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The growth of a directed word network.

A word network is a set of words and links. Two words are joined by a link if they differ by a single letter (as HORSE and HOUSE). More specifically, this is an undirected word network--one can move along a link in either direction. But what if only one direction is allowed? A simple example of a directed network is given in Chapter 4 of my Making the Alphabet Dance, where one changes a word to another word by removing the first letter and adding a letter at the end (as PEA to EAT, or OMIT to MITE). Here one can traverse a link in only one direction (EAT to PEA is not allowed), creating a network with many interesting properties. It is the purpose of this article to show how such a network evolves as one adds words one at a time.

Let successive words be written down on a sheet of paper and not subsequently moved, adding links as needed. The emerging network can be visualized as successive frames, one for each added word, on a computer screen. The trick is to place words so that the later patterns are clear. The clarity can be enhanced by printing words in different colors to match their function in the network at that time.

To fix ideas, look at the directed network generated by the 50 two-letter state name abbreviations used by the US Post Office. A directed link is created between two names if the second letter of the first name is the same as the first letter of the second name (as HI to IA). To show how this network develops, add names to it in the order in which states were admitted to the union:
 1 DE appears. Call it an isolano
 , since it has no links from or to
  other names. 2-6 PA, NJ, GA, CT, MA are isolanos 7 MD appears with a
link to DE. New terminology is needed; MD is called a
     starter
 (only an exit link from it), and DE is now called an
     ender
 (only an entrance link to it) 8 SC appears with a link to CT, so SC
becomes a starter and CT is changed to
     an ender 9-11 NH, VA, NY are isolanos 12 NC appears with a link to
CT, so it becomes a starter 13-15 RI, VT, KY are isolanos 16 TN is a
landmark addition to the network, for it forms a cycle with NC and
     CT. This is the beginning of the core
, that set of names in
     which any one can be reached from any other. The individual members
of
     the core are called insiders
. Note that CT has now played three
     different roles--isolano, ender, insider--but no further change is
     possible. 17-18 OH, LA are isolanos 19 IN appears with links to NY,
NJ, NH and NC, and a link from RI. It is
     called a joiner
 since it unites RI (now a starter) with NY, NJ,
     NH, NC (now enders). 20 MS appears with a link to SC, so it becomes
a starter. The SC-CT link
     connects a starter to an insider, so SC is christened a preceder
. 21 IL has a link to LA and a link from RI, so IL becomes a joiner and
LA is
     now an ender 22 AL combines with LA to form a second cycle. Note
that this new section of
     core is physically isolated from the other part of the core. LA
changes
     to an insider. 23 ME is an isolano 24 MO appears with a link to OH,
so it becomes a starter and OH an ender 25 AR joins RI, IL, LA to form a
cycle and a new section of core. This
     amalgamates with the LA-AL cycle to create a core section with five
     insiders. IN now connects two separate pieces of core, exhibiting a
link
     from RI and a link to NC; it is called a connector
. 26 MI appears with a link to IN, thus becoming a beginner; it also has
a link
     to the insider EL 27 FL appears with a link to LA, thus becoming a
beginner 28 TX appears with a link from CT, thus becoming an ender 29 LA
appears with a link from RI and a link to AL; it is an insider 30 WT
appears with links to IA, IN, TL, thus becoming a beginner 31 CA unites
the six-state core with the three-state one, exhibiting a link
     from NC and a link to AL. The cycle CA-AL-LA-AR-RI-IN-NC also
brings IN
     into the core. 


To summarize the state of affairs: the eleven states CA AL LA AR RI IN NC TA NC CT TN form a core in which any state an be reached from any other. Starters GA MA PA VA FL MI WI VT feed directly into the core, and starter MS accesses the core via SC. The enders NY NJ NH TX are accessible from the core. The states MO-OH and MD-DE are not connected with any of the above, nor are the isolanos ME KY.

The picture becomes clear--as one adds names, the directed network increasingly consists of an ever-enlarging core surrounded by starters and enders, and a diminishing number of starter-ender fragments and isolanos. The next increases in the core occur at frame 36 when NV sweeps VA and itself into the core via TN-NV-VA-AL, and at frame 39 when CO sweeps OR and itself into the core via NC-CO-OR-RI. When ND, ID and NM are added a new category, follower, is created. A follower joins an insider to an ender.

By the time all 50 states have been assimilated, the network has become too complicated to diagram. There are 30 insiders AK AL AR CA CO CT HI IA IL IN KS LA MA MI MN MO MS MT NC NH NM NV OH OK OR RI SC TN VA VT, 9 starters GA FL PA WV WI WA AK AZ UT, 7 enders NJ NY KY DE ME NE TX, 1 isolano WY and 3 followers MD ID ND.

The table below indicates the minimum number of steps needed for any insider to reach any other insider. For example, for AK to RI (or any xK to Rx) check the K row and the I column to read SCORI; the minimum number is five (AK-KS-SC-CO-OR-RI). Using this table one can more generally determine the minimum number of links joining any pair of names. Among all these minimum paths, what is the longest one? This number, known as the span, is six, achieved by five pairs: (IL or FL)-LA-AK-KS-SC-CT-(TN or TX) and KS-SC-CO-OR-RI-ID-DE. At frame 25, during the growth of the network, the span is seven: TL-LA-AR-RI-IN-NC-CT-TN (also starting with FL, or ending with TX starting at frame 28).
      xA      xC      XH      xI      xK      XL xM
Ax   --      A       IA      A       SCA     A       A Cx   KSC     --
INC     NC      SC      AKSC    SC Hx   RINH    OH      --      NH
SCOH    ARINH   NH Ix   RI      ARI     I       --      SCORI   ARI
I Kx   K       OK      IAM     AK      --      AK      AK Lx   L
AL      IAL     L       SCAL    --      AL Mx   RINM    TNM     INM
NM      SCTNM   ARINM   -- Nx   RIN     TN      IN      N       SCTN
ARIN    N Ox   KSCO    0       INCO    NCO     SCO     AKSCO   0 Rx   R
AR      IAR     AR      SCAR    AR      AR Sx   KS      AKS     IAKS
AKS     S       AKS     S Tx   KSCT    T       INCT    NCT     SCT
AKSCT   T Vx   RINV    TNV     INV     NV      SCTNV   ARINV   NV
     XN      xO      xR      SS      xT      xV
Ax   CA      RIA     IA      CA      NCA     A Cx   C       KSC     INC
C       NC      TNC Hx   H       H       INH     COH     NH      TNH Ix
HI      HI      I       CORI    NHI     ARI Kx   CAK     K       IAK
COK     NCAK    AK Lx   CAL     RIAL    IAL     CAL     NCAL    AL Mx
M       RINM    INM     CTNM    NM      TNM Nx   --      RIN     IN
CTN     N       TN Ox   CO      --      INCO    CO      NCO     TNMO Rx
CAR     R       --      CAR     NCAR    AR Sx   MS      KS      IAKS
--      NMS     AKS Tx   CT      KSCT    INCT    CT      --      T Vx
N       RINV    INV     CTNV    NV      -- 


A. ROSS ECKLER

Morristown, New Jersey
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Author:Eckler, A. Ross
Publication:Word Ways
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Feb 1, 2016
Words:1402
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