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The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna/A importancia de uma Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlantica para a conservacao da fauna de riachos.

Introduction

Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, and because most include water bodies, some of these protected areas also protect the biodiversity of freshwater environments. However, as emphasised by Agostinho et al. (2005), these areas need the inventory studies of species to determine their effective importance to the preservation of the aquatic biota.

The lack of basic knowledge on the biodiversity of freshwater environments in Brazil is an obstacle to preservation studies (Agostinho et al., 2005). According to Rocha (2002), only 30% of the freshwater invertebrate diversity is presently known and some taxon as Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Bryozoa, Annelida and several insect groups need specialists, collections and/or minimum updated information on identification, distribution and autoecology.

Unlike invertebrates, vertebrates are better known. Regarding the freshwater diversity, fish deserves attention because Brazil is the holder of the largest ictiofauna of the world (Lewinsohn and Prado, 2002; Agostinho et al., 2005). Considering the occurrence and distribution of 2,587 freshwater fish species registered in the country (Buckup et al., 2007), headwater streams have an essential role to preserve this group as 70-80% of this richness is exclusively and/or preferably found in small water bodies (Buckup, 1999; Castro, 1999; Pompeu et al., 2009; Oyakawa and Menezes, 2010).

The knowledge availability also reflects the number of species considered endangered, and the most studied groups present a greater number of species in the Red Book List of the Endangered Brazilian Fauna (Machado et al., 2008). From 627 species, 194 (31%) are from freshwater, 134 are fish, 16 are amphibians and 45 are invertebrates.

Besides the need of knowing if the Environmental Protection Areas help the conservation of non-threatened or threatened aquatic taxa, the functionality effectiveness of these areas need to be analysed regarding their contribution as a reserve of local, regional and global biodiversity (Balian et al., 2008). Thus, in the present study, we made the fauna inventory of streams of three micro basins in Japi Mountain, located in a reserve of the Atlantic Forest. We also aimed to contribute to the knowledge of threatened species and areas that may serve as shelter for groups with restrict geographical distribution. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions.

Methods

Study area

Japi Mountain is located in the countryside of Sao Paulo state, is part of the Environmental Protection Areas (EPAs) of Jundiai (47.67% of the total area), Cabreuva (41.16%) and Cajamar (0.68%), and integrates the Piracicaba-Capivari-Jundiai Water Conservation and Management Unit that gathers important effluents of the Medium Tiete River basin (Figure 1). Japi Mountain has a total extension of 19,170 ha or 350 [Km.sup.2] and it is considered one of the last and biggest remaining continuous area of deciduous seasonal forest area of the state of Sao Paulo (Morellato, 1992).

In 1994, Japi Mountain was classified by UNESCO as a Reserve of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere and a world hotspot deserving priority actions to preserve its biodiversity. The protection and preservation of Japi Mountain are supported by several legal mechanisms like: the Protection Law for Animals (Decree No 24645/34); Water Code (Decree No 24634/34); Mining Code (Decree No 227/67); Fauna Protection Law (Law No 5197/67); Law for the Creation of Ecological Stations and Environmental Protection Areas (Law No 6938/6902/ 81); Article No 225 of the Federal Constitution 1988 that imposes the public power the preservation and restoration of ecosystems, preservation of diversity and integrity of genetic heritage of the Country; Forestry Code (Federal Law No 4771/65); State Law No 9146/95 about financial compensation mechanisms for municipalities that have protected areas; Resolution No 11 of March 8th 1983 of the Defense Council of the Historical, Archeological, Architectural and Tourism Heritage (Condephaat) on the protection of Japi Mountain area. However, as emphasised by Jesus and Cavalheiro (2004), such legal mechanisms are not enough to guarantee the protection of the area because 90% of their lands are private properties, the fiscalisation is precarious, and the lack of knowledge about its biodiversity makes its monitoring and management difficult.

The occupation and degradation of Japi Mountain is marked by the construction of Santos-Jundiai Railroad in 1867 which led to logging of the area so that wood could be used as fuel by locomotives. Later, due to the need of human settlement expansion in the region, there was the substitution of natural areas for cultivation areas (coffee, sugarcane, rice, wheat, beans, potato, Pinus) and cattle farming. Recently, the construction of two important highways (Rodovia Anhanguera and Rodovia Marechal Rondon) has brought part of the development of the city of Sao Paulo to the cities of Jundiai, Campinas and Itu, increasing the urbanisation process in natural areas close to these great urban centers (Jesus and Cavalheiro, 2004). Presently, the environmental problems of Japi Mountain are associated with real estate speculation, fires caused by agricultural activity, cattle raising, balloons, vegetation suppression and land movement by private individuals, hunting, mining and vandalism (Yoshida and Goncalves, 2004).

The conservation state of Japi Mountain streams is related to the environmental zoning that defines the areas of the Biological Reserve and areas of the Preservation Zone (State Decree No 43.284/98 of Sao Paulo and Municipal Law No 417/04 of Jundiai). Only three out of eight studied stretches of Ribeirao Ermida microbasin are located inside the Biological Reserve and are more preserved than the stretches of Guaxinduva and Caguacu microbasins that are located inside the Preservation Zone, where there is the presence of anthropic activity as agro-forestry-pastoral activities and small residential farms (Table 1, Figure 1).

Because the studied streams present water flow throughout the year, they fit the classification of perennial water courses and are part of a dendritic drainage net (Figure 1), typical of regions with prevalence of rocks that offer resistance to the erosive process (Christofoletti, 1980). Santoro and Machado (1992) reported that in the case of Japi Mountain this resistance is offered by predominant quartzite rocks in the region.

The relief of the terrain where the streams are located presents very weak to medium declivity (from < 6% to 15%) (Florenzano, 2008). Except for three 5th order stretches, the other sampled stretches are small, narrow and shallow, with fast current, high content of dissolved oxygen, low values of temperature and electric conductivity (Table 1). These characteristics for headwater streams have also been emphasised by other authors (Buckup 1999; Valente and Gomes, 2005).

Collection of environmental data

The morphological characteristics of the microbasins were based on the topographical map of Japi Mountain in a 1:25000 scale, obtained from the Department of Planning of Jundiai City. Rainfall and air temperature data of the region of Jundiai were obtained from the site of the Integrated Centre of Meteorological Information--CIIAGRO (www.ciiagro.sp.gov.br, accessed in July, 2008). The measurements of the stream canal and the limnological characteristics were carried out at all collection times of biotic data and at three distinct points of the longitudinal axis of each studied stretch. The streams were characterised according to their length, depth and luminosity (Minipa digital lightmeter, MLM1010 model) and the following physical and chemical water parameters: current (floating method), temperature ([degrees]C, measured by an Incoterm thermometer for maximum and minimum temperatures), dissolved oxygen (mg/L, determined by an Instrutherm oxymeter, model MO880), pH (measured by a digital pocket pHmeter, model pH1700), electrical conductivity (mS.[cm.sup.-1], measured with a pocket digital conductometer, model CD840).

Collection of fauna data

The macrofauna was collected at eight stream stretches of Japi Mountain at two periods: (1) monthly from February 2005 to January 2006, and (2) seasonally, twice in the dry season of 2006 (July and August) and twice in the rainy season of 2007 (January and February). Three microbasins were sampled: Ermida (ER), Guaxinduva (GX) and Caguacu (CG), including stretches of 1st, 2nd, 4th 5th orders (sensu Strahler classification (Stanford, 1996)), with the orders indicated by numbers near the acronyms' microbasin (Table 1).

Monthly collections were conducted at four stream stretches (GX5u, GX5d, ER2, ER4) (Figure 1). In each stretch, six samples of the macroinvertebrate community were collected in a 30 m extension with a Surber sampler (30 x 30 cm and 500 mm mesh). The collected material was stored, transported in ice and later transferred to a refrigerator at 7 [degrees]C until screening (no later than three days after the collection). Macroinvertebrate screening was done visually by spreading the material in a white tray with incident light. The ictiofauna and, eventually, young forms of amphibians were collected along the bank vegetation with a 5 mm mesh sieve, fixed in formaldehyde 10% and preserved in alcohol 70% for posterior identification.

Seasonal collections were carried out in six stream stretches (ER1, ER2, ER4, CG1, CG2, CG5) (Figure 1). In each stretch, five areas of riffles of 5 m long each were selected in a 100 m extension for the aquatic fauna collections. In each area, four samples of macroinvertebrates (two from the banks and two from the middle of the stream) were collected with a Surber sampler (15 x 15 cm and 500 mm mesh), and the visually predominant substrate type in the sampler (sand, litter, gravel, rocks) was recorded. Next, the whole 5 m area was scanned with a trawl and a dip net (4 mm mesh) to capture fish and, eventually, young and adult anuran amphibians. The macroinvertebrates were fixed and preserved in alcohol 70% and the fishes were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and preserved in alcohol 70% for posterior identification. Macroinvertebrate screening was done with the use of a stereomicroscope.

The collected macroinvertebrates were deposited in the collection of the NGO Associacao Mata Ciliar and the Laboratory of Stream Ecology of the Department of Zoology (UNESP--Botucatu). The fish species were deposited in the collection of the Museum of Zoology of USP and the Ichthyology Laboratory of UNESP--Sao Jose do Rio Preto.

The identification level of collected organisms was conducted mainly according to the adopted taxonomic levels in programs of macroinvertebrate and fish monitoring, and to the availability of identification keys and of specialists that could verify the identification of collected organisms. The study by Melo (2003) was used to identify Crustacea Decapoda; the studies of Lopretto and Tell (1995), Merritt and Cummins (1996), Nieser and Melo (1997), McCafferty (1998), Fernandez and Dominguez (2001), Da-Silva et al. (2002), Costa et al. (2004), Olifiers et al. (2004), Paprocki et al. (2004), Rio Grande do Sul (2006), Passos et al. (2007), Calor (2007) and Manzo and Archangelsky (2008) were used for Insecta identification. The researchers Dr. Gustavo Melo, from the Museum of Zoology of USP, Dr. Sergio L. S. Bueno, from the Institute of Biosciences of USP, and Dr. Celio Magalhaes, from the National Institute of Amazon Research, were consulted for the crustacean identification. The specialists, Dr Melissa O. Segura, Dr. Mateus Pepineli and Dr. Irineu de S. Onofre, from the Department of Limnology of UFSCar, verify the identification of Coleoptera-Elmidae, Diptera-Simuliidae and Odonata, respectively. Dr. Francisco de A. G. de Melo confirmed the identification of Insecta-Orthoptera.

The fish identification was based on the studies by Britski (1972), Menezes et al. (2007), Buckup (1992), Garutti and Britski (2000), Chamon et al. (2005) and confirmed by the specialists Dr. Osvaldo T. Oyakawa, from the Museum of Zoology of USP, and Dr. Francisco Langeani Neto, from the Department of Zoology and Botany (UNESP--Sao Jose do Rio Preto).

The amphibians were identified by Daniel Contieri Rolim, from the Herpetology Laboratory of the Department of Zoology UNESP--Botucatu, who utilised the taxonomic key published by Ribeiro et al. (2005) and the descriptions done by Bokermann (1963) and Rada et al. (2007); Dr. Celio Fernando Baptista Haddad, from the Department of Zoology of UNESP-Rio Claro, confirmed their identification.

Results

The 26,219 specimens, representing 138 taxonomic units and mainly consisting of organisms from the aquatic macrofauna (Tables 2 and 3), were collected in the eight studied streams of Japi Mountain from 2005 to 2007. If each identified taxonomic unit is considered as an equivalent to a species, then Japi Mountain collaborates with almost 20% of the freshwater biodiversity of Sao Paulo state (Table 4).

For the macroinvertebrate groups whose identification was more refined (Crustacea and Insecta), the importance of Japi Mountain for the conservation of Brazilian aquatic biodiversity is more evident because the area helps maintain 50% of the families and 25% of the freshwater Decapoda and Insecta genera of Brazil (Tables 2 and 5).

Analysing the geographical distribution of nine collected fish families, except for Poeciliidae and Cichlidae, Japi Mountain streams contribute to conserve the ichthyofauna restricted to the American continent, mainly Callichthyidae and Erythrinidae exclusive to South America (Table 3).

Although anurans are not a target in the collection methodology, they were occasionally caught with the fish. Tadpoles of this Centrolenidae species were collected in stream stretches located on Santa Marta Farm (CG1) and at Dog (CG2), outside the area destined to the Biological Reserve of Japi Mountain. From the data published, it is verified that Japi Mountain contributes to the preservation of approximately 14% (31 out of 225 species) of anuran amphibians recorded in Sao Paulo state (Table 4).

Discussion

The average values of physical and chemical measured parameters indicate that the water in the studied streams has little deleterious anthropic influence (based on values of CONAMA Resolution 357/2005) and the studied average variations may be a reflection of the spatial differences related to the conservation state of the stretches as well as natural characteristics of streams like order, morphology and geology of the microbasin. Slightly acid pH, typical of quartzite soils (Rodriguez and Shepherd, 1992), was probably the factor that influenced the average values of water pH between 5.8 to 6.7.

Considering the inventory done by Biota Project FAPESP (Steiner and Amaral, 1999), it is possible to infer that Japi Mountain is an important area to conserve unique species described for the state of Sao Paulo, like Nemertea Prostoma eilhardi (Montgomeri, 1894) (Forneris, 1999b) and Nematomorpha Paragordiusflavescens Linstow, 1906 (Forneris, 1999c), even with the low identification resolution of some less abundant taxa. Besides the validity of the record of Temnocephalida order for the state, not cited by the Biota project (Forneris, 1999a), when contributing to the preservation of this group, Japi streams help to maintain the ecological ectosymbiosis relation between temnocephalida and crustraceans of the Aegla (Amato et al., 2003) and Trichodactylus genera (Amato et al., 2006). Still using the Biota Project FAPESP inventory results (Steiner and Amaral, 1999), Japi Mountain also collaborates for the conservation of freshwater polychaete of the Stratiodrilus genus, and it is possible to suggest that S. arreliai Amaral & Morgado, 1997 is present in Japi, considering only the distribution information (proximity to Jaragua peak) and hosts (Aegla sp.).

Regarding genera and species of crustacean and insects recorded only in Brazil, Japi Mountain streams stand out in the maintenance of the crustaceans Aegla paulensis (Bond-Buckup et al., 2008) and Macrobrachium iheringi (Coelho and Ramos-Porto, 1984), the Ephemeroptera Tupiara (Salles et al., 2003), the Plecoptera Kempnyia and Guaranyperla (Lecci & Froelich 2007) and the Trichoptera Mexitrichia (Flint et al., 1999).

Out of 121 fish species of streams recorded in the Atlantic Forest area in Sao Paulo state (Menezes et al., 2007), 31 species (25%) were recorded in Japi Mountain (Rolla et al., 2012). In our study, ichthyofauna sampled in 8 streams represented a high percentage of orders (67%), families (82%), genera (50%) and species (47%) also surveyed by Rolla (2008) at fifteen collection stations of Japi Mountain.

Brazilian freshwater fishes are classified in nine orders, six of which occur in the streams of the Atlantic Forest (Oyakawa et al., 2006; Menezes et al., 2007). Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Synbranchiformes and Perciformes are broadly distributed worldwide and Gymnotiformes order presents distribution limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions (Leveque et al., 2008).

With identification refinement, it is noticed that Japi Mountain streams preserve broadly distributed genera and species nationwide (Callichthys callichthys, Trichomycterus, Rhamdia quelen, Astyanax, Hoplias malabaricus), species only distributed in the eastern and southeastern basins of the country (Phalloceros harpagos and Geophagus brasiliensis), and species limited to the basins of Alto Parana, Tiete, Paraiba do Sul and Paranapanema rivers (Hypostomus ancistroides, Oligosarcus paranensis, Astyanax paranae, Characidium,Phalloceros reise) (Buckup et al., 2007; Lucinda, 2008). It is noteworthy to point out that Japi Mountain streams also collaborated to conserve endangered species of armored catfish in Sao Paulo state --Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi.

Although anurans are not a target in the collection methodology, they were occasionally caught with the fish. From four identified species (Table 3), Vitreorana eurygnatha deserves attention because it was believed to be extinct in the region (Ribeiro et al., 2005). Tadpoles of this Centrolenidae species were collected in stream stretches located on Santa Marta Farm (CG1) and at Dog (CG2), outside the area destined to the Biological Reserve of Japi Mountain. From the data published by Ribeiro et al. (2005) and Araujo et al. (2009), it is verified that Japi Mountain contributes to the preservation of approximately 14% (31 out of 225 species) of anuran amphibians recorded in Sao Paulo state (Table 4).

Concluding remarks--The Japi Mountain (Environmental Protection Areas of Jundiai and Cabreuva municipalities) is effective in the conservation of aquatic fauna, comprising 138 taxonomic units and showing a rich and representative biodiversity of the freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and Sao Paulo state (17.9%). The streams of these Environmental Protection Areas help the conservation of taxa listed as vulnerable in the state of Sao Paulo, such as the fish species Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi. These areas also comprise important habitats for freshwater crustaceans, aquatic insects and fish of restrict distribution in South America and in restrict basins of Brazil. The importance of Japi Mountain for the conservation of stream fauna is also emphasised when the occurrence of unknown or believed to be extinct species in the studied streams, like the coleopteran Huleechius and the anuran Vitreorana eurygnatha, are considered. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.26512

Received: 12/12/2012--Accepted: 02/20/2013--Distributed: 05/31/2014 (With 1 figure)

Acknowledgements--We are grateful to the "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico" (CNPq--Process Number 142300/2007-1) for the financial support, the anonymous referees for the suggestion to the manuscript and all friends and biology students from Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC Campinas) who helped us in the field and laboratory procedures.

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Yoshida, CE. (a) and Uieda, VS. (b) *

(a) Associacao Mata Ciliar, Av. Emilio Antonon, 1000, Chacara Aeroporto, CEP 13212-010 Jundiai, SP, Brazil

(b) Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Univ Estadual Paulista--UNESP,

Rubiao Junior, s/n, CP 510, CEP 18618-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil

* e-mail: vsuieda@ibb.unesp.br; vsuieda@gmail.com

Table 1. Location, stream morphometry and physical and chemical
characteristics of the water (mean values) determined in the eight
studied sites, monthly or seasonally (July and August - dry season,
January and February - wet season). Microbasin/Stream =
ER-Ribeirao Ermida, CG- Ribeirao Caguacu, GX- Ribeirao Guaxinduva.
Order/Stretch = 1st, 2ntl, 4th, 5th orders; u- upstream, d-
downstream. Zone = CZ- conservation zone, BR- biological reserve.

Analyzed                Fazenda da          Churras
parameters                Corda

Microbasin/Stream           GX                 GX

Order/Stretch              GX5u               GX5d

EPAs                    C abreuva           Cabreuva

Zone                        CZ                 CZ

Human activity             yes                yes

Altitude (m)               900                850

Latitude             23[degrees]17'5"   23[degrees]17'4"

Longitude            47[degrees]0'29"   47[degrees]1'33"

Extension (Km)             6.25               8.60

Drainage area             15.71              22.32
([Km.sup.2])

Declivity (%)               4                  5

Number of                  197                272
segments

Width (m)                  4.44               4.72

Depth (cm)                16.72              24.27

Current (m/s)              0.52               0.68

Dissolved oxygen          10.55              10.87
(mg/L)

pH                         6.11               6.17

Conductivity               0.01               0.01
(mS/cm)

Luminosity                 7425              16717
(lux)

Period of               2005-2006          2005-2006
data sample

Frequency of             monthly            monthly
sample

Analyzed                    DAE               Paraiso
parameters

Microbasin/Stream           ER                  ER

Order/Stretch               ER1                 ER2

EPAs                      Jundiai             Jundiai

Zone                        BR                  BR

Human activity              no                  no

Altitude (m)                853                1050

Latitude             23[degrees]13'39"   23[degrees]14'36"

Longitude            46[degrees]58'7"    46[degrees]57'7"

Extension (Km)             0.75                1.73

Drainage area              0.38                2.04
([Km.sup.2])

Declivity (%)               15                  10

Number of                    1                   8
segments

Width (m)                   1.3                 1.6

Depth (cm)                  6.7                16.7

Current (m/s)              0.36                0.65

Dissolved oxygen           9.76                10.64
(mg/L)

pH                         6.60                5.92

Conductivity               0.01                <0.01
(mS/cm)

Luminosity                 1240                2662
(lux)

Period of                2006-2007           2005-2007
data sample

Frequency of            seasonally          monthly and
sample                                      seasonally

Analyzed                   Trial               Santa
parameters                                     Marta

Microbasin/Stream           ER                  CG

Order/Stretch               ER4                 CGI

EPAs                      Jundiai             Jundiai

Zone                        BR                  CZ

Human activity              no                  yes

Altitude (m)                904                 800

Latitude             23[degrees]13'46"   23[degrees]17'3"

Longitude             46[degrees]58T'    46[degrees]56'23"

Extension (Km)             3.83                0.23

Drainage area              10.30               0.12
([Km.sup.2])

Declivity (%)               10                  14

Number of                   63                   1
segments

Width (m)                   3.6                 3.4

Depth (cm)                 25.1                19.0

Current (m/s)              0.63                0.49

Dissolved oxygen           11.11               11.30
(mg/L)

pH                         5.77                6.70

Conductivity               0.01                0.02
(mS/cm)

Luminosity                 1857                4525
(lux)

Period of                2005-2007             2006
data sample

Frequency of           monthly and          dry season
sample                  seasonally

Analyzed                    Dog               Antonio
parameters                                  Lopes Pardo

Microbasin/Stream           CG                  CG

Order/Stretch               CG2                 CG5

EPAs                      Jundiai             Jundiai

Zone                        CZ                  CZ

Human activity              yes                 yes

Altitude (m)                750                 750

Latitude             23[degrees]18'28"   23[degrees]18'27"

Longitude            46[degrees]56'29"   46[degrees]56'29"

Extension (Km)             0.63                8.53

Drainage area              0.22                27.03
([Km.sup.2])

Declivity (%)                4                  11

Number of                    4                  234
segments

Width (m)                   4.2                 4.6

Depth (cm)                 28.5                29.8

Current (m/s)              0.63                0.66

Dissolved oxygen           9.92                10.03
(mg/L)

pH                         6.60                6.69

Conductivity               0.02                0.02
(mS/cm)

Luminosity                 1019                2268
(lux)

Period of                2006-2007           2006-2007
data sample

Frequency of            seasonally          seasonally
sample

Table 2. List of the invertebrates sampled in eight streams located in
Japi Mountain in the period of 2005-2007. Taxonomic levels an

PROTOZOA--"Amoebozoa"--"Lobosea"--testate
amebas
ANIMAL
Cnidaria--Hydrozoa--Hydra
Platyhelminthes--"Turbellaria"
Tricladida
Temnocephalida--Temnocephala
Nemertea
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Bivalvia
Annelida
Polychaeta--Histriobdellidae--Stratiodrilus
Oligochaeta
Nematoda
Nematomorpha--Gordioida
Arthropoda
Chelicerata--Arachnida--Acari
Crustacea
  Phyllopoda--Cladocera
  Malacostraca
   Decapoda
     Aeglidae--Aegla paulensis Schmitt, 1942
     Trichodactylidae--Trichodactylus fluviatilis
     Latreille, 1828
     Palaemonidae--Macrobrachium iheringi
     Ortmann, 1897
   Amphipoda--Gammaridea
   Isopoda
  Maxillopoda
   Copepoda
   Ostracoda
Tracheata--Hexapoda
  Collembola
   Isotomidae
   Sminthuridae
   Onychyuridae

Table 2. Continued with Hexapoda. Taxonomic levels based on
Merritt and Cummins (1996).

Ephemeroptera
  Baetidae
    Americabaetis Kluge, 1992
    Apobaetis Day, 1955
    Baetodes Needham & Murphy, 1924
    Camelobaetidius Demoulin, 1966
    Cloeodes Traver, 1938
    Paracloeodes Day, 1955
    Tupiara Salles, Lugo-Ortiz, Da-Silva &
    Francischetti, 2003
    Waltzoyphius McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz, 1995
    Zelusia Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998
  Caenidae--Caenis Stephens, 1835
  Euthyplociidae--Campylocia Needham & Murphy,
  1924
  Leptohyphidae
    Leptohyphes Eaton, 1882
    Traveryphes Molineri, 2001
    Tricorythodes Ulmer, 1920
    Tricorythopsis Traver, 1958
  Leptophlebiidae
    Askola Peters, 1969
    Farrodes Peters, 1971
    Hylister Dominguez & Flowers, 1989
    Massartella Lestage, 1930
    Miroculis Edmunds, 1963
    Thraulodes Ulmer, 1920
    Traverella Edmunds, 1948
Odonata
  Aeshnidae
    Aeshna Fabricius, 1775
    Coryphaeschna Williamson, 1903
    Limnetron Forster, 1907
  Calopterygidae
  Coenagrionidae--Argia Rambur, 1842
  Corduliidae--Navicordulia Machado & Costa, 1995
  Gomphidae--Progomphus Selys, 1854
  Libellulidae--Brechmorhoga Kirby, 1894
  Megapodagrionidae
    Heteragrion Selys, 1862
    Oxystigma Selys, 1862
Orthoptera--Gryllidae--Nemobiinae/Pteronemobiini

Table 2. Continued with Hexapoda. Taxonomic levels based on
Merritt and Cummins (1996).

Plecoptera
  Gripopterygidae
    Gripopteryx Pictet, 1841
    Guaranyperla Froelich, 2001
    Paragripopteryx Enderlein, 1909
    Tupiperla Froehlich, 1969
  Perlidae
    Anacroneuria Klapalek, 1909
    Kempnyia Klapalek, 1916
Hemiptera
    Belostomatidae--Belostoma Latreille, 1807
    Hebridae--Hebrus Curtis, 1833
    Naucoridae--Ctenipocoris Montandon, 1897
    Veliidae--Rhagovelia Mayr, 1863
Megaloptera--Corydalidae--Corydalus Latreille, 1802
Trichoptera
  Calamoceratidae--Phylloicus Muller, 1880
  Ecnomidae--Austrotinodes Schmid, 1955
  Glossosomatidae
    Itauara Muller, 1888
    Mexitrichia Mosely, 1937
    Protoptilinae sp1
  Helicopsychidae--Helicopsyche Siebold, 1856
  Hydrobiosidae--Atopsyche Banks, 1905
  Hydropsychidae
    Leptonema Guerin, 1843
    Smicridea McLachlan,1871
  Hydroptilidae
    Byrsopteryx Flint, 1981
    Flintiella Angrisano, 1995
    Neotrichia Morton, 1905
  Leptoceridae
    Grumichella Muller, 1879
    Nectopsyche Muller, 1879
    Notalina Mosely, 1936
    Oecetis McLachlan, 1877
    Triplectides Kolenati, 1859
  Odontoceridae
    Barypenthus Burmeister, 1839
    Marilia Muller, 1880
  Polycentropodidae--Cyrnellus Banks, 1913
  Sericostomatidae--Grumicha grumicha Muller, 1879
  Xiphocentronidae--Xiphocentron Brauer, 1870
Lepidoptera--Pyralidae

Table 2. Continued with Hexapoda. Taxonomic levels based
on Merritt and Cummins (1996).

Coleoptera
  Curculionidae
  Dryopidae
  Dytiscidae
  Elmidae
    Austrolimnius Carter & Zeck, 1829
    Heterelmis Sharp, 1882
    Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940
    Huleechius Brown, 1981
    Phanocerus Spangler & Santiago, 1992
    Macrelmis Mostchulsky, 1859
    Neoelmis Musgrave, 1935
    Promoresia Sanderson, 1954
    Stegoelmis Hinton,1939
    Xenelmis Hinton, 1936
    Larvae C (based on Passos et al. (2007))
    Larvae D (based on Passos et al. (2007))
    Elminae sp1
  Psephenidae
    Psephenus Haldeman, 1853
    Eubriinae sp1
  Scirtidae
Diptera
  Blephariceridae
  Ceratopogonidae
    Atrichopogon Kieffer, 1906
    Bezzia Kieffer, 1899
  Chaoboridae
  Chironomidae
  Dixidae
  Empididae
  Muscidae
  Psychodidae
  Simuliidae
    Simulium anamariae Vulcano, 1962
    Simulium incrustatum Lutz, 1910
  Stratiomyidae
  Tabanidae
  Tipulidae
Hymenoptera
  Diapriidae
  Scelionidae

Table 3. Taxonomic list of vertebrates sampled in eight streams located
at the Japi Mountain, in the period of 2005-2007. The worldwide area
of occurrence of the families is indicated as: SAm- South America,
CAm- Central America, NAm- Norte America, NT- Neotropic, AF- Africa,
OR- Orient. Taxonomic levels of fish groups based on Reis et al.
(2003); occurrence data for fish based on Lucinda (2008) and
Menezes et al. (2007) and for amphibians based on Duellman (1999).

List of vertebrates                                Occurrence area

Pisces

Order Characiformes

  Crenuchidae                                            NT

    Characidium gomesi Travassos, 1956

    Characidium oiticicai Travassos, 1967

  Characidae                                        SAm, CAm, NAm

    Astyanax paranae Eigenmann, 1914

    Astyanax sp.

    Oligosarcus paranensis (Menezes &
    Gery, 1983)

  Erythrinidae                                           SAm

    Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794)

Order Siluriformes

  Trichomycteridae                                       NT

    Trichomycterus sp.

  Callichthyidae                                         SAm

    Callichthys callichthys (Linnaes, 1758)

  Loricariidae                                           NT

    Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911)

    Neoplecostomus paranensis Langeani, 1990

    Pareiorhina sp.

  Heptapteridae                                          NT

    Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard in
    Freycinet, 1824)

Order Cyprinodontiformes

  Poeciliidae                                     SAm, CAm, NAm, AF

    Phalloceros harpagos Lucinda, 2008

    Phalloceros reisi Lucinda, 2008

Order Perciformes

  Cichlidae                                          NT, AF, OR

    Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy &
    Gaimard, 1824)

Class Amphibia

Order Anura

  Centrolenidae                                          SAm

    Vitreorana eurygnatha (A. Lutz, 1925)

  Leptodactylidae                                        NT

    Crossodactylus sp.

    Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864)

    Physalemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826

Table 4. Total number (or the lowest estimated value) of freshwater
macrofauna species described in the world, in the Neotropical
region (NT), in Brazil, in the State of Sao Paulo (SP) and in Japi
Mountain. References: (I) Manconi and Pronzato (2008); (II)
Volkner-Ribeiro (1999); "Jankowski et al. (2008); (IV) Silveira and
Schlenz (1999); (v) Schockaert et al. (2008); (VI) Forneris
(1999a); [VII]Sundberg and Gibson (2008); (VIII) Forneris (1999b);
(IX) Abebe et al. (2008); (X) Poinar Junior (2008); (XI) Forneris
(1999c); (XII) Massard and Geimer (2008); (XIII) Forneris (1999e);
(XIV)Bogan (2008); (XV) Avelar (1999); (XVI) Strong et al. (2008);
(XVII) Simone (1999); (XVIII) Glasby and Timm (2008); (XIX) Steiner
and Amaral (1999); (XX) Martin et al. (2008); (XXI) Righi (1999);
(XXII) Balian et al. (20081; (XXIII) Forneris (1999d); (XXIV)
Mugnai et al. (2010); (XXV) Magalhaes (1999); (XXVI) Froehlich
(1999a); (XXVII) Hubbard and Pescador (1999); Strixino and Strixino
(1999); Carvalho (1999); Froehlich (1999a,b) (*without Coleoptera);
(XXVIII) Leveque et al. (2008); (XXIX) Buckup (1999) e Buckup et
al. (2007) (stream ictiofauna); (XXX) Menezes et al. (2007)
(ictiofauna of Atlantic forest streams); (XXXI) Rolla et al.
(2012); (XXXII) Vences and Kohler (2008); (XXXII) SBH (2010);
(XXXIV) Araujo et al. (2009); (XXXV) Ribeiro et al. (2005).

Macrofauna              World             NT            Brazil

Porifera               219 (I)          65 (I)         44 (II)
Cnidaria               13 (III)            ?            8 (IV)
Platyhelminthes        1303 (V)         150 (V)        84 (VI)
Nemertea               22 (VII)         4 (VII)        2 (VIII)
Nematoda              1801 (IX)        281 (IX)           ?
Nematomorpha           326 (X)          32 (X0         10 (XI)
Bryozoa                88 (XII)        30 (XII)       10 (XIII)
Bivalvia              1026 (XIV)       226 (XIV)       115 (XV)
Gastropoda            4000 (XVI)       533 (XVI)      193 (XVII)
Polychaeta           168 (XVIII)      53 (XVIII)       4 (XIX)
Olighochaeta           806 (XX)        178 (XX)        70 (XXI)
Acari                6149 (XXII)      1330 (XXII)    332 (XXIII)
Isopoda               942 (XXII)       109 (XXI)      20 (XXIV)
Amphipoda            1866 (XXII)      127 (XXII)          ?
Decapoda             2832 (XXII)       513 (XXI)      11 (6XXV)
Collembola            103 (XXII)       28 (XXII)       5 (XXVI)
Insecta              75874 (XXI1)     8594 (XXI1)    3464 (XXVII)
Pisces              12740 (XXVIII)   5546 (XXVIII)    2060 ()XIX
Amphibia - Anura     3978 (XXXII)     1661 (XXXI)    849 (XXXIII)

TOTAL                   114256           19460           7342

% of Japi                0.2%            0.9%            0.4%
biodiversity

Macrofauna                 SP           Japi

Porifera                 6 (II)           -
Cnidaria                 7 (IV)           1
Platyhelminthes          81 (VI)          2
Nemertea                1 (VIII)          1
Nematoda                    ?             1
Nematomorpha             1 (XI)           1
Bryozoa                 6 (XIII)          -
Bivalvia                 44 (XV)          1
Gastropoda              70 (XVII)         1
Polychaeta               3 (XIX)          1
Olighochaeta            46 (XXI)          1
Acari                  20 (XXIII)         1
Isopoda                     ?             1
Amphipoda                   ?             1
Decapoda                33 (XXV)          3
Collembola                  ?             3
Insecta               330 (XXVII) *      97
Pisces                  121 (XXX)     31 (XXXI)
Amphibia - Anura       225 (XXXIV)    31 (XXXV)

TOTAL                      984           178

% of Japi                 17.9%
biodiversity

Table 5. Number of families and genera of the most abundant aquatic
macroinvertebrates sampled in Japi Mountain, showing worldwide,
national and local data. References: (I) Balian et al. (2008); (II)
Melo (2003); (III) De Grave et al. (2008); (IV) Yeo et al. (2008);
(V) Barber-James et al. (2008); (VI) Mariano and Froehlich (2007);
(VII) Fochetti and Tierno de Figueroa (2008); (VIII) Lecci and
Froehlich (2007); (IX) De Moor and Ivanov (2008); (X) Paprocki et
al. (2004); (XI) Wagner et al. (2008); (XII) Pinho (2008); (XIII)
Jach and Balke (2008); (XI) VBenetti et al. (2006); ? scanty or
inexistent data.

                            Families

Order             World      Brazil    Japi

Decapoda         46 (I)      7 (II)     3
Ephemeroptera    42 (V)     10 (VI)     5
Plecoptera      16 (VII)    2 (VIII)    2
Trichoptera      46 (IX)     16 (X)     12
Diptera          29 (XI)    23 (XII)    13
Coleoptera      27 (XIII)   11 (XIV)    9

                                 Genera

Order               World        Brazil    Japi

Decapoda        629 (III, IV)   26 (II)     3
Ephemeroptera      400 (V)      63 (VI)     22
Plecoptera        286 (VII)     8 (VIII)    6
Trichoptera       610 (IX)       5 (1X)     23
Diptera          ~1389 (XI)        ?        ?
Coleoptera          ~730           ?        ?
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Yoshida, C.E.; Uieda, V.S.
Publication:Brazilian Journal of Biology
Date:May 1, 2014
Words:8569
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