The fractal urban fabric. emptiness as an urban planning item.
1. Introduction. The Fractal Simulation of Suburbia as an Optimal Compromise between the Diffuse and the Dense City
The dynamics of the European contemporary city have rendered the traditional notions of compact city obsolete. The phenomenon of metropolisation as well as its consequence, that of the urban sprawl, have led to the emergence of a new spatial reality described in the German literature with the term Zwischenstadt (1) (Sieverts, Deluze et al. 2004)--a space emerging as a transition towards an undefined model. Zwischenstadt is dominated by isolated systems which take shape at the scale of a territory, with extensive and irregular edges which engulf built areas and empty spaces among which relations of interdependence are established, with direct effects upon the residential activity of these spaces adjoined to the green areas. Thomas Sieverst's vision upon urban sprawl reality is expounded through a fractal distribution of the elements located at the limit between the city and the surrounding agricultural/rural areas. The principles of Euclidian geometry are ill equipped to describe this situation, fractal geometry thus becoming the preferred instrument which properly expresses the new spatial realities of an apparent chaos. However, within this apparent chaos, there is a law of internal order which governs the way in which the evolution and spatial distribution of these aggregates unfolds in the various stages of growth of the urban organism.
Thus, fractal geometry is based on the repetition of an element at different scales of analysis, a repetition which develops infinitely (2) (Frankhauser 1994) and which allows for the inclusion of urban vacui as elements of arrangement, offering an alternative to the dense city (a perspective become illogical in the context of the contemporary city) where there is an alternation between built spaces and empty spaces, alternation which manifests at neighborhood level as well as at the level of agglomeration. The existence of empty spaces among the built elements represents an element which facilitates peoples' movement and air circulation (3) (Frankhauser, 2000). Additionally, while ensuring a diversity of professional activities and a diversification of the inhabitants' trajectories of movement, this sort of setup does not limit itself to movements from home--to commercial centers--to the workplace, but includes an ever-increasing demand for access to green areas and the recreational locations around cities.
2. The Demographical Dynamics in the Bucharest Suburban Area during 1990-2010
Recent modifications in the urban dynamics of the first two decades of the post-communist period (1990-2010) have brought to the fore a new socio- economical phenomenon with major impact upon the evolution of the Bucharest area, among others--the migration of city dwellers towards the peripheral townships.
The fall of the communist regime in December 1989 has entailed a series of transformations of Romanian society, equally engendering a predilection for a certain type of habitat. The individual dwelling, previously seen as "antiquated," a mark of rural ascendency (4) (Mihailescu, 2009) has started to be reassessed, interpreted as a sign of social success and a guarantee of a quality of habitation superior to that provided by the collective dwellings of the great ensembles.
The December 27th 1989 abolition of Bill no. 58/1974 regarding the systematization of the territory and of urban and rural townships, and of Decree no. 68/1976 concerning the changing of one's residence from other townships to towns declared by law as big cities, has opened new perspectives of urban development on a national level, the restrictive measures which regulated urban expansion having become null and void (5) (Suditu et al., 2010). This legislative vacuum persisted until 2001, allowing for the opening to urbanization of evermore significant expanses of land. The document which somewhat reigned in this tendency was initiated no sooner than February 2011 (O.G. 7/2011).
At the level of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area, these transformations resulted in an inversion of the 1960s-'70s rural exodus.
Contrary to a negative demographical trend at national level, the townships of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (ZMB) which have registered a growth in the number of inhabitants are the rural communes surrounding the Capital, some of them having become towns during this period (Fig. 1). The first ten townships which have registered a significant percentage of demographical growth are located within the 15 minute isochrones (Fig. 1). Bragadiru (117%), Otopeni (65%), Mogosoaia (60%), Pantelimon (51), 1 Decembrie (46%), Popesti-Leordeni (41%), stefanestii de Jos (36%), Voluntari (34%), Corbeanca (28%) and Balotesti (28%) surround Bucharest, being situated mostly within tire perimeter of the Belt Road.
Within the confines of demographic growth, natural growth and migratory growth have known different ratios. An overview of these two indicators brings into focus the fact that throughout the beginning of the post-communist period, the main factor of demographic growth for the ZMB townships was natural population growth, with a positive natural increase, with the exception of three towns. Bucharest, Oltenita and Otopeni were achieving demographic growth mainly by means of a positive migratory balance, these same three towns being, in fact, the only ones which were displaying positive values of this indicator.
The migratory balance would continue to follow this trend and the positive values of this indicator would themselves focus around the Capital and on its North-Eastern side. If we relate the natural growth to the migratory growth, we notice a strong connection between these two indicators--around Bucharest migratory growth precedes natural increase. To put it differently, from the 2000s onward, when the positive values of the natural balance begin to concentrate in certain areas of the ZMB, demographic growth is catalyzed by the young couples which are moving to these areas and participating in the birth rate increase within the respective perimeters.
This is all the more obvious given the fact that the structure of the demographic balance (natural balance and migratory balance) is radically changed in 2010, as opposed to the state of affairs of 1990.
If in the immediate aftermath of the fall of the communist regime Otopeni, Oltenita and Bucharest were the only townships which displayed values of migratory balance which were superior to those of the natural balance, in the year 2010, with the exception of Otopeni, these towns had lost some of their appeal. The great winners brought about by these changes were the townships of the Capital's first suburban crown (inside of the Belt Road) and those of the North-North-East, the residential areas especially.
3. The Dynamics of Residential Construction within the ZMB Area during 1990-2010
Complementing the demographical transformations taken place within the ZMB area throughout the last two decades, the dynamics of private residential constructions offer a perspective upon the characteristics of the real estate market and upon the main directions of flow of these dynamics.
At the level of the ZMB, during 1990-2010, the number of newly-finalized dwellings displays a tendency of concentrating within the first suburban crown of Bucharest and towards the North-North-East of the city (Fig. 2).
The first positions within this chart, besides Bucharest, are occupied by the "recent towns" of Voluntari, Popesti Leordeni, Bragadiru and Otopeni (6) (Cirnu, 2013), as well as by the communes of Chiajna, Domnesti, Corbeanca, Snagov.
This concentration around the Capital was arrived at gradually, in several stages (7) (Cirnu, 2013):
* Immediately after the changes in political regime and in town planning regulation, the positive growth trend of the extant towns continued. The only communes which registered a more significant percentage of new dwellings were Otopeni, Oltenita, Bragadiru.
* in 1995, in the unfavorable context of the conversion of the national economy and emergence of a liberal lifestyle, the ZMB towns lose some of their appeal, the townships which experience the greatest quantity of new construction being those farther and farther removed from the urban centers. Snagov, Corbeanca, Banesti, Floresti-Stoenesti begin to manifest themselves as centers harboring a significant dynamics.
* the years 2000-2005 display a clear-cut concentration of investments towards the North of the Capital, the only area with a significant rate of residential construction. Voluntari, Mogosoaia, Snagov, Corbeanca are the townships with the greatest number of new dwellings. Popesti Leordeni equally occupies a lead position (to the South-West of Bucharest).
* 2005-2010 a more significant concentration of new buildings around Bucharest, in the townships encompassed within the perimeter of the Belt Road.
4. From the Urbanization of Rural Space to the De-Urbanization of Urban Space. Logics of Action
In order to further delve into the consequences of this phenomenon upon the urban fabric, we shall select a case study, the commune of Pantelimon, declared to be a town in the year 2005, and situated in the Capital's immediate proximity, to its East (Fig. 3).
Thus, during 1990-2010, the township undergoes a process of extensive urban development, with ever lower density gradients. One is surprised by the growth ratio of the inner town surface of Pantelimon, which multiplies 7,4 times within the space of two decades (Table 1).
As for the general urban morphology throughout this period, we are witnessing a radical change of perspective: from an urban fabric developed according to a fordist logic, to one developed based on a post-fordist logic. Thus, in Figure 4 one can see the footprint of built surfaces in the year 1990, with the particular highlighting of the collective dwellings which had been inserted in the central section of the township as a result of the National Systematization Program (1976-1980), duly accelerated towards the end of the 1980s; a program which envisaged the gradual effacing of the differences between urban and rural environments, through that which has been dubbed, in the jargon of the age, urban sprawl--a term whose connotation was very different from that of its present, Western-European equivalent. These dense, compact shapes, with rigorously systematized streets and lots which didn't exceed 200-250 [m.sup.2] are replaced by a suburban urban fabric, the central figure of which is the individual dwelling.
The urban fabric with residential destination developed during 1990-2010 has diverse characteristics, exhibiting forms and manifestations which combine traits of a chaotic urbanization with features of a rigorous systematization, in the isolated case of ensemble real estate projects. This urban fabric is essentially heteroclite in all its aspects, which denotes, on the one hand, a diversity of modes of real estate production, and, on the other, an acute lack of global vision as to the township's urban development.
From the analysis of the spatial development of the suburban phenomenon we have derived several insights which are essential to understanding the mechanisms of actors' interplay having sprouted around this issue.
For instance, there is a very poignant social demand for an alternative to the collective dwelling. Those who move to the suburban area of Bucharest are in quest of a superior quality of habitation, which should be liable to provide a habitable space superior to the city apartment, as well as a secure space where family life might unfold in peace and intimacy. On the other hand, in their quest for an area resembling a semi-rural environment featuring closeness to nature, the suburban migrants are forced, via the logics of land rent economics, to stray ever farther from the service provider centers and from the main axes of public transportation.
Confronted with these obvious problems, the local authorities of the communes surrounding Bucharest fully support this process, for various reasons. Firstly there are those we shall dub "objective reasons." In Pantelimon, the elected officials wish to strengthen the township's town appearance through drawing in an ever larger number of new inhabitants, through whom the urban lifestyle would also be imported. There are also a series of motivations deemed as "subjective," peripheral, underscored by relations which are at the edge of legality, or beyond it; relations between the local elected officials, the public administration and various economic actors with vested interests in the town's real estate market.
In the face of the entire relational system which evidently supports the development of this phenomenon, with its flaws and problems, the central authorities (the Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration) and their subordinate structures, aware of the aberrations which take root within the confines of this phenomenon, are attempting to remediate the situation through regulatory texts (for example, O.G. 7/2011, which addresses this issue specifically) and through actions meant to raise the local officials' awareness as to the nature of these urban dynamics.
5. The Conciliation of Social Demand with the Principles of the Sustainable City
In a democratic society, the process of urban sprawl cannot be stopped, nor forbidden. It has manifested and continues to manifest itself in various geographical areas and with a certain periodicity. The solution resides in finding an adequate means of optimizing the flow of this phenomenon, so as to have it produce a high quality urban fabric.
We are therefore left with the difficult mission of putting forward models/methods meant to simultaneously reconcile the social demand for green areas and for proximity to the service provider centers, the pressures exerted by the real estate developers bent on building more individual dwellings, the local officials' desire to attract new inhabitants on the one hand, and the limiting of the unduly waste of urban land resource, and of local budget resources, on the other hand.
From this perspective, it becomes apparent that what is needed is the channeling of the newly urbanized areas along the vectors of the existing road network and in relation to the hubs of activity being constantly frequented by the inhabitants. On the one hand, this would reduce the surfaces taken up by a supplementary road infrastructure and on the other hand, it would optimize daily commutes. Furthermore, special attention must be paid to the social demand for access to green areas.
In the 20th century there have been adopted models which come close to meet these requirements. We cite for instance the case of the Danish capital city, Copenhagen, the built area of which alternates with green areas, penetrating in lane form right up to the edge of the downtown region, thus generating a geometry which resembles the fingers of a glove.
In Germany we find the inspiring example of the S-BAHN transportation network for the town of Stuttgart, which advances green areas towards the inside of the city, or that of the Berlin's organization principle. We would also like to cite the project for the urban organization of the city of Hamburg, put forward by Fritz Schumacher, and which took the shape of a palm leaf (8) (Frankhauser 2005).
In North America, we cite the example of the residential neighborhoods developed in Florida (West Pasco, Florida for instance), where the shape of the shoreline, as well as the residents' desire for access to a body of water has led to the emergence of built areas featuring inroads of natural space.
However, the limitation imposed upon the inhabitants' movements is not confined to the issues of access to recreation areas and axial organization of transportation; one must establish a hierarchy of service provider centers, meant to cater to the various levels of an agglomeration, along the lines of this principle's implementation in Great Britain, in the development of "urban villages" (9) (Thomas Frankhauser et al. 2010). This logic leads us towards Walter Christaller's 1930s theory of central places. The fractal perspective upon urban modeling modifies this theory, adding the requirement for the conservation of green inroads within the urban fabric itself (Fig. 5).
The MUP City Computer Program. Operating Principles
Based on this polycentric-fractal perspective of territorial and urban space organization, in the year 2010, within the TheMA research center, Universite de Franche Comte, a modeling program was developed which emphasizes access to services while still preserving the inner green areas and favoring the mitigation of commutes.
The four major principles of operation of MUP City are the following (10) (Tannier, 2009):
* Ensuring a good degree of inhabitant access to services and green areas.
* Avoiding the fragmentation of natural or agricultural space, with the goal of conserving the biological and landscape diversity of the site. This guiding principle is also conducive to the streamlining of the common transportation network.
* The reduction of the space taken up by new elements of infrastructure, by channeling urbanization along the vectors of the extant transportation grid.
* The preservation and development of green area inroads into the built areas, for hygienist reasons (enhancing the penetration of fresh air hailing from the green areas), and in order to highlight the landscape value of the site.
These four major principles are complemented by a fractal rule of urbanization and by four more additional rules of accessibility.
The fractal rule (11) (Tannier et al. 2010) of urbanization is based on a relation of the type D = Log N/Log r, where D is the fractal dimension, N is the number of urbanized cells and r is the reduction factor of the aforementioned cells, from one scale of analysis to another. This fractal rule imposes a statistical auto-similarity upon the newly built areas, one according to which the aggregates, as well as the empty spaces (natural areas/green areas) must be distributed equally in the territory. The decomposition into a fractal network, operated via the same modeling process, leads to a quasi-total auto-assimilation of the elements. Through the implementation of this rule, we can identify the number of potentially built cells extant within each "box" of the decomposition grill.
6. Identifying the Potential of Urban Extension, from a Fractal Perspective
For the township of Pantelimon, this method of simulation in view of an analysis of the potential of urban extension based on fractal logics was implemented in several stages. Firstly, drawing upon the township's 1990 cadastral papers, scaled 1:2000 and upon the satellite image of 2010, as cartographical basis, the built footprint of the extant edifices was extracted.
Subsequently, the extant streets were extracted, as well as those approved through the PUZ-es accepted throughout the 2000-2010 period, though not actually put into practice as of yet. Three main types of spaces were taken into account as being restricted areas: the water surface of Lake Pantelimon and the forested areas (Cernica Forest, Pustnicu Forest) were thusly assessed, in order to preserve the landscape value of the site and cultivate the preservation of biodiversity. To these natural areas were added the perimeters of the military installations (7-8 Battery, Fort VII Pantelimon, Fort VII Cernica--in the Belt Road area, the Military Barracks situated between Tractorului and Rascoalei streets) which, though largely abandoned, are situated on lands belonging to the National Defence Ministry and are therefore, at the moment, preserved from the point of view of civilian interests.
The service provider centers and commercial hubs required for establishing the levels of accessibility were equally identified. These were, in part, pinpointed by means of on-site prospection, the collected information having been subsequently complemented by consulting specialized directories (such as the Golden Pages, White Pages, Yellow Pages) and located by means of the Wikimapia (wikimapia.org) or Google Earth (googleearth.com) services. Three levels of serviceability were established, in accordance with the previously described methodology, and the identified centers were coded into 20 categories.
All this data was referenced into the Stereo 70 national coordination system, datum Dealul Piscului 1970. In an initial stage, the respective data was keyed into the MUP City program, layer by layer, with all the complementary information. Following which the option of multi-hierarchic decomposition of the aforementioned layers was launched, taking into account a reduction factor of 1/3, with a minimal cell size of 20 m, so as not to infringe upon urban microstructure. The density corresponding to the cells which are about to be urbanized is zero, or, to put it differently, the program will only accept into the simulation's calculation those cells which do not, at present, contain any constructed element (with the obvious exception of communication paths). The maximal size of the cell side, following the decomposition of the perimeter of study, is of 1620 m.
After the respective perimeter had been marked with the chosen grid pattern, several types of evolution scenario were launched, with differing requirements as far as the imposed conditions of constraint were concerned.
6.1 The Strict Fractal Scenario
Firstly, a strict fractal scenario was set up, with a maximum number of 5 constructed cells within a superior size cell. The more poignant the shade of red is, the closer each cell is to a score of 1, and therefore, the better its prospects for urbanization. Scenarios at different scales of analysis were elaborated, by progressively lowering the size of the urbanized cell from 540 X 540 [m.sup.2] to 20X20 [m.sup.2].
By superposing this scenario onto the 2010 orthophotomap one is able to locate the areas possessed of the highest urbanization potential, as well as observe the manner in which the green areas are being preserved (Fig, 6).
6.2 The Non-Fractal Scenario
The second stage consisted in using the MUP City program to generate a non-fractal simulation scenario. This scenario is based on the previously inputted codifications, without, however, following a fractal distribution of aggregates, nor a hierarchic classification of the inner unconstructed spaces.
On a scale of analysis employing a cell side of 20 m (400 [m.sup.2] in surface), major differences between the two proposed models come to light: in this latter case we are dealing with a process of continuous urbanization, which develops as exclusively grafted onto the existing constructions and communications network. This model, lacking a fractal rule, pays no heed to the preservation of the unconstructed areas meant as inroads of green areas within the constructed urban fabric (Fig. 7).
A telling example in support of this conclusion is the urbanization potential having been identified by the two scenarios around the <<Selgros Pantelimon>> commercial center. In the first scenario, based on a strict fractal rule of urbanization, one can see how the area possessed of urbanization potential is simultaneously grafting itself onto the extant constructed tissue, and onto the communications network (Fig. 8), exhibiting a continuous aspect and preserving spaces meant for the penetration of green areas. In the second case one notices the interest displayed towards grafting onto an extant tissue and onto the previously executed streets, which, in the case of a suburban urban fabric such as the areas having developed in Pantelimon after 1990, would generate, at the corresponding scale of analysis, a perpetuation of the previously exhibited tendency towards fragmentation.
We must, however, take note of the fact that both scenarios identify areas auspicious to residential urban development in the proximity of the township's main hub, which is better serviced in terms of public services and proximity trade; this goes directly against the directions of development favored by Pantelimon City Hall, which has been, and is still granting derogations from the urbanism regulations, and giving authorizations of construction in perimeters located along the Cernica highway or along Biruintei Boulevard--that is to say, considerably far removed from the central hub.
6.3 The Interactive Scenario
The down side of the two previously discussed simulation models is the global manner in which urbanization is considered, without offering the decision makers any opportunity to center themselves, to choose a certain direction of urbanization. This theoretical lack is rectified through the possibility of elaborating an interactive urbanization simulation, one based, however, in turn, upon a fractal type distribution of elements.
For the latter's development a maximal number of 5 urbanized cells within a cell of superior rank was chosen, just as in our first instance, in order to encourage the penetration of green areas.
Given a cell size of 180X180 [m.sup.2], several perimeters with enhanced urbanization potential are brought to light (evaluation of cells whose color varies from deep red to green for the cells with high urbanization potential) (Fig. 9).
We thus put forward the hypothesis that, after a period when the process of expansion of the constructed areas has developed anarchically, one transitions towards a strict management of this phenomenon, the local officials' attention now focusing towards the township's center, where there is a dense network of roads, close to the service provider and proximity trade centers. From this perspective, the chief direction of urbanization would be towards the West of this area, following fractal logic of distribution of newly constructed areas. A 4 ha extension of the constructed area is to be desired, which would ensure the necessary land resource for approximately 100 individual dwellings. At the aforementioned scale of analysis (180X180 [m.sup.2]) 4 cells with relatively high urbanization potential were identified, the construction of which is tentatively being stimulated. Not all the cells having been identified may be constructed because the previously established rules would thereby be broken. In such cases, the software program displays the message "The number of constructed cells within the grid pattern is already maximal," or "The construction of the cell would prevent an inroad of green space" (Fig. 10).
Fractal multi-hierarchic logic also makes it so that at an inferior scale (as far as cell size goes), the cells may be constructed only if the superior fractal cell wherein they are included has in turn been built, in order to prevent the useless consumption of good urban lands.
Therefore out of the four cells which are potentially constructible, only one simultaneously fulfills the imposed conditions. This event is marked through a black-colored cell (Fig. 11)
By increasing the scale of analysis, however, the number of cells within the targeted perimeter which are interesting from an urbanization perspective grows (Fig. 12).
Given a cell size of 60X60 [m.sup.2], another 11 cells are added to the 5 previously urbanized cells (a cell of 180X180 [m.sup.2] = 9 cells of 60X60 [m.sup.2], with a maximum number of 5 urbanized cells). The other ones having been marked as possessing a high urbanization potential couldn't be constructed because of the existence of edified perimeters in immediate proximity, and because of having already reached the maximum accepted number of constructed cells.
After having increased the scale of analysis and having reduced the cell surface to 20X20 [m.sup.2], one reaches the minimal dimension set up for analysis, and the most exact one in view of making the necessary estimates. 96 cells have been constructed on the West side of the township, even the cells with a low evaluation score, though not lower than 0.1, having been included in the simulation, so as to get as close as possible to the proposed threshold. The average of the chosen cells' evaluations is of 0,264. 96 potentially urbanized cells, representing a potential surface area of 38400 [m.sup.2], a value which comes close to the proposed target.
Essential to this simulation is the fact that fractal logic of spatial distribution of aggregates, with the preservation of areas meant to serve as green inroads, can only be achieved in the context of large scale operations, rather than small-scope projects; the employ of allotments reveals itself as the solution most appropriate to these aims.
By superposing the resulting model onto the actual terrain, one obtains a very clear image of the proposed extensions (Fig. 13), highlighted via black colored cells.
It is clearly noticeable that the areas put forward for urbanization are set in a pattern of continuity in relation to the areas occupied by construction in 2010, so as to limit the squandering of the available land resource, while maintaining the essential element of this undertaking, namely the preservation of green inroads and the distribution of "vacui" and constructed aggregates in accordance to an internal hierarchy, as per a fractal logic.
7. Final Discussions
We therefore fond ourselves confronted with an urban sprawl which cannot be stopped in a democratic society, nor in the context of market economy, as has been attempted through the measures meant to induce communist urban sprawl. The central issue, in this context, is how this tendency may be rationally reconciled, without squandering the extant land resource or the local authorities' budgets. Fractal modeling presents itself as a potential solution to this problem, particularly given the fact that it counts itself among the few approaches liable to federate the interests of the vast majority of actors involved in the generation of suburban urban fabric. Though it is counted among the chaos theories of Physics, fractal modeling paradoxically imposes great rigor in the alternating pattern of constructed areas and empty spaces; it is, however, only effective in the context of a large scale organization effort, capable of integrating the green areas without blocking or suppressing them in the guise of restricted communal areas, as so often happens in the case of small-scope operations, or of allotments comprising a handful of plots.
Simulation based on fractal multi-hierarchic principles opens up new perspectives as to the organization of peripheral urban spaces, offering the possibility of conceiving the development of the new pavilion-type residential areas in accordance with the corresponding social demand. In this context, in addition to the long-established requirements of urban planning (reduction of distances, mitigation of infrastructural costs, etc.), crucial importance is bestowed upon the preservation of green areas within the constructed tissue. This fact allows a large number of inhabitants access to the positive externalities offered by the aforementioned areas, the relative remoteness from the town center being compensated by means of improved access to the urban edge.
The comparison drawn between the strict fractal and non-fractal scenarios has allowed for a more effective pinpointing of urban extension possibilities, from the perspective of fractal logics.
Though debates at a theoretical level, this method could constitute a precious tool in the hands of the decision makers, thus opening the way towards a transversal approach to urban planning which takes into account the requirements of a viable urban fabric, as well as the realities of the real estate market, or of social demand.
The author expresses his gratitude towards Professor Pierre Frankhauser, who has displayed the patience and willingness of sharing the methods of fractal simulation during the training program hosted by the TheMA laboratory, Universite Franche Comte, Besangon, France.
Cirnu L. (2013), "Dynamics of Residential Buildings in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area. An alternative to the Inner City," Works of the International "Dimitrie Cantemir"Seminary, No. 35, Iasi: Editura Universitatii Al. I. Cuza.
Cirnu, L. (2013), "Residential Exchange in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area during 1990-2010. Small and Medium Sized Towns as An Alternative to the Metropolis," CERAMAC collections (Le Centre d 'Etudes et de Recherches Appliquees au MAssif Central), Clermont-Ferrand, France--to be published.
Frankhauser, P. (1994), La fractalite des structures urbaines. Paris: Anthropos.
Frankhauser, P. (2000), Rapport de recherche--Morphologie des Villes Emergentes en Europe a travers les analyses fractales. Besanjon.
Frankhauser, P. (2005), "La morphologie des tissus urbains et periurbains a travers une lecture fractale. Revue Geographique de l'Est, 5 / 3-4, 145-160.
Frankhauser, P. & D. Ansel. 2012. La decision d'habiter Ici ou Ailleurs. Paris Anthropos.
Mihailescu, V. (2009), Etnografii urbane. Iasi: Polirom.
Sieverts, T., (trad., J.-M. Deluze & J. Vincent. 2004. Entre-ville une lecture de la Zwischenstadt. Marseille: Parentheses.
Suditu, B. et al. (2010), "Urban Sprawl Characteristics and Typologies in Romania," Human Geographies--Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography 4(2): 79-87.
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Tannier, C. (2009), "Formes de villes optimales, formes de villes durables. Reflexions a partir de l'etude de la ville fractale," Espaces et societes 3, 153-172.
Tannier, C. et al. (2010), "Simulation fractale d'urbanisation. MUP-City, un modele multi-echelle pour localiser de nouvelles implantations.
University of Bucharest
Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Architecture et de Paysage
Universite Victor Segalen, Bordeaux
(1.) Sieverts, T. et al. (2004), Entre-ville une lecture de la Zwischenstadt. Marseille: Parentheses.
(2.) Frankhauser, P. (1994), La fractalite des structures urbaines. Paris: Anthropos.
(3.) Frankhauser, P. (2000), Rapport de recherche--Morphologie des Villes Emergentes en Europe a travers les analyses fractales. Besanjon.
(4.) Mihailescu, V. (2009), Etnografii urbane. Iasi: Polirom.
(5.) Suditu, B., et al. (2010), "Urban Sprawl Characteristics and Typologies in Romania," Human Geographies--Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography 4(2): 79-87v.
(6.) Cirnu, L. (2013), "Residential Exchange in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area during 1990-2010. Small and Medium Sized Towns as An Alternative to the Metropolis," CERAMAC collections (Le Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Appliquees au MAssif Central), Clermont-Ferrand, France--to be published.
(7.) Cimu L. (2013), "Dynamics of Residential Buildings in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area. An alternative to the Inner City," Works of the International "Dimitrie Cantemir"Seminary, No. 35/2013, Iasi: Editara Universitatii Al. I. Cuza.
(8.) Frankhauser, P. (2005), "La morphologie des tissus urbains et periurbains a travers une lecture fractale," Revue Geographique de l 'Est 5 / 3-4: 145-160.
(9.) Thomas, I. et al. (2010), "Comparing the Fractality of European Urban Neighbourhoods: Do National Contexts Matter?," Journal of Geographical Systems 14(2): 189-208.
(10.) Tannier, C. (2009), "Formes de villes optimales, formes de villes durables.Reflexions a partir de l'etude de la ville fractale," Espaces et societes 3(138): 153-172.
(11.) Tannier, C. et al. (2010), "Simulation fractale d'urbanisation. MUP-City, un modele multi-echelle pour localiser de nouvelles implantations.
Table 1. The evolution of the density coefficients in the township of Pantelimon, Ilfov, in the years 1990, 2000, 2010 Year 1990 2000 2010 Population 13 845 14,220 20,959 Number of private dwellings 3755 3834 5674 Administrative surface (ha) 6716 6716 6716 Inner town surface (ha) 361,8 1270 2690 General density (inhabitants/[km.sup.2]) 206,15 211.73 312.08 Inner town density 3826,70 1119.69 779.14 (inhabitants/[km.sup.2]) General urban density (dwellings/ha) 0,56 0.57 0.84 Urban inner town density (dwellings/ha) 10,38 3.02 2.11 General areality coefficient 4851 4723 3204 ([m.sup.2]/inhabitant) Inner town areality coefficient 261 893 1283 ([m.sup.2]/inhabitant) General average distance between two 58 57 56 inhabitants (m) Average inner city distance between two 19 36 43 inhabitants (m)
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|Publication:||Geopolitics, History, and International Relations|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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