PHYSCIA

III--SQUAMULOSE LICHENS

1. Fruiting body a perithecium PLACIDIUM
1. Fruiting body an apothecium, or thallus sterile
 2.
 2(1). Photobiont a blue-green alga; thallus growing on thin soils
 over dolomite bedrock; apothecia immersed in upper surface HEPPIA
 2. Photobiont a green alga; thallus growing on sandy soil, clay,
 gravel, or bark; apothecia absent sterile CLADONIA

IV--STERILE CRUSTOSE LICHENS

1. Thallus leprose, entirely sorediate LEPRARIA
 Thallus not entirely sorediate, partially corticated 2.
 2(1). Thallus lemon yellow, C- CANDELARIELLA
 2. Thallus greenish gray, C+ pink TRAPELIOPSIS

V--CRUSTOSE LICHENS WITH PERITHECIA

1. Thallus corticolous, thin, whitish or gray; spores 1-3 septate,
 with one larger cell ANISOMERIDIUM
1. Thallus saxicolous; thallus and spores not as above 2.
 2(1). Thallus brown (or green when wet), squamulose; spores
 muriform ENDOCARPON
 2. Thallus white or gray, thick or thin, immersed in substrate or
 superficial; spores simple, non-septate VERRUCARIA

 VI--CRUSTOSE LICHENS WITH APOTHECIA

1. Apothecia elongated or irregular; thallus a thin crust or a
 discoloration of the substrate 2.
1. Apothecia round, disk-like or perithecioid; thallus well developed
 to absent 3.
 2(1). Apothecial rim absent, apothecia blue pruinose; thallus
 leprose, entirely sorediate ARTHONIA
2. Apothecia rim present, apothecia black; thallus a thin crust,
 esorediate OPEGRAPHA
3(1). Apothecial rim thalloid, with algal cells 4.
3. Apothecial rim without algal cells 9.
 4(3). Spores non-septate 5.
 4. Spores polarilocular or 1-3 septate 7.
5(4). Thallus areolate; apothecia usually immersed, becoming adnate
 with age, disk pruinose; on acidic rocks ASPICILIA
5. Thallus and apothecia not as above; on calcareous rocks or wood 6.
 6(5). Apothecia globose, perithecioid THELOCARPON
 6. Apothecia disk-like LECANORA
7(4). Spores polarilocular; thallus and apothecia K+ violet CALOPLACA
7. Spores 1-3 septate; thallus and apothecia K- 8.
 8(7). Apothecia yellow CANDELARIELLA
 8. Apothecia brown LECANIA
9(3). Asci with more than 8 spores SARCOGYNE
9. Asci with 8 spores 10.
 10(9). Spores brown, 1-septate AMANDINEA
 10. Spores hyaline, 3-7 septate 11.
11(10). Epithecium green in K; spores curved, acicular, 3-7 septate,
 20-35 x 2-3 [micro]m BACIDINA
11. Epithecium not green in K; spores straight, oblong ellipsoid, 3
 septate, 11-19 x 3-4 [micro]m BACIDIA


ANNOTATED SPECIES LIST

AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrh.

Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. Occasional on weathered wooden boards (#1684, #1693) and on the lower limbs of Crataegus mollis (#1640, #1650, #1672A, #1880). = Buellia schaereri in Calkins (1896).

ANISOMERIDIUM (Mull. Arg.) M. Choisy

Anisomeridium polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr Frequent on the lower trunks of Crataegus mollis (1859), Quercus alba (#1632, #1659), Q. rubra and Ulmus americana. This species is often present on White Oak and Hawthorn where it gives the trunk its' grayish color.

The conidial state of this lichen is also represented here where it is occasionally found on the lower trunks of Crataegus mollis (#1869, #1873, #1876) and Quercus rubra (#1878). = Anisomeridium nyssigenum in Wilhelm (1998).

ARTHONIA Ach.

Arthonia caesia (Flotow) Korber Common on decorticate logs and on the lower trunks and limbs of a variety of trees including Acer saccharum (#1622). The blue-gray, pruinose apothecia and green leprose thallus are good diagnostic features of this lichen. = Arthonia lecideella in Calkins (1896).

ASPICILIA A. Massal.

Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold Rare on weathered granitic boulders (#1863).

BACIDIA De Not.

Bacidia coprodes (Korber) Lettau Common on a granite boulder, dolomite (#1660, #1860) and a piece of bone in moist, shaded habitats.

BACIDINA Vezda

Bacidina egenula (Nyl.) Vezda Rare on weathered dolomite (#1857), on limestone gravel (#1606) and weathered concrete (#1661) in moist, shaded habitats. = Biatora inundata in Calkins (1896).

CALOPLACA Th. Fr.
References: Hyerczyk (2005)

1. Thallus a thin black or yellow crust, or a lobulate, areolate
 yellow crust, or not evident (growing within substrate); apothecial
 disk and margin yellow 2.
1. Thallus a thick black, yellow or orange crust, areolate or lobulate
 4.
 2(1). Thallus thin, yellow, lobulate or of small cracked areoles,
 or not evident; spores 14 x 7 [micro]m, isthmus 2.8-4.2 [micro]m
 Caloplaca species #1
 2 Thallus a thin black or yellow crust, or not evident 3.
3(2). Spores 14-15.4 [micro]m x 5.6-7.0 [micro]m, isthmus 1.4-2.8
 [micro]m Caloplaca feracissima

3. Spores 11.2-14.0 [micro]m x 5.6-7.0 [micro]m, isthmus 1.4-2.8
 [micro]m Caloplaca cf. crenulatella

 4(1). Thallus yellow, lobed, continuous, but mostly around
 apothecia, apothecial disk and margin yellow; spores 9-13 [micro]m
 x 5.5-7.0 [micro]m, isthmus 3.5-4.5 [micro]m Caloplaca subsoluta

 4. Thallus a thick black, yellow, orange or yellow gray crust,
 areolate or lobulate 5.
5(4). Thallus yellow to orange, apothecial disk orange to orange
 brown, margin orange to yellow; spores 9.8-12.6 [micro]m x 5.6
 [micro]m, isthmus 4.2 [micro]m Caloplaca species #2
5. Thallus black, yellow, yellow gray, apothecial disk orange, margin
 yellow to yellow gray; spores 9.8-11.0 [micro]m x 5.6 [micro]m,
 isthmus 2.8-4.2 [micro]m Caloplaca species #3


Caloplaca cf. crenulatella H. Olivier Common on weathered limestone gravel, pebbles (#1655, #1696), asphalt, dolomite (#1865, #1865A, #1868), concrete and caulking.

Caloplaca cf. feracissima H. Magn. Rare on weathered dolomite (#1866) and a piece of bone (#1864).

Caloplaca subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Occasional on weathered concrete (#1616, #1638, #1667) and dolomite (#1871, #1871A).

Caloplaca species #1 sensu JMTA study Rare on granite (#1875). Thallus thin, yellow, lobulate or of small cracked areoles, or not evident; spores 14 x 7 [micro]m, isthmus 2.8-4.2 [micro]m. This collection will require additional study before it is given a species name.

Caloplaca species #2 sensu JMTA study Occasional on weathered concrete (#1646, #1670). Thallus yellow to orange, apothecial disk orange to orange brown, margin orange to yellow; spores 9.8-12.6 [micro]m x 5.6 [micro]m, isthmus 4.2 [micro]m. This collection will require additional study before it is given a species name.

Caloplaca species #3 sensu JMTA study Occasional on weathered concrete (#1617) and dolomite (#1877). Thallus black, yellow, yellow gray, apothecial disk orange, margin yellow to yellow gray; spores 9.8-11.0 [micro]m x 5.6 [micro]m, isthmus 4522.8-4.2 [micro]m. This collection will require additional study before it is given a species name.

CANDELARIA A. Massal.

Candelaria concolor (Dickson) Stein Common on the pads of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa (#1855)), rusted metal, weathered asphalt, wood, granite, concrete, dolomite, calcareous gravel, decorticate logs and on the trunks and lower limbs of a variety of trees including Maclura pomifera (#1634) and Ulmus americana (#1630). Totally sorediate forms of this lichen, referred to as Candelaria concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) Burnham may intergrade with this species. = Teloschistes concolar in Calkins (1896).

CANDELARIELLA Mull. Arg.
References: Harris & Buck (1978), Thomson (2003).

1. Thallus consisting of round, flattened, sorediate areoles;
 apothecia rare Candelariella reflexa
1. Thallus lacking or not evident (growing within substrate);
 apothecia common; spores simple, 12.5 x 7.5 [micro]m long, eight
 per ascus Candelariella aurella


Candelariella aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. Frequent on weathered concrete (#1607). This lichen could be mistaken for another crustose lichen, Caloplaca cf. feracissima H. Magn, which has K+ violet apothecia and polarilocular spores.

Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau. Common on weathered wood fence posts (#1671) and on the lower limbs and trunks of Carya cordiformis, Crataegus mollis (#1623, #1628), Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima and Populus deltoides. Candelariella reflexa is a western species that has 8 spores per ascus. C. efflorescens R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck, is an eastern species with 32 spores per ascus. Based on thallus characters alone, the two species are virtually indistinguishable in their sterile conditions. Since fertile specimens from the Chicago region have 8 spores per ascus all sterile collections are defaulted to C. reflexa. For further discussion see Wilhelm, (1998).

CLADONIA P. Browne
References: Hale (1979), Wilhelm (1998).

1. Podetia occasionally forming cups; podetia mostly sorediate towards
 upper half Cladonia subulata
1. Podetia not forming cups, or podetia absent; podetia, if present,
 sorediate or not 2.
 2(1). Podetia absent 3.
 2. Podetia present 4.
3(2). Squamules 2-3 mm long, K+ yellow turning to red
 Cladonia polycarpoides
3. Squamules less than 2 mm long, K-
 Cladonia macilenta var. bacillaris
 4.(2) Podetia esorediate 5.
4. Podetia sorediate 7.
5(4). Apothecia red Cladonia cristatella
5. Apothecia brown 6.
 6(5). Podetia and squamules K+ yellow turning to red; podetia
 0.5-1.5 cm tall Cladonia polycarpoides
 6. Podetia and squamules K-; podetia 1-1.5 cm tall
 Cladonia peziziformis
7(4). Apothecia red; squamules less than 2 mm long
 Cladonia macilenta var. bacillaris
7. Apothecia brown 8.
 8(7). Squamules 2-5 mm long Cladonia coniocraea
 8. Squamules 2mm or less long 9.
9(8). Tips of podetia rounded, club-shaped, or blunt, the base with
 coarse isidioid granules Cladonia cylindrica
9. Tips of podetia pointed, soredia farinose, fine and powdery
 Cladonia subulata


Cladonia coniocraea (Florke) Sprengel Rare on a weathered stump in a shaded oak woodland (#1687). The podetia arising from squamules are good field characteristics. = Cladonia fimbriata in Calkins (1896).

Cladonia cristatella Tuck. Rare on a weathered, moss covered log (#1659A). This is the "British Soldier" lichen. = Cladonia cristatella in Calkins (1896).

Cladonia cylindrica (A. Evans) A. Evans Rare at the base of Crataegus mollis (#1697).

Cladonia macilenta var. bacillaris (Genth) Schaerer Occasional on weathered wood and on the lower trunks and branches of Crataegus mollis (#1690) and Quercus macrocarpa. = Cladonia macilenta in Calkins (1896).

Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon Occasional on sandy and clay soil (#1681) with Festuca obtusa, Fragaria virginiana and Trifolium repens as vascular plant associates. = Cladonia mitrula in Calkins (1896).

Cladonia polycarpoides Nyl. Rare on gravel and soil with Asclepias verticillata, Melilotus alba and Poa compressa as vascular plant associates (#1673).

Cladonia subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg. Rare on a lower branch of Crataegus mollis (#1691).

DERMATOCARPON Eschw.

Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann Rare on weathered dolomite (#1675, #1856). = Endocarpon miniatum in Calkins (1896).

ENDOCARPON Hedwig

Endocarpon pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. Common on weathered granite, dolomite, concrete (#1625A, #1665, #1666), aluminum foil (#1760) and a rusted bolt. This species, which lack rhizines, is similar to E. pusillum Hedw., a species with rhizines on the lower surface.

FLAVOPARMELIA Hale

Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale Common on decorticate logs and on the lower limbs and trunks of Carya ovata, Crataegus mollis (#1618), Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Gleditsia triacanthos and Populus deltoides. = Parmelia caperata in Calkins (1896).

FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale

Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale Rare on a lower branch of Crataegus mollis (#1686). The C+ red reaction of the medulla separates this genus from Flavoparmelia.

HEPPIA Nageli

Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal. Rare on shallow gravel soil over dolomite (#1609). = Heppia despreauxii in Calkins (1896).

HYPERPHYSCIA Mull. Arg.

Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Florke) H. Mayrh. & Poelt Frequent on the lower trunks of Acer negundo, A. saccharinum (#1658A), Celtis occidentalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Populus deltoides (#1658), Quercus macrocarpa, Q. velutina, Salix nigra, Ulmus americana and U. pumila. This foliose species can be mistaken for a crustose lichen as it lacks rhizines and is tightly appressed to the bark. = Physcia adglutinata in Calkins (1896).

LECANIA A. Massal.

Lecania perproxima (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Occasional on weathered dolomite (#1613) and limestone (#1862). This lichen may be confused with the genus Lecanora, which has simple, hyaline spores, while Lecania has 1-septate, brown spores. = Lecanora perproxima in Calkins (1896).

LECANORA Ach.
References: Brodo, I.M., S. D. Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff (2001).

1. Thallus saxicolous (rarely corticolous or on miscellaneous
 substrates) 2.
1. Thallus corticolous or lignicolous 3.
 2(1). Thallus areolate, with lobed margins, yellow green; apothecia
 0.5-2 mm in diameter, disk yellow or brown, margin concolorous with
 thallus Lecanora muralis
 2. Thallus thin, whitish gray or lacking; apothecia 0.5-1.2 mm in
 diameter, disk brownish, margin white Lecanora dispersa
3(1). Thallus thin, without yellowish tints or lacking; apothecia to
 0.5 mm broad, disk often pruinose Lecanora cf. umbrina
3. Thallus yellowish green; apothecia 0.8-1 mm broad, disk
 epruinose. 4.
 4(3). Apothecia irregular, rim disappearing with age
 Lecanora symmicta
 4. Apothecia round, rim ecorticate, appearing sorediate or granular
 Lecanora strobilina


Lecanora dispersa (Pers.) Sommerf. Common on Opuntia humifusa (#1881), a rusted screw, sandstone (#1642), weathered dolomite (#1639), weathered concrete, a piece of bone, granite and asphalt.

Lecanora muralis (Schreber) Rabenh. Rare on weathered concrete (#1637) and weathered dolomite (#1610).

Lecanora strobilina (Sprengel) Kieffer Occasional on the lower trunks of Carya ovata (#1629) and Quercus macrocarpa (#1879).

Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach. Rare on the lower limbs of Crataegus mollis (#1627). = Lecanora varia var. symmicta in Calkins (1896).

Lecanora cf. umbrina (Ach.) A. Massal. Rare on weathered wood (#1858).

LEPRARIA Ach.
Reference: Wilhelm (1998).

1. Thallus thick, greenish white Lepraria lobificans
1. Thallus thin, bluish
 Lepraria species #1 sensu Morton Arboretum Herbarium


Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

Common on mosses and on the lower trunks of a variety of trees including Crataegus mollis (#1641, #1874).

Lepraria species #1 sensu Morton Arboretum Herbarium Rare on the lower trunk of Quercus rubra (#1619, #1620).

MELANELIXIA O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Divakar, Essl., D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Melanelixia subaurifera (Nyl.) O. Blanco et al. Occasional on the lower limbs of a variety of trees, including Gleditsia triacanthos (#1683). = Melanelia subaurifera in Wilhelm (1998).

OPEGRAPHA Ach.

Opegrapha atra Pers. Occasional on the lower trunk of Ulmus americana (#1631, #1662). = Opegrapha atra in Calkins (1896).

PARMELIA Ach.

Parmelia sulcata Taylor Common on decorticate logs and wooden fence posts, and on the trunks and limbs of a variety of trees including Gleditsia triacanthos (#1624). = Parmelia saxatilis var. sulcata in Calkins (1896).

PARMOTREMA A. Massal.
Reference: Hale (1974).

1. Cortex distinctly white maculate; lower surface margin white or
 mottled brownish white; upper cortex without reticulate cracks
 Parmotrema hypotropum

1. Cortex dull, emaculate; lower surface margin mostly brown or black;
 upper cortex reticulately cracked Parmotrema reticulatum


Parmotrema hypotropum (Nyl.) Hale Frequent on the trunks and lower limbs of Acer saccharinum, Crataegus mollis (#1679, #1695) and Gleditsia triacanthos (#1682).

Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy Occasional on the lower limbs of Crataegus mollis (#1672). = Parmelia perlata in Calkins (1896). = Rimelia reticulata in Wilhelm (1998).

PHAEOCALICIUM A. F. W. Schmidt

Phaeocalicium polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell Rare on the polyporous fungus, Trichaptum biforme (Fr.) Ryvarden, which was growing on Prunus serotina (#1648).

PHAEOPHYSCIA Moberg
Reference: Esslinger (1978).

1. Thallus esorediate Phaeophyscia ciliata
1. Thallus sorediate 2.
 2(1). Medulla orange-red Phaeophyscia rubropulchra
 2. Medulla white 3.
3(2). Lobe tips of thallus with pale, cortical hairs
 Phaeophyscia hirsuta
3. Lobe tips lacking cortical hairs 4.
 4(3). Soralia capitate; soredia farinose or of fine granules
 Phaeophyscia pusilloides
4. Soredia terminal; soredia coarse granular to isidioid
 Phaeophyscia adiastola


Phaeophyscia adiastola (Essl.) Essl. Rare on weathered dolomite (#1657), moss covered decorticate logs (#1861), and on the lower trunks of Acer negundo and Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima.

Phaeophyscia ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg Common on the lower trunks of Acer negundo (#1654), Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima and Populus deltoides. = Physcia obscura in Calkins (1896).

Phaeophyscia hirsuta (Mereschk.) Essl. Frequent on weathered concrete and dolomite and on the lower trunks of Acer negundo (#1647), Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima and Populus deltoides. The pale, cortical hairs along the edge of the thallus are good field characteristics. = Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi in Wilhelm (1998).

Phaeophyscia pusilloides (Zahlbr.) Essl. Common on weathered limestone, granite, dolomite and concrete, and on the lower trunks and limbs of a variety of trees including Populus deltoides (#1645) and Ulmus americana (#1680).

Phaeophyscia rubropulchra (Degel.) Essl. Common on decorticate logs and on the lower trunks or bases of a variety of trees including Crataegus mollis (#1625). Although the orange-red medulla of this lichen is distinctive, some parts are occasionally white.

PHYSCIA (Schreber) Michaux
Reference: Thomson (1963).

1. Thallus esorediate Physcia stellaris
1. Thallus sorediate 2.
 2(1). Tips of lobes inflated and hood-shaped, ciliate; soredia
 under the lobes Physcia adscendens
2. Tips of lobes neither hood-shaped nor ciliate; soredia along
 margins of lobes 3.
3(2). Thallus saxicolous; lobes 0.1-0.2 mm wide; medulla KOH+ yellow
 Physcia subtilis
3. Thallus corticolous, rarely saxicolous; lobes up to 1 mm wide;
 medulla KOH- Physcia millegrana


Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier Common on dolomite gravel and on the trunks of a variety of trees including Populus deltoides (#1643).

Physcia millegrana Degel. Common on rusted metal, weathered concrete, granite, wood, decorticate moss covered logs, and on the trunks and limbs of a variety of trees including Maclura pomifera (#1635) and Ulmus americana (#1669). = Physcia tribacia in Calkins (1896).

Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl. Common on dolomite, granite, rusted metal, weathered wood and decorticate logs and on the trunks and limbs of a variety of trees including Crataegus mollis (#1621), Maclura pomifera (#1636) and Ulmus americana (#1668). = Physcia stellaris in Calkins (1896).

Physcia subtilis Degel. Occasional on granite erratics (#1611) in full sun.

PHYSCIELLA Essl.

Physciella chloantha (Ach.) Essl. Common on weathered concrete, dolomite and granite erratics, and on the trunks of a variety of trees including Acer negundo (#1652a) and Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima (#1652, #1664b).

PHYSCONIA Poet

Physconia leucoleiptes (Tuck.) Essl. Frequent on the trunks of a variety of trees including Acer negundo (#1633).). Easily recognized in the field by the pruinose lobes. = Physconia detersa in Wilhelm (1998).

PLACIDIUM A. Massal. (Breuss)

Placidium lachneum (Ach.) Breuss Rare on shallow soil over dolomite (#1608). = Endocarpon hepaticum in Calkins (1896). = Catapyrenium squamulosum in Wilhelm (1998).

PUNCTELIA Krog
References: Aptroot (2003), Krog (1982), Wilhelm & Ladd (1992).

1. Thallus without isidia or soredia; medulla C- Punctelia bolliana
1. Thallus isidiate or sorediate; medulla C+ red 2.
 2(1). Thallus isidiate Punctelia rudecta
 2. Thallus sorediate Punctelia missouriensis


Punctelia bolliana (Mull. Arg.) Krog Occasional on the lower trunks of Quercus alba (#1688) and Q. macrocarpa.

Punctelia missouriensis G. Wilh. & Ladd Rare on the lower trunk of Crataegus mollis (#1689).

Punctelia rudecta (Ach.) Krog Common on a decorticate log and on the lower trunks of Carya ovata, Crataegus mollis, Quercus alba (#1653, #1649), and Q. rubra. = Punctelia borreri var. rudecta in Calkins (1896).

SARCOGYNE Flotow

Sarcogyne regularis Korber Frequent on weathered dolomite, granite, sandstone, and pebbles (#1651, #1614). = Lecanora privigna var. pruinosa in Calkins (1896).

THELOCARPON Nyl. ex Hue

Thelocarpon laureri (Flotow) Nyl. Rare on weathered wooden boards (#1685).

TRAPELIOPSIS Hertel & Gotth. Schneider

Trapeliopsis flexuosa (Fr.) Coppins & P. James Frequent on decorticate logs and on weathered wood posts (#1644, #1694, #1872).

USNEA Dill. ex Adans.

Usnea strigosa (Ach.) Eaton subsp. major (Michaux) I. Tav. Rare on a lower limb of Crataegus mollis (#1692).

VERRUCARIA Schrader
Reference: Thomson (2003).

1. Thallus immersed in rock 2.
1. Thallus superficial on rocks, areolate 3.
 2(1). Perithecia embedded in calcareous rock, thallus scant, white;
 involucrellum scant; spores 18-28 [micro]m x 9-14 [micro]m
 Verrucaria calciseda
 2. Perithecia partly immersed in rock, thallus ashy, involucrellum
 hemispherical, black; apex thick; spores 19-24 [micro]m x 11-12
 [micro]m Verrucaria. calkinsiana
3(1). Involucrellum black, merging with black lower layers of thallus;
 perithecia 1-3 per areole; spores 12-14 [micro]m x 6-7[micro]m
 Verrucaria fayettensis
3. Involucrellum thick, spherical; perithecia immersed in centers of
 areoles; spores 10-16 [micro]m x 5-7 [micro]m Verrucaria fuscella


Verrucaria calciseda DC. Rare on weathered dolomite (#1674).

Verrucaria calkinsiana Servit Frequent on Opuntia humifusa and on weathered limestone, granite, and dolomite (#1615, #1870) and calcareous pebbles (#1663). = Verrucaria muralis in Calkins (1896).

Verrucaria fayettensis Servit Rare on weathered dolomite (#1676, #1867). = Verrucaria viridula in Calkins (1896).

Verrucaria fuscella (Turner) Winch Rare on weathered concrete.

XANTHOMENDOZA S. Kondr. & Karnefelt
Reference: Lindblom, 2006

1. Thallus cushion-like, often forming extensive colonies; thallus
 thin, delicate, lobes narrow; rhizines absent or sparse, usually
 not visible from above; soredia formed at lobe tips, powdery
 Xanthomendoza fulva
1. Thallus rosette-like +/- distinct; rhizines usually abundant,
 visible from above or not; soredia not as above 2.
 2(1). Soredia formed in marginal crescent-shaped slits between the
 upper and lower cortex; lobes adnate to loosely adnate
 Xanthomendoza fallax
 2. Soredia marginal or submarginal from cortex, rarely laminal;
 lobes loosely adnate to raised

 Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes


Xanthomendoza fallax (Hepp ex Arnold) Sochting, Karnefelt & S. Kondr. Common on weathered wood fence posts and on the trunks of a variety of trees including Acer negundo (#1656). = Xanthoria fallax in Wilhelm (1998).

Xanthomendoza fulva (Hoffm.) Sochting, Karnefelt & S. Kondr. Frequent on weathered concrete and on the trunks of Acer negundo, Crataegus mollis (#1664a), Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Populus deltoides, Quercus alba, Q. macrocarpa and Ulmus pumila. = Theloschistes lychneus in Calkins (1896). = Xanthoria sp. #1 in Wilhelm (1998).

Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes (Rasanen) Sochting, Karnefelt & S. Kondr. Frequent on the trunks of Acer negundo, Crataegus mollis (#1664), Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Populus deltoides, Quercus alba, Q. macrocarpa and Ulmus pumila.

XANTHORIA (Fr.) Th. Fr.

Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ex Rieber Rare on a lower limb of Tilia americana (#1626). = Theloschistes parietinus in Calkins (1896).

Richard D. Hyerczyk

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Chicago, IL 60638-1222
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Author:Hyerczyk, Richard D.
Publication:Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science
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Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2008
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