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The investigation of methods leading to conflict reduction among principals and employees of Bank Saderat.

INTRODUCTION

Conflict is a natural and usual part of our life and is the reality with which the human has been acquaintance during the history, however it unfortunately has become pugnacity and enemy due to lack of appropriate management. Therefore, the individuals have the unpleasant background and look the conflict as the negative phenomenon today. Conflict happens when 2 or some individuals are against each other, since their needs, desires, objectives and values are different (Toomi). In other words, conflict is a process in which a person finds that the other person has negatively affected the things he is following.

Conflict is almost always with the anger, frustration, pain, anxiety, or fear feeling. While conflict and our conception tend to negative imagination, it is not necessarily negative and this is the ability to manage the conflict which affects its income.

The bottom line is that although the conflict is inevitable and it happens due to different over objectives, values, and beliefs, it can be leaded, minimized, and solved.

Therefore it seems necessary to aware of conflict management knowledge and skills to use it. As, even some believe that the knowledge on how to manage the conflicts is as important as that on how to read, write, and speak. The conflict management is the process of planning to hinder the conflict which may the organizing to solve the conflict is where it occurs.

Perspectives on conflict:

We will find that there are three perspectives on conflict, if we have a glance on management knowledge transformations after industrial revolution:

1- Management classic theorists (traditional perspective):

This view advocates consider "conflict" synonym with the words such as rebellion, recalcitrance, demolition, and anarchy. As they are detrimental they should be avoided by the individuals, consequently the organization manager is responsible for rescuing the organization of the conflict. In this view, it was assumed that conflict is bad and harmful, since the conflict was negative and must be avoided.

"The scientific management experts such as Tiloor believed that any conflict would finally threaten the management power, thus it should be avoided and solved immediately." [12]

"The traditional view was coordinated with the attitudes were common about the group in 1930's and 1940's. The results of research conducted (like Throne) indicated that conflict outcome is harmful and it is occurred due to lack of appropriate communication and confidence among the individuals and the managers also do not pay attention to their employees' needs and desires." [11]. The group presents a simple solution to investigate the behavior of individuals who cause conflict within the organization, since they assign conflict bad, detrimental, and harmful and insists on avoiding from it. The view considers the organization coordinated and coherent set created to a common purpose. According the view, it should not be any conflict in the organization. Accordingly, they know the conflict a symptom of management weakness and deliberate effort of problematic individuals. Therefore, there is no expectation from the subordinate staff to object the management decisions, otherwise they consider it an anti value and drive it out of the system.

2- Human relationship school perspective (behavioral):

Human relationship school theorists find the conflict a natural and inevitable matter and believe that it is not possible to avoid from creating or removing it, however it can be minimized. Conflict will have imminent and inevitable outcomes in any organization, it is not disadvantaging, and it potentially creates the positive power to assist the organization performance. "Human relationship perspective on conflict was common since late 1940's to second part of 1970's."

"The organization success key is not the official structure, regulations, and provisions, but creativity, impressibility, and adaptability. Therefore, the organization success requires conflict, as the various views can put on a table and investigate the new methods to what can be created. The obvious contradiction among individuals is reckoned as a symptom of organization health, since such contradiction can detect the issues latent in the organization, solve them, and also smooth the way to transformations by creating tension and eliminating "over-satisfaction with oneself'.".

Based on what has been said the way to encounter conflict in human relationship school perspective is different from the conflict resolution traditional method. It is emphasized the up-down management control as a preliminary instrument to solve the issue in traditional method, while it is emphasized the down-up employees' participation to solve the conflict in behavioral theory.

3- Interactionists perspective:

The third and the most important current theory is on that conflict not only can create a positive power in the organization, but also is an evident necessity to organizational activities which is called conflict interaction theory. "Although conflict should be accepted from the conflict perspective point of view, interaction theory is being emphasized so that a coordinated, calm, and stressless group is inclined to go back to its own human nature i.e. loses his feeling, being laze and weak, and does not react to changing, transformation, and innovation phenomenon. The main role of this thought is that this phenomenon makes the group leaders to attempt to keep the certain level of conflict and protect the conflict in a level which can remain the group lively, dynamic, creative, and faultfinder to itself."

"According to new attitude conflict is not an extra phenomenon that could be cut off or eliminated, but it is fundamental in root and it primarily should be recognized and accepted then attempt to counter it. The interaction school does not mean any conflict by any intense is good, but those are approved which reinforce the group and organization objectives, improve their performance. Thus, organization in which there are continuous and great conflicts, the organization performance can be leaded to the negative direct and the institute continuity may even be at risk."

Therefore, the organization with no conflict assigns the static, with no stimulus, and not sensitive to the transformation in the constructionism theory. Conflict is constructor and useful when leads to search and achieve the better ways to do the jobs and destroys the satisfaction with the current situation.

The relationship between conflict and performance:

As it was stated, conflict is not negative in nature, even it is sometimes constructor and positive as well. It can be concluded that the conflict is constructor when:

It results in explaining the issues, problems and solving the issues, involves the people in the affairs which is important to them, causes the communication, and assist people in develop, understanding, and skill and creating participation among the individuals through more learning about each other. The conflict is destructive when weakens the self-steam, gets attention away from the important activities, causes the individuals to be bipolar, increases the cooperation, and results in useless and irresponsible behaviors. They should attempt to decrease the conflicts.

Research objectives:

The main objective:

To recognize and stem the strategies resulting in cutting off the conflicts among the employees and managers of Bank Saderan in Char Mahal Bakhtiyari and to offer the suggestions;

The partial objectives:

1- To investigate the appropriate teaching training to decrease the conflicts among the employees and managers of Bank Saderan in Char Mahal Bakhtiyari;

2- To investigate the managers role in creating or not creating the contrast and conflict among the employees;

3- To investigate the personal factors and mental and motivation characteristics of employees and managers.

Research hypothesizes:

The following main questions are responded in this paper:

1- It seems there is the significant relationship between employees and managers' appropriate training and decreasing conflict in Bank Saderat.

2- It seems there is the significant relationship between constructive and pioneer relationship and decreasing employees and managers' conflict of Bank Saderat.

3- It seems there is a significant relationship between innovation and adaptation in the organization and decreasing employees and managers' conflict of Bank Saderat.

Statistical population:

Population consists of a group of individuals who have one or some characteristics in common which are paid attention by the researcher. The population may contain all the individuals of one type or the limited number of the same group.

Sample size and sampling method:

Cochran formula is used to sampling in the study.

N = N p(1 - p)[z.sup.2]/p(1 - p)[z.sup.2] + N[[epsilon].sup.2]

N = statistical population

Z = confidence coefficient to the results

(1-p): the ratio of absence of attribute in the sample which is considered equal 0.5.

Estimation accuracy (the maximum acceptable error) equals 0.05. [epsilon]

P: the ratio of attribute in the population, equals 0.5.

Regarding that the population is related to all the employees and managers of Bank Saderat in Chahar Mahal Bakhtiyari which is 410, the sample was selected in random and the questionnaire was distributed considering the size. Considering the above formula 100 questionnaires were filled to measure and were measured. 90 questionnaires were returned applicable.

Data collecting method:

To collect the data, the questionnaire was used which is the common way to gather the data. The questionnaire was used with regard to literature review which contains 15 questions investigating three researches hypothesizes. To analyze the data, software SPSS was used.

Questionnaire reliability:

The reliability is:

The total variance questionnaire has been evaluated, then alpha coefficient is evaluated using the forenamed formula which has been summarized to the research variables in the following table:
Table 1: alpha coefficients for variables

alpha    Questions number   Research variables

0.979    5                  Employees and managers' appropriate
                              training
0.954    5                  Constructive and pioneer relationship

0.868    5                  Innovation and agreement in the
                              organization


The hypothesis test:

The first hypothesis: it seems there is a significant relationship between the employees and managers' appropriate training in conjunction with achieving the objectives of Bank Saderat and the strategies to decrease the conflict.

Inferential statistics:

With regard to Chi-Square test by freedom degree 3 and 4, significance p value<0.05, our hypothesis is accepted.

The second hypothesis:

It seems there is a significant relationship between constructive and pioneer relationship and the strategies to decrease the managers and employees' conflict of bank.

With regard to Chi-Square test by freedom degree 4, significance p value<0.05, our hypothesis is accepted. The third hypothesis:

It seems there is the significant relationship between constructive and pioneer relationship and decreasing employees and managers' conflict of Bank Saderat.

With regard to Chi-Square test by freedom degree 4, significance p value<0.05, our hypothesis is accepted by possibility 95%.

The correlation coefficient:

The path coefficients, relationship significance, and confirmation and rejection of each hypothesis are shown separately in the following table.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 June 2014

Received in revised form 8 July 2014

Accepted 10 August May 2014

Available online 30 August 2014

REFERENCES

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Nahid Jahanbazi Goojani

Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, I.R.IRAN.

Corresponding Author: Nahid Jahanbazi Goojani, Department of management, payame noor university, I.R.Iran. po.box: 19395-3697; E-mail: sajadmalek66@yahoo.com Telephone: 00989133809866
Table 2: Inferential statistics- Chi-Square test

Question 8    Question 5    Question 4    Question 3

66.690 (a)    92.442 (a)    15.814 (b)    112.168 (b)
4             4             3             3
.000          .010          .001          .000

Question 8    Question 2

66.690 (a)    180.407 (a)    Chi-Square
4             4              Freedom degree
.000          .000           significance

Table 3: Inferential statistics- Chi-Square test

Question 14    Question 13    Question 10    Question 9

93.653 (b)     57.513 (a)     35.894 (a)     93.327 (a)
4              4              4              4
.010           .000           .007           .000

Question 14    Question 7

93.653 (b)     96.513 (a)    Chi-Square
4              4             Freedom degree
.010           .000          significance

Table 4: Inferential statistics- Chi-Square test

Question 15   Question 12   Question 11   Question 6

66.437        78.361        26.434 (b)    73.372 (b)
4             4             3             3
.006          .012          .000          .000

Question 15   Question 1

66.437        86.248 (a)    Chi-Square
4             4             Freedom degree
.006          .000          significance

Table 5: The results of correlation coefficients and
significance number of research model

Result (rejected    Significance    Correlation
or approved)        numbers         coefficient

approved            0.003           0.727

approved            0.001           0.877

approved            0.000           0.773

Result (rejected
or approved)        Hypothesis                          Hypothesis

approved            Employees and managers'             First
                    appropriate training and the
                    strategies to decrease conflict

approved            Constructive and pioneer            Second
                    relationship and the strategies
                    to decrease conflict

approved            Innovation and adaptation in the    Third
                    organization and the strategies
                    to decrease conflict
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Author:Goojani, Nahid Jahanbazi
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2014
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