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The journal Kai Tiaki's role in developing research capability in New Zealand nursing, 1908-1959.

The need for strategies and processes to develop research capability in nursing is receiving increasing attention in nursing literature. Recently published studies suggest a shift in focus from building nursing research capability in academic institutions, (1) to developing it in clinical and non-academic settings. (2) Nevertheless, acceptance of the profession within academia has depended on nurses and others recognising nursing as a distinct discipline with its own research and scholarship. One factor Australian nurse scholars recently identified as facilitating the growth of nursing scholarship in that country was the discipline's "coming of age". They were proud that in the relatively short period of 25 years Australian nursing had matured to a point where 'the discipline had emerged as legitimate in its own right' and its scholarship had developed 'a particularly Australian character'. (3) A similar trajectory could be traced in New Zealand. Litchfield's history of the development of nursing research in New Zealand focuses on the time period from the 1970s onwards. She explains the impact of earlier overseas study opportunities, shifts in education, professional organisation support and individual nurses' commitment and success in building the profession's research capacity. (4) The establishment in New Zealand of post-registration university education for nurses in the early 1970s, which enabled the formal academic development of nursing scholarship and research, has also been addressed. (5)

This present article examines historical precursors to this development of research capability in New Zealand nursing and places these within an international context. In particular, it focuses on evidence in historical issues of Kai Tiaki, the country's only professional nursing journal and avenue for fostering the publication of nursing scholarship or research in the time period before the changes occurring in the 1970s. Through analysis of all issues over the Ave decades from the journal's inception in 1908, the research identifies mechanisms that developed nurses' professional scholarship and sparked their awareness of research. In this article it is argued that, although these strategies were not necessarily a deliberate strategy to build nurses' research capability, they were a necessary forerunners to it.

Background

Nursing in New Zealand had, by the early 1900s, achieved recognisable markers of a profession. New Zealand's small population and great distance from other countries meant considerable effort and determination were needed if New Zealand nurses were to participate in international professional affairs. These same factors also allowed the rapid establishment of other initiatives affecting nursing. It was the first country to have a chief nurse with a national role in a central government department, with Grace Neill holding the first appointment as Assistant Inspector of Hospitals from 1895. She attended international congresses and drafted the world's first specifically nursing legislation for state registration, the Nurses Registration Act 1901. This set up a process for nursing registration and regulation, and a mandatory three-year curriculum for all training hospitals. Neill's successor from 1906, Hester Maclean, instituted two professional initiatives that were already in place in other countries, such as Australia. In 1908 she founded the journal, Kai Tiaki, and in 1909 encouraged the separate nursing associations in the four main cities to amalgamate to form the New Zealand Trained Nurses Association (NZTNA). As chief nurse and first NZTNA president she ensured the profession's continuing active participation in international affairs. As journal editor she participated in the international exchange of articles and volumes among editors and was a member of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) publication committee. The strong connection with the ICN continued over the decades, with New Zealand nurse leaders attending its congresses and holding positions within the council. In all these developments, New Zealand therefore either led or was in line with international professional nursing developments.

The international development of nursing research capability, however, was distinctly different. American nurses led the way, well ahead of nurses in other countries. As early as the 1930s, the ICN made it clear that nurses needed to carry out research if they wanted to be regarded as belonging to a profession. (6) By the 1950s, many American nurses were confidently undertaking research into nursing education, organisation and practice and were completing higher degrees in universities. Their research had reached a critical mass that enabled the 1952 launch of the journal Nursing Research.

Analysis in a separate, unpublished research project by one of the authors of this article (PW) found that three American journals particularly fostered nursing research awareness and capability. The first issue of Nursing Research carried a lengthy report of a doctoral study. (7) Besides reporting completed projects the journal's three issues annually carried articles on other research matters, special sections summarising studies, and reviews of books that would be helpful to nurses wanting to understand more about research. Readers' requests for writers to include more information on methodology indicated a growing research capacity and capability. The American Journal of Nursing published lists of research projects twice a year until this function was taken over in 1954 by Nursing Research. The journal Nursing Outlook, established in 1953, also carried very brief (sometimes less than 50-word) summaries of research findings.

In other countries, the nursing profession had not reached this level of research capability. If nurses were involved in research, it was usually in large surveys of workforce issues or studies addressing problems with nursing education, often led by non-nurse researchers. The ICN's statement that nurses needed to undertake research to be considered a profession had not translated into the deliberate development of research capacity and capability. Nevertheless, the measures that can now be identified as its precursors were underway. These were encouraging nurses to write about their practice and raising nurses' awareness of research that affected nursing. Editors' concerted efforts to encourage nurses to write were more than simply a ploy to ensure sufficient material for each issue. They constituted a serious attempt to promote nursing scholarship. This present research therefore examined the New Zealand journal, Kai Tiaki, to identify its approaches to fostering research awareness and nursing scholarship.

Research design

Historical inquiry is the analysis and contextualised interpretation of historical material to explain continuity and change through time. Nurse-historian Siobhan Nelson reminds us that history is 'the interplay between historical data and the fusion of narrative and analytical writing'. (8) She justifiably challenged the way nurse-writers have tried to legitimate, regularise, format and constrain historical scholarship within the profession's understanding and lexicon of qualitative research. Historical inquiry in nursing needs to follow the methodological conventions observed by researchers in the discipline of history. (9) The explanation of the design of this research is therefore limited to a description of the historical primary sources and analytical approach.

Historical research requires careful selection of primary sources--those created in the time period being studied--that will yield relevant and reliable information to address the aim of the research. (10) The main historical primary sources selected for this research were the issues of Kai Tiaki published between 1908 and 1959. Besides this familiar and commonly used title within the profession, from 1908 to 1929 the journal was also known as the Journal of the Nurses of New Zealand and from 1930 as the New Zealand Nursing Journal. The journal had errors in the numbering of volumes so only the year and month are used here to designate volumes and issues. On Maclean's retirement in 1923, the NZTNA purchased Kai Tiaki but Maclean remained its editor until her death in 1932. The journal was initially published quarterly until 1930, when it began appearing every second month. From mid-1938 to 1947 it was published monthly, then two-monthly until 1959. Although successive editors bemoaned low subscription numbers, the journal was widely read and appreciated in the profession. The journal therefore played a key role in the lead-up to the deliberate development of research capacity and capability in New Zealand nursing.

For this project hard copies of these issues were searched for all material relating to research and nursing scholarship. Although digitised volumes are available for 1908-1929, all issues were browsed in hard copy to capture all relevant material and avoid missing smaller pieces that did not warrant inclusion in an index or could be missed by keyword searches of digitised volumes. The search period ended in 1959 as by then the journal's focus had shifted significantly away from nursing practice to industrial issues. This was also the time when some New Zealand nurses were beginning to study at universities overseas. The end of the period therefore marks a transition to a different level of research awareness.

In all, 325 past issues of the journal were examined and 148 items selected. Two groups of items were selected for analysis: articles, editorials, notices and position advertisements addressing the topic of research or nursing scholarship, and articles reporting nurses' scholarship and research. Items in the first group were analysed to identify the issues considered important at the time along with the ideas and strategies for developing scholarship and research awareness and capability that were evident. Analysis of the second group focused on identifying research and scholarship topics, style and authorship, and any changes in these through time. Analysis of historical primary sources needs to interpret the material within its social and cultural context. This was addressed by considering the changes in nursing, its place within the healthcare system and professional leadership in this time period.

Relevant material from major nursing journals in four other countries (Britain, Canada, the Unites States of America and Australia), which had been searched for allied research projects, is also included to provide an international context for this study. In particular, it is used to explain the international growth in nursing research, and international alignment of mechanisms within New Zealand to develop research awareness and nursing scholarship.

Developing nursing scholarship

In her first editorial in Kai Tiaki, Maclean exhorted nurses to contribute material. (11) This became a standard, regular call. It was common practice internationally for editors to chide and cajole nurses into contributing articles. (12) Editors drew on ideas from other journals in their efforts. The editor of the Sydney-based Australasian Nurses' Journal, established in 1903, challenged nurses by referring to American nurses' successful scholarship, hoping to provoke Australian nurses to write. (13) The 1925 ICN congress in Finland paid considerable attention to it, (14) and the Canadian Nurse reprinted an article from the American Journal of Nursing giving practical advice on how to write. (15)

Although Maclean welcomed any material, including news and social items, she particularly wanted nurses to write about their practice. Most issues carried articles from doctors. Maclean valued these for deepening nurses' understanding of their work but encouraged nurses to similarly contribute. This was a call repeated by successive editors. In 1938, for example, nurses were told the editorial committee looked forward to the time when every nurse not only subscribed but took an active part in maintaining the journal's position amongst nursing journals of the world. (16) Editors referred back to Maclean's initial request in their own call for nurses' contributions, even in the late 1950s. (17) Their success in fostering nursing scholarship overall will be considered in more depth later in this article. Two specific mechanisms for encouraging nurses to write about practice and professional issues will be considered first. These were essay competitions and nursing case studies, promoted jointly by the journal, professional association and nurse educators.

Essay competitions

In Britain, the Nursing Record began running an essay competition as early as 1888. The first question to be addressed was 'What constitutes an efficient nurse?' (18) Questions became more complex and often focused on hospital management. When the journal became the British Journal of Nursing, topics turned to a more clinical focus.

In New Zealand, from 1938 the nursing association ran an essay competition for students in hospital schools of nursing. The initial topic was how nursing technique was a link in the prevention of disease, and the first, second and third prize winners' essays were published. (19) The association's Nursing Education Committee declared that 70 per cent of the essays had been of a very high standard. (20) The following year the committee decided the competition would continue as an annual event. It would set the questions, each hospital would select its best essay and an independent judge would decide the prize winner who would receive a book and a trophy for her school. The question that year kept the preventive focus, asking candidates to write about personal hygiene and its importance in a nurse's life. (21)

In ensuing years nurses wrote, for example, about nursing patients with tuberculosis or those having a hysterectomy, the importance of early treatment in cancer and the part parent visiting should play in a hospitalised child's routine. (22) Psychiatric nurses were asked, for example, about the value of occupational therapy and how a nurse could assist a family adjusting to their young child being admitted to a psychiatric hospital. (23) Maternity nurses had the chance to write about establishing breastfeeding. (24) In 1947, reflecting the post-war context, they were asked to explain the early labour care of an English bride newly arrived in New Zealand. (25) Occasionally nurses were set more general topics, such as Grace Neill's professional contribution, or the principle of doing no harm. (26) They were also notified of a 1958 ICN competition on incorporating ethics into all nursing subjects taught.

At times the Education Committee was disappointed with entries, either in number or quality. This was particularly so in its first case study competition in 1943, the focus of which was an obstetric topic. (27) Nevertheless, case studies were another significant means of encouraging nurses to write about their practice.

Case studies

The concept of describing a "case" was familiar in medicine in the nineteenth century. Nurses would have understood the idea in the Nursing Record's 1890 essay competition requiring them to describe at least four cases they had personally nursed. (28) Nurses in different countries occasionally followed the medical profession's example in writing accounts of "interesting cases" where the course of illness had been in some way unusual. In 1907, for example, an Australian nurse wrote about a case of typhoid fever with numerous complications. (29)

Qualified nurses and students in New Zealand published case studies related to patients with a range of conditions, including rat bite fever, Addison's anaemia, actinomycosis and a child with tetanus; and on different forms of treatment such as the Miller-Abbott tube used for paralytic ileus. (30) Four cases of typhoid fever from one family were the subject of a New Zealand backblocks hospital nurse's account in 1912. (31) Nurses sometimes published together, (32) but articles often carried no author name. (33)

Internationally, after its introduction by an American nurse, the profession gradually incorporated into clinical nursing education a particularly nursing form of the case study. (34) Canadian nurse educators also acknowledged the method's antecedents, both in Florence Nightingale's encouragement of nurses' written reflection on patient care and in the use of case studies in various avenues of education outside of nursing. They valued case studies for focusing students on the patient, developing students' observation skills and ability to learn independently, and for combining theoretical learning and experience. (35)

New Zealand nurses became aware of the case study as an educational method through a paper presented at the 1927 ICN congress in Geneva by Gertrude Hodgman from Yale University. Her paper was published in various nursing journals. (36) New Zealand nurses' international visits in the 1930s also stimulated its acceptance. (37) Finally, after an article drawing on a Canadian survey of nursing education and Canadian and American literature explained the case study's process and benefits, the approach became firmly established in New Zealand. (38) The significant point on this final article was that it explained the emphasis on nursing, rather than the previous convention of focusing on a case's medical details. The writer noted that it could therefore be called a nursing study. This was an indicator that the profession was beginning to recognise its distinct area of scholarship, a form of "coming of age".

Students' nursing case studies were sometimes published in Kai Tiaki. They commonly addressed care of patients with medical conditions, such as agranulocytosis, pyelitis and acute nephritis, or patients receiving new treatments such as sulphathiazole for staphylococcal septicaemia. (39) Sometimes student authors were unnamed. (40) Students' case studies often ended with a reflection on the assignment's value for their learning, perhaps as a gesture towards the tutor or maybe in hope of a better mark. Nurse B.G. Weir of Auckland Hospital declared the case study had helped her discover the valuable part a nurse played and the tremendous responsibility placed upon her. (41) Nurse N.M. Buckland of New Plymouth Hospital found it had been 'a great help'. (42) With her tutor's assistance she had learned which of the various nursing measures to stress and their order of importance. At the end of this study the editor explained that nursing studies could be in an essay form that made it more interesting and personal, or in tabulated form that assisted the nurse to collect her material, learn in an orderly manner, and prepare for examinations.

Whether written by registered nurses or students, case studies varied in style from short, pithy accounts, to chatty descriptions and to a more serious discursive style. They therefore differed in their ability to develop nurses' writing but all contributed to the growth of nursing scholarship, a forerunner to research capability.

Developing New Zealand nursing scholarship

Nurses made a substantial contribution to the journal. Between 1930 and 1955, for example, besides the competition essays and case studies, it published 38 articles written by registered nurses and two by student nurses, and reprinted six nursing articles that had been published in overseas journals. The pieces by New Zealand nurses offered opinions on professional issues or addressed matters affecting nursing, health education and nursing education. (43) More clinical topics included the awareness of psychological factors affecting nursing, (44) and specific accounts of practice. (45) Nurses also wrote about work in different practice settings. (46) They addressed nursing related to (sometimes new) forms of medical or surgical treatment. (47) One nurse wrote with a doctor on intravenous practice, another with a hospital pharmacist on drug administration. (48) In 1944, two nurses wrote together, describing a situation where the new drug, penicillin, had been successfully used. (49)

Fourteen of the 22 New Zealand nursing articles published in the 1930s carried no author's name. Of these, six gave a descriptor such as "a registered nurse" or "a probationer nurse", three gave their initials at the end, and Ave carried no identifier at all. (Case studies in the 1930s showed similar proportions, with half of the sixteen studies carrying no author name.) In contrast medical authors in the journal were always named. The proportion of named and unnamed nursing articles was reversed in the 1940-1955 period when only four of the sixteen New Zealand articles were without an author name. (Only one author of the ten case studies in this period was unnamed). Either editorial policy had changed with respect to identifying nurse authors, or individual nurses themselves were now willing to add their names. Whatever its impetus, the change suggests the profession's greater confidence that nurses had something worthwhile to say and should therefore be identified. This was another indicator of the profession's "coming of age" in its field of scholarship.

Articles varied in style from discussion papers and essays, to information neatly compressed under headings or presented as briefly jotted points, depending on whether nurses wanted to raise issues, recount personal experiences or instruct. While articles came mostly from hospital nurses, other contributors were those in public health, rural and city district nursing, specialist clinics, mental health, postgraduate study, nursing education and leadership roles. In the late 1950s, however, a significant change occurred in editorial policy. The journal gave far more emphasis to industrial and professional issues and very little to nursing practice. In doing this, the journal's role in fostering scholarship was beginning to change.

Developing research awareness and skills

The New Zealand journal kept nurses well abreast with international research developments. It frequently carried small items notifying nurses of medical research, particularly relating to cancer. (50) It also carried international nursing research. In 1938, for example, the editor translated to the local situation the findings of an experiment by two nurses studying at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York, who had investigated the most effective lubricant for rubber catheters. (51)

Travel scholarships to other countries in the 1930s and visits of American nurses to New Zealand also enhanced awareness of research. Professor Hudson from Columbia University, for example, travelled to New Zealand in 1938 and local nurses acknowledged there was a great deal to learn from New York, a city unafraid to experiment and one that had established the first nursing professorship in the world. (52)

The need for nurses to have research skills was internationally recognised, though development of such was limited. An ICN nursing service survey in 1949, with detailed information from sixteen countries, commented that the nurse's place in the health team was difficult to define and nurses were presently ill-equipped to do the further research necessary. If however, they were trained in research, the status of the profession would be improved. (53) In 1955 the ICN issued specific advice on the method for surveying a nursing school and this was published in the New Zealand journal. (54) New Zealand's nursing association had previously in 1930 reported a survey on the amount of time student nurses spent on domestic and non-professional work in each year of their training. The result was considered an eye-opener. (55) Few avenues existed in New Zealand, however, for actively developing research skills. A post-registration course had been available to nurses since 1928, but its curriculum did not specifically include research, although it promoted nursing scholarship.

There is very little evidence to indicate that New Zealand nurses were directly engaged in research in these decades. From 1932 the Association's Education Committee published its annual surveys of nursing procedures, but these were more an effort to standardise practice throughout the country by combining the best aspects of procedures used in the teaching hospitals. In the 1930s and 1940s, however, the journal was able to publish two forms of research by local nurses. In 1933 it reported a trial undertaken by four nurses. A school nurse (Cox), a nurse inspector (North) and two nurses caring for Maori in the rural district (Uniacke and Hill) had investigated the best home treatment for scabies, impetigo and pediculosis. Their study included 333 cases and compared two treatments for scabies, two for impetigo and four for pediculosis. The nurses noted the number of treatments needed and the number of days taken to effect a cure. Comparative costs were also calculated. The district's medical officer of health, Dr H.B. Turbott, wrote the article, apparently to support the nurses and ensure their research was published and therefore available to others practising in similar settings. He named the nurses, made it clear that it was a district nursing study and noted his admiration of the nurses' skill in carrying it out in difficult conditions. (56)

The second report in 1944 was on the nursing care of the chronically ill patient. In this the unnamed author had gathered observations from matrons in charge of hospitals for the "chronic sick" and from nurses who had themselves been patients. (57) Although only two nursing research projects were reported in this period, they are nonetheless significant forerunners of the development of New Zealand nursing research capability.

Precursors to developing nurses' research capability

Research capability in the profession was built on a foundation of nursing scholarship and research awareness. Since the 1920s American nurses had advocated research-mindedness as a vital element in advancing the profession. By 1953 the Nursing Research editor felt able to say that the 'spread of the research attitude' seemed 'highly significant and promising for the future'. (58) Elsewhere at this time, however, little had happened in developing research capability since the ICN's clear message twenty years earlier. Only a few nurses outside of the United States of America were joining research teams. Opportunities for employment in research were sporadically advertised in nursing journals. At the international level, applicants in 1950 for the position of the Florence Nightingale International Foundation's director were expected, however, to have not only good nursing qualifications and wide nursing experience but also experience in research methods. (59)

Although by the 1950s there were only a few examples of nursing research in New Zealand, the trajectory of building research capability can be traced from its two precursors, the growth of nursing scholarship and research awareness. The nursing journal played a significant part in this process. The intent of Hester Maclean and her successors in publishing reprints or excerpts of overseas articles relating to research was to raise nurses' awareness of research rather than encourage them to engage directly in it. The country's lack of professional education for research until the 1970s meant nurses had little opportunity to acquire research skills. It is therefore significant that two accounts of nursing research by New Zealand nurses were published in the 1930s and 1940s. The fact that the first was written by a doctor on behalf of nurses suggests the nurses lacked confidence in their ability in this new area. Or perhaps carrying out the research had taken all the time and energy they had in their busy professional lives and they were glad of the help in this final stage of reporting the results. Although the shift to naming authors was starting at the time of the second study's publication, the author did not identify herself. As only the one nursing research article had previously been published, and then with a doctor as author, perhaps she felt reluctant to claim the new role as an independent nurse researcher.

Besides raising research awareness, the journal actively fostered various forms of nursing scholarship. It was not alone in this venture. Nursing schools adopted the case study as a method for expressing nursing practice, (60) and the journal published many from students and registered nurses. The professional association sponsored an essay competition, nursing schools encouraged students to enter, and the journal published winning entries. This represented a concerted, joint effort by three major sources of influence over the capability and future direction of the nursing profession in New Zealand. It needs to be acknowledged that Kai Tiaki would have been expected to publish the essays as it was the official journal of the association at this time. At the same time, editors would have been pleased to receive this material for its issues. Nevertheless, the journal played a deliberate part in fostering nursing scholarship. Editors encouraged nurses to write about their practice and nurses responded to the call. A wealth of articles explained aspects of nursing care, different nursing practice settings and professional issues.

Despite New Zealand's great distance from other countries, small size and population, the editors ensured it was in line with international trends in fostering nursing scholarship. Maclean's involvement with the ICN publication committee, and later nurse leaders' engagement in ICN and international conferences, meant that the vigorous international push to get nurses to write for their own professional journals was incorporated into professional activities in New Zealand.

In this review two forms of the profession's "coming of age" in relation to research have been identified. By the end of the 1930s, nurses had adapted the case study to focus on nursing practice, differentiating it from the medical case study and therefore identifying they had their own sphere of professional knowledge and scholarship, or at least their own way of expressing patient care. In the 1940s and 1950s the proportion of named authors steadily increased. Instead of up to half of all nursing articles carrying no author identification, as in previous decades, only a quarter of articles now had no author named. It is unclear whether this was a shift in editorial policy or whether individual nurse writers now felt confident adding their name to their submitted work. Either way, it suggests a change in how the profession regarded itself. It signifies growing confidence that nurses had worthwhile opinions and useful perspectives to offer on practice and should therefore be named. It therefore shows an increasing esteem for nurses' scholarship. The development of the nursing case study and the growth in confidence seen through named authorship were earlier forms of the "coming of age" that recent nurse scholars have also identified as crucial to the development of nursing research capability. (61)

Endnote References

(1) B. Green, J. Segrott, H. Priest, A. Rout, M. McIvor, J. Douglas, Y. Flood, S. Morris & C. Rushton, 'Research capacity for everyone? A case study of two academic nursing schools' capacity building strategies', Journal of Research in Nursing, 12, 3 (2007), pp.247-65.

(2) P.A. Jamerson, A.F. Fish & G. Frandsen, 'Nursing Student Research Assistant program: A strategy to enhance nursing research capacity building in a Magnet status pediatric hospital', Applied Nursing Research, 24 (2011), pp.110-13; L. O'Byrne & S. Smith, 'Models to enhance research capacity and capability in clinical nurses: a narrative view', Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20 (2010), pp.1365-71; L. Travis & M.K. Anthony, 'Energizing the research enterprise at non-academic health center schools of nursing', Journal of Professional Nursing, 27, 4 (2011), pp.215-20.

(3) L. Stockhausen & S. Turale, 'An explorative study of Australian nursing scholars and contemporary scholarship', Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43, 1 (2011), pp.89-96, quotation on p.93.

(4) M. Litchfield, To Advance Health Care: The Origins of Nursing Research in New Zealand, New Zealand Nurses Organisation, Wellington, 2009.

(5) N. Chick & N. Kinross, Chalk and Cheese. Trail-blazing in New Zealand: A Story told through Memoir, N. Chick & N. Kinross, Christchurch, 2006; P. Wood & S. Knight, Achieving University Education for New Zealand Registered Nurses: The Role of the C.L Bailey Nursing Education Trust, Graduate School of Nursing, Midwifery & Health, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 2010.

(6) 'A revision of nursing technique', Kai Tiaki (KT), March (1933), pp.7-9.

(7) M.J. Mack, 'The personal adjustment of chronically ill old people under home case', Nursing Research, 1, 1 (1952), pp.9-30.

(8) S. Nelson, 'A history of small things', in J. Latimer, ed, Advanced Qualitative Research for Nursing, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 2003, pp.211-29, quotation on p.216.

(9) J. Tosh, with S. Lang, The Pursuit of History: Aims, Methods and New Directions in the Study of Modern History, 5th ed., Pearson Longman, Harlow, UK, 2012.

(10) P.J. Wood, 'Understanding and evaluating historical sources in nursing history research', Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 27, 1 (2011), pp.25-33.

(11) 'The purposes of the journal', KT, January (1908), p.1.

(12) See for example 'The new journal', editorial, Australasian Nurses' Journal, 3, 3 (1908), pp.81-82; 'The responsibilities of a nurse to her nursing journal', Australasian Nurses' Journal, 17, 12 (1919), p.406.

(13) 'The new journal'; 'The responsibilities of a nurse to her nursing journal'; 'Our "journal"', editorial, Australasian Nurses' Journal, 8, 2 (1910), p.38; Australasian Nurses' Journal, 17, 12 (1919), p.406.

(14) M. Breay, 'The aims of a professional journal', Canadian Nurse, 21, 12 (1925), pp.631-2; M. Roberts, 'How to make a journal useful and attractive', Canadian Nurse, 22, 1 (1926), pp.8-13.

(15) M. Goodnow, 'Writing--a duty', Canadian Nurse, 20, 1 (1924), pp.804-06.

(16) 'Editorial. New Zealand Nursing Journal (Kai Tiaki)', KT, July (1938), pp.171-2.

(17) 'Message from Director, Division of Nursing, Department of Health. The purposes of the "Journal"', KT, January (1958), p.4.

(18) 'Competitive prize essay', Nursing Record, 1, 4 (1888), p.46.

(19) 'Nursing as a link in the prevention of disease', KT, October (1938), p.279 & pp.282-3.

(20) 'The hospital essay competition', KT, September (1938), pp.245-50.

(21) 'Branch notes. Wellington', KT, August (1939), pp.294-5.

(22) J. Wilson, 'A nursing study of a case of pulmonary tuberculosis', KT, February (1949), pp.9-12; E. Lindsay, 'The pre-operative and post-operative case of a case of hysterectomy', KT, February (1950), pp.7-10; M. de Latour, 'What steps are being taken to bring before people of this country the importance of early treatment of cancer? Why is early diagnosis of this disease valuable and how can you as a nurse contribute?', KT, June (1953), pp.90-93; J. Allen, 'Discuss the psychological effect on a young child of a stay in hospital and the part parents' visiting should play in his routine', KT, April (1955), pp.37-39.

(23) G. Cock, 'The value of occupational therapy in the treatment of mental disorders, and the part played by the nurse,' KT, December (1953), pp.177-80; R. Maniapoto, 'A young child is admitted to a psychiatric hospital, What are the family reactions likely to be and how can the psychiatric nurse assist the family to adjust to this situation?', KT, December (1954), pp.209-10.

(24) J.O.M. Pipe, 'The importance and establishment of breastfeeding', KT, April (1945), pp.99-101.

(25) S. Hickman, 'The general care of an English bride, newly arrived in New Zealand, who arrives in hospital in the early stages of labour', KT, March (1947), pp.39-41.

(26) H. Campbell, 'Mrs Grace Neill. Her life and work and her contribution to nursing in New Zealand', KT, June (1945), pp.146-9; M. Karl, 'It may seem a strange principle to enunciate as the first requirement of a hospital that it should do the sick no harm. (Florence Nightingale.) What special significance has this statement for the nurse who is responsible for the complete welfare of her patient?', KT, February (1956), pp.6-8.

(27) 'Obstetrical Case Study Competition, 1943. Criticism of Entries', KT, January (1944), p.21.

(28) 'Competitive prize essay. Seventeenth competition', British Journal of Nursing, 4, 114 (1890), p.271.

(29) 'A case of typhoid fever with numerous complications, including perforation-operation-recovery', Australasian Nurses' Journal, 5 (1907), p.308.

(30) M.E. Burke, 'Rat bite fever', KT, September (1938), pp.241-2; N. Knight, 'Nursing treatment of Addison's Anaemia', KT, July (1930), pp.187-8; P. Floyd, 'A case study: Actinomycosis', KT, October (1946), pp.274-6; M.B. Mulligan, 'Case history of a child aged eleven years who had contracted tetanus', KT, November (1944), pp.258-9; K.F. Dalls, 'The Miller-Abbott Tube in the treatment of paralytic ileus', KT, November (1939), pp.393-4.

(31) 'Cases of typhoid fever', KT, April (1912), p.29.

(32) B. Jones & R. Watson, 'A case of actinomycosis infection of the lung treated with penicillin', KT, May (1944), pp.112-14.

(33) See for example 'A case of agranulocytosis', KT, March (1937), pp.67-68; 'An interesting case of scarlet fever (Haemorrhagic)', KT, May (1930), pp.159-60; 'Pyloric stenosis in twins', KT, July (1936), pp.143-4.

(34) M. Domitilla, 'An experiment suggesting a teaching method for the Head Nurse', American Journal of Nursing, 24, 7 (1924), pp.537-41.

(35) O. Lilly, 'Case study as a means of teaching nurses to teach themselves', Canadian Nurse, 23, 4 (1927), pp.193-5; A. McLeod, 'The student nurses' monthly case report', Canadian Nurse, 21, 5 (1925), pp.252-4; E.M. Stuart, 'The case study method of ward teaching', Canadian Nurse, 28, 1 (1932), pp.26-28.

(36) See for example 'The case study method,' British Journal of Nursing, 75, 1910 (1927), pp.210-02.

(37) 'Items of interest from Miss Barnett', KT, July (1932), p.157; I. Martin, 'Nursing education', KT, January (1939), pp.5-6.

(38) 'The nursing study', KT, July (1939), pp.237-40.

(39) I. Wills, 'A case of agranulocytosis', KT, October (1939), pp.384-5; E. Warner, 'Nursing study of a case of pyelitis', KT, March (1930), p.62; P. Williams, 'Case study--acute nephritis', KT, November (1945), pp.295-7; M. Gough, 'A case of staphylococcal septicaemia successfully treated with sulphathiazole', KT, June (1942), pp.183-4.

(40) See for example 'Nursing study', KT, May (1939), pp.174-8; 'Intracranial tumours', KT, June (1939), pp.12-14.

(41) B.G. Weir, 'A case of removal of senile cataract', KT, January (1941), pp.9-12.

(42) N.M. Buckland, 'A nursing study. Lobar pneumonia', KT, May (1940), pp.139-42, quotation on p.142.

(43) E.R. Bridges, 'Hospital social service. The hospital almoner', KT, September (1937), pp.200-06; F.J. Cameron, 'Acceptable standards of paediatric nursing service', KT, October (1953), pp.146-50; E. Paora, 'Public health and other problems of a Maori Health District and suggestions for improvement', KT, September (1940), pp.295-6; 'Lecture to lay audience and farmers' wives on "hydatids"', KT, January (1930), p.135; 'Communicable disease nursing. How to instruct the pupil nurses', KT, September (1930), pp.257-8.

(44) 'Family forces affect the individual', KT, December (1954), pp.222-3; 'Psychology and nursing', KT, January (1930), pp.16-18; 'Nursing deals with not only diseases but personalities', KT, February (1939), pp.50-53.

(45) 'Aseptic technique in limb amputations', KT, July (1939), p.258; P. Beaumont-Orr, 'Nursing care of lobectomy', KT, November (1946), pp.307-08; 'Cod liver oil treatment of wounds', KT, January (1938), p.20; E.A. Gell, 'Nursing cases of congenital dislocation of the hips following manipulations', KT, December (1941), pp.406-08; 'The nursing care of patients after intensive X-ray treatment', KT, August (1938), pp.203-04; 'The nursing care of the chronic patient', KT, June (1944), pp.127-30; H. Wallis, 'Pathological fracture due to parathyroid tumour', KT, October (1950), pp.174-5.

(46) F.J. Cameron, 'A day in the country with the district health nurse', KT, January (1946), pp.6-9; M. Corkhill, 'Bedside care in the home', KT, March (1946), pp.53-58; C. McKenny, 'The V.D. clinic', KT, November (1934), p.199; 'One wet day in the life of a Plunket Nurse', KT, January (1930), pp.22-24; 'Outpatients department', KT, May (1930), p.136 & p.138; K. Rutherford, 'My work as the rural district nurse', KT, December (1953), pp.174-6; 'The district health nurse at work in the city', KT, April (1946), pp.77-81; 'Venereal disease clinic', KT, May (1930), pp.118-20.

(47) D. Barron, 'Sunlight treatment or actinotherapy', KT, March (1935), pp.14-16; P.E. Borlase, 'Treatment for arthroplasty of the hip with vitallium moulds', KT, June (1950), pp.110-13; C. Braethwaite, 'Nursing treatment. Trans-urethral resection', KT, September (1936), pp.182-3; A.M. Brown, 'The treatment of peripheral vascular disease by venous occlusion', KT, December (1940), pp.390-92; E.M. Irving, 'Nursing treatment in the oxygen tent', KT, August (1939), p.276; E. Kellahan, 'Nursing treatment of schizophrenia by hypoglycaemic shock', KT, November (1939), pp.390-92; M. Sheehan, 'The story of sulphanilamide', KT, February (1939), pp.64-65.

(48) H. McCombie & J.S. Aitken, 'Wellington Hospital intravenous practice and technique', KT, October (1942), pp.249-53; E.M. Summers & J.S. Peel, 'Drugs and the nurse', KT, December (1948), pp.254-5.

(49) B. Jones & R. Watson, 'A case of actinomycosis infection of the lung treated with penicillin', KT, May (1944), pp.112-14.

(50) See for example 'Cancer research fund', KT, November (1930), p.319; 'War on cancer', KT, March (1930), p.62.

(51) 'Lubricants for rubber catheters', KT, July (1938), pp.175-7.

(52) 'Visit of Miss Hudson to Wellington', KT, July (1938), p.195.

(53) 'International Council of Nurses', KT, August (1949), pp.76-77.

(54) 'How to survey a school of nursing', KT, February (1955), p.20.

(55) 'Editorial', KT, March (1930), pp.51-52.

(56) H.B. Turbott, 'Treatment of scabies, impetigo and pediculosis', KT, January (1933), p.316, p.318 & p.320.

(57) 'The nursing care of the chronic patient', KT, June (1944), pp.127-30.

(58) M. Bridgman, 'The research attitude', Nursing Research, 2, 2 (1952), p.51.

(59) 'International Council of Nurses', British Journal of Nursing, 98, 2182 (1950), p.64.

(60) 'Items of interest from Miss Barnett'; Martin; 'The nursing study'.

(61) Stockhausen & Turale.

Pamela J. Wood, PhD, RN. Associate Professor, School of Nursing & Midwifery. Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Katherine Nelson, PhD, RN. Senior Lecturer, Graduate School of Nursing, Midwifery & Health. Victoria University of Wellington, NZ.
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Date:Mar 1, 2013
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