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The genus Aleuas Stal 1878 (Acrididae, Copiocerinae, Aleuasini).

Introduction

The genus Aleuas includes a few species found in the southern part of South America. Its species are very distinctive: they cannot be mistaken for those of any other South American genus. Together with the genus Zygoclistron, they constitute the tribe Aleuasini of the Copiocerinae, as defined by Amedegnato (1974). The general aspect ofAleuas species is different from those of Zygoclistron, mainly because of the green or yellowish color and rather smooth integument of most species; those of Zygoclistron being mostly brown to straw-yellow, and their integument rugose. Also the color-pattern of the species of Zygoclistron is very different from that of the species of Aleuas.

For the making of the present revision, the types of all the described species were examined and compared with specimens recently collected. Among the latter, representatives of four undescribed species were found.

Index to specific names

Five species were described in the genus Aleuas from 1878 to 1911. One of these (A. brachypterus Bruner 1906) was later found to be the same as A. vitticollis StAl 1878 (Rehn 1913: 338; this work). To these four valid species we add now four new ones (A. albinae, A. paraguayensis, A. paranensis and A. uruguayensis). The genus as known at present is rather small, containing only the following eight species:

A. albinae n. sp. A. brachypterus Bruner 1906 (= A. vitticollis StAl 1878)

A. curtipennis Bruner 1911 A. gracilis StAl 1878. A. lineatus Sta11878. A. paraguayensis n. sp. A. paranensis n. sp. A. uruguayensis n. sp. A. vitticollis StAl 1878.

Materials and methods

Materials.--Most of the specimens used for this work have been collected by the author. Others were borrowed from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro. All existing types of the species previously described have been studied and photographed and some have been compared with specimens in the collection in Montevideo. Methods employed were those usual in taxonomic studies:

Genitalia.--For some of the types and many other specimens these have been dissected, cleaned in a solution of KOH and preserved in glycerin. Details of the cleaning and preparation of genitalia are recorded in Carbonell 2004: 64.

Measurements.--Measures were taken with a sliding stage, its displacement registered by an attached dial caliper. Accuracy is in the range of 1/10 of a millimeter. These measurements are indicated in Fig. 3 6.

Colors.--Colors named (number designation in parens) according to the nomenclature given in Smithe (1975), have been used to compare to the colors of the specimens. These names are given as a general indication since tones and hues may vary in different specimens of the same species.

Genus ALEUAS Stil 1878 Figs 1, 37

Etymology.--The derivation is probably Alevas or Aleuas, the name of a tyrant in ancient Thessaly.

Size.--Among the specimens measured for this work, the largest male belongs to A. vitticollis, with a total length of 35.8 mm, the smallest to A. curtipennis (22 mm); among the females, the largest is A. albinae (60 mm) and the smallest A curtipennis (32.1 mm). See Tables 1 to 8.

Caryology.--The species of Aleuas whose caryology have been studied have the following chromosomic formulae (Mesa et al. 1982: 520):

A. gracilis, males 2n= 20, XY; females 2n=20, XX.

A. lineatus, males 2n=20, XY; females 2n=20, XX.

A. vitticollis, males 2n=20, XY; females 2n=20, XX

A. albinae (as n. sp. NO. 1) males 2n, 20, XY; females 2n=20, XX.

A. paraguayensis (as n. sp. NO. 2) males 2n=22; XY, females 2n=22, XX

A. paranensis (as n. sp. NO. 3) males 2n=20, XY; females 2n=20, XX

Note that the only species with 2n=22 is A. paraguayensis, all the others having 2n=20.

Origin.--The center of origin of the genus seems to be that part of southern S. America that includes northern and central Argentina, East Paraguay and the Brazilian states of Mato Crosso and Mato Crosso do Sul. In this area occurs the largest number of species of the genus.

Distribution.--(Fig. 37). According to the data in the literature and by my own observations, the species of Aleuas have been found in southern South America east of the Andes, between parallels 140 25'S (Diamantino, in State of Mato Crosso, Brasil,) and the province of Chubut in Argentina (approx. 440S). Within this large territory, the concrete localities from which specimens of these insects have been available for this study or are mentioned in the literature, allow me to indicate the following geographical areas where species of this genus might be present. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are the ones where the species have been actually found:

Brasil: southern parts of Mato Crosso* and Coias*; the entire states of Mato Crosso do Sul*, Minas Cerais*, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Crande do Sul*.

Bolivia: Prov. Cutierrez* (ex Prov. Sara) of the Dept. of Santa Cruz.

Paraguay: eastern part*, probably whole country.

Uruguay: whole country*.

Argentina: Provinces of. Formosa*, Chaco*, Misiones*, Santiago del Estero, San Juan*, Santa Fe*, Corrientes*, Catamarca, La Rioja, Tucuman*, Mendoza*, San Luis, Cordoba*, Entre Rios*, LaPampa*, Buenos Aires*, Neuquen, Rio Negro* and Chubut*.

Habitat.--There are few observations on the habitat of these species, which are found mostly in grasslands and other rather open plant formations. In the complex of acridoid species that is found in the mentioned area, the species of Aleuas are neither common nor abundant. On the map of Cabrera and Willink (1973) of the Botanical Provinces of South America it can be seen that the area occupied by this genus, as defined above, includes parts of the provinces of Cerrado, Paranense, Chaquena, Espinal, Pampeana, Monte and Patagonica. All these biogeographical provinces have open areas covered with grasses and other herbaceous plants where the species of this genus are found. Some, as the Pampeana, are mostly grassland. Ronderos et al. (1981: 74) mention A. lineatus and A. vitticollis as belonging to the grassland acridid fauna; Sanchez says likewise (1981: 228-9), but also states that neither was numerically abundant in that plant formation.

Food-plants.--My own observations indicate thatA. lineatus feeds on grasses (Cramineae or Poaceae) and probably also on Cyperaceae. A. vitticollis and A. albinae live in dense associations of grasses (see below) where they probably do not have ready access to plants of other families. COPR (1982: 181) states that A. lineatus feeds on natural grasses, luceme or alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and also on other (undetermined) cultivated plants. Cangwere and Ronderos (1975: 178), with reference to A. lineatus and A. vitticollis, state that their mandibles are of the graminivorous type, that their feces contain mostly residues of grasses, and that they are unselectively polyphagous. Liebermann (1948:88,1950:10,1967:109), Sanchez and De Wysiecki (1993: 31), mention that A. lineatus is frequently found in cultures of alfalfa, but also on prairie dominated by Stipa brachychaeta, and on millet (Panicum miliaceum). I have no data on the food of other species, but the fact that they generally live on grasslands may point to similar feeding habits.

Pathology.--All data on this subject refer to A. lineatus. Luna et al. (1981: 245) say that it is susceptible to infection with Nosema locustae (Microsporida, Nosematidae). Lange and De Wysieki (1996: 27) did not find infection with that pathogen in one population of this species. Lange (1992) did not find specimens attacked by Perezia diochroplusiae (Microspora, Pereziidae) or Nosema locustae in Prov. of Buenos Aires. The same author (1996: 108) discovered that A. lineatus is apparently resistant to the fungus Entomophaga grylli, that attacks other grasshoppers.

Taxonomy--Most of the morphological characters of the species of this genus can be seen in the corresponding illustrations. Only a few of these features that are considered generically important will be mentioned here. Integument smooth on head, abdomen and legs; from impresso punctate to slightly rugose on pronotum. Head globose, slightly opisthognathous; antennae filiform; fastigium very short and blunt in some species, angular in others, always shorter than the width of interocular space. Pronotum: prozona longerthan metazona in most known species, equal to it in A. albinae; median dorsal carina from slightly elevated to almost obsolete, lateral carinae absent; anterior margin evenly rounded to almost straight, posterior margin either rounded or slightly angulate in different species; prosternal tubercle spiniform, slightly retrorse. Tegmina and wings from well-developed and reaching or surpassing end of abdomen, to reduced to a variable extent, this more frequently in females than in males.

Fore and middle legs without particularities, the hind with carinae well-marked, smooth; hind tibiae with 7 to 9 external spines (exceptionally 6 or 10) and 8 to 10 internal ones (exceptionally 12); some in the apical part modified, as a part of the stridulatory apparatus. Intermesosternal space closed or very narrowly open in males, open in females; intermetasternal space closed in males, open in females. Ceneral coloration green in some species, light brown in others; some species having green and brown forms.

Stridulatorymechanism. (Fig. 35) This apparatus and the sounds produced are described in detail by Lorier et al. (2002). It consists of modified spines on the internal side of the distal end of the hind tibiae, which are almost parallel to the tibial axis, and modified cross veins on the radial area of the tegmen, elevated over its general surface. Stridulation is produced by rapid movements of the hind tibia that run its modified apical spines over the said veinlets. The sounds produced are not very loud. Species of Zygoclistron have the same type of stridulating apparatus, but it is worth mentioning that, while the raised crossveins on the tegmina are very conspicuous, in that genus there are no modified spines on the hind tibiae; the normal spines seem to effect that function. A. curtipennis and A. uruguayensis lack the stridulatory mechanism.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Key to species of the genus Aleuas.

Males

1 Cerci strongly incurved, apices spatulate 2 1' Cerci slightly incurved or straight, apices acute 3

2 Large (Table 1), abdominal terminalia as in Fig. 25B A. albinae 2' Small (Table4), abdominal terminalia as in Fig.25A A.lineatus

3 With lines of contrasting color along sides of pronotal disk 4 3' With lines of contrasting color along sides of pronotal disk and median carina 5

4 Lines red, on prozona only A. paraguayensis 4' Lines black, on pro- and metazoan 6

5 Fastigium in dorsal view with sides rounded, forming an obtuse angle A. vitticollis 5' Fastigium in dorsal view with sides forming an acute angle A.gracilis

6 Short-winged, fastigium in dorsal view with sides carinated, its surface excavated, without median carina A. curtipennis

6' Short-winged, fastigium in dorsal view with sides rounded, forming a right angle, median carina marked only at its apex A.paranensis

6" Long-winged, fastigium in dorsal view with sides converging in an acute angle, median carina well-marked on fastigium and vertex A.uruguayensis

Females

1 Pronotal disk with lines of contrasting color along sides only 2

1' Pronotal disk with lines of contrasting color along sides and median carina 4

1" Without the above lines on pronotal disk 6

2 Lines red, marked on prozona only A. paraguayensis

2' Lines black, marked on pro- and metazona 3

3 Large (Table 1),hind tibiae andtarsi vinaceous A.albinae

3'. Smaller (Table 4), hindtibiae andtarsi green A. lineatus

4 Fastigium in dorsal view with sides converging in an obtuse angle, general color green or pale cinnamon, most specimens short-winged, rarely long-winged A. vitticollis

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

4' Fastigium in dorsal view with sides converging in a right or slightly acute angle 5

5 Inner pagina of hind femur light-colored, with a barely marked dark line along region of pinnae (Fig. 24) A. gracilis

5' Internal pagina of hind femur mostly black (Fig. 23) A. paranensis

6. Fastigium in dorsal view with sides converging in a right angle, median carina marked on fastigium and vertex A. uruguayensis

6'. Fastigium with sides converging in an obtuse angle, its surface excavated, without median carina, inner pagina of hind femur partially marked with black (Fig.23) A. curtipennis

Aleuas albinae n.sp. Figs 2, 3, 20, 21, 22, 23, 2513, 27, 37. Table 1

Etymology.--Specific name dedicated to my wife Albina, without whose help much of my work could not have been done.

Taxonomy.--One of the largest species (Table 1). Fastigium in dorsal view projected forwards in a very obtuse angle; frontal margin of pronotum almost straight, slightly curved; sides of posterior margin in an almost right angle (Fig. 22); median carina of pronotum very slightly marked. Male cerci strongly incurved, with spatulate apices (Fig. 25), a character shared within the genus only with A. lineatus, but found in most species of Zygoclistron. Furculae of the 10th abdominal segment of males absent in this species (and in A. lineatus), though present in all the other species (Figs 25, 26). Stridulatory mechanism with three modified spines on hind tibiae in both sexes (as in A. paraguayensis, Fig. 35). Phallic complex (Fig. 27): characteristic are the massive apical valves of the endophallus.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Chromatic characters.--General coloration light apple-green (61). Dusky-brown (19) lateral postocular bands continued on sides of pronotal disk; a white (slightly yellowish) band immediately below it on prozonal lateral lobes, that disappears on metazona; lower margins of lateral lobes narrowly fringed with white. Fore and middle legs light cinnamon; hind femora apple-green (61) with upper surface yellow in females, black markings on internal side (female) as shown in Fig. 23. Hind tibiae and tarsi vinaceous (4).

Affinities.--This species seems very closely related to A. lineatus, from which, however, it can be readily separated by its much larger size and other characters as indicated in the respective descriptions and in the keys.

Habitat.--The habitat of this species is the same as described below for A. vitticollis. Like the latter species, it is nocturnal and, being far less common, it is almost impossible to find specimens in the daytime. Unlike A. vitticollis, all specimens, male and female, are long-winged; we have never found a short-winged individual.

Known distribution.--(Fig. 37). Uruguay: probably most of the country The nocturnal habits of this species, its restricted habitat and the fact of its being rather scarce, make its presence probable in areas of Argentina and Brasil where it has not been found to date.

Aleuas curtipennis Bruner 1911 Figs 4, 5, 20, 21, 22, 23, 2GD, 28, 37, Table 2

Etymology.--Latin, curtus, short and penna, wing or feather.

Taxonomy.--A small-sized species (Table 2). Fastigium in dorsal view projected forwards in an obtuse angle; pronotum with tegument rugose, anterior margin evenly curved, posterior with sides in an obtuse angle (females) or an almost right angle (males), median dorsal carina marked, more prominent in females than in males (Figs 21, 22). Both sexes short-winged, tegmina reaching to about middle of abdomen. End of abdomen in males (Fig. 26): furculae prominent, triangular, divergent; epiproct with an acute caudal projection; cerci conical, short, slightly incurved, not surpassing end of epiproct. Without stridulatory mechanism. Phallic complex (Fig. 28): apical valves of arch-endophallus in dorsal view mark the most important difference with other species.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Chromatic characters.--Ceneral coloration from raw-umber (23) on its darker parts, to buff (24) on lighter ones. Antennal segments mostlyfuscous (21), narrowly banded with buff (124) at their apices: area of contact of metathoracic epimeron-episternum black; tegmina with buff (124) veins over a much darker (brown) membrane. All legs mostly buff (124), hind tibiae carmine (8). Inner side of hind femora in females widely marked with black (Fig. 23).

Affinities.--This seems most closely related to A. uruguayensis, these two species lacking the stridulatory mechanism present in all the other species.

Habitat.--Low places with herbaceous vegetation and shrubs.

Known distribution.--Brasil: Mato Crosso, Mato Crosso do Sul and Coias. Forwhat we know of the distribution of the species ofAleuas, this is the northernmost, being recorded between parallels lat 140 24'S (Diamantino, Mato Crosso) and lat 190 01'S (Corumba, Mato Crosso do Sul) (Fig. 37).

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Aleuas gracilis Stal 1878 Figs 6, 7, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26B, 29, 37, Table 3

Etymology.--Latin, gracilis, slim, slender.

Taxonomy.--Males small-sized, females considerably larger (Table 3). Fastigium in dorsal view projecting forwards, its sides forming a right angle (slightly acute in some specimens). Disk of pronotum with anterior margin curved, posterior one with sides in an obtuse angle, apex rounded; median dorsal carina well-marked, somewhat prominent in females. Tegmina reaching almost end of second abdominal segment in females, nearly apex of abdomen in males; end of male abdomen (Fig. 2G): furculae placed close together, their inner margins contiguous; epiprocttriangular, acutely pointed; cerci conical, very slightly incurved, not surpassing end of epiproct. Stridulatory mechanism with two modified pre-apical spines on hind tibiae in males and females. The latter have abbreviated tegmina lacking the corresponding stridulatorycrossveins; this might mean that there are also long-winged females, as in the case of A. vitticollis, where the stridulatory apparatus maybe functional. Phallic complex (Fig. 29): apical valves of endophallus arch in dorsal and lateral views are characteristic.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Chromatic characters.--Ceneral color of body and legs light tawny (38). Postocular bands chestnut (32), continued on upper parts of lateral lobes of pronotum and on tegmina; in females a narrow median band of same color along median dorsal carina of pronotum, continued on terga of metanotum and first abdominal segment; caudal margins of abdominal segments narrowly margined with same color. Tegmina of males very pale apple-green (61) on area above R veins (cubital and vannal areas). Inner pagina of hind femora in females narrowly marked with black, this mark much wider and darker in males; hind tarsi in both sexes superiorly red, this color also on apices of hind tibiae.

Affinities.--Seems closely related to A. vitticollis.

Habitat.--Crassland with shrubs.

Known distribution.--Brasil: Mato Crosso do Sul. Paraguay: eastern part (Fig. 37).

Aleuas lineatus Stal 1878 Figs 8, 9, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25A, 30, 37. Table 4

Etymology.--From Latin, linea, thread or line, referring to the dark lines on pronotum.

Taxonomy.--In its general aspect and coloration, this species looks like a smaller form of A. albinae. Head: integument smooth, matte; fastigium in dorsal view (Figs 21, 22), short, blunt, sides converging in an obtuse angle. Pronotum (Figs 21, 22): anterior margin of disk slightly curved or straight, posterior one projecting caudad in an obtuse angle, its apex rounded. Tegmina and wings surpassing end of abdomen in both sexes. Male abdominal terminalia (Fig. 25) with furculae absent or barely marked as undulations of margin of 10th segment, placed far apart; epiproct subquadrate with small triangular projection in posterior edge; cerci very large, strongly incurved, their apices spatulate (similar to those of A. albinae). Stridulatory mechanism with three modified pre-apical spines in the hind tibiae of males, none in the females; where the crossveins that in other species are raised, these are flat and hence without sound-producing function. Phallic complex (Fig. 30) similar in general to that of A. albinae, main differences lie in shape of epiphallus and of cingulum in dorsal view.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

General coloration light apple-green (61) to straw-yellow (56). Cinnamon (39) postocular bands continued on sides of pronotum where there are, immediately below them, white bands continuous on pro- and metazona; lower margins of pronotal lobes narrowly fringed with white. All legs straw-yellow (56), including hind tibiae and tarsi. Tegmina light apple-green at sides, the discal or vannal part very pale flesh-color (5).

Affinities.--As said above, very closely related to A. albinae.

Habitat.--Usually found in rather humid places, where the vegetation of grasses and Cyperaceae is rather dense (but usually not in the places described below as the habitat of A. vitticollis). It is even abundant in hills and sierras, whenever a small spring makes a patch of denser vegetation grow surrounded by much drier grassland. But it seems tolerant of drier situations, since some specimens can also be found (but not abundantly) in drier places with less dense vegetation. It is a diurnal species but also shows some nocturnal activity.

Known distribution.--Bruner (1906:668) wrote: "This is the most abundant and, at the same time, most widely distributed species of the genus". Working about a hundred years later, I have verified Brunei s statement. Recorded from Argentina: Provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Formosa, Chaco, Corrientes, San Juan, Tucuman, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Mendoza, Rio Negro and Chubut. Brasil: Rio Crande do Sul. Paraguay: eastern part. Uruguay: whole country. According to what is known of its distribution in Argentina and Paraguay, it is very probable that its distribution in Brasil is much larger than recorded and includes the large area between Mato Crosso and Rio Crande do Sul (Fig. 37).

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Aleuas paraguayensis n. sp. Figs 10, 11, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25C, 31, 37. Table 5

Etymology.--Refers to the country of its origin.

Taxonomy.--A medium-sized species (Table 5). Head rather large and globose, especially in females, its integument very smooth and shiny; fastigium very short, in superior view roundly curved in females (Fig. 22), obtusely angulate in males (Fig. 21). Pronotum (Figs 21, 22): median carina almost obsolete; integument impressopunctate over most of the surface, except in discal part of prozona, that being covered with cicatricose depressions placed close together. Tegmina and wings reaching or surpassing end of abdomen in both sexes. Male terminalia (Fig. 25) with triangular furculaeplaced dose together, epiproct subquadrate, with small triangular projection in middle of caudal edge; cerci conical, incurved, greatly surpassing caudal end of epiproct. Stridulatory mechanism (Fig. 35) has three pre-apical modified spines in hind tibiae of both sexes, and a long series of prominent crossveins on the tegmina. Phallic complex (Fig. 31): apical valves of archendophallus of characteristic shape, in lateral view similar to same in most species of Zygoclistron (as figured in Carbonell 1969).

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

Chromatic characters: the most colorful member of the genus. Antennae, lateral areas on pronotal prozona, and hind tarsi, scarlet (14). Ceneral bodycolor sulphuryellow (57) to straw-yellow (56). Head with small black areas above antennal sockets (Fig. 20), and the following black bands: from upper parts of antennal sockets, continued narrowly on front margin of eyes; two sets of postocular bands, one from upper part of eyes to occiput, bordered on both sides with sulfur-yellow (157), other from lower part of margin of eye, fading towards middle of genae; another along basis of mandibles, the latter with black apices. Fore legs: tibiae cinnamon-rufous (40), femora with tawny (38) bands on upper surface: middle legs with femora sulphur-yellow (57), tibiae tawny (38) to scarlet (14) on upper surface: hind legs straw-yellow (56) with black bands along upper lateral carinae, this color fading to gray on upper parts of region of pinnae: hind tibiae black at bases, becoming flesh-color (5) and scarlet (14) at their tips. Tegmina sulphur-yellow (57) with pale yellow veins.

Affinities.--Not clear: epiproct of the same general shape as that of A. lineatus and A. albinae; cerci similar in form to those of A. curtipennis, A. gracilis and A. uruguayensis, but proportionally much longer.

Habitat.--The place where the known specimens ofthis species were found was mostly grassland, with spots of bushy vegetation.

Known distribution.--Has been found only once in the province of Caaguaz6 of Paraguay, a few kilometers south of the town of Ih6 (Fig. 37).

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]

Aleuas paranensis n. sp. Figs 12, 13, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26C, 32, 37. Table 6

Etymology.--From the name of the Parana River, that flows in the area where the species was found.

Taxonomy.--A medium-sized species, females much larger than males (Table 6). Head: integument smooth, matte; fastigium in dorsal view triangular, its sides forming a right angle in males, a slightly acute one in females (Figs 21, 22). Pronotum: integument impressopunctate; front edge of pronotal disk slightly curved, almost straight, caudal one more definitely curved, in both sexes (Figs 21, 22) Tegmina and wings: reduced, reaching first third of abdomen in females, a little over half of it in males. Abdominal end in males (Fig. 26) with triangular furculae placed close together, epiproct triangular with slightly curved sides, cerci simple, conical, not reaching end of epiproct. Stridulatory mechanism with two modified pre-apical spines on hind tibiae, the stridulatory cross veins very prominent, covering a much larger area of the tegmina of males than in any other species. The known females are short-winged and without stridulatory crossveins. Phallic complex (Fig. 32) seems close to that of A. vitticollis.

Chromatic characters.--General coloration cinnamon (39), russet (34) in parts. Head: in front view russet (34), with black areas above antennal sockets (Fig. 20); dorsally with median longitudinal russet area that turns gradually cinnamon (39) to the sides; in lateral view, very wide postocular bands that take up most of genae, with narrow light cinnamon (39) bands above and below it. This wide russet band continues on pronotal lateral lobes, and so does the narrow light-colored band on lower edges of genae, that on inferior edge of pronotal lobes becoming almost white. The rest of the body, tegmina and most of legs are light cinnamon (39); hind tibiae and tarsi in males are red; in females almost black internally on the apical third, turning light cinnamon (39) towards femoral articulation. Inner pagina of femora light cinnamon (39) in males, mostly black (Fig. 23) in females.

[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]

Affinities.--Not clear, but probably closer to A. vitticollis than to any other species of the genus.

Habitat.--The place where the species was collected is mostly grassland.

Known distribution--Argentina: South of the Province of Corrientes. Brasil: State of Rio Crande do Sul (Fig. 37).

Aleuas uruguayensis n. sp. Figs 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25D, 33, 37. Table 7

Etymology.--Refers to the country where it was found.

Taxonomy.--Asmall species, particularlythe males (Table 7). Head: integument smooth, matte; fastigium in dorsal view projected forwards in a slightly obtuse angle (Figs 21, 22), a distinct median carina running from fastigium to occiput. Pronotum: integument strongly rugose, a well-marked, prominent median carina on pro- and metazona; anterior margin of pronotal disk strongly curved, posterior one obtuse-angulate (Figs 21, 22). Tegmina and wings much reduced in female, reaching end of 2nd abdominal segment; well developed and reaching end of abdomen in males. Abdominal male terminalia (Fig. 25): furculae triangular, acute, placed dose together; epiproctsubtriangular, with curved sides; cerci conical, tips incurved, reaching end of epiproct. Stridulatory mechanism absent. Phallic complex does not show any close relationship with any of the other species, and its cingulum (Fig. 33 E) has a peculiar shape.

Chromatic characters.--The only specimens at hand are rather teneral, so their colors may not correspond to those in mature specimens. General coloration buff (24); eyes, posterior part of pronotal metazona and tegmina tawny (38); ends of hind tibiae in male reddish, in female dark brown. In both sexes, a distinct black area at limit of metathoracic epimeron-episternum, and in females the dorsal parts of metanotum and first abdominal terga, as seen between the bases of the tegmina, and also a median band on epiproct, are black.

[FIGURE 16 OMITTED]

Affinities.--Seems close to A. curtipennis, with which it shares the absence of a stridulatory mechanism.

Habitat.--Herbaceous vegetation near a small stream.

Known distribution.--Has been found only in northern Uruguay, in the east of the Department of Rivera (Fig. 37).

Aleuas vitticollis Stal 1878 (= A. brachypterus Bruner 1906) Figs 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26A, 34, 37. Table 8

Etymology.--From Latin vitta a band or ribbon and collum, the neck, referring to the dark bands on the pronotum.

Taxonomy.--A rather large species, especially the females (Table 8). Head (Figs 20, 21, 22): integument smooth, matte; fastigium in dorsal view short, rather rounded or slightly angulated forwards in a very obtuse angle. Pronotum (Figs 21, 22), integument markedly pitted throughout, in dorsal view the anterior margin very slightly curved, almost straight; posterior one curved or very obtusely angulate; most females short-winged, their tegmina reaching the hind margin of the third abdominal tergite; about 1% of them long-winged, though their tegminae do not quite reach the abdominal end, all males long-winged, tegminanotorbarely reaching abdominal end. Stridulatorymechanism: only two-subterminal spines on hind tibiae slightly modified; in males and long-winged females, very few (5-7) crossveins adapted for this function. Male abdominal terminalia (Fig. 26) with very acute triangular furculae, placed close together, subtriangular epiproct, cerci simple, acute, slightly outcurved at apices.

[FIGURE 17 OMITTED]

Chromatic characters.--Females of this species have two colorforms, one pale apple-green (61), the other pale cinnamon (39). All long-winged specimens found are of the green form. All specimens of both forms have fuscous (21) postocular bands continued on the sides of the pronotum and on the tegmina; reaching almost the end of the tegmina in short-winged specimens of the cinnamon form; marked only on their bases and gradually fading away on first half of the tegmina in short and long-winged specimens of the green form; another fuscous band runs along median longitudinal prothoracic carina and continues on dorsum of abdominal segments I and II, visible between bases of tegmina.

While in the green form genae and lateral lobes of the pronotum are apple-green, the latter narrowly fringed with white on their lower margin, in the cinnamon form, genae and lateral lobes of pronotum are marked with two or more tenuous longitudinal fuscous bands, not seen in green specimens; the lower part of the genae in these cinnamon specimens is cream-color (54); of this same color are wide bands along lower parts of lateral lobes, that continue on mesothoracic episterna. Fore and middle legs are of the prevalent body color; in the cinnamon form they are brownish, including the tarsi: hind femora are colored like the body, hind tibiae in all specimens have black bases, the rest of the tibiae and the tarsi are purple (101). No different color forms found in the males. Vertex of head mostly fuscous (21); yellow (157) bands begin on upper part of eyes and reach occiput above the fuscous post-ocular bands.

[FIGURE 18 OMITTED]

Pronotal disk and upper (vannal) areas oftegmina light apple-green (61), rest of tegmina of a very pale hue of this color; lateral lobes of pronotum with same longitudinal fuscous bands as described for the female, a cream-color (54) wide band begins on lower parts of cephalic genae, covers the lower part of pronotal lateral lobes and continues on mesosterna and mesepimera; on pronotal lobes, above the mentioned cream-color band is a tenuous citrine (51) band, and between this and the upper piceous band the surfaces are mostly sulphur-yellow (57), with some irregular tenuous spots of citrine or cinnamon color. All legs buff-yellow (53), the fore and middle ones with indistinct cinnamon-rufous bands on upper parts of femora; hind tibiae buff-yellow (53) on external sides; interior and upper surfaces, and tarsi mostly scarlet; tibial spines white with black apices.

As indicated in the second part of this work, Stal's type of this species is along-winged female, while in Brunei s type series according to his description, there is a short-winged one of the same species, hence the specific name (brachypterus) given to it by Bruner.

Known distribution.--Brasil: Mato Crosso, Mato Crosso do Sul (probably from this state south to Rio Crande do Sul). Paraguay (east). Uruguay: whole country. Argentina: from Formosa and Misiones south to Buenos Aires and La Pampa (Fig. 37).

Affinities.--Closer to A. paranensis than to any other species.

Habitat.--The habitat and ethology of this species have been described by Carbonell (1956). It has been found only in a particular habitat, formed by dense associations of tall grasses (about 1 m high) in low and humid places near water. The species was rare in collections, until the discovery that it is active only at night; in the daytime the insects are hidden at the base of the dense grass formations. At night the insects climb to the upper parts of the vegetation to feed and to mate. In the same places where it was very difficult to find one specimen in the daytime, they could be collected by the hundred at night. The grasses on which this species live are Panicum grumosum and Paspalum exaltatum. Another grass species that forms dense associations in low places is Cortaderia selloana, butA. vitticollis was not found in this habitat. Aleuas albinae shares this particular habitat with A. vitticollis, but is considerably scarcer. Both species are, in Uruguay at least, late developing ones; the first adults are usually found late in January or in the first days of February.
Aleuas                                         Zygodistron

Frontal carinae

Converging from epistoma                       Converging but uniting
to fastigium, where they                       in a single one above
may come together                              insertion of antennae.

Median dorsal carina of pronotum

Absent or represented                          Well-marked, ridge-like,
only by a very low ridge                       especially in females

Tegument of pronotum

Smooth or impressopunctate                     Rugose to tuberculate

Tegmina and wings, males

Reaching or surpassing                         Always reaching or
middle or end of abdomen                       surpassing end of
abdomen

Tegmina and wings, females

Usually reduced. Rarely                        Always reaching or
reaching or surpassing                         surpassing end of
end of abdomen                                 abdomen

Coloration

Very frequently green or                       All known species in
buff to cinnamon                               shades of brown to
umber


It is worth mentioning here that a species of the related genus Zygoclystron (Z. trachystictum Rehn 1905) also has nocturnal habits. It does not live on grasses but in patches of the composite plant, Vernonia nodiflora. Like A. vitticollis, it stays hidden during the day, and becomes active at night, when it climbs the Vernonia plants and can be easily found (Carbonell 1969).

Discussion on the taxonomy of the genus and its species

As already mentioned in the introduction of this work, the genus Aleuas is very closely related to Zygoclistron. The species of these genera look different, and cannot be confused. However, when trying to define their differences, one finds they are not so great as they seem at first sight; they look different mainly because of their different colors and color patterns. The most important differences are given in the following table; some are shown in Fig. 1.

The relationships among the species of Aleuas are difficult to interpret. A. albinae and A. lineatus are so much alike, that the first seems to be a larger version of the second. The most important morphological difference lies in the abdominal terminalia of the males, (Figs 25, A, B) but even these are small. On the other hand, these male terminalia are different from those of the rest of the species of the genus, and similar to those of the genus Zygoclistron. The females, except for their different sizes, are so much alike that the most visible difference lies in the colors of their hind tibiae. A. gracilis, A. paranensis and A. vitticollis show clear affinities. A. paraguayensis seems rather isolated; its male terminalia have an epiproct like that in A. albinae and A. lineatus, but the cerci are different, shaped as in the rest of the species. Its chromatic characters are also peculiar. A. curtipennis and A. uruguayensis are different from the rest of the species of the genus, and the males of both species lack the stridulatory mechanism present in all the others.

[FIGURE 19 OMITTED]

Acknowledgements

Preliminary work related to this paper was carried on in the museums where the types of the studied species are kept. The last stage was done in the Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay, under the auspices of the " Programaparael Desarrollo delas Ciencias basicas" (PEDECIBA). I gratefully acknowledge the help of the curators and collection managers of the museums mentioned in this work for their assistance during my visits and the loan of specimens. Among them particularly to Dr. Daniel Otte of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and Dr. Miguel A. Monne, of the Museu Nacional of Rio de Janeiro. Dr. Sonia Turk of the Fundacifin Miguel Lillo in Tucuman gave me data on the distribution of some species in that province. My thanks too, to the reviewers of the text. And, as always, to my wife Albina and other members of my family for their permanent help on the domestic front.

Appendix 1.

The genus Aleuas and its species: taxonomy, synonymy, localities of collection, repositories, references

Repositories of the specimens are designated in the text as follows: ANN ARBOR / Museum of Zoology of the University of Michigan, USA. LA PLATA/ Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, La Plata, Argentina. MONTEVIDEO / Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay. PARIS / Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. PHILADELPHIA / Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, USA. RIO DE JANEIRO/ Museu Nacio nal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. VIENNA/ Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria.

Genus ALEUAS StAl 1878

Typus generis: Aleuas vitticollis StAl 1878, as selected by Rehn 1907

Stal 1878: 25 (in key of genera), 69. Brunner von Wattenwyl 1893 (in key of genera). Cigho-Tos 1898: 47 (in key). Rehn 1905: 39 (relationship with Zygodistron Rehn 1905). 1907: 184 (type selection). Bruner 1906: 667 (keyto species), 1911: 100 (keyto species). Liebermann 1939: 83. Dirsh 1956:256, 1961: 397. Ronderos 1964: 55, 96 (phallic complex). Carbonell 1956: 49-55 (habitat, ecology), 1969: 575 (comparison with Zygoclistron Rehn). Descamps 1976: 203 (ecol. of spp.). Ferreira, Mesa & Carbonell 1979: 53-54 (relationship with Zygoclistron).

Species of the genus Aleuas (in alphabetical order)

Aleuas albinae n.sp.

Carbonell 1956: 50 (as Aleuas sp.). Mesa et al. 1982 (as n. sp. No. 1).

Holotype.--A male labeled "Uruguay, Florida, Casupa, 9 Mar. 1961, C.S. Carbonell and A. Mesa", in MONTEVIDEO.

Paratypes.- Same data as holotype, 5 males and 14 females. "Uruguay, Rivera, Sierra de la Aurora, 14 Mar. 1961, 2 males, 1 female. "Uruguay, Rivera, Tranqueras, Banado de Zanja Honda, 14 Mar. 1961, C.S. Carbonell", 2 females. "Uruguay, Paysandu, Puerto Pepeaji, Carbonell, Morey, MonnC', 2 females. Distributed in MONTEVIDEO, LA PLATA, RIO DE JANEIRO, ANN ARBOR, PARIS, PHILADELPHIA.

Aleuas curtipennis Bruner 1911 Bruner 1911: 101(descr.). Liebermann 1955:341 (distr.). Otte 1978: 28 (location of type).

Hololectotype.--A male in PHILADELPHIA, from Brasil, Mato Crosso, Chapada dos Guimaraes, labeled "Aleuas curtipennis, Type, Bruner" "Chapada, April, H.H. Smith" marked as lectotype byl. Liebermann, here selected as such. Paratype (marked as allotype by Liebermann) a female from same locality as above male, also marked as "type" by Bruner, "Chapada, May, H.H. Smith".

Otherspecimens examined.--2 males and 2 females from Brasil, Mato Crosso, Chapada dos Cuimaraes, Mar 1979, O. Roppa & B. Silva: 1 male from Brasil, Mato Crosso, BR 364, km. 349, Feb 1978, B. Silva: 1 male, 2 females from Brasil, Coias, Mineiros, Feb 1979, O. Roppa & B. Silva. In MONTEVIDEO and RIO DE JANEIRO.

Aleuas gracilis Stal 1878

Stal 1878: 70 (descr.). Rehn 1905: 39 (distr.), 1907: 184 (distr.), 1915: 285 (distr). Bruner 1906: 668 (distr.), 1911: 101(distr.). Kirby 1910: 427. Sjostedt 1933: 63 (type, illustr.). Liebermann 1939: 195 (distr.), 1955: 341 (distr.). Dirsh 1956: 279, pl. 50, Fig. 9 (epiphallus). Ferreira 1975: 427 (caryology, illustr. chromosomes), 1978: 36-39 (caryology). Mesa et al. 1982: 520 (caryology).

Holotype.--A male in VIENNA, labeled "A. gracilis Stal" "1270 Brasil" "Coll. Br. v. W Brasilien" "76-1270". This specimen, (like all the other types of StAl in the Vienna collection) was not marked as type. In 1966 I marked it as holotype of the species.

Otherspecimens examined.--1 male, l female, "Paraguay, Sapucay, 11 Mar 1905 A. Foster" in PHILADELPHIA. 3 males, Brasil, Mato Crosso do Sul, Corguinho, 2 Feb 1969, H. Ferreira" in MONTEVIDEO.

This species seems to be rather uncommon. It has been found so far in: Argentina: Misiones. Brasil: Mato Crosso do Sul. Paraguay: eastern part.

Aleuas lineatus StAl 1878

Stal 1878: 70 (descr.). Bruner 1900: 66 (distr. illustr.), 1906: 668 (distr. illustr.). Kirby 1910:427. Rehn 1913:338 (distr). Liebermann 1928: 153 (distr.), 1939: 195 (distr.), 1941a: 33 (distr.), 1948: 88 (distr.), 1949a: 144 (distr.), 1949b: 5 (distr.), 1950: 10 (distr.), 1951a: 26 (distr.), 1951b: 46 (distr.), 1958a: 13 (distr.), 1958b: 39 (distr), 1960: 38 (distr.) 1963: 7 (distr.), 1967: 109 (distr.), 1968: 48 (distr), 1972a: 7 (distr.) 1972b: 194 (distr. econ.). Sjostedt 1933: 36 p1.7, Fig. 9 (type, illustr.). Liebermann-Piran 1941: 11 (distr.). Liebermann-Ruffinelli 1946: 13 (distr.). Baucke 1954: 2 (distr., illustr.). Ruffinelli-Carbonell 1954:39 (distr.). Carbonell 1956:49-53 (habitat, ecol.). Mesa 1956: 36 (caryology). Silveiraetal. 1958: 386 (ecol. econ.). Ronderos 1959: 18 (in key), 1964: 64 (redescr., phallic complex). Creathead 1963: 495 (insect enemies). Ferreira 1975: 432 (caryology). Campodonico-Santoro 1971:66,68, Fig. 17 (eggs). Cangwere-Ronderos 1975: 178 (food selection). Ferreira 1975: 432 (caryol.) Santoro 1976: 2 (antennae, ontogeny). Luna et al. 1981: 245 (pathol.). Ronderos et al. 1981: 74 (biol. ecol.). Sanchez 1981: 228 (biol. ecol.). Mesaetal. 1982:520 (caryology). COPR 1982:180 (distr, ecol. econ. Illustr.). Lange 1992: 65-74 (pathol.), 1996: 108 (pathol.). Sanchez-De Wysiecki 1993: 31-39 (distr. ecol.). Bentos Pereira-Lorier 1995: 191, 195, Fig. 40 (anat. stomodeum) Cigliano et al. 1995: 41 (ecol.). Lange-De Wysiecki 1996: 24-39 (pathol.). Costa-Jantsch 1999: 145 (distr.). DeWysieckietal. 2000: 212 (ethol. distr). Cigliano et al. 2000: 88 (ethol.). Lorier et al. 2002: 71 (ethol. stridulation, anat.). Cigliano et al. 2002: 215 (ecol.).

Type-series.--A male and a female in STOCKHOLM, labeled as this species and also "Buen. Ayr." "Berg" [Buenos Aires, Argentina] of which the male may be considered as the holotype. Paratypes: the above-mentioned female, and 1 male with the same data as the holotype, and 1 male labeled "Banda Oriental, C.Berg", (Banda Oriental is an old name for Uruguay). There is also another female labeled "Buen. Ayr." "Kinb." that is probably also a paratype. This last female must have been collected by Kinberg, the physician on board the frigate "Eugenie", who collected the insects during its trip. These paratypes are conspecific with the specimens mentioned in the first place but, except for the female mentioned, do not have identification labels.

This is the most common and widespread species of the genus. It would be of little use and a waste of space to give full information of the specimens examined. It has been found in Argentina: Provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Formosa, Chaco, Tucuman, Corrientes, San Juan, Entre Rios, Mendoza, Rio Negro, Chubut. Brasil: Rio Crande do Sul. Paraguay: eastern part. Uruguay: whole country.

Aleuas paraguayensis n. sp. Mesa et al. 1982 (as n. sp. No. 2).

Holotype.--Amale from Paraguay, Dpto. Caaguazu. 40 km N. of town of Caaguazu, near Ihu. 13 Mar 1965, Carbonell, Mesa & Monne, in MONTEVIDEO. Paratypes: 3 males and 7 females, same data as holotype. In MONTEVIDEO; LA PLATA; RIO DE JANEIRO; PARIS; PHILADELPHIA.

Aleuas paranensis n. sp. Mesa et al. 1982 (as n. sp. No. 3).

Holotype.--Amale from Argentina: Prov. Corrientes, Ruta Provincial 126, Arroyo San Joaquin, 20 Mar 1965, Carbonell, Mesa & Monne, in LA PLATA. Paratypes: 3 males and 5 females, same data as holotype: 1 female Argentina, Corrientes, 30 km N. of Paso de los Libres, 20 Mar 1965, Carbonell, Mesa & Monne: From Brasil: Rio Crande do Sul, Pelotas; 1 female 21 Apr 1967, C. Toques; 1 female 13 Mar 1961, B. Silva; 2 males 15 May 1960, C. Biezanko, 1 female 7 May 1962, C. Biezanko; 1 female 7 Apr. 1966, Pierubum; 1 female 3 Apr 1967, Cermano. In MONTEVIDEO, RIO DE JANEIRO, PARIS, PHILADELPHIA

Aleuas uruguayensis n. sp.

Holotype.--A male from Uruguay, Dpto. Rivera, Lunarejo, Canada Las Yeguas, 30.X. 1995, M.E. Martinez. Paratypes: 1 male, 1 female, same data as holotype, All in MONTEVIDEO.

Aleuas vitticollis Stal 1878 (=Aleuas brachypterus Bruner 1906)

Stal 1878: 69 (descr.). Rehn 1905: 39 (distr.), 1907: 184 (design. as typus generis) 1909: 144 (distr.), 1913: 338 (distr.). Bruner 1906: 667 (distr.), 1911: 101 (distr.), 1919: 74 (distr.). Kirby 1910: 427. Sjostedt 1933: 36, p1.17, Fig. 8 (type, illustr.). Liebermann 1939: 195 (distr.), 1955: 341 (distr.). Liebermann-Piran 1941: 11 (distr.). Liebermann-Ruffinelli 1946:13 (distr.). Ronderos 1964:67 (phallic complex). Mesa et al. 1982: 520 (caryology). Carbonell 1956: 50 (habitat, ethol.). Ferreira 1975: 432 (caryol.). Cangwere-Ronderos 1975: 178 (food selection). Sanchez 1981: 228 (bionom. ecol.). Ronderos et al. 1981: 74 (bionom. ecol.). Costa-Jantsch 1999: 145 (distr.) Lorier et al. 2002: 71 (ethol. anat.).

Aleuas brachypterus Bruner 1906

Bruner 1906: 667 (descr.). Rehn 1907: 184 (distr.), 1913: 338 (distr., prob. syn. of A. vitticollis). Kirby 1910: 427. Liebermann 1939: 196 (distr.), 1941a: 33 (distr.), 1941b: 157 (distr.), 1948: 89 (distr.), 1957:19 (distr., descr. male), 1968:48,1972a: 7. Liebermann-Piran 1941: 11 (distr.). Liebermann-Ruffinelli 1946: 13 (distr.). Carbonell 1956: 50 (habitat, ecol.). Mesa 1956: 36 (caryology). Saez 1956: 24 (caryology). Ferreira 1975:432 (caryology). Costa-Jantsch 1999: 145 (distr.). Cighano et al. 2000: 88 (distr, ecol.).

Holotype of A. vitticollis.--A male in STOCKHOLM, labeled "Sao Leopoldo" Stahl". Sao Leopoldo is a town in the Brazilian State of Rio Crande do Sul. There is a long-winged female of the species in VIENNA, that might be a paratype, from "Montevideo", labeled as Aleuas vitticollis. Holotype of Aleuas brachypterus: a male in WASHINGTON, with Brunei s label with the name of the species and the word "Cotype". Also another label "Sapucay, Paraguay, WTF, March, 85" [WTF stands for W.T. Foster]. Bruner (1906: 668) mentions a female specimen in his collection, and 3 males and 3 females in the U.S. Nat. Museum. I have been unable to find the mentioned female specimens. However, to these short-winged females is due the specific name. Long-winged specimens (like the type of A.vitticollis) were rare in the populations I have examined and collected, while the short-winged ones made up the bulk of the population.

This species has been collected in Argentina: Misiones, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Buenos Aires. Brasil: Mato Crosso, Mato Crosso do Sul, Rio Crande do Sul. Paraguay: (east). Uruguay: (whole country). Distribution in Argentina and Brasil must be far larger than that indicated above.
Appendix II. Tables of measurements.

Table 1. Aleuas albinae n. sp. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx      #       A       B       C       D       E       F       G

mh      976     410     348     9       37      36      73      116
mp      977     387     327     8       37      32      69      110
mp      978     402     338     9       36      37      73      110
mp      979     385     321     8       36      34      70      108
fp      980     582     520     13      56      62      118     182
fp      981     588     540     12      58      62      120     186
fp      982     560     484     11      54      56      110     169
fp      983     600     522     11      55      56      111     173

Sx      H       I       J       K       L       M       N       O

mh      310     165     135     28      19      126     12      20
mp      278     165     128     27      18      129     12      19
mp      308     171     135     29      20      129     11      20
mp      291     149     134     26      19      111     12      18
fp      420     253     204     37      23      130     23      30
fp      426     259     203     38      24      135     24      33
fp      415     243     198     34      21      --      23      28
fp      446     257     210     36      21      143     24      30

Sx      P       Q       R       S       T

mh      50      49      31      12      9
mp      49      45      31      9       7
mp      52      48      33      12      8
mp      49      44      28      11      8
fp      83      69      46      12      8
fp      88      70      46      11      8
fp      84      64      45      10      8
fp      84      67      47      11      8

Table 2. Aleuas curtipennis Bruner. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx     #    A     B     C    D    E    F    G     H     I     J

m    1006   162   232   6    33   21   54   87    86    116   92
m    1007   160   235   6    32   20   52   88    83    119   95
m    1008   155   220   5    30   19   49   78    87    110   89
m    1009   164   226   6    32   20   52   88    86    115   96
m    1010   160   231   6    37   21   58   89    85    116   92
f    1011   215   321   10   55   34   89   135   100   162   131
f    1012   220   343   10   58   32   90   131   101   155   130
f    1013   215   330   10   50   30   80   125   105   160   132

Sx   K      L     M     N    O    P    Q    R     S     T

m    24     16    74    9    17   36   40   28    10    7
m    24     16    70    9    17   36   39   27    10    7
m    24     16    71    8    13   32   39   25    10    7
m    25     17    72    8    15   36   40   27    10    7
m    25     16    73    8    14   36   40   27    10    8
f    31     19    101   17   26   60   56   36    10    8
f    32     21    95    16   26   60   55   36    10    7
f    30     18    94    17   25   57   54   35    10    7

Letters A to R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. 1006, 1013, from Brasil, Goias, Mineiros. 1008
from Brasil, Mato Grosso, Diamantino. 1009, 1010, 1011 from Brasil,
Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimaraes.

Table 3. Aleuas gracilis Stal. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx   #      A     B     C    D    E    F    G     H     I     J

m    1000   300   333   11   43   28   71   114   200   137   107
m    1001   247   300   10   38   28   66   101   186   126   101
m    1002   296   310   10   40   28   68   105   196   133   108
m    1003   301   320   11   40   27   67   116   194   141   112
f    1004   241   449   16   62   36   98   160   96    180   146

Sx   K      L     M     N    O    P    Q    R     S     T

m    27     16    --    15   20   44   45   28    9     8
m    25     15    --    14   17   40   41   26    9     7
m    25     16    --    16   19   43   43   28    9     8
m    26     16    105   15   20   46   45   30    9     7
f    33     20    110   29   34   62   60   36    9     7

Letters A to R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. 1000, 1001, 1002 from Brasil, Mato Grosso,
Corginhos. 1003, 1004 from Paraguay, Paraguay, Sapucay.

Table 4. Aleuas lineatus Stal. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx   #     A     B     C    D    E    F    G     H     I     J

m    984   280   250   6    27   22   49   84    181   120   98
m    985   290   270   8    29   30   56   92    191   135   105
m    986   285   285   7    28   24   52   91    203   130   102
m    987   304   293   8    31   29   60   100   227   138   106
f    988   447   422   6    47   44   91   152   314   211   173
f    989   392   388   9    40   36   76   130   282   183   152
f    990   385   376   10   40   36   76   122   278   180   148
f    991   430   412   11   46   40   86   144   311   202   159

Sx   K     L     M     N    O    P    Q    R     S     T

m    25    16    76    8    15   38   40   24    10    8
m    26    17    82    10   16   39   40   28    11    8
m    26    18    --    9    14   39   42   26    10    10
m    27    18    94    11   18   43   44   28    11    8
f    33    23    114   18   26   68   61   38    11    9
f    34    20    91    16   25   57   55   34    11    9
f    32    21    87    17   28   56   53   32    11    9
f    35    20    92    18   25   63   58   40    11    9

Letters A to R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. 984 from Uruguay, Artigas, Arroyo Tres Cruces.
985 from Uruguay, Flores, Arroyo Pinto. 986, 987, 989 from
Argentina, Chaco, Arroyo Palometa. 988, 991 from Argentina,
Chaco, Resistencia. 990 from Uruguay, Flores, Gruta del Palacio.

Table 5. Aleuas paraguayensis n. sp. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx   #     A     B     C    D    E    F    G     H     I     J

mh   961   252   242   6    28   21   49   88    176   119   99
mp   958   259   220   7    27   19   46   86    182   118   95
mp   959   265   259   6    28   21   49   86    183   123   99
mp   960   264   264   6    27   21   48   90    182   123   98
fp   972   364   364   9    35   30   65   122   260   171   140
fp   973   390   392   10   40   33   73   127   274   183   148
fp   974   380   381   10   37   33   70   125   261   176   148
fp   975   377   350   10   36   29   65   121   264   170   141

Sx   K     L     M     N    O    P    Q    R     S     T

mh   26    17    89    11   17   35   44   25    10    7
mp   25    19    82    11   17   37   42   25    10    7
mp   25    17    82    12   17   36   42   26    9     6
mp   27    19    84    13   18   37   43   26    10    7
fp   33    22    --    22   28   56   58   33    10    8
fp   33    22    94    23   29   56   60   34    10    7
fp   32    22    94    22   28   57   59   33    10    8
fp   32    22    85    23   29   55   57   31    10    8

Letters A to R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. h, holotype. p, paratype. All specimens from
Paraguay, Caaguazu, near lhu.

Table 6. Aleuas paranensis n. sp. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx   #     A     B     C    D    E    F     G     H     I     J

mh   992   207   285   7    35   19   54    98    114   121   92
mp   993   218   280   8    35   21   56    100   125   129   97
mp   994   214   254   7    35   20   55    95    127   125   97
mp   995   213   277   9    33   19   52    93    93    128   97
fp   996   249   421   10   59   29   88    150   105   181   141
fp   997   255   444   12   59   33   92    157   106   185   145
fp   998   213   334   12   48   27   75    130   87    161   124
fp   999   247   379   11   54   31   85    140   115   182   137
fa   970   255   462   17   62   40   102   161   110   181   145

Sx   K     L     M     N    O    P    Q     R     S     T

mh   29    18    65    11   16   37   42    29    12    7
mp   29    17    73    11   15   40   43    28    10    7
mp   26    16    67    11   15   38   39    28    10    8
mp   27    16    78    10   14   37   38    27    10    7
fp   36    22    93    22   26   64   61    40    10    8
fp   37    23    83    25   28   66   63    43    10    8
fp   32    19    78    19   24   56   51    37    9     7
fp   35    20    100   21   25   62   54    40    10    7
fa   30    18    116   27   32   65   58    35    8     8

Letters A to R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. h, holo-type. p, paratype. 992, 993, 994, 997
from Argentina, Corrientes, Arroyo San Joaquin at Route 126. 996
from Argentina, Corrientes, North of Paso de los Libres. 995,
998, 999 from Brasil, Rio Grande do Sul, Pelotas.

Table 7. Aleuas uruguayensis n. sp. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx   #      A     B     C    D    E    F    G     H     I     J

mh   1014   266   273   9    32   23   55   93    183   125   102
mp   1015   250   258   8    33   22   55   92    170   124   99
fp   1016   263   447   18   59   40   99   176   103   184   145

Sx   K      L     M     N    O    P    Q    R     S     T

mh   27     18    65    12   16   38   41   30    10    9
mp   29     19    --    13   17   41   42   26    10    9
fp   40     23    90    31   37   88   69   43    10    9

Letters Ato R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. h, holotype. p, paratype. 1014,1015, 1016 from
Uruguay, Rivera, Lunarejo, Canada de las Yeguas.

Table 8. Aleuas vitticollis Stdl. Measurements in tenths of a mm.

Sx    #      A     B     C    D    E    F     G     H     I     J

m     963    317   334   8    40   28   68    111   219   152   121
m     964    340   353   10   46   33   79    121   232   160   130
m     965    340   358   9    44   29   73    120   228   162   124
m     966    290   313   11   41   29   70    114   192   137   103
f     967    300   528   15   69   50   119   187   128   219   180
f     968    314   558   16   75   53   128   195   145   235   187
f     969    294   566   14   69   43   112   185   125   213   167
f     971    329   598   15   75   46   121   195   143   237   189
fl    1005   510   543   16   66   50   116   185   351   225   174
hfl   fot    490   530   20   70   45   115   170   345   235   195

Sx    K      L     M     N    O    P    Q     R     S     T

m     29     19    102   16   23   52   49    33    9     7
m     30     20    99    16   23   52   49    33    9     7
m     31     21    108   16   21   51   52    35    9     7
m     26     17    90    16   20   51   44    29    8     6
f     40     22    120   30   38   80   72    45    9     6
f     36     24    --    32   37   85   71    48    9     7
f     40     25    117   31   39   81   73    49    8     7
f     41     24    122   36   40   86   78    51    8     7
fl    37     22    112   31   35   85   70    46    9     8
hfl   40     20    100   30   40   80   70    45    --    --

Letters A to R, see Fig. 36. S, number of internal spines of hind
tibia; T, same, external spines. Sx, sex. #, specimen number. m,
male. f, female. fl, long-winged female. h, holotype. lot,
measurements taken from a photograph of the type, in which a
millimeter ruler was included. 963, 967, 1005 from Uruguay,
Florida, Casupa. 964, 968 from Uruguay, Rivera, Tranqueras,
Banado de Zanja Honda. 965, 969 from Argentina, Corrientes, Arroyo
San Joaquin, at provincial route 126. 966 from Brazil, Minas
Gerais, between tlberaba and Araxa. 971 from Paraguay, Paraguarf,
Sapucay. Holotype is from Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Leopoldo.

Appendix III. Geographical coordinates of localities of collection.

                                 Latitude            Longitude

Argentina.

Prov. Chaco
Arroyo Palometa
at Nac. Rte. 11                  27 [degrees] 41'S   59[degrees] 13'W
Resistencia                      27[degrees] 27'S    59[degrees] 00'W
Prov. Corrientes
Arroyo San loagin
  at Prov. Route 126 (approx.)   30[degrees] 00'S    59[degrees] 00'W

Brasil.

State Coias.
Betw. Sao Simao and latai        18[degrees] 30'S    51[degrees] 00'W
State Mato Crosso
Chapada dos Cuimaraes            15[degrees] 27'S    55[degrees] 44'W
Diamantino                       14[degrees] 24'S    56[degrees] 27'W
State Rio Crande do Sul
Pelotas                          31[degrees] 45'S    52[degrees] 22'W
Sao Leopoldo                     29[degrees] 46'S    51[degrees] 09'W

Paraguay.

Ihu                              25[degrees] 03'S    55[degrees] 56'W
Sapucay                          25[degrees] 40'S    56[degrees] 57'W

Uruguay.

Doto. Florida
Casupa                           34[degrees] 02'S    55[degrees] 39'W
Doto. Paysandu
Pepeaji                          32[degrees] 02'S    58[degrees] 08'W
Dpto. Rivera
Sierra de la Aurora              31[degrees] 00'S    56[degrees] 20'W
Tranqueras                       31[degrees] 11'S    55[degrees] 46'W


Accepted January 19, 2008

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CARLOS S. CARBONELL

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay.

Casilla de Correo 490, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay.

Email: cscarbo@montevideo.com.uy
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