Printer Friendly

The lead and copper isotopic composition of copper ores from the Sierra Morena (Spain).

Analisis de los isotopos de plomo y de cobre de los minerales de cobre de Sierra Morena (Espana)

1. Introduction

Mining in the South of the Iberian Peninsula has been intensive since the Bronze Age. The Romans maintained high mining activities from the end of the second century BC to at least the beginning of the III century AD (Domergue, 1987; Domergue, 1990; Domergue, 1998). Rio Tinto within the Pyrite Belt in the Southwest almost appeared to be the unique centre of copper production in ancient times within the whole of the Iberian Peninsula, but other mines in this pyritic ensemble (i.e. Tharsis, Sotiel-Coronada, Sao Domingos, Aljustrel) have also produced copper and silver.

It is also known that the numerous copper rich vein deposits of the Sierra Morena in Central South Spain have been exploited reaching back to the beginning of the Bronze Age. The larger copper deposits in this area are Los Escoriales (District of Andujar-Montoro), Cerro Muriano (District de Cordoba), Zumajo (District of Los Pedroches) and are known to have continuously produced copper in Roman times. They are presumably the source of copper for the famous copper production of Cordoba, the aes Cordubense, also called aes Marianum (Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 34, 4). Aes Marianum was named after S. Marius, who was the owner of this mining estate at the beginning of the Roman Empire (Domergue, 1990). The Sierra Morena deposits produced mainly lead, silver and copper. The development of visible gossans on the surface of the copper deposits testifies to their long term exploitation. The remains of ancient mining activities can be observed in situ in the form of tailings, mining tools, ceramics, etc.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

In archaeometallurgy, lead isotopes are applied for provenancing the raw materials of metal objects by comparing the lead isotope signatures of ores from known deposits with those of the metal objects. However, provenance studies can only be successful, when the reference data bank is complete. During the accumulation of published lead isotope data of Mediterranean copper ore deposits a significant lack of data for central Iberian deposits became apparent together with a seeming gap in a lead isotope ratio diagram (Fig. 1). Roman copper coins analysed by Klein et al. (2004) plotted within this gap of the reference data bank and were interpreted as a mixture of ores from two deposits. Scarce new data from Los Pedroches (cited in Rico et al., 2005-2006), however, provided lead isotope data in the vicinity of these coins. This prompted us to embark on a more comprehensive study of the mines in Central South Spain and especially of Sierra Morena.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

2. Geological Setting

The south central Spanish ore deposits are divided east to west into occurrences from the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) and the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IBP) (Fig. 2). Our samples were mostly obtained from the Central Iberian Zone and a few from the Ossa Morena zone. They are the main tectonic units of the Hercynian Iberian Massif (Gibbons and Moreno, 2002). The contact between CIZ and OMZ is a NW-SE trending feature whose nature is not completely understood (e.g. Exposito et al., 1999; San Jose et al., 2004).

CIZ consists of three major sub-zones: 1. the central Los Pedroches Batholith complex (PBT), 2. the exocontact (peri-)batholith occurrences (OVD), and 3. Alcudia to Linares (Fig. 2). The Los Pedroches Batholith complex is a late-orogenic magmatic alignment mainly with granodiorite and granite (Larrea et al., 1999; Pardo Alonso, 1999). The southern part of CIZ is known for its vast number of mineral occurrences and its relative uniformity of metal ore types. The mercury mineralisation of the Almaden district is connected with Silurian-Devonian volcanism and W-Sn-As-Bi ores are related to Hercynian magmatism. The Hercynian magmatism produced the innumerable Pb-Zn-(Ag) vein type occurrences. Copper is always related to the lead bearing veins and is occasionally more abundant than the lead.

The OMZ is located between the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB--belongs to the South Portuguese zone) and the CIZ (Tornos and Casquet, 2005; Tornos et al., 2006). It extends from the Portuguese Serra de Ossa in the north to the Spanish province of Cordoba. The ore types in the OMZ are the result of two main ore forming events of Cadominan and Variscan age (Tornos and Chiaradia, 2004). They vary from volcanogenic and sediment-hosted massive sulphides to magmatic Ni(-Cu) deposits, Fe-(Cu) calcic skarns, tin replacement bodies, Cu-(Bi-Au) or Cu-Zn-(Pb) veins and W, Sn, Bi, Co, Ni bearing veins. This list continues with gold bearing hydrothermal systems (mesothermal iron oxide-copper-gold mineralisation) and shallower W-Sn and Cu-Pb-Zn veins.

3. The selected copper ores

In total, 51 samples were selected from the Domergue collection. They are predominantly from the vein-type deposits of CIZ and OMZ. Green and blue secondary copper minerals dominate, primary sulphides (chalcopyrite) are subordinate. The Domergue sample numbers are used and given in Table 1. The precise geographic location of each sample can be found in the catalogue and the maps presented in Domergue 1987: Cartes et plans hors texte, no. 71 and 73: Mines antiques de la Sierra Morena. Table 1 also contains our in house numbers which are used in Figure 2. The following is an overview on the number of samples obtained from the different geological units:

Iberian Pyrite Belt:

--Aljustrel (1 sample). Central Iberian Zone:

--Alcudia-Almaden (Santa Eufemia)-Castuera (AAC; 2 samples).

--Los Pedroches sector, inner batholith occurrences (32 samples).

--Los Pedroches sector, exocontact batholith (6 samples).

--Linares (1 sample). Ossa Morena Zone:

--Cordoba (3 samples).

--Azuaga-Fuenteobejuna (2 samples).

--Sevilla (1 sample). SE Volcanic province:

--Cartagena-Mazarron (1 sample). Internal Betics:

--Almeria, NE Spain (1 sample). Cantabrian Zone:

-Leon, N Spain (1 sample).

4. Methods of sample preparation, chemistry and analysis

The following steps and chemical procedures were carried out in the clean air laboratory of Frankfurt University and with the equipment available in Frankfurt. All chemicals used were of ultra-pure quality.

a) The ore samples were first crushed roughly into small fragments not larger than 0.5 mm in size.

b) Approximately 1 g of the crushed material was treated with 6 mol/l hydrochloric acid (five minutes in an ultrasonic bath and then left overnight for dissolving) to chemically separate the copper mineral fraction from adhering silica-rich gangue. After centrifugation the copper-containing solution was poured and stored. An aliquot of 0.5 ml of this solution was taken and evaporated. The residue was diluted in 1 ml 6 N nitric acid (HN[O.sub.3]) and kept as our initial solution.

c) An aliquot of 0.1 ml from this initial solution was used for the analysis of the copper and lead contents. The analyses were carried out by using a cyclonic spray chamber, a 50ui PFA MicroFlowTM nebulizer and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (Element2[TM], Finnigan MAT) at low mass resolution ([DELTA]m/m = 400).

d) For the lead isotope analysis a further aliquot of 0.1 ml from the initial solution was evaporated and the residue was taken up in 0.5 ml HBr. Lead was purified chromatographically in a single-pass 0.6N HBr-based anion resin (Dowex 1*8, 100-200 mesh), subsequently converted to nitrate and diluted adequately in 2% HN[O.sub.3] to yield a final concentration of 500 ppb lead. The diluted samples were spiked with 100 ppb of Tl standard NIST SRM-997 of known lead isotope composition and were ready for isotope analysis.

e) A further solution was prepared similarly for copper isotope analysis by taking a 0.1 ml split from the initial solution and dilute it in 2% HN[O.sub.3] to yield a final concentration of approximately 500 ppb Cu in the solution. The diluted samples were spiked with 1ppm of the Ni standard NIST SRM 986 of known copper isotope composition and were ready for isotope analysis

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

The isotopic measurements were performed with a MC-ICP-MS (Multicollector-Inductively coupled Plasma-Mass spectrometer MC-ICP-MS, Neptune[TM], Finnigan MAT) at low resolution ([DELTA]m/m = 400) using 9 blocks of 9 integrations of approximately 8.4 s each for Pb and 5 blocks of 9 integrations for Cu, followed by a 40s baseline measurement. Mercury ([sup.202]Hg) and Ni ([sup.60]Ni) interferences on Pb and Cu isotopes respectively were monitored during acquisition.

A standard reference material (NIST 981 and NIST 976) was used to monitor the precision and accuracy of the measurements over the whole period of analysis. The obtained average accuracy is estimated to be below 0.15 [per thousand] (2[sigma]) for [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb and [sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb and 1.3 [per thousand] (2[sigma]) for [sup.206]Pb/[sup.204]Pb. The average [sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb isotopic composition of the last 50 measurements of the NIST981 over the last 4 years is 0.914559 ([+ or -] 54, 2 a), which is within error of the certified value of 0.914640 ([+ or -] 33, 2[sigma], Catanzaro et al., 1968). External precision for [delta][sup.63]Cu values is estimated to be 0.4 [per thousand] (Markl et al., 2006).

5. Results and discussion

5.1. Lead isotopes

The whole range of lead isotope ratios of the ores from CIZ and OMZ is from 18.165 to 19.713 for [sup.206]Pb/[sup.204]Pb, 0.797 to 0.859 for [sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb and 1.955 to 2.108 for [sup.208]Pb/ [sup.206]Pb (Table I) which encompasses the range between and partly overlaps with the fields for Cyprus and Sardinia (Fig. 1). Our new data together with literature data are shown in figure 3 for CIZ and in figure 4 for OMZ and IPB in comparison with the fields for Cyprus and Sardinia.

As shown in the brief introduction to the geology of the South central ore districts CIZ is subdivided into 1. the central Los Pedroches Batholith complex (PBT), which encompasses the area of Los Pedroches sensu strictu (samples 11 to 36 and 43 in figure 2 and Table 1), and the district of Andujar-Montotro (samples 37 to 41); 2. the exocontact (peri) batholith occurrences (OVD) with samples 10, 42 and 44 to 47, the Alcudia-Almaden (Santa Eufemia)-Castuera (AAC) area (samples 8 and 9) and Linares (sample 48). Our new data (Fig. 3) indicate the existence of two separate lead isotope fields for CIZ, one consisting exclusively of samples from the inner batholith occurrences (PBT sensu strictu) with comparatively low lead isotope ratios ([sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb = 0.842-0.85 and [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb = 2.078-2.092) and a second with higher lead isotope ratios ([sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb = 0.854-0.861 and [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb = 2.094-2.108) consisting of samples from the exocontact batholith occurrences (OVD), the two AAC samples and the one Linares sample. The consideration of literature data (Santos Zalduegui et al., 2004) clearly establishes Linares, AAC and OVD as a separate, homogeneous, high lead isotope ratio field (Fig. 3). This field is close to one lead isotope field from Sardinia but, on average, at slightly higher [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb. It is highly unlikely that the similarity will lead to ambiguity in the future since the Sardinian ores are mostly lead deposits and copper mining was subordinate. Highly important is the difference to the occurrences from IPB in SW Spain. Linares, AAC and OVD have significantly higher [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb which will make a distinction between the two occurrences for artefacts easily possible. The Los Pedroches Batholith complex (PBT) forms a separate isotope ratio group in the vicinity of one field for Cyprus. It fills the missing gap in the general reference data bank and will facilitate provenance studies in the future.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Two samples from PBT (nb. 15 and 16) plot at very low [sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb and [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb ratios outside the scale of figure 3. These secondary copper ores may have been formed from U-bearing hydrous solutions soon after the ore formation event which caused the preferential growth of [sup.206]Pb. A copper sulphide (nb. 30) plots with the OVD, Linares and AAC ores rather than in the PBT field. We cannot offer an explanation here.

Our three new OMZ data are vastly differing with a range from close to Cyprus up to Sardinia (Fig. 4). This is also the range of the available literature data (Stos-Gale et al., 1995; Marcoux et al., 2002; Hunt Ortiz, 2003; Santos Zalduegui et al., 2004; Tornos and Chiaradia, 2004) as seen in figure 4. A concentration of lead isotope ratios occurs in a high [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb and [sup.207]Pb/[sup.206]Pb field above Sardinia which gives these ores their own identity. The wide range of lead isotope ratios is an expression of the previously described diversity of the OMZ in ore types, metallogenesis and age of ore deposition. CIZ and IPB have their own identity with distinct ore forming events but OMZ with its geographic position in between them seems to be a mixture of both with repeated ore forming events The field for AAC/Linares/OVD and SW Spain is very tightly constrained and their ore deposits will always be easily identifiable.

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

As stated above the lead isotope signature of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (South Portuguese Zone) is well defined by literature data (Pomies et al., 1998; Lescuyer et al., 1998; Marcoux, 1998; Marcoux et al., 1992; Stos-Gale et al., 1995). IPB ores have extremely homogeneous lead isotope ratios which allow the definition of a tight lead isotope field. Our one analyzed sample plots at the low isotope ratio end of the field. The IPB field does not overlap with that from CIZ, it occurs at significantly lower [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb ratios (Fig. 4). OMZ ores partly overlap with IPB but at still lower [sup.208]Pb/[sup.206]Pb ratios (Fig. 4).

5.2 Copper isotopes

Natural copper isotope variation have already been found useful as a geochemical tracer in ore geology (Zhu et al., 2000; Larson et al., 2002) and were suggested as a possible tracer in archaeology (Gale et al., 1999; Woodhead et al., 1999). In advance to the present study, Durali-Muller (2005) had analysed copper isotopes of primary and secondary copper ore minerals from individual localities by MC ICP-MS in Frankfurt. She observed that all secondary copper minerals (various malachite and azurite samples from Germany, Tuscany and Namibia) had positive [delta][sup.65]Cu values, whereas [delta][sup.65]Cu values in the corresponding sulphides had negative [delta][sup.65]Cu. The lead isotope ratios were identical in the sulphides and their corresponding secondary minerals. The secondary copper ores from the Sierra Morena are in agreement with these observations: They have positive [delta][sup.65]Cu values from 0 to + 2.7 but encompass a wide range of lead isotope ratios corresponding to their primary mineralisation (Fig. 5). The few primary sulphides analysed in this study support the inferences from the work by Durali-Muller (2005) namely that the primary lead isotope signatures are retained during the oxidation processes in the upper part of an ore deposit or during weathering, but that these processes fractionate the copper isotopes by a preferred partitioning of the lighter copper isotope into a hydrous phase at the low temperature of these processes. Thus, the copper isotopes will become important in detailed studies on the use of primary versus secondary ore deposits for the manufacturing of artefacts.

6. Summary and outlook

With this study we provide further and so far lacking data for a lead isotope reference data bank for provenance studies of copper objects. A gap is filled in the knowledge on southern Spain ore deposits which allows the correct interpretation of the origin of the copper ore for antique artefacts. For example, the lack of such data made the ore finger printing very difficult in a study on copper coins from the early Roman emperors (Klein et al, 2004). Because the PBT fields were unknown at that time the authors had to resort to an ore deposit mixing model. With the new data it has become clear that mining in the Los Pedroches area was already substantial during the early Roman Empire time. It will be possible in the future to accurately distinguish between the various ore deposit fields in Spain even though the OMZ deposits cover a large area in the lead isotope diagrams. However, the overlap with other ore deposit fields (which are much more tightly constrained) is very small and a distinction should be possible in most cases. Copper isotopes will become useful as tracers of whether oxidized or primary sulphide ores had been used in the production of artefacts.

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). Our special thanks go to F. Palero for advice. We thank A. Neumann for help in the clean laboratory. Thanks go to Chr. Rico, H. Hofer, and M. Hanrahan as native speakers for language corrections and translation.

Received: 3/10/07 / Accepted: 18/11/08

References

Catanzaro, E.J., Murphy, T.J., Shields, E.L., Garner, J. (1968): Res. National Bureau of Standards, 72A, 261 p.

Domergue, C. (1987): Catalogue des mines et des fonderies antiques de la Peninsule Iberique. + attachements. Publicaciones de la Casa de Velazquez, Serie Arqueologia, VIII, Madrid. Tome I and II, 585 p.

Domergue, C. (1990): Les mines de la Peninsule Iberique dans l'antiquite romaine. Collection de l'Ecole Francaise de Rome, 127, XX. 626 p.,

Domergue, C. (1998): A view of Baetica's external commerce in the 1st c. A.D. based on its trade in metals, in S. Keay (ed.), The Archaeology of Early Roman Baetica. Journal of Roman Archaeology, Supplementary Series 29, Portsmouth, Rhode-Island: 201-215.

Durali-Muller, S. (2005): Roman lead and copper mining in Germany--Their origin and development through time, deduced from lead and copper isotope provenance studies. PhD Thesis, Univ. Franfurt, 147p. (available on line at http://www.mineralogie.uni-frankfurt.de/petrologiegeochemie/ dissertationen/diss0106/index.html.

Exposito, I., Martinez Poyatos, D., Simancas, J.F., Gonzalez Lodeiro, F., Azor, A. (1999): Geometry and kinematics of the Variscan evolution on both sides of the Ossa-Morena/Central Iberian Boundary. XV Reunion de Geologia del Oeste Peninsular-International Meeting on Cadomian Orogens, Badajoz, Spain. Extended Abstracts. Oxdford, p. 8.

Gale, N.H., Woodhead, A.P., Stos-Gale, Z.A., Walder, A., Bowen, I. (1999): Natural variations detected in the isotopic composition of copper: possible applications to archaeology and geochemistry. International Journal of Mass Spectrome try, 184: 1-9.

Gibbons, W., Moreno, M.T. (eds.) (2002): The geology of Spain, Geological Society, London: 649 p.

Hunt Ortiz, M. (2003): Prehistoric Mining and Metallurgy in South West Iberian Peninsula., BAR International Series S1188, Archaeopress, Oxford: 418 p.

Klein, S., von Kaenel, H.-M. (2000): The early Roman Imperial aes coinage I: Metal analysis and numismatic studies. Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau, 79: 53-106.

Klein, S., Lahaye, Y., Brey, G. P., von Kaenel, H.-M. (2004): The early Roman Imperial aes coinage II: Tracing the copper sources by lead--and copper-isotope analysis--copper coins of Augustus and Tiberius. Archaeometry, 46 (3): 469-480.

Larrea, F.J., Carracedo, M., Alonso, A., Ortega, L.A., Menendez, M. (1999): Postcollisional granitoids emplaced in a transtensional setting: The Cardena-Vergen de la Cabeza pluton (Los Pedroches Batholith, Spain). XV Reunion de Geologia del Oeste Peninsular-International Meeting on Cadomian Orogens, Badajoz, Spain. Extended Abstracts. Oxdford: p. 11.

Larson, P.B., Ramos, F.C., Maher, K., Gaspar, M., Chang, Z., Meinert, L.D., Wolff, J.A. (2002): Cu Isotopes: Tracing metal sources in ore deposits. Goldschmidt Conference. Abstracts, A432.

Lescuyer, J.L., Leistel, J.M., Marcoux, E., Milesi, J.P., Thieblemont, D. (1998): Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous peak sulphide mineralization in the Western Hercynides. Mineralium Deposita, 33: 208-220.

Markl, G., Lahaye, Y., Schwinn, G. (2006): Copper isotopes as monitors of redox processes in hydrothermal mineralization. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70: 4215-4228.

Marcoux, E. (1998): Lead isotope systematics of the giant massive sulphide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Mineralium Deposita, 33: 45-58.

Marcoux, E., Leistel, J.-M., Sobol, F., Milesi, J.-P., Lescuyer, J.-L., Leca, X. (1992): Signature isotopique du plomb des amas sulfures de la province de Huelva, Espagne. Consequences metallogeniques et geodynamiques. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 314, Serie II: 1469-1476.

Marcoux, E., Pascual, E., Onezime, J. (2002): Hydrothermalisme ante-Hercynien en Sud-Iberie: apport de la geochimie isotopique du plomb. Comptes rendus Geoscience, 334 (4): 259-265.

Pardo Alonso, M.V. (1999): The southern boundary of the Central Iberian zone (Spain), a new proposal: The Castuera-San Benito Fault. XV Reunion de Geologia del Oeste Peninsular-International Meeting on Cadomian Orogens, Badajoz, Spain. Extended Abstracts. Oxford: p. 14.

Pomies, C., Cocherie, A., Guerrot, C., Marcoux, E., Lancelot, J. (1998): Assessment of the precision and accuracy of lead-isotope ratios measured by TIMS for geochemical applications: example of massive sulphide deposits (Rio Tinto, Spain). Chemical Geology, 144: 137-149.

Rico, C., Domergue, C., Rauzier, M., Klein, S., Lahaye, Y., Brey, G., von Kaenel, H.-M. (2005-2006): La provenance des lingots de cuivre romains de Maguelone (Herault, France). Etude archeologique et archeometrique. Revue Archaeologique Narbonnaise, 38-39: 459-472.

San Jose, M.A.de, Herranz, P., Pieren, A.P. (2004): A review of the Ossa-Morena Zone and its limits. Implications for the definition of the Lusitan-Marianic Zone. Revision de la Zona de Ossa Morena y de sus limites. Consecuencias para la definicion de la Zona Lusitano-Marianica. Journal of Iberian Geology, 30: 7-22.

Santos Zalduegui, J.F., Garcia De Madinabeitia, S. Gil Ibarguchi, J.I., Palero, F. (2004): A lead istope database: The Los Pedroches--Alcudia Area (Spain); Implications for Archaeometallurgical connections across southwestern and southeastern Iberia, Archaeometry, 46 (4): 625-634.

Stos-Gale, Z., Gale, N.H., Houghton, J., Speakman, R. (1995): Lead Isotope Data from the Isotrace Laboratory, Oxford: Archaeometry Data Base 1, Ores from the Western Mediterranean. Archaeometry, 37/2: 407-415.

Tornos, F., Casquet, C. (2005): A new scenario for related IOCG and Ni-(Cu) mineralization: the relationship with giant mid-crustal mafic sills, Variscan Iberian Massif. Terra Nova, 17: 236-241.

Tornos, F., Chiaradia, M. (2004): Plumbotectonic Evolution of the Ossa Morena Zone, Iberian Peninsula: Tracing the Influence of Mantle-Crust Interaction in Ore-Forming Processes. Economic Geology, 99: 965-985.

Tornos, F., Galindo, C., Casquet, C., Rodriguez Pevida, L., Martinez, C., Martinez, E., Velasco, F., Iriondo, A. (2006): The Aguablanca Ni-(Cu) sulfide deposit, SW Spain: geologic and geochemical controls and the relationship with a midcrustal layered mafic complex. Mineralium Deposita, 41 (8): 737-769.

Woodhead, A.P, Gale, N.H., Stos-Gale, Z.A. (1999): An investigation into the fractionation of copper isotopes and its possible application to archaeometallurgy. In: S. Young, A.M. Pollard, P. Budd & R.A. Ixer (eds.): Metals in Antiquity, BAR International Series 792: 134-139.

Zhu, X.K., O'Nions, R. K., Guo, Y., Belshaw, N.S., Rickard, D. (2000): Determination of natural Cu-isotope variation by plasma-source mass spectrometry: implications for use as geochemical tracers. Chemical Geology, 163: 139-149.

S. Klein (1), C. Domergue (2), Y. Lahaye (3), G.P. Brey (1), H.-M. von Kaenel (4)

(1) Institui fur Geowissenschaften, Facheinheit Mineralogie--Petrologie und Geochemie, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Altenhoferallee ', D-60438 Frankfurt a. M. (Germany) sabine.klein@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de

(2) T.R.A.C.E.S (UMR 56 08 CNRS), Maison de la Recherche, Universite de Toulouse-Le Mirail, 5 allee Antonio-Machado, F-3'058 Toulouse Cedex 09 (France)

(3) GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Betonimiehenuja 4, 02'5' ESPOO (Finland)

(4) Institut fur Archaologische Wissenschaften, Abt. Archaologie und Geschichte der romischen Provinzen sowie Hilfswissenschaften der Altertumskunde, Gruneburgplatz ', D-60629 Frankfurt a. M. (Germany)
Table I.--Lead and copper isotope results of ores from South Spain.
Analysis by MC-ICP-MS. (2 a: standard deviation; CO: Cordoba, CR:
Ciudad Real, SE: Sevilla, BA: Badajoz, J: Jaen, MU: Murcia,
AL: Almeria, L: Leon).

Tabla I.--Resultados de los isotopos de plomo y cobre obtenidos de
las menas del S de Espana. Los analisis han sido realizados por
MC-ICP-MS. (2 a: desviacion standard; CO: Cordoba, CR: Ciudad Real,
SE: Sevilla, BA: Badajoz, J: Jaen, MU: Murcia, AL: Almeria, L: Leon).

Geoloqical             Sample    Dom. 87   Mines
Unit/District

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         POR 2     Aljustrel

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         CO 39     Cerro Muriano
                       3         CO 40     Casilla Cobre
                       4         CO 114    Gran Mina

District of Azuaga-    5         CO 25     La Pastora
Fuenteobejuna          6         CO 55     La Loba

District of Sevilla    7         SE 7      Gibla

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         CR 5      Q. Hierro
                       9         CR 5S     Q. Hierro

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        CO 19     Solana
Pedroches              12        CO 22     Encinilla
                       13        CO 4      Chap. Barrenado
                       14        CO 5      Cantos Blancos
                       15        CO 13     Montilla
                       16        CO 14     Medioduro
                       17        CO 16     Requeja
                       18        CO 17     Fontanar
                       19        CO 31     Torrubia
                       20        CO 32b    Zumajo
                       21        CO 34     Quebradillas
                       22        CO 34     Quebradillas
                       23        CO 38     A [degrees] Higueruela
                       24        CO 48     La Pililla
                       25        CO 49     Cort. Peralbo
                       26        CO 64     D. Lavera
                       27        CO 92     Tabernero
                       28        CO 93     Romana
                       29        CO 94b    Osi
                       30        CO 94b    Osi
                       31        CO 95     Quiros
                       32        CO 96a    Garabato
                       33        CO 96b    Garabato
                       34        CO 97a    Soberbio
                       35        CO 97b    Soberbio
                       36        CO 107    Posadilla
                       43        CO 61     C [degrees] Minillas

District of            37        CO 28     A [degrees] de la Virgen
Andujar-Montoro        38        CO 77     A [degrees] Almadenejos
                       39        CO 78     A [degrees] Cuezo
                       40        J 8       Escoriales
                       41        J 10      S. Galiarda

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        BA 37     Antonita
Pedroches              42        CO 1      Los Pobos
                       44        CO 98     A [degrees] Tomilloso
                       45        CO 99a    Cuzna
                       46        CO 99b    Cuzna
                       47        CO 99c    Cuzna

LINARES

District of Linares    48        J 14      Palazuelos
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        MU 7      Cala Reona
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        AL 5      Cueva Paloma

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        LE 6      Profunda

Geoloqical             Sample    Copper Ore    [sup.206] Pb/
Unit/District                    Type          [sup.204] Pb

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         secondary     18.27637

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         secondary     18.75073
                       3         secondary     18.27266
                       4         secondary     18.16754

District of Azuaga-    5         secondary     18.71701
Fuenteobejuna          6         primary+      18.17192
                                   secondary

District of Sevilla    7         secondary     18.28432

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         secondary     18.18677
                       9         primary       18.18419

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        secondary     18.89518
Pedroches              12        secondary     18.67031
                       13        secondary     18.26094
                       14        secondary     18.70590
                       15        secondary     19.71266
                       16        secondary     19.10664
                       17        secondary     18.87606
                       18        secondary     18.44970
                       19        secondary     18.44192
                       20        secondary     18.44796
                       21        secondary     18.56372
                       22        primary       18.58379
                       23        secondary     18.53373
                       24        secondary     18.46524
                       25        secondary     18.49089
                       26        secondary     18.57234
                       27        secondary     18.45616
                       28        secondary     18.72410
                       29        secondary     18.55484
                       30        primary       18.36207
                       31        secondary     18.45234
                       32        secondary     18.49068
                       33        secondary     18.53777
                       34        secondary     18.16586
                       35        secondary     18.77077
                       36        secondary     18.52617
                       43        secondary     18.42124

District of            37        primary       18.48508
Andujar-Montoro        38        secondary     19.22474
                       39        secondary     19.25110
                       40        secondary     18.38619
                       41        secondary     18.47242

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        secondary     18.17681
Pedroches              42        secondary     19.12643
                       44        secondary     18.32187
                       45        secondary     18.24682
                       46        secondary     18.22039
                       47        secondary     18.19698

LINARES

District of Linares    48        secondary     18.24194
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        secondary     18.75862
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        secondary     19.30910

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        secondary     18.83560

Geoloqical             Sample    2 [sigma]   [sup.207] Pb/
Unit/District                                [sup.204] Pb

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         0.00069     15.62711

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         0.00098     15.62019
                       3         0.00071     15.61073
                       4         0.00079     15.58193

District of Azuaga-    5         0.00019     15.65642
Fuenteobejuna          6         0.00006     15.60485

District of Sevilla    7         0.00012     15.61644

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         0.00056     15.62346
                       9         0.00018     15.62414

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        0.00117     15.64594
Pedroches              12        0.00038     15.65303
                       13        0.00079     15.61563
                       14        0.00045     15.65246
                       15        0.00018     15.71542
                       16        0.00037     15.67170
                       17        0.00075     15.65761
                       18        0.00007     15.63289
                       19        0.00025     15.64109
                       20        0.00031     15.64329
                       21        0.00076     15.64757
                       22        0.00092     15.65056
                       23        0.00027     15.64346
                       24        0.00026     15.63459
                       25        0.00036     15.63458
                       26        0.00051     15.64395
                       27        0.00042     15.63541
                       28        0.00045     15.61927
                       29        0.00020     15.64080
                       30        0.00048     15.61173
                       31        0.00012     15.63352
                       32        0.00031     15.63533
                       33        0.00045     15.63958
                       34        0.00024     15.59850
                       35        0.00108     15.64068
                       36        0.00058     15.64326
                       43        0.00029     15.63350

District of            37        0.00311     15.64420
Andujar-Montoro        38        0.00040     15.68409
                       39        0.00020     15.67989
                       40        0.00063     15.63508
                       41        0.00037     15.63851

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        0.00013     15.60339
Pedroches              42        0.00037     15.66968
                       44        0.00007     15.63843
                       45        0.00030     15.61348
                       46        0.00100     15.60695
                       47        0.00030     15.60940

LINARES

District of Linares    48        0.00035     15.61253
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        0.00046     15.67154
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        0.00033     15.70281

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        0.00023     15.70031

Geoloqical             Sample    2 [sigma]   [sup.208] Pb/
Unit/District                                [sup.204] Pb

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         0.00049     38.30711

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         0.00076     38.87358
                       3         0.00055     38.26239
                       4         0.00089     38.22799

District of Azuaga-    5         0.00021     38.63111
Fuenteobejuna          6         0.00015     38.31083

District of Sevilla    7         0.00022     38.33908

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         0.00060     38.30571
                       9         0.00006     38.30472

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        0.00118     38.36404
Pedroches              12        0.00056     38.70460
                       13        0.00068     38.37245
                       14        0.00057     38.61712
                       15        0.00021     38.53983
                       16        0.00024     38.57997
                       17        0.00081     38.65142
                       18        0.00009     38.51194
                       19        0.00024     38.59885
                       20        0.00046     38.61628
                       21        0.00076     38.67078
                       22        0.00049     38.68268
                       23        0.00047     38.56774
                       24        0.00006     38.46971
                       25        0.00027     38.55806
                       26        0.00063     38.59191
                       27        0.00042     38.56687
                       28        0.00043     38.84482
                       29        0.00032     38.58835
                       30        0.00044     38.34769
                       31        0.00017     38.55485
                       32        0.00033     38.59809
                       33        0.00053     38.63741
                       34        0.00022     38.29099
                       35        0.00106     38.51938
                       36        0.00049     38.68497
                       43        0.00032     38.53152

District of            37        0.00311     38.64382
Andujar-Montoro        38        0.00029     39.00950
                       39        0.00010     39.00836
                       40        0.00059     38.53145
                       41        0.00033     38.52577

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        0.00013     38.30804
Pedroches              42        0.00036     38.68986
                       44        0.00027     38.39026
                       45        0.00033     38.36094
                       46        0.00099     38.32816
                       47        0.00037     38.31693

LINARES

District of Linares    48        0.00034     38.34070
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        0.00034     39.08204
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        0.00030     38.96495

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        0.00025     38.53754

Geoloqical             Sample    2 [sigma]   [sup.207] Pb/
Unit/District                                [sup.206] Pb

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         0.00067     0.85506

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         0.00220     0.83305
                       3         0.00118     0.85430
                       4         0.00291     0.85768

District of Azuaga-    5         0.00060     0.83647
Fuenteobejuna          6         0.00098     0.85873

District of Sevilla    7         0.00028     0.85408

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         0.00144     0.85905
                       9         0.00027     0.85921

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        0.00243     0.82804
Pedroches              12        0.00099     0.83838
                       13        0.00207     0.85514
                       14        0.00124     0.83675
                       15        0.00083     0.79722
                       16        0.00061     0.82022
                       17        0.00225     0.82950
                       18        0.00107     0.84732
                       19        0.00066     0.84813
                       20        0.00092     0.84797
                       21        0.00216     0.84291
                       22        0.00189     0.84219
                       23        0.00104     0.84404
                       24        0.00038     0.84671
                       25        0.00044     0.84553
                       26        0.00166     0.84232
                       27        0.00125     0.84716
                       28        0.00159     0.83418
                       29        0.00066     0.84295
                       30        0.00118     0.85021
                       31        0.00046     0.84723
                       32        0.00098     0.84558
                       33        0.00150     0.84367
                       34        0.00074     0.85867
                       35        0.00237     0.83326
                       36        0.00126     0.84439
                       43        0.00112     0.84866

District of            37        0.00684     0.84633
Andujar-Montoro        38        0.00069     0.81582
                       39        0.00027     0.81449
                       40        0.00163     0.85038
                       41        0.00058     0.84659

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        0.00022     0.85842
Pedroches              42        0.00100     0.81927
                       44        0.00113     0.85353
                       45        0.00096     0.85568
                       46        0.00253     0.85656
                       47        0.00064     0.85779

LINARES

District of Linares    48        0.00099     0.85586
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        0.00059     0.83544
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        0.00067     0.81323

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        0.00085     0.83354

Geoloqical             Sample    2 [sigma]   [sup.208] Pb/
Unit/District                                [sup.206] Pb

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         0.00002     2.09605

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         0.00001     2.07317
                       3         0.00002     2.09389
                       4         0.00002     2.10416

District of Azuaga-    5         0.00001     2.06394
Fuenteobejuna          6         0.00001     2.10826

District of Sevilla    7         0.00000     2.09680

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         0.00001     2.10628
                       9         0.00003     2.10648

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        0.00001     2.03036
Pedroches              12        0.00002     2.07305
                       13        0.00000     2.10131
                       14        0.00002     2.06443
                       15        0.00001     1.95509
                       16        0.00000     2.01919
                       17        0.00001     2.04763
                       18        0.00000     2.08742
                       19        0.00001     2.09300
                       20        0.00001     2.09326
                       21        0.00001     2.08313
                       22        0.00001     2.08152
                       23        0.00001     2.08094
                       24        0.00001     2.08337
                       25        0.00000     2.08525
                       26        0.00001     2.07788
                       27        0.00001     2.08964
                       28        0.00000     2.07458
                       29        0.00001     2.07968
                       30        0.00001     2.08841
                       31        0.00000     2.08942
                       32        0.00001     2.08744
                       33        0.00001     2.08424
                       34        0.00001     2.10786
                       35        0.00001     2.05208
                       36        0.00000     2.08812
                       43        0.00001     2.09168

District of            37        0.00001     2.09054
Andujar-Montoro        38        0.00001     2.02910
                       39        0.00001     2.02628
                       40        0.00001     2.09570
                       41        0.00000     2.08554

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        0.00000     2.10753
Pedroches              42        0.00001     2.02285
                       44        0.00001     2.09533
                       45        0.00001     2.10232
                       46        0.00001     2.10361
                       47        0.00001     2.10567

LINARES

District of Linares    48        0.00001     2.10179
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        0.00001     2.08345
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        0.00001     2.01795

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        0.00000     2.04600

Geoloqical             Sample    2 [sigma]   [delta]
Unit/District                                [sup.65] Cu/
                                             [sup.65] Cu

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1         0.00002             1.91

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2         0.00002             0.50
                       3         0.00005            -0.17
                       4         0.00006             0.98

District of Azuaga-    5         0.00001            -0.15
Fuenteobejuna          6         0.00004            -0.42

District of Sevilla    7         0.00002            -1.16

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8         0.00002             0.04
                       9         0.00001             0.76

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11        0.00000             1.96
Pedroches              12        0.00001             0.61
                       13        0.00001             0.54
                       14        0.00002            -0.01
                       15        0.00004             0.47
                       16        0.00001             0.27
                       17        0.00003             1.38
                       18        0.00003             2.00
                       19        0.00002             1.63
                       20        0.00001             0.21
                       21        0.00005             0.76
                       22        0.00001            -1.04
                       23        0.00003             0.70
                       24        0.00002             2.45
                       25        0.00002             0.51
                       26        0.00003             0.97
                       27        0.00003             1.90
                       28        0.00002             0.71
                       29        0.00002             1.05
                       30        0.00001            -0.70
                       31        0.00001             0.82
                       32        0.00001             0.21
                       33        0.00004             0.42
                       34        0.00001             0.56
                       35        0.00005             0.29
                       36        0.00000             1.41
                       43        0.00003            -0.04

District of            37        0.00002             0.00
Andujar-Montoro        38        0.00000             0.02
                       39        0.00003             1.10
                       40        0.00005             1.12
                       41        0.00000             1.91

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10        0.00000             0.28
Pedroches              42        0.00003             0.35
                       44        0.00003             2.70
                       45        0.00003             0.22
                       46        0.00004             0.65
                       47        0.00000             1.18

LINARES

District of Linares    48        0.00002             0.29
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49        0.00000            -1.49
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50        0.00001            -1.59

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51        0.00002             0.51

Geoloqical             Sample    2 [sigma]
Unit/District

South Portugese Zone

Iberian Pyritic Belt   1             0.01

Ossa Morena Zone

District of Cordoba    2             0.01
                       3             0.01
                       4             0.01

District of Azuaga-    5             0.02
Fuenteobejuna          6             0.02

District of Sevilla    7             0.01

Central Iberian Zone

ALCUDIA-ALMADEN
(SANTA EUFEMIA)-
CASTUERA (AAC)

District of Alcudia    8             0.01
                       9             0.01

LOS PEDROCHES SECTOR

Inner batholithe
occurences (PBT)

District of Los        11            0.01
Pedroches              12            0.01
                       13            0.01
                       14            0.01
                       15            0.01
                       16            0.01
                       17            0.02
                       18            0.01
                       19            0.02
                       20            0.01
                       21            0.01
                       22            0.01
                       23            0.02
                       24            0.02
                       25            0.01
                       26            0.01
                       27            0.01
                       28            0.01
                       29            0.01
                       30            0.00
                       31            0.01
                       32            0.01
                       33            0.01
                       34            0.01
                       35            0.03
                       36            0.01
                       43            0.01

District of            37            0.01
Andujar-Montoro        38            0.01
                       39            0.02
                       40            0.01
                       41            0.01

Exo contact
batholithe (OVD)

District of Los        10            0.01
Pedroches              42            0.02
                       44            0.01
                       45            0.02
                       46            0.01
                       47            0.01

LINARES

District of Linares    48            0.01
--La Carolina

Southeast Volcanic
Province

District of            49            0.01
Cartagena-Mazarron

Internal Betics

District of Almeria    50            0.01

Cantabrian Zone

District of Leon       51            0.01
COPYRIGHT 2009 Universidad Complutense de Madrid
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Klein, S.; Domergue, C.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G.P.; von Kaenel, H.-M.
Publication:Journal of Iberian Geology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:6686
Previous Article:Facies associations, sequence stratigraphy and timing of the earliest Jurassic peak transgression in central Spain (Iberian Range): correlation with...
Next Article:Discussion on the article "Remarks on the Permian-Triassic transition in Central and Eastern Lombardy (Southern Alps, Italy)" by G. Cassinis, M....
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |