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The history of Malays in Borneo Island based on linguistic facts.

INTRODUCTION

Studying a language is not only looking at on the structure of the language itself, but besides that all the best efforts to open the scenes history of migration and cultures that use tha language. There are two important things are discussed in this paper, namely the theory of migration of Malays and Iban how language can be used as solid evidence to justify that the island of Borneo is the second homeland of the Malay/Indonesian. As we know that the Austronesian language family is one of the largest language families in the world. In this family there are approximately 1500 languages and expanded in a vast geographic region, namely from Taiwan to New Zeland and from Madagascar to the Rapanui island on the east coast of South America. We should remember that the relevance of language and race should never be separated. If we say an Austronesian language, the race is also called Austronesian race. It should also be understood that in the great nation called Austronesian has exist the people named Malays. Before the race or the Malays called Malays, the Malays known as Austronesian people.

Furthermore, what are the links between the Malay and Iban? Actually, in the study of linguistics ascertains that the Malay and Iban tribe formerly was the one, who does not have a language difference at all, but the unity of the two nations/tribes are divided due to the Malays migrating out of the island of Borneo, especially on a portion of West Kalimantan-Indonesia. Due to this migration, the relationship between the two nations language are beginning to show a difference while those who remained in the Iban of Borneo continue to develop culture and language, as well as the Malays. Even today, the status of Iban and Malay are two different languages, but the language bonds in terms of linguistic to both race/tribe is very close. Therefore, to looking for and locate the origin of the Malays (which it also includes the Iban), then the study to look for fossils linguistic of Iban language is very important. The search of the fossil linguistics especially in the Iban language phonology and morphology were then compared to Malay (Melayik) is believed to be able to uncover the veil which proves that the island of Borneo the second homeland of the Malay or Austronesian peoples.

Methodology:

There are two study approaches used in this study, namely the study of literature and field studies. The literature is more emphasis on review of the facts and relevant data has written about Iban studies, due to a historical study of the Iban language was reviewed by officials of colonial rule in Sarawak since the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century until the 21st Century. In addition, this research is the study of comparative linguistics that looks at the concept level changes in a language for generations, the method of analysis used is a qualitative method of historical linguistics. Three historical linguistics qualitative methods used in this study, namely; Crowley [43], Fox [50] and Campbell.

Approach the second study was done was fieldwork. At the level of data collection the methods was used involved with talk and listen. There are several techniques used in order to obtain the data in the field, namely the technique of directed and undirected question, observation techniques, recording techniques, note techniques and drawings filing techniques. At the stage of data analysis, qualitative analysis methods historically used, while in the stage of data exposure. method used is the method of historical exposure refers to Mahsun [70].

The Borneo is Malays homeland:

Two waves of migration theory of Malays, ie Proto Malays and Malay Deutro nearly 200 years old (19th century). In a note Wan Hashim, he is argue the two waves of migration and he thinks the Malays do not migrate, otherwise this natural areas of Malay is the homeland for the Malays. According to him again, the ancestors of the Malays have inhabited the Malay nature is approximately 35, 000 years before Christ. Statement submitted by Wan Hashim on the migration of two waves of Malays that there is truth, but if say that 35, 000 years BC (BC) the ancestors of the Malays is absolute already in the Malay world it appears need an another interpretation. According to Reid of the early settlers in the Malay or the name given by Reid as Sunda Platform is a man named Austro-Malanesia.

Surely long before Wan Hashim produce hypotheses related homeland of Malay (Austronesian) already have other views related to this. At the end of the 19th century (1880), A.H. Keane (see Keraf 1996), an anthropologist argued that the mixing of two great nations that inhabit that moment in Indo-China, the Caucasus and the Mongol race that is eventually revealed the Malay race. The Keane approach that is based on race is actually difficult to be accepted. Nine years after Keane expressed his hypothesis, now came again to turn Hendrick Kern (see Keraf 1996), to determine the location of the origin of the Austronesian or Malays. He uses 30 lexical translated into 100 languages spread in the Austronesian diffusion region. Based on the comparison of these languages translation, Kern reach the conclusion, through the Malay or Austronesian origin is East coast of Indo-China (Champa, Cochin-China and Cambodia). Further, Kern argues that is an Austronesian people who live on the plains of Asia last driven out by the people who have lived in the area, forcing the Austronesian people migrated to the Malay Peninsula. This people then migrated to Skaumera and Borneo. This hypothesis is held by many Malaysian linguists until now.

Asmah argues that the Malay Peninsula is the center of the spread of the Malay language and then the Malay language has spread to Sumatra, Borneo and Philippine. While in the Belia research, he put forward the hypothesis was brave enough, by saying the West Skaumera is the location of the initial placement of the Malay and Iban. Because of the influence of Islam, forcing all the Iban who live in the area migrated to Borneo. This hypothesis invites many problems, among others, the religion of Islam began to spread in Southeast Asia in the 13th century and the presence of this religion was not a suppressor for Iban people to leave the Malay peninsula. The other question is if the Iban they would have migrated to Borneo is a leading seaman, able to build a great boat to sail and certainly also the Iban living in Kalimantan's not only possible but also to all other areas in Asia. But the fact is, the people who said leading seaman is Malay and Iban still live behind closed doors in West Kalimantan and Sarawak. Also, another question that can be posed here is the existence of Malay and Iban, even closer bonds but the two languages is different and this relationship is a relationship of language rather than a dialect. Precisely, the entire period approximately split past 800 years if we take the matter of introduction of Islam led to the Iban migrated to Borneo, the distance is not an ideal time for something a language that reaches the status of languages in absolute.

The next hypothesis relates Austronesian homeland of the Malays has been expressed by Dyen [47]. Dyen said that the Malay Austronesian homeland is in New Hebrida and New Britain or in the other research he says in the Eastern province of Indonesia--West New Guinea or more specifically Bismack Islands. According Dyen, the nation's migration patterns derived from Bismack Islands through three main ways, namely 1) West Street, a migration flow entering Indonesia to the eastern part of Flores, 2) derived from Palau or Guam then entered the province of North Sulawesi, Kalimantan and South Minandao, and 3) moving to Formosa.

Dyen hypothesis, accepted by historical linguists, but only a small portion only. For example, Adelaar [6] agreed with the view that Dyen said that Formosa (Taiwan) is the second entry into force of the migration process to other Austronesian Malay region. According to Adelaar [6], the ancient Austronesian people actually migrated from Taiwan to other parts of the Austronesian instead of the Asian landmass to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Moreover, Dyen also said that Borneo is the center spread of the languages of Western Indonesia and Malagasy. Dyen statement is proven when research conducted by Collins in the research on Bacan Island and Nothofer--Bangka study had found solid evidence to confirm that Borneo should be crowned as the original land of Malays or proto Malayic.

Furthermore, the study of an archeology, Bellwood that the linguistic evidence is needed to view the migration patterns of the archipelago is 5000 the year before. According to him, in this archipelago and its inhabitants using an Austronesian language, except some of the ethnic origin of the Peninsula using Astro-Asiatic language clumps, and some Papuan tribe in the Papuan language. Bellwood (1985 and 2010) then make a conclusion regarding the location of the Malays Austronesian as follows:

a. The speaker of Proto Austronesian (BAP) located in Taiwan (Farmosa), then migrated to the Philippines through the islands of Luzon.

b. The speaker of BAP then move to south through the Philippines to Borneo, Sulawesi and Java, Skaumera, Malaysia and Vietnam.

c. The speaker of BAP others then to the Moluccas.

d. The speaker of BAP further migrated to Halmahera and New Guinea then formed language of Centre Melayik-Polinesia and East Melayik-Polinesia.

Based on the above hypotheses, we may say that the origin of Austronesian peoples is in Taiwan and migrated as those expressed by Bellwood (1985 and 2010). Linguistic evidence can be used as a basis in determining the migration pattern as previous research has been carried out by Collins and Nothofer. Based on the nature that evidence of linguistic is a solid evidence in view of bonding and closeness of the language, then this paper will further explain the extent of bonding and closeness between the languages of Proto Melayik (MP) with Proto Ibanik Sarawak language (ISP). The bonding and closeness of the relationship between two proto languages will show that the characteristic of linguistic fossils is capable to prove the origin or homeland of the nation.

Comparison of MP with ISP:

The discussion concerns the comparison between the MP (in Proto Melayik) by ISP (in Proto Ibanik Sarawak) done specifically in this section. ISP data derived from seven variants included in the list of 462 vocabulary, while the MP data in this paper is derived entirely from Adelaar [2]. The comparison between the MP and the ISP are limited in terms of phoneme change, and lexical substitution. The discussion begins by comparing the system of vowel phonemes and consonant phonemes MP with vowels and consonants systems prevailing in the ISP. The results of the comparison showed there several retention and innovation phoneme system of the proto language. In the process of identifying the presence of phonotactics characterize this as a manifestation rather than the result of this comparison, it can imply a new fact that ISPs are actually a separate language groups.

Furthermore, this discussion also touched on lexical forms of ISP with MP. Lexical forms that are similar between the two proto has also discussed on the system of vowel and consonant phonemes. The existence of various forms of lexical change ISPs with MP there is a sign that the ISP is also a language group that has long separated from its parent ie MP.

The MP phoneme comparison with ISP:

In this section, MP phoneme comparison with the ISP first performed on vowels phoneme, diphthongs and next on consonants phoneme and semi-vowel phoneme. Comparison of phonemes can be seen in the following section.

4.2. The derivative form of MP vowel with ISP

In compares the vowel phonemes of MP with ISP, first implemented calculations both the vowel style is based on the list of words obtained in the field. The existence description of vowel phonemes MP and ISP variant can be seen in the spread of vowel phonemes found in the Table 1 below;

The vowel phoneme MP *a become ISP *a in all position of the word except on words MP *babah 'bawah' > ISP *ba[??], MP *paha 'paha' > ISP *[??], MP *dahan 'dahan' > ISP *[??], and MP *bahu 'bahu' > ISP *[??]. These abnormalities may be explained as an abbreviation factor tri-syllable words that occur in the ISP. Therefore, the vowel of MP *[??] present as zero in ISP, especially on the words tri-syllable earlier. However, some examples of data that can be shown on a common pattern, namely the retention ISP *[??] with this MP, is as follows:

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Futhermore, the vowel phoneme MP *[??] become ISP *[??] in all position of the word; beginning, pre-final and the closed final syllable.

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

As for, the vowel phoneme MP *i become ISP *i regularly in all positions of the word; beginning, pre-final, the closed final syllable and the open final syllable. The vowel phoneme of ISP *i who have retention with MP *i, can be seen in the following data.

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

While the vowel phonemes MP *u become ISP *u appear in the beginning of the word, pre-final, the closed final syllable and the open final syllable. Even so, there ara exceptions on some specific words, including [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Furthermore, the presence of the front middle vowel phonemes [[??]] back middle vowels [[??]] in all variants of ISP is only a double vowel.

Diphthong:

Diphthong MP *-aw, and *-ay experiencing retention in ISP. Diphthong MP *-aw and *-ay regularly appear in ISP. The development of both of the proto diphthongs in ISP may be referred to the description of the sequence of sound changes as shown in Table 2 below.

In all ISP variant studied there were only three diphthong namely; /ay/. /uy/ and /aw/. MP *ay. and *aw conserved as /ay/, and /aw/ in ISP. Diphthong /uy/ is not reconstructed in MP, even though this /uy/ diphthong form in ISP*uy variant as SA, BTG, SKEI, BTL and LMB [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; SBU and KPT [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Based on the data source seventh variant of the ISP, there is only a vocabulary containing /uy/ diphthong; ie in the word /ukuy/ 'anjing'. The presence of the following diphthong in MP and ISP can be seen as data below.

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

The derivative form of consonants MP with ISP:

The discussion related to the consonant phonemes, appear the similarities in terms of the number between the consonants in MP (Description Adelaar, 1985) with the entire variant of ISP. Based on the data, the ISP consonant phonemes has totaling 19 units phonemes which consists of; seven plosive consonant phonemes /[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ four nasal consonants /[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/, two affricate consonants /[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/, two fricative consonant phonemes /[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/, one vibrations consonant /[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/, and two a half vowel consonants /[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/. For details, we can see a comparison of display data in Table 3 the inventory of ISP consonants, while in Table 4 about MP consonants in the opinion of Adelaar (1985), as follows:

Based on data display appear both in the form of a schematic diagram, shows the same number of consonant phonemes that are 19 phonemes, but still have differences in phonemic, ie affricate [[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] which appears in all ISP variants, but not in MP. A discussion about the ins and outs of the consonant phonemes, will be explained further in the sections below.

The voiceless plosive consonants:

The voiceless plosive consonants MP *p, *t, *k regularly derived in ISP as *p, *t, and *k in all position of the word; beginning, between vowels and at the end of the word. Whereas the MP *[??] phoneme is derived as ISP *[??] in the position of the word; between vowels and at the end of the word. Table 5 shows the comparison between the voiceless plosive consonants of MP and ISP. The example of data to represent the comparison of this phonemes can be seen as below.

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The Sonant plosive consonants:

The phonemes MP *b, *d, *g regularly derived in ISP as *b, *d and *g. The proto phoneme MP *b present in all positions in the word of ISP, ie the word positions; beginning, middle and at the end of the word. While, the phoneme MP *d in ISP only present in the beginning and middle position in the form of zero words such as phonemes MP *g in ISP only present in the beginning and middle of the word. The data below shows the existence of the consonant sounds and Table 6 illustrates the comparison of the sonant plosive consonants between the MP and the ISP.

Example:

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The Nasal Consonant:

The nasal phonemes MP *m, *n, and *[??] regularly derived in ISP as *m, *n, and *[??]. The nasal phoneme ISP *m,*n, and [??] are present in all word positions; beginning, middle and at the end og the word. Table 7 below shows a comparison of nasal consonants between MP and ISP.

Example:

MP *manuk 'ayam' > ISP *manuok

MP *lima 'lima' >ISP *lima?

MP *enem 'enam' >ISP *[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *tanah 'tanah' >ISP *tanah

MP *puhun 'pohon' > ISP *[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *la[??]it 'langit' > ISP *[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'tulang' > ISP *[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The voiceless fricative consonants:

The voiceless fricative consonant phoneme MP *s regularly derived in ISP as *s, and is present in all word positions; beginning, middle and the end of the word. while the fricative consonants *h become zero in ISP variant. Table 8 below shows a comparison of voiceless fricative consonants between MP and ISP.

Example:

MP *siku ' siku' > ISP *[siku.sup.w]

MP *susu 'susu' > ISP *tusu

MP *betis 'betis' > MP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *hi([??])sap 'menghisap' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *jahet 'jahat' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *yum[??]h 'rumah' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

4.9. The sonant affricate consonant

The phoneme MP *j regulary derived in ISP as [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The affricate consonant [??] in ISP are in the beginning position and between vowels only. Data below strengthen the discussion above and Table 9 below describes the comparison of sonant affricate consonants between MP and ISP.

Example:

MP *jahet 'jahat' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *jauh jauh' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *hujan 'hujan' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The liquid consonant:

The liquid consonant phonene MP *r become ISP *r in all position of the word, but in ISP shows some variation, ie MP *r become ISP *r between vowel and zero in the middle and the end of the word, besides that sometimes MP *r in ISP also present as [l] at the end of the word position. While the phoneme MP *1 in ISP become *r at the beginning of the word and between vowel and zero at the end of the word. Table 10 shows the comparison.

Example:

MP *layi 'lari'> ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *dapuy 'dapur' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *ulay 'ular' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *pasir 'pasir' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *[??]iya 'hitung' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP *aiy 'air' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The half vowel consonant:

The phoneme MP *w regularly derived in ISP as *w. Furthermore, MP *y become MP *y. Table 11 shows the comparison of the half vowel consonant between MP and ISP.

Example:

MP *tawa? 'tertawa' >; ISP *tawa

MP *sibaw 'rambutan liar' >; ISP *sibaw

MP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'sayap' > ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

MP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'kayu' >ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The lexical differences:

In this section will be shown various differences between the variants of the lexical items ISP with MP based on semantics, as provided below.

Time:

In terms of discussing the time in ISP variant, based on the data ISP has two different words with MP, and the word is afternoon and the evening. The example the relevant data can be displayed as follows; MP *sia[??] 'siang'; ISP *tawas and MP *peta[??] 'petang' ; ISP *[??], while the word 'pagi', 'malam' and 'tahun' shows the retention together between MP with ISP; MP *pagi 'pagi'; ISP *[pagi.sup.y], MP *malem 'malam' ; ISP *malam, MP *bulan 'bulan' ; ISP *buran, MP *tahun 'tahun' ; ISP *[ta.sup.w]un.

Numeral:

The numeral for ISP which shows the spread of the lexical MP in ISP is the word 'tiga'. Example data showing the lexical replacement is as follows; MP *telu; ISP *tiga.

Environment and colors:

The term of environtment and colors experience the difference of lexical is as follows; MP *akar akar'; ISP *urat, MP *t/iup 'bertiup'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

The household equipment:

Perbedaan leksikal berkaitan kata alat kelengkapan rumah tangga ISP berbandingt dengan MP dapat dilihat seperti berikut; MP *hat[??]p 'atap'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and MP *pela(n)tay 'pelantar'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Kinship:

Kinship terms are experiencing lexical differences are as follows; MP *adi[??] 'adik'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], MP *s[??]pupu 'sepupu'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Pronoun:

In the data analyzed, pronouns proper name question (pronominal interogatif) and pronouns appointed name (pronominal demonstratife) ISP is different in MP. Example: MP*mana ([??]) 'mana'; ISP *ni, MP *apa 'apa'; ISP *nama, MP *(i)ni([??]) 'ini'; ISP *[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MP *(i)tu([??]) 'itu'; ISP *[??]. In addition, the second pronoun and plural noun MP *kau([??]) 'kau'; ISP *[??].

Human body parts:

Some terms related to the human body limbs are experiencing lexical differences are as followst; MP *ta[??]an 'tangan'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MP *jayi 'jari'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], MP *hulu 'kepala'; ISP *pala?, MP *tAli[??]a [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], MP *lihey 'leher'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Animals and its body parts:

The description of several terms related to animals and its body parts were experiencing lexical differences are as follows; MP *asu[??], 'tangan'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MP *tikus 'tikus'; IS[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MP *uler 'ular'; ISP [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], MP *caci[??]

The differences of ISP lexical items in another MP words:

The differences of ISP lexical with other MP can be described as below;

Table 12: The differences of ISP lexical with other MP

Glossary              MP          ISP

(5)     kiri          *kiba?      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(14)    lari          *laRiw      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(15)    pergi         *p*ygi      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(20)    berenang      *dapuy      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(24)    hanyut        *ha[??]ut   [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(50)    tahu          *tahu(?)    [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(68)    gigi          *gigit      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(74)    menangis      *tapis      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(89)    tuli          *tuli?      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(146)   mengikat      *iket       [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(171)   mati          *mati       [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(182)   membelah      *bolah      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(305)   hutan         *hutan      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(315)   awan          *a(bw)an    [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(319)   kilat         *kilat      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(324)   dingin        *di[??]in   [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(325)   kering        *k*yi[??]   [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(340)   kecil         *kecil      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(349)   sempit        *sempit     [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(362)   (baju) lama   *lamaq      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(368)   benar         *benay      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(453)   pisau         *piso       [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT
                                  REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]


The proof of Malays come from Borneo island based on linguistic facts:

Based on the discussion related to the reconstruction and classification for Ibanik Language has proven that from 462 words stem that have been studied only 22 words have been change (innovation), the remaining words unchanged (retention) as shown in the Table above. Furthermore, Ibanik group has specific characteristics that do not form in Standard Malay or in other dialects of Malay. The special characteristic as follows.

i) * -a, aR : -ay

ii) * -an, *-arj: -ay

iii) * -em, * -en ,* -eq

iv) * -is, * -as: -aw

v) * (pa(N)}

vi) {baka}

vii) {ka-ka}

In general, Malay and Ibanik parallel in retention * -ay and *-aw. Examples; MP *-ay ; bankay ISP bankay. Furthermore, about Ibanik group divisions are seen by the linguistic facts in two categories, namely the difference in terms of phonology and the distinction is due to the phonetic any dispute. As in the description below:

The formation of diphthong is the process of creating a diphthong of the original monophthong. In Ibanik language, the construction of diphthong with VG pattern is a vowel followed by monophthong. However, the formation of diphthong that occur in these languages, V must be characterized by a high vowel or [+ high] and this process only in the form of an open syllable only. Although these symptoms are sporadic, involving only a few etimon namely course, but this is showing symptoms of this formation of diphthong. Examples of data to clarify the details of the above can be seen below:

[kakiy] 'kaki'

Uayiy] 'jari'

[atiy] 'hati'

[lakiy] 'lelaki, suami'

[diyiy] 'berdiri'

In the tree diagram, the branching of the two languages can be described as follows:

Bahasa Melayu-Polinesia Purba(PMP)

Conclusion:

Based on the expression and discussion related to comparison between MP and ISP, it can be summarized as follows; first, there are three joint characteristics retention in Proto Melayik Ibanik language (BMIbP), and second, there are four characteristics of innovation that differentiate the MP with the ISP. The joint retention of BMIbP as follows; i) BMIbP *-aw, *-ay, ii) BMIbP *b, *d, *g, and iii) BMIbP *s Furthermore, phonological innovations which separates the MP with the ISP can be describe as follows; i) MP *h > ISP *[??]; ii) MP *-d > ISP *-O, iii) MP *-g, > ISP*-O, and vi) MP *r, *1 > ISP *r. The existence of three joint retention of the BMIbP describe that at one more stage of proto the two languages are united. Next, the bond the two languages are not able to last long when they are separated as represented in the four characteristics of innovation separator that separates the two languages.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 26 January 2014

Received in revised form 18 March 2014

Accepted 26 March 2013

Available online 10 April 2014

REFERENCES

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[3.] Adelaar, K.A., 1992a. Proto-Malayic: the reconstruction of its phonology and parts of its lexicon and morphology. Pacific Linguistics C-119. Camberra: Australian National University.

[4.] Adelaar, K.A., 1992b. The relevance of Salako for Proto Malayic and for Old Malay epigraphy. Bijdragen toot de Taal-Land-en Volkenkunde., 148: 381-408.

[5.] Adelaar, K.A., 1993. The internal classification of the Malayic subgroup. Bulletin of the school of oriental and African studies. 6: 566-581.

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Muhammad Nur Latif

Faculty of Letters Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia.

Corresponding Author: Muhammad Nur Latif, Faculty of Letters Hasanuddin University, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10, Makassar 90245, Indonesia.

Tel. :+60-81355923100; fax: +0-000-000-0000 ; E-mail: lavirgo67@yahoo.com.my

Table 2: The comparison of
diphthong between MP and ISP

      Diphthong

MP    *-[??]w   *-ay
ISP   *-[??]w   *-ay

Table 5: The comparison of the voiceless plosive consonant
between MP and ISP

      Voiceless plosive consonant

MP    *p   *t   *k   *[??]
ISP   *p   *t   *k   *[??]

Table 6: The comparison of the sonant plosive consonants
between the MP and the ISP

      Sonant plosive consonant

MP    *b-   *-b-   *-b   *-d   *-d-     *-d     *g-   *-g-   *-g
ISP   *b-   *-b-   *-b   *-d   *-[??]   *-[??]  *g-   *-g-   *-[??]

Table 7: The comparison of the nasal consonant between MP and ISP

      Nasal consonant

MP    *m   *n   *[??]
ISP   *m   *n   *[??]

Table 8: The comparison of voiceless fricative
consonants between MP and ISP

      Voiceless
      fricative
      consonants

MP    *s   *h
ISP   *s   *[??]

Table 9: The comparison of sonant affricate
consonant between MP and ISP

      Sonant affricate consonant

MP    *j-                           *-j-
BUP   [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION      [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION
      NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]    NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Table 10: The comparison of
liquid consonant between MP
and ISP

MP    ISP

*r-   *r
*l

Table 11: The comparison of the
half vowel consonant between MP
and ISP

      The half vowel consonant

MP           *w     *y
ISP          *w     *y
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