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The level of the use of positive behavioral support strategies by teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders in Amman.

Introduction:

Every child has a right to live a decent life, as stipulated by the divine and international laws, children with special needs just like their ordinary peers need more: support, opportunity of education, health, living and all that they need in accordance with the requirements and needs. (Noonan, 2014)

Special education programs seeking for rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities to the maximum extent permitted by their potential to enable them to become independent members in life (Hallahan& Kauffman& Pullen, 2012), whether personal or social or professional, and that's can be done through the early training to acquire basic skills that will enable them to reach this goal. Providing the organized training programs, which planned carefully according the developmental stages they are going through, with caring about deficiency groups members by the kind of disability (Lowe, Allen, Jones, Brophy, Moore & James, 2007), make us lead them with clear and true steps to adulthood, or post-graduate school, and also at this stage we had to start rehabilitation them professionally to be able to tender, and achievement by owning these individuals profession that will join in the future which they have through personal, economic, and social safety. (Westling and Fox, 2009)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of developmental growth disorder (Robledo, Kucharski, 2005) and characterized by weakly interaction and social communication, often this order accompanying with typical movements or repeated behaviors that show its symptoms at early childhood stage (eight years), although that bugs in perception and social communication is the basic feature of children with (ASD). (Dsm-5, 2013)., but (ASD) produces number of behavioral challenges that effect on individual's life style in many aspects such as; effect on social interaction and communication skills at effective way, and influence on learning new skills and make difficulties on processing sensual information (Hallahan& Kauffman& Pullen, 2012), this challenges from real problems that effect on individual, family and teachers.

The difficulties which facing specialists and practitioners in communication and social interaction field in social positions and effect on adjustment in society make them to light on this category (ASD) (Simth, 2000), and produced many behavioral challenges that effect on individual's life in many aspects such as; social interaction and communication effectively, and the impact on child capabilities for learning new skills and the difficulty on processing the sensual information. .(Buron & Wolfoerg, 2008)

Children with (ASD) show non desired sbehaviors, which consider a problem for parents, mothers and specialists staff which deal with this group, these behaviors effect on child growth aspects, and make difficulties in submitting services by family and specialists. (Janzen, 2003)

Children with (ASD) show disruptive behaviors, and many of them have problems like harming self and anger tantrum, such this behaviors form anxiety for parents and specialists, because it inconsistent with the development of desired behaviors and communication skills(DSM-5, 2013), and have risks on child himself and others. Also, it lead to isolate child and deprivation him from receiving services in least compliance environments, and deprive the child to access the independence and self-determination and contribute in produce high levels of pressure on parents and moms (Williams & Wright, 2004). The non-desired behaviors limit opportunities for children social growth and learning in early childhood Hallahan& lCauffman& Pullen.2012), so there is a need for intervention strategies to reduce these behavioral problems. (Waters, & healy.2012)

Positive Behavior Support (PBS) defined as an implementation of behavioral interventions which based on functional evaluation, in accordance with the basic laws of human behavior and with the values, skills and resources for those who carry out the intervention (Koegel, Koegel, & Dunlap, 1996), (PBS) interventions focused on showing significant results, including the reduction of behavioral problems that make social or educational barriers for individuals, and increase adaptive skills, and improve the educational and social basis, employment opportunities, and the available options. (Westling & Brown. 2009)

(PBS) also known as an applied science that uses educational methods to expand behavioral ammunition of individual, and change these methods to re-design the environment in which the individual lives to enhance; at first the quality of life, and secondly to reduce the undesirable behaviors. (Koegel, Koegel, Dunlap, 1996).

(PBS) includes skills that increase success and complacency according to the academic, social, business, leisure, family and community standards. Support includes those educational methods that can be used to teach and strengthen and expand the positive behavior, and these systems can be used to enhance the chances of exposure to positive behavior. (Sailor, Dunplap, Sugai, Homer, 2009), the main goal of (PBS) is to assist the individual on changing lifestyle in the direction that gives parents, teachers, peers and the child himself to understand, and the enjoyment by improving the quality of life. (Westling. Brown, 2009)

In (McClean & Grey, 2012) study which aimed to assess the implementation for serial changes on the basic contextual variables for four members, the interventions continued and gathering data during a period of 3 years by making functional assessment for four individuals with behavioral severe problems, the interventions based on the support behavioral multiple elements model, and the affiliate classifications variables behavioral were: (1) redundancy, (2) intensity, (3) the difficulty of administration and measures (4) mental condition, (5) the quality of life. And the intervention sequence was about: reduce agitator's environment, making relations, the ability on prediction and reinforcement differential strategies, the results showed that there were a big reduction in target behaviors with improvement gradual in the health psychological degrees and quality of life. The study concluded to the effectiveness of positive support behavior for those with behavioral severe problems in services designed individually.

In (Becker, Mcfarland & Anderson, 2003) study they provided several types of providing support services models for autism spectrum disorder families which used by services providers , the they noted that (PBS) model gained increasing attention in literature, and considered as a comprehensive approach by using it on stubbornness and challenge behavior, and improve life style, and improve the comprehensive quality for life, this study explain the providing support services model for autism spectrum disorder families that include basic elements of positive behavioral support, and present a study case focus on family in intervention operation, as discussed the main elements of positive behavioral support in light of providing comprehensive systems, permanent training, families and educators support for individuals with autism disorder.

Developing effective educational environment requires consideration in many variables related with the student participation and achievement, these elements include: physical and structural school classes, educational elements, school curricula, and procedural elements in classes (Fox, Duda, 2015); the classes development is necessary to create effective educational environment for students with autism spectrum disorder, the classroom elements divided to three categories: (1) environmental support (structural element), (2) curriculum and teaching methods (education element), (3) personal practices (procedural element). Gathering elements in this way to clarify interaction between these factors in educational context related to the students scientific grades. (Magyar, 2011)

(PBS) aims to evaluate and programming environment to support students participation, learning, and social upbringing, and confirms on continuous development for positive social skills and prevention from behaviors which inconsistent with sharing and learning (Grant & Crossen,2014), it also, confirms on developing positive social skills and develop behaviors of student to be personally and socially. The adaptive skills when displayed had social positive social results, and the positive sophisticated social skills can affect more direct on student. (Westling. Brown, 2009)

It is better to making (PBS) inside school classes to support acquisition and positive social behavior application on three levels: school classes, the level of the group, the individual level, and this level was designed to prevent incidence negative social behaviors and intervention behaviors between all students at the class(Dunlap, Fox, 1999), where it is supported direct education of positive social skills and applied it on individual and students groups and increase generalization skills and acquisition with in school classes context, we can consider support behavior on school classes domain as a global support it allows the teacher targeting skills for every or most of the students who need support or practice and making appropriate context to let child generalize the acquired skills in individual or group training courses. (Magyar, 2011).

(PBS) skills include the following procedures: teacher guidance, basic social skills, social communication skills, functional communication, social solving problems, self-administration skills, and aggression's (Hemmeter, Fox, Jack,&. Linda, 2007) alternatives; the support behavior at the group level is being more focused, and let teacher targeting specific skills to share it with group. (Magyar, 2011) (Noonan, 2014)

The support in this level also offers smaller form to teach required positive social skills for group and classroom participation Westling and Fox, 2009), where it target skills during follow the instructions within the group like; sitting more appropriate, waiting role, receive instructions; and grouping skills like: raise hand for requesting, answer questions, listen to peer, and participation at appropriate time. (Noonan , 2014).

Data of assess functional behavior indicated to use direct instructions for teaching selected positive social skills which student need it to improve performance of the individual within the group and increased classroom participation, self-management, and solving social problems. (Magyar, 2011).

The problem of the study:

Children with autism spectrum disorder appear subversion behaviors, and many of them have problems like self-harming and anger spells, such this behaviors and other make as an anxiety source for parents and specialists because it inconsistent with desired behaviors development, and communication skills(Janzen, 2003), and risks on child himself and individuals, it also lead to isolate child and deprivation from receive services at least compliance environments, and contribute in produce high levels of pressure on parents and moms. The presence of non-desired behaviors limits opportunities for child in growth socially and learning in early childhood stage, so there is a necessary need to the intervention strategies to reduce this behavioral problems. (Waters, & healy. 2012)

The problem for this study identified specifically to assess the (PBS) strategies for children with autism spectrum disorder teachers, this study was to answer the following questions specifically:

* What is the level of using (PBS) strategies by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers in Amman?

* Are there any significant differences at the level of significance (a = 0.05) in the level of using (PBS) strategies by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers in Amman, according to gender, experience, educational qualification and the major?

The importance of the study:

The importance of this study is in its quest to use (PBS) strategies by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers in Amman. Accordingly, the researcher hopes to benefit from the results of the researchers in the field of special education, where it is expected that this study encourages researchers in this field and centers and institutions of special education to conduct further scientific studies on this subject, and that can be done by showing the results of this study and shed light on these concepts in order to search and progress to these centers, decision-makers and administrations in order to take measures that will provide a supportive work environment for teachers.

The objectives of the study:

1. Assess (PBS) strategies which used by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers in Amman.

2. Know the relationship between the variables of gender, experience, educational qualification and the major of special education teachers and its relationship to the concept of (PBS).

3. Based on the results of the study to provide suggestions and recommendations to help on increasing awareness of these concepts.

The terms of the study:

* Children with autism spectrum disorder: children suffer from qualitative failure in communication and inability in stay social interactions, behaviors, activities, and restricted interests, and diagnosed them before eighth age (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullen. 2012), children with autism spectrum disorder in this study defined procedurally: those children who diagnosed with autism and had ranging ages between 6-10 years, and enrollment in special education centers in Amman.

* The positive support behavior: strategy depends on applied science and used pedagogical methods, to expand behaviors at the individual, and make change in this methods to redesign environment which live in to promote: the quality of life and reduce non desired behaviors. (Koegel, Koegel, & Dunlap, 1996).positive support behavioral defined procedurally in this study as a collection of activities and exercises that based on the positive support behavioral and meaningful actions to access the individual to self-determination and quality of life.

* Special education teachers: teachers who within the centers and institutions that take care of children with autism spectrum disorder.

The limits of the study:

The results of the study determined by the following:
   Objective limits: this study will be limited
   to the level of using (PBS) strategies
   with teachers of children with autism
   spectrum disorder, and temporal
   limits: of this study will be limited to
   data and information in the academic
   year 2015/2016, and spatial limits: the
   centers and institutions of special education
   in Amman.


The method and procedures:

Members of the study:
   This study was carried with special
   education teachers in privet and local centers
   and institutions of special education in Jordan.
   The number of the sample was (100) teachers
   (male/ female) is shown on Table 1.


Study design:

The researcher used survey research methodology, which relies on data collection of the target sample by using a scale prepared by the researcher, then the data was analyzed and extracted the results, and then interpret it.

The study tool:

To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher designed a tool that based on the literature and educational studies consisting of (30) paragraph measures the level of using (PBS) strategies for special education teachers in Amman. The tool included three dimensions (1) (PBS) on classroom level (2) (PBS) on groups level (3) (PBS) on individual level.

To extract the validity semantics of the tool, the researcher distributed it with its initial edition on the number of arbitrators with expertise and efficiency to ensure the paragraphs validity and suitability in measuring of what is designed to, and make the appropriate adjustments depending on the views of the arbitrators and the strength of their agreement to pass paragraphs.

The researcher counts internal consistency by using Cronbach alpha equation to make sure of the reliability of the tool, and distributed the tool on an exploratory sample from outside of the study sample consist of (15) and the results showed transactions consistency on the classroom level (0.88), the group level (0.91), the individual level (0.88), and the all degree (0.95) this ratios considered suitable for the purposes of this study.

Statistical analyzes:

To answer the study questions, the researcher using the following statistical treatments:

1. To answer the first question he was extracted averages, standard deviations, and percentages to know the level of using the most (PBS) strategies by children with autism spectrum simmer teachers in Amman.

2. To answer the second question he was extracted averages and standard deviations, and used "t-test" to show statistical differences between the averages.

The results:

The first question: what is the level of using (PBS) strategies by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers in Amman?

To answer this question he extracted arithmetic means and standard deviations for the level of using (PBS) strategies within classrooms with teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder, and the table below illustrates this.

The table (2) shows that the averages have ranged from (3.58-3.64), (PBS) on the groups level came first with highest arithmetic average (3.70), while (PBS) on individual level came in last and reached a mean (3.58), the arithmetic average of the total score (3.64).

The second question: Are there significant differences at the level of significance (a = 0.05) in the level of the using (PBS) strategies by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers according to gender, the major, educational qualification and experience?

To answer this question the averages arithmetic and distractions normative for using (PBS) strategies were extracted for children with autism spectrum disorder teacher according variables: gender, experience, education qualification and the major, and to illustrate statistical differences between arithmetic averages the researcher used "t-test", and tables below shows this.

It can be seen from Table (3) that there are no statistically significant differences (a = 0.05) due to the impact of gender in all dimensions and in the total score. As results indicate that there were statistically significant differences (a = 0.05) due to the impact of the major, educational qualification and experience in all-dimensional in the total score, and the differences were in favor of special education, bachelor's, and experience for more than five years.

Results discussions:

The traditional behavioral approach was substituted by the challenge behavioral approach of PBS model because of the social fears, and considered it superior on the traditional behavior model for its durable effects, and adoption on the positive and preventive methods instead of focusing on reply act and punitive styles methods, the current study find that the level of using (PBS) strategies came medium on the whole degree for teachers, and this result may returns to the difficulties which facing multiple specialties team members within the located centers at Amman, and the difficulty of communication between the team for having an agreement about the positive behavioral support plan, or the execution refusal for the agreed positive behavioral support plan from some of the team members, or putting plan apart from all members team. The using of (PBS) on the groups level was at the first level with the highest arithmetic average, and this may refer to the providing programs for autistic children within centers which aiming to developing communication skills and social interaction for this category.

The teachers must review the learning methods for students on individual level (mobile, visual, audio) and promote the provided information at form that matches the learning style for students, and consider if tasks or activities or instructions are difficult to understood then the response requirements must simplified and provide time for students to address the information to meet the individual needs.

The results showed that there are no differences between gender (male, female) refer to the training for teachers on university level or during the service at the centers because it provide the same training regardless of the gender, teachers whose hold bachelor degree in special education show higher levels for using positive behavioral support strategies in comparing with who hold other specialties or had qualifications less than bachelor; that refers to the theoretical and scientific experiences which received during the university learning stages.

The result also showed that the experience has an important role at the level of using the positive behavioral support strategies because teachers at the first year on the field face great difficulties at dealing with the behavioral problems and specialists at centers, so it reflected on their performance and the level of using (PBS) strategies, as teachers with experience had more training which reflect on their performance for using PBS.

Summary:

The using of PBS approach is an effective way at dealing with non-desired behaviors, but we must not satisfy just with it on dealing with autistic children, and the multi specialties team must cooperate more with each other and with centers departments, so for the success of the positive behavioral support approach on all levels.

References:

Becker, Barbara Cottrell, McFarland, Jennifer & Anderson, Vicki. (2003). A Model of Positive Behavioral Support for Individuals with Autism and Their Families: The Family Focus Process .EBSCO Publisher. 18(2), 110-120.

Buron, Kari Dunn. Wolfbcrg, Pamcla. (2008). Learners on the Autism Spectrum Preparing Highly Qualified Educators. Autism Spectrum Publishing Co.

Carr, E. G., Homer, R. H., Turnbull, A. P., Marquis, J., Magito-McLaughlin, D., McAtcc, M. L., Smith, C. E., Andcrson-Ryan, K., Rucf, M. B., & Doolabh, A. (1999). Positive behavior support for people with developmental disabilities: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental RctardationDSM-5. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder. American Psychiatric Publishing.

Dunlap, G. and Fox, Lise (1999). A demonstration of behavioral support for young children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 77-87.

Fox, Lise. Duda, Michelle A. (2015). Positive Behavior Support, available online from the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children.

Grant, Marquis C. Crossen, Sharita. (2014).Using Positive behavior support for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Inclusive Classroom. Primary Beginning Speech Therapy and Intervention Services.

Hallahan. D. & Kauffman, J. & Pullen, J. (2012). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Janzen, Janice, E. (2003).Understanding The Nature of Autism: a guide to the Autism Spectrum Disorders. Library of Congress.

Joseph M. Lucyshyn Richard W. Albin Robert H. Homer, Jane C. Mann, James A. Mann, Gina Wadsworth. (2007). Family Implementation of Positive Behavior Support for a Child with Autism: Longitudinal, Single-Case, Experimental, and Descriptive Replication and Extension. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 9(3), 131-150.

Kincaid, Don. George, Heather. Childs, Karen. (2006). Review of the Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum: Supervisory and Direct Support Editions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 8(3). 183-188

Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. Positive behavioral support: Including people with (Eds.). (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Kraemer, Bonnie, R.. Cook, Clayton R. Browning-Wright G, Diana. Mayer, Roy. Wallace, Michele D. (2008). Effects of Training on the Use of the Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide With Autism Educators A Preliminary Investigation Examining Positive Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 10 (3) 179-189.

Lowe, K., Allen, D., Jones, E., Brophy, S., Moore, K. & James, W. (2007). Challenging behaviours: Prevalence and topographies. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities Research, 51, 625-636.

Magyar ,Caroline, I.(2011). Developing And Evaluating Educational Programs For Students With Autism . Spring Science +Business Media LLC

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McClean, Brien & Grey, Ian. (2012). An evaluation of an intervention sequence outline in positive behaviour support for people with autism and severe escape-motivated challenging behavior. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, September 2012; 37(3): 209-220.

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Neufeld, Vanessa. Law, Kimberley C. Y. & Lucyshyn, Joseph M,.(2014). Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. 2014,. 29(3) 258-276.

Noonan, Mary, Jo .& McCormic, Linda.(2014). Teaching Young in Natural Environments, second edition. Paul. Brookes Publishing Co.

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Sailor, Wayne. Dunplap, Glen. Sugai, George, Homer, Rob.(2009).Handbook of Positive behavior support .Library of Congress. Springer Science.

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Waters, P., & Healy, O. (2012). Investigating the relationship between self-injurious behavior, social deficits, and co-occurring behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research and Treatment, 1-7.

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ANAS ABDUL FATTAH AMER

University of Jordan, Amman Jordan
Table 1. Frequencies and percentages according to the study variables

                       Categories                 Repetition   Ratio

Gender                 Male                           40       40.0
                       female                         60       60.0
The major              special education              84       84.0
                       Other                          16       16.0
Educational level      Below the bachelor             23       23.0
                       B.Sc.                          77       77.0
The experience years   Five years old and under       76       76.0
                       More than 5 years              24       24.0
                       Total                         100       100.0

Table 2. Averages and standard deviations for the level of using (PBS)
strategies by children with autism spectrum disorder teachers in
descending order of averages

Rank   No   Dimension                   SMA    standard    the level
                                               deviation

1      2    (PBS) On Groups Level       3.70     0.839     High
2      1    (PBS) On Classroom level    3.66     0.815     Medium
3      3    (PBS) On Individual Level   3.58     0.801     Medium
            Total score                 3.64     0.749     Medium

Table 3. The averages, standard deviations, and "t-test of the of
gender, the major, educational qualification and experience impact at
the level of (PBS) strategies for children with autism spectrum
disorder teachers

                                              number   SMA    standard
                   Gender                                     deviation

Classroom          Male                         40     3.62     0.831
level              female                       60     3.69     0.811

Group level        Male                         40     3.78     0.810
                   female                       60     3.64     0.859

Individual         Male                         40     3.76     0.762
level              female                       60     3.46     0.809

Total score        Male                         40     3.72     0.764
                   female                       60     3.59     0.740
The major

Classroom          special education            84     3.76     0.743
level              Other                        16     3.13     0.991

Group level        special education            84     3.81     0.820
                   Other                        16     3.11     0.693

Individual level   special education            84     3.67     0.753
                   Other                        16     3.10     0.900

Education qualification

Classroom level    Below the bachelor           23     3.29     1.013
                   B.Sc.                        77     3.77     0.718

Group level        Below the bachelor           23     3.33     0.799
                   B.Sc.                        77     3.81     0.823

Individual level   Below the bachelor           23     3.17     0.768

Total score        B.Sc.                        77     3.70     0.775
                   Below the bachelor           23     3.26     0.796

Years of Experience

                                              number   SMA    standard
                   Years of Experience                        deviation

Classroom          Five years old and under     76     3.47     0.782
level              More than 5 years            24     4.24     0.634

Group level        Five years old and under     76     350      .800
                   More than 5 years            24     4.31     0.651

Individual         Five years old and under     76     3.44     0.805
level              More than 5 years            24     4.01     0.624

Total score        Five years old and under     76     3.47     0.714
                   More than 5 years            24     4.19     0.589

                                               "T"     Degrees of
                   Gender                     Values    freedom

Classroom          Male                       -.419        98
level              female

Group level        Male                       0.855        98
                   female

Individual         Male                       1.906        98
level              female

Total score        Male                       0.837        98
                   female
The major

Classroom          special education          2.919        98
level              Other

Group level        special education          3.215        98
                   Other

Individual level   special education          2.685        98
                   Other

Education qualification

Classroom level    Below the bachelor         -2.517       98
                   B.Sc.

Group level        Below the bachelor         -2.478       98
                   B.Sc.

Individual level   Below the bachelor         -2.855       98

Total score        B.Sc.                      -2.876       98
                   Below the bachelor

Years of Experience

                                              Values   Degrees of
                   Years of Experience                  freedom

Classroom          Five years old and under   -4.348       98
level              More than 5 years

Group level        Five years old and under   -4.507       98
                   More than 5 years

Individual         Five years old and under   -3.186       98
level              More than 5 years

Total score        Five years old and under   -4.450       98
                   More than 5 years

                                              Statistical
                   Gender                     significance

Classroom          Male                          0.676
level              female

Group level        Male                          0.394
                   female

Individual         Male                          0.060
level              female

Total score        Male                          0.405
                   female
The major

Classroom          special education             0.004
level              Other

Group level        special education              .002
                   Other

Individual level   special education             0.009
                   Other

Education qualification

Classroom level    Below the bachelor            0.013
                   B.Sc.

Group level        Below the bachelor             .015
                   B.Sc.

Individual level   Below the bachelor             .005

Total score        B.Sc.                          .005
                   Below the bachelor

Years of Experience

                                              Statistical
                   Years of Experience        significance

Classroom          Five years old and under       .000
level              More than 5 years

Group level        Five years old and under       .000
                   More than 5 years

Individual         Five years old and under       .002
level              More than 5 years

Total score        Five years old and under       .000
                   More than 5 years
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Title Annotation:Amman, Jordan
Author:Amer, Anas Abdul Fattah
Publication:College Student Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7JORD
Date:Mar 1, 2017
Words:4684
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