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The flora of the Ru'us al-Jibal--the mountains of the Musandam Peninsula: an annotated checklist and selected observations.

CONVOLVULACEAE

Convolvulus acanthocladus Boiss. Common. Above c.500 m (lower in northernmost Ru'us al-Jibal, near Khasab). Increasingly common above c.800 m and co-dominant above c.1100 m as cushions within "steppe" vegetation, to summits at 2000 m. In Hajar Mtns, found at 900-1000 m on ridge of Jebel Qitab, SW of Fujeirah (where wild olive trees are also present) but otherwise absent to S for c.130 km. Re-appears in Mahdhah area of N. Oman, where present occasionally along ophiolite mountain front and foothills at c.600-800 m, continuing southwards to Ibri area. Tomentose growth form of Ru'us al-Jibal plants is distinct from more rectilinear growth form in foothills of N. Oman (see Section 14). Present but very rare in Jebel Akhdar (Ghazanfar 1992a) and J. Kawr, where growth form is tomentose. Common at summit of Jebel Aswad in Eastern Hajar Mtns, SE of Muscat, c.430 km from Ru'us al-Jibal (Mandaville 1977). Single specimen recorded by the author at Selma Plateau (c.1800 m) in the Jebel Bani Jaber range to the E of Jebel Aswad. Fig. 5.4.6. See also Figs. 3.1.1, 3.1.4, 3.1.5, 3.1.8, 3.1.9, 3.1.11, 3.1.13, 3.1.15, 3.1.16, 3.1.17, 3.1.21, 3.1.23 and 3.3.1 and compare Fig. 5.5.4.

Convolvulus ulicinus Boiss.* Occasional. c.500-1900 m+, esp. on bedrock slopes. ID by L. Boulos. Also rare in Jebel Akhdar.

Convolvulus virgatus Boiss. Rare. Scattered locations in Ru'us al-Jibal, up to c.1200 m. Grazing probably a factor since occasional large, healthy plants found at inaccessible cliff sites. Common in Hajar Mtns.

Cuscuta planifora Ten. Locally common after rains. Up to at least 1600 m. Various hosts, including annuals (e.g., Asphodelus tenuifolius).

CRASSULACEAE

Crassula alata (Viv.) Berger subsp. alata* [Jongbloed (2003)] Rare. Low elevation. Recorded by Boer & Chaudhary from UAE, Wadi Bih, and by Mandaville from Wadi Khasab, 100 m.

Rosularia adenotricha (Wall ex Edgw.) Jansson subsp. adenotricha* ** Rare. Single locality in southern Ru'us al-Jibal, but probably overlooked elsewhere. On silt and organic debris in shaded vertical clefts or hollows in cliffs at 1200-1300 m. Leaves sometimes form a prostrate mat easily mistaken for the common mountain liverwort Plagiochasma rupestre. ID by L. Boulos. Fig. 5.1.14.

Sedum hispanicum L.* Locally common. Up to at least 1200 m. Also recorded from northernmost Hajar Mtns. See Fig. 3.3.6.

Umbilicus botryoides Hochst. ex A. Rich* [Mandaville (1985)] Recorded by Mandaville at J. Harim, 1850 m, in shade of boulders. [Note: It is probable that the two Umbilicus spp. recorded from the Ru'us al-Jibal are the same, and they have been so treated (as U. horizontalis) in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper. Jongbloed (2003) does not mention U. botryoides and Boulos (1999) considers it to be an Afro-tropical species.]

Umbilicus horizontalis (Guss.) DC.* Locally common in silt in damp, shaded cracks or under rock overhangs from c.500 m to at least 1750 m. ID by L. Boulos. Recorded from Masafi, less than 35 km S of the Ru'us al-Jibal, but otherwise very rare or absent in the Hajar Mtns to the south. [See note under U. botryoides.] See Fig. 3.3.3.

CUCURBITACEAE

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Rare. Up to at least 1000 m. Usually near habitation or trail.

Cucumis prophetarum L. Occasional. Up to at least 1200 m. Usually in or near trail. Probably spread as seeds by herbivores.

DIPSACACEAE

Scabiosa olivieri Coult.* Locally common in south and central Ru'us al-Jibal, after rain. All elevations. Single record outside Ru'us al-Jibal, from northern Hajar Mtns. In Kuwait, found on gravel plains at low elevation.

Pterocephalus brevis Coult. [Jongbloed et al. (2000)] Rare. Ru'us al-Jibal records by Western (from a scree slope at 1500 m) and Boer & Chaudhary. Also rare in Hajar Mtns (Karim & Fawzi 2007). [Note: The author suspected that the Ru'us al-Jibal records might be mistaken identifications of Scabiosa olivieri, which is not recorded by the aforementioned collectors, but examination of Western's herbarium specimen at the Sharjah Natural History Museum confirms the identification.] Fig. 5.3.31.

EUPHORBIACEAE

Andrachne aspera Spreng. Occasional. Up to c. 700 m, exceptional to 1000 m. Wadi or sheltered habitat.

Andrachne telephioides L. Rare. Few records in stony wadis at medium elevation.

Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) Spreng. Rare. Up to c.1350 m. Favours gravel wadis or disturbed ground. Common in Hajar Mtns. Summer flowering.

Dalechampia scandens L. Rare. Single locality, few plants as cliff dwellers in W. Khabb Shamsi gorge at c.250-350 m. In Hajar Mtns, limited to plantations (Jongbloed 2000). Oman records are from Dhofar only (Ghazanfar 1992a).

Euphorbia arabica Hochst. & Steud. ex Boiss. Rare, but easily overlooked. Single record from East Coast, near Limah.

Euphorbia falcata L. Rare, but possibly overlooked. Single record from Sal Dhayah, a cultivated plateau area, c.500 m. ID by L. Boulos.

Euphorbia granulata Forssk. Occasional. Low to moderate elevations (up to 1100 m+). Common in Hajar Mtns.

Euphorbia inaequilatera Sond. Rare, but possibly overlooked. Single location, wadi environment, low elevation. ID by M. Jongbloed. Fig. 5.3.14.

Euphorbia larica Boiss. Common to c.1000 m, but absent in some areas. Rocky slopes and gravel terraces. Absent above c.1200 m. Common and characteristic in Hajar Mtns. Fig. 5.4.11.

Euphorbia peplus L. Rare, but possibly overlooked. Two locations, wadi environment, low elevation. ID by L. Boulos.

FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE)

Argyrolobeum roseum (Camb.) Jaub. & Spach Locally common. Up to c.1100 m.

Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir. subsp. hauarensis Boiss. Rare. Single location in fallow field in southern Ru'us al-Jibal, 1000 m. [Syn. Astragalus hauarensis Boiss.]

Astragalus crenatus Schultes Occasional. Up to at least 800 m. [Syn. A. corrugatus Bertol.]

Astragalus fasciculifolius Boiss. subsp. arbusculinus (Bornm. & Gauba)* Common. From c.400 m to at least 1600 m. Favours slopes and wadi banks. Absent from the Hajar Mtns immediately to the S, and from the Jebel Akhdar, but recorded by Mandaville (1977) from Jebel Aswad in the Eastern Hajar Mtns, SE of Muscat, c.430 km distant. The very similar A. spinosus occurs in central and northern Saudi Arabia and in Kuwait and was occasionally reported from the Ru'us al-Jibal. However, the identity of the Ru'us al-Jibal species as A. fasciculifolius has recently been confirmed (Ghazanfar 2007). The author has seen A. spinosus in Kuwait, where it is distinguishable from A. fasciculifolius, and believes it has not been encountered in the Ru'us al-Jibal. Fig. 5.4.3. See also Figs. 3.1.22 and 5.5.3.

Astragalus hamosus L. Rare. Single records from two cultivated plateau areas, 500-1000 m. Not generally considered a mountain species.

Astragalus sp. aff. schimperi Boiss. Locally common at single locality, c.1525 m in E Ru'us al-Jibal. Flower pale mauve, pod shape and configuration resembles A. schimperi Boiss. var. subsessilis (see Boulos FoE; Karim & Fawzi 2007), but plant and seeds are glabrous and leaves have notched apices. Pending expert determination, it has not been treated as distinct from A. schimperi in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper. A. schimperi is recorded by Western (1989) from Umm al-Qaiwain and Hatta, and by Ghazanfar from Northern Oman, but is apparently rare. Fig. 5.3.4.

Astragalus tribuloides Delile Occasional. In silt of wadis, fields and slopes from 150 m to at least 1300 m. Some plants hirsute. Rare but widespread in Hajar Mtns.

Astragalus sp. 1 Single photographic record. Near cultivation at c.800 m. Cluster of three pendant, glabrous, strongly curved, banana-shaped pods; leaves have notched apices. Pending expert determination, it is not treated here as a species restricted to the Ru'us al-Jibal or new to Eastern Arabia. Fig. 5.2.3.

Chesneya parviflora Jaub. & Spach. Rare. Single location in SE Ru'us al-Jibal, on edge of Dibba Zone. In silt at base of cliff adjacent to cultivation, low elevation. Additional scattered specimens reported from Dibba Zone but not recorded from Hajar Mtns generally. ID by S. Ghazanfar. Fig. 5.3.8.

Crotalaria aegyptiaca Benth. Rare. Five widespread localities, all at low-medium elevation. Common at low elevation in Hajar Mtns. Fig. 6.1.4.

Hippocrepis constricta Kunze Rare, but easily overlooked. Two records, W. alWaeeb, c. 250 m (ID by M. Jongbloed) and 'Aini, c.750 m.

Hippocrepis unisiliquosa L. subsp. bisiliqua (Forssk.) Bornm.* Common. c.700 m to at least c.1400 m.

Indigofera coerulea Roxb. Rare. Single locality on rocky slopes near cultivation at c.500 m in N Ru'us al-Jibal.

Lotononis platycarpa (Viv.) Pic.-Serm. Rare. Single wadi bank location in Wadi Bih. Low elevation. Occasional in Hajar Mtns.

Medicago laciniata (L.) Mill. Occasional. Up to c.1300 m.

Ononis reclinata L.* [Jongbloed (2003)] Rare. Single record from Ru'us al-Jibal.

Ononis sicula Guss. Rare. Silt between rocks at medium elevations.

Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. Rare. Locally common at single locality, Jebel Ayuzah in SE Ru'us al-Jibal, in wadi at 700 m. Otherwise single record. Locally common in Hajar Mtns.

Senna italica Mill. Occasional. Up to c.1000 m, esp. near cultivation. Distributed by foraging mammals? [Syn. Cassia italica]

Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn. Rare. Low-medium elevation. One locality in SE Ru'us al-Jibal, single specimens in SE and SW. Common in Hajar Mtns. [Syn. Taverniera glabra Boiss.] Fig. 6.1.12.

Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) DC. Very common and locally dominant. Mostly in and adjacent to stony wadis below 700 m, exceptionally to c.1250 m, but also colonises talus and disturbed roadsides at medium elevations, e.g., along the road over the pass at Aqabat Oso from W. Bih to W. Khabb Shamsi, reaching c.1000 m. Absent at high elevation. All specimens collected by the author in the Ru'us al-Jibal and Hajar Mtns. have been ID'd by L. Boulos as T. purpurea (L.) Pers. subsp. leptostachya Brummitt. T. apollinea, T. purpurea and T. persica are very similar (some experts consider them to be identical) and were not distinguished by the author in the field. The use of T. apollinea here follows Western (1989) and Jongbloed (2003), the two best-known comprehensive floras of the UAE; the plant is well known to UAE naturalists by that name.

Trigonella hamosa L. Occasional. Low-medium elevation, ruderal.

Trigonella stellata Forssk. Common. Ruderal in wadi, field or plateau environment. Up to at least 1525 m. Fig. 3.3.5.

Vicia monantha Retz. Rare. Cultivated areas. Up to at least 1300 m (Western 1989).

Vicia sativa L. Locally common. Medium elevations. Cultivation and peri-agricultural.

FUMARIACEAE

Fumaria parviflora Lam. Rare, but possibly underrecorded due to similarity to the common fern Onychium divaricatum. Plantations, wadis and shaded sites to at least 1350 m. Fig. 3.3.2.

GENTIANACEAE

Centaurium pulchellum (Swartz) Druce Rare. Up to at least 1525 m.

GERANIACEAE

Erodium laciniatum (Cav.) Willd. [Mandaville (1985)] Occasional. Reported by Mandaville (1985) from isthmus and disturbed wadi sites at low elevation. In Hajar Mtns, locally common at low elevations.

Erodium neuradifolium Delile Common. Elevations up to at least 1750 m. ID per Western 1989. [Note: Erodium spp. were not distinguished by the author in the field and the presence of additional spp. cannot be excluded.] See Fig. 3.3.5.

Geranium biuncinatum Kokwaro* Rare, but probably overlooked. Two confirmed locations, c.400-900 m. ID by L. Boulos. Also recorded by Mandaville. See also G. muscatense.

Geranium muscatense Boiss. Common. Elevations up to at least 1750 m. Damp or shaded silt. [Note: The three recognised Geranium species are not normally distinguishable by field inspection. Unless otherwise specifically identified, all Geranium spp. have been considered as G. muscatense.] Fig. 3.3.2.

Geranium trilophum Boiss. Rare, but possibly overlooked. Up to 1450 m, including on open slopes. ID per Collenette (1985) and Ghazanfar (2007). Also recorded by Mandaville (1985) (from Jazirat al-Ghanem) and Ghazanfar (2007). See also G. muscatense. Fig. 5.3.18.

LAMIACEAE (formerly LABIATAE)

Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth.* Rare. Wadi banks at 250 m to slopes at 1400 m. Fig. 5.3.23.

Lavandula subnuda Benth. Common. Wadi banks and slopes up to c.1250 m.

Leucas inflata Benth. Locally common. Moderate elevation, c.300-1200 m. Among rocks or gulleys.

Ocimium forsskaolii Benth. Rare, but possibly overlooked. Plantations and fields; single record from wild site.

Salvia aegyptiaca L. Locally common. Up to at least 1800 m.

Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. Occasional. From c.500 to c.1500 m. Stony slopes. [Note: Ghazanfar (in press) has concluded that confirmed UAE and Oman records are of S. macrosiphon, rather than the similar S. spinosa L., which has also been reported. None of the authors recording either of these names have recorded the other, and the two have been considered as a single species in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.]

Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfandiari* Rare. High elevation. Single locality, on plateau summit E of J. Harim at 1500 m, estimated few dozens of plants. Recorded by Mandaville at c.14501850 m on W flank of J. Harim. Mandaville described it as "aromatic . . . with rather showy blueviolet flowers" and as a "characteristic eastern species." It seems to have become absent in the area of Jebel Harim since 1979, most probably due to overgrazing. Fig. 5.3.33.

Satureja imbricata (Forssk.) Briq. Locally common. From 250 m up to at least 1900 m. Among rocks. Also found in N. Oman from 700-2000 m (Ghazanfar 1992a). [Syns. Micromeria biflora (D.Don) Benth.; M. imbricata (Forssk.) C.Chr.]

Teucrium oliverianum Ging. Ex Benth.* ** Rare. Several plants within fenced cultivation at 1000 m. Fig. 5.1.16.

Teucrium polium L.* [Jongbloed (2003)] Sterile specimens considered "most probably" T. polium were recorded by Mandaville (1985) from two locations: Jazirat al-Ghanem, 40 m, and J. Harim, 2000 m. The latter, at least, now seems much more likely to be the similar T. stocksianum, today reasonably common in the same area but not recorded by Mandaville. Ghazanfar (in press) considers both to be T. mascatense, which she synonymises with T. stocksianum. These records are mentioned here for the sake of completeness, but T. polium has been disregarded in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.

Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. Occasional. Medium to high elevations (to 1900 m+). Probably reduced by grazing. ID by L. Boulos. Also common above c.500 m in Hajar Mtns. [Note: Ghazanfar (in press) synonymises T. stocksianum with T. mascatense Boiss. and considers that the differences between them are variable and fall within variations explained by habitat (aridity). T. stocksianum is nevertheless recognised here because, from a field perspective, (1) the plants found in the Ru'us al-Jibal, although variable, never achieve the (consistent) morphology of T. mascatense seen in the Jebel Akhdar (dense, strongly revolute leaves and compact distal inflorescences); and (2) T. mascatense in the Jebel Akhdar is common only at significantly higher elevations (2300 m+) and, where present, is generally a much more dominant floral element.] Fig. 5.4.24; compare Fig. 4.1.15 (T. mascatense).

Ziziphora tenuior L.* Rare. Scattered records at high elevation, 12502000 m. ID by L. Boulos. Fig. 5.3.37.

LINACEAE

Linum corymbulosum Reichb. Locally common. Above c.1100 m. IDs by L. Boulos. Occasional in Hajar Mtns but found there at medium elevations. Ghazanfar (2007) considers this species an escape from cultivation.

MALVACEAE

Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr. Rare. Few inaccessible specimens as cliff plants in Wadi Khabb Shamsi narrows. Visual ID by S.A. Ghazanfar. Also recorded by Mandaville at two isthmian localities associated with extended modern habitation. Rare in Hajar Mtns (single UAE record).

Althaea ludwigii L.* Rare. Few localities at abandoned fields, 1450-1600 m.

Hibiscus micranthus L. Rare. Four locations only, at Qida (plantation), two isthmian island sites by Mandaville expedition, and one isthmian location by the author. Occasional in Hajar Mtns. These records are mentioned here for the sake of completeness, but H. micranthus has not been treated as a Ru'us al-Jibal species in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.

Malva parviflora L. Locally common. Weed in abandoned plantations or disturbed ground, to at least 1600 m. Can be locally hyperabundant. See Figs. 3.2.5 and 3.3.5.

MELIACEAE

Melia azederach L. Rare. Cultivated at c.700 m at Ra's al-Maq, overlooking the East Coast. Recently cultivated at a few other terraced settlements within the UAE by foreign agricultural labourers. The species is mentioned for the sake of completeness, but M. azederach has not been treated as a Ru'us al-Jibal species in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.

MENISPERMACEAE

Cocculus pendulus (J. Forst.) Diels Locally common. Sea level up to c.700 m. Common on cliffs near sea.

MIMOSACEAE

Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne Rare. Two Ru'us al-Jibal records: (1) Wadi Khabb, southern Ru'us al-Jibal, several trees on coarse gravel slope beside wadi at base of ascent trail, c.375 m; (2) Wadi Khabb Shamsi, eastern Ru'us alJibal (by G.M. Brown). Possibly overlooked when not in flower, since growth form in Wadi Khabb is atypical and resembles A. tortilis. Also recorded by Mandaville at Al-Maksar, Qida and Birkat alKhalidiyah. All records are low elevation sites associated with human habitation, cultivation and/or passage. Occasional in Hajar Mtns, especially on gravel plains. Fig. 5.5.1.

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne Common up to c.800 m. Occasional to c.1350 m but generally stunted except on protected flats or agricultural terraces (where it may thrive). Fig. 5.5.2. See also Figs. 3.1.23, 3.1.26 and 3.2.6.

Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. Rare. Single specimen, Sal Dhayah, in wadi near agricultural labourers' habitation, c.500 m. Active introduction is suspected. The species is mentioned for the sake of completeness, but P. juliflora has not been treated as a Ru'us al-Jibal species in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.

MORACEAE

Ficus cordata Thunb. subsp. salicifolia (Vahl) C.C. Berg Common. Up to c.500 m, exceptionally to 900 m in protected gorges (e.g., Wadi Zibat). Single location at 1200 m above East Coast, at winter settlement built into cliffs (Ar-Ra'alah), where F. johannis is absent. Normal situs is wadi banks but on the East Coast it is found, at low elevations, on open slopes overlooking the sea. Fig. 5.4.13.

Ficus johannis subsp. johannis Boiss. Common. c.500-1600 m+. Normal situs is wadis and runnels. Cultivated in mountain settlements; often found at mouth of cisterns. Little overlap in elevation with F. c. salicifolia. Occasional in Hajar Mtns. above c.700 m. Fig. 5.4.14.

MORINGACEAE

Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori Common. Up to c.800 m, esp. on cliffs and scree. Little overlap with the morphologically similar Arabian almond Prunus arabica. Fig. 2.1.4.

NYCTAGINACEAE

Boerhavia diffusa L. Rare. Single location above W. Khabb Shamsi gorge. Occasional in Hajar Mtns.

Boerhavia elegans Choisy Rare. Common in Hajar Mtns. Fig. 6.1.1.

OROBANCHACEAE

Orobanche cernua Loefl. Rare. 1000-1850 m. Fig. 5.3.27.

PAPAVERACEAE

Papaver sp(p). Rare. Red poppy. Scattered Ru'us al-Jibal locations, many near cultivation or trail, 1100 m+. [Note: Jongbloed (2000) and Ghazanar (2003) mention Ru'us al-Jibal records of both Papaver dubium L. var. laevigatum (M. Bieb.) Kadereit and Papaver decaisnei Hochst. & Steud ex Elkan. Ghazanfar (2003) considers that the relationship between those taxa and the identity of the Oman species remains tentative. Ghazanfar's draft Red Data Book for the UAE recognises only P. decaisnei Elkan. All red poppies in the Ru'us al-Jibal have been treated as a single species in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.] See Fig. 3.3.2.

Roemeria sp(p).* Rare. Dark blue-purple poppy. In and near fallow fields in scattered locations at 750-1600 m. [Note: Jongbloed (2003) mentions two purple poppies, R. hybrida (L.) DC. and R. refracta DC., from two Ru'us al-Jibal locations, but speculates that they may be the same. They have been treated as a single species in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.] See Figs. 3.3.2and 3.3.7.

PLANTAGINACEAE

Plantago afra L. Occasional. Med-high elevations to at least 1525 m. Common in Hajar Mtns.

Plantago amplexicaulis Cav. Occasional. Med-high elevations to at least 1500 m. Locally common in Hajar Mtns.

Plantago ciliata Desf. Locally common. Gravel terraces, fallow fields. Scattered locations, medium to high elevation.

Plantago notata Lag.* Occasional. High elevation. Scattered locations, mostly ruderal, c.1000-1500 m. Also very rare in AlAin area, on sandy soil (Karim & Fawzi 2007). Fig. 5.3.29.

Plantago ovata Forssk. Occasional. 250 m up to at least 1525 m.

PLUMBAGINACEAE

Dyerophytum indicum (Gibs ex wight) Kuntze Occasional. Up to c.600 m. Common in Hajar Mtns. Often a cliff plant in Ru'us al-Jibal.

POLYGONACEAE

Emex spinosa (L.) Campd. Locally common. Weed in cultivated and abandoned fields. Up to at least 1200 m.

Pteropyrum scoparium Jaub. & Spach Locally common. Generally absent but can be common on coarse, poorly consolidated, low gravel banks or terraces, usually where wadis are broadest (e.g., W. Khasab, uppermost W. Bih and debouchement of W. Khabb Shamsi). Occasional in Hajar Mtns. Endemic to the mountains of the UAE and Northern Oman but possibly conspecific with P. aucheri of Iran.

Rumex vesicarius L. Locally common. Up to at least 1600 m.

PORTULACACEAE

Portulaca olereaca L. Rare. Two records: one near cultivation, c.750 m; second at spring at 'Ayn as-Sih, 470 m.

PRIMULACEAE

Anagallis arvensis L. Locally common. Up to at least 1625 m.

Asterolinon linum-stellatum (L.) Duby* Locally common, but easily overlooked. Wadis and sheltered sites to at least 1350 m, also stony plateaux at 1100 m+. Fig. 5.4.2. See also Fig. 3.3.3.

RANUNCULACEAE

Adonis dentata Delile* Rare. Single location at c.1000 m, near small fenced plot. Recorded by B. Couldrey. ID by L. Boulos and R.J. Hornby. Fig. 5.1.1. See also Fig. 3.3.7.

RESEDACEAE

Ochradenus arabicus Chaudhary, Hillcoat & A.G. Miller Locally common. Widespread and occasional at all elevations to c.1550 m, usually on flat ground (including abandoned terraces). Similar unpredictable distribution in Hajar Mtns. Flowering plants attract many flies and small wasps. See Figs. 3.1.21, 3.1.22, 3.1.23, 3.3.4 and 3.3.9.

Ochradenus aucheri Boiss. Locally common. Very common on rubble slopes at low elevation in mid-Wadi Bih. Otherwise, few scattered sites at low elevation. Locally common in Hajar Mtns, especially on ultrabasic rock.

Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl.) J.F. Mcbr. Rare. 250-1200 m. Wadi bank, gravel terrace and field environment.

Reseda sp. Rare. Single location, low gravel terraces at wide junction of tributary in upper Wadi Bih, c.300 m. Leaves broad, entire but folded. Similar plants from Hajar Mtns ID'd by L. Boulos as R. aucheri Boiss. var. bracteata (Boiss.) Abdallah & de Wit.

RHAMNACEAE

Ziziphus spina-cristi (L.) Willd. Common. Up to c.1500 m. Wadis and wadi banks, some slopes. Cultivated for fruit and for coppicing. See Figs. 3.1.23, 3.1.24, 3.2.6 and 5.5.13.

ROSACEAE

Prunus arabica (Oliv.) Meikle* Common. Above c.600 m. Dominant tree above c.800 m, outside wadis. Stunted on exposed slopes. [Syn. Amygdalus arabica] Little overlap in elevation with the morphologically similar Moringa peregrina. Absent from the Hajar Mtns immediately to the S, and from the Jebel Akhdar, but recorded by Mandaville (1977) from Jebel Aswad in the Eastern Hajar Mtns, SE of Muscat, c.430 km distant. The author found it common in the area of the Selma Plateau (c.1800-2200 m), in the Jebel Bani Jaber range to the E of Jebel Aswad. Figs. 3.1.1, 3.1.4, 3.1.6, 3.1.7, 3.1.9, 3.1.12, 3.1.13, 3.1.15, 3.1.16, 3.1.21 and 3.1.22.

RUBIACEAE

Callipeltis cucullaris (L.) Steven Locally common. Among rocks. All elevations to at least 1600 m. ID by L. Boulos.

Galium aparine L. Occasional. In silt of fields and slopes, especially sheltered sites, c.500-1450 m. ID by R.J. Hornby. Rare in Hatta area (Karim 2002). [Note: The author did not distinguish in the field among three very similar Galium spp.: G. aparine, G. ceratopodum and G. tricornutum, all of which have been recorded from the Ru'us al-Jibal. Photographic records confirm a Ru'us al-Jibal Galium sp., sometimes lush, with tuberculate-pubescent and distinctly mucronate leaves, consistent with G. aparine, except that the axillary flower cymes are invariably very short. G. ceratopodum has been the subject of several expert determinations (see note below under G. ceratopodum). Records of G. tricornutum are mentioned here for the sake of completeness, but its occurrence is considered uncertain and it has been disregarded in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper.]

Galium ceratopodum Boiss.* Occasional. In silt of fields and slopes, especially sheltered sites, c.500-1450 m. ID by L. Boulos. Rare in Hatta area (Karim 2002). [Note: Each of three Galium specimens collected by the author from the Ru'us al-Jibal has been ID'd as G. ceratopodum. Two other very similar Galium spp. have also been recorded from the Ru'us al-Jibal: G. aparine and G. tricornutum. These are discussed above in the note under G. aparine.] Fig. 5.5.7. See also Fig. 3.3.3.

Galium decaisnei Boiss. Locally common, but easily overlooked. All elevations. Included in Jongbloed (2003) as Galium setaceum Lam. [Syn. Galium setaceum Lam. subsp. decaisnei (Boiss.) Ehren.] See Fig. 3.3.6.

Galium tricornutum Dandy* [Jongbloed (2003)] Occasional in wadis, hillsides, fields, per Jongbloed (2003). Records of G. tricornutum are mentioned here for the sake of completeness, but its occurrence is considered uncertain and it has been disregarded in compiling the statistics presented in the accompanying paper. See note under Galium aparine.

Plocama aucheri (Guill.) M. Backlund & Thulin Occasional. Locally common on rubble slopes at low elevation. Rare above c.700 m, absent above c.1100 m. Common in Hajar Mtns, locally dominant on gravel outwash plains. [Syns. Jaubertia aucheri Guill., Gaillonia aucheri (Guill.) Jaub. & Spach] [Note: According to recent molecular studies, the genus Plocama has been expanded to include the UAE and Oman species of the genera Jaubertia, Gaillonia, Pseudogaillonia and Pterogaillonia (Ghazanfar, in press).]

Plocama calycoptera (Decne.) M. Backlund & Thulin Rare, but possibly overlooked due to similarity to P. hymenostephana. From c.200 m to at least 1600 m. Wadi beds to open ridges. ID by L. Boulos. Also recorded from N Oman (Ghazanfar 1992a). [Syn. Pterogaillonia calycoptera (Decne.) Lincz.] See note under Plocama aucheri.

Plocama hymenostephana (Jaub. & Spach) M. Backlund & Thulin Occasional. From c.400 m to at least 1600 m. Among rocks. [Syn. Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana (Jaub. & Spach) Lincz.] See note under Plocama aucheri.

Valantia hispida L.* Rare, but possibly overlooked. Wadi environment from c.250 m up to at least 1200 m. ID by L. Boulos.

RUTACEAE

Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss. Rare. Three localities on wadi banks at low elevation, one near abandoned fields. Common in Hajar Mtns. Fig. 6.1.5.

SAPINDACEAE

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Locally common. Above c.500 m, flat wadis and stunted among rocks on open plateaux and gentle slopes. In the Jebel Akhdar, common with juniper in highest vegetation zone, to summits at 3000 m. In Hajar Mtns, common but restricted to wadi banks. Fig. 5.4.9. See also Section 14 and Figs. 3.1.1, 3.1.3, 3.1.5, 3.1.8, 3.1.9, 3.1.21 and 3.1.23.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Anticharis arabica Endl. Occasional. From gravel wadis at 250 m to open hillsides at 1600 m. Rare in Hajar Mtns.

Anticharis glandulosa Asch. Rare. Two locations in and above W. Naqab, c.300750 m. Occasional in Hajar Mtns.

Chaenorrhinum rubrifolium (DC.) Fourn. subsp. gerense (Stapf) D.A. Sutton ** Rare. Single Ru'us al-Jibal location. Soil within stony scree. This is the unidentified species depicted in Jongbloed (2003) at p. 544. ID by L. Boulos. Locally common in Masafi area of Hajar Mtns, single record from Mahdhah area. Fig. 5.1.5.

Linaria simplex Desf. Rare but probably overlooked. Two locations: one on bedrock slopes at c.900 m above W. Sha'am. ID by L. Boulos; second at spring at 'Ayn as-Sih, 470 m, where Linaria sp. also recorded by Mandaville (1985). L. simplex Desf. and L. tenuis (Viv.) Spreng. are recorded as rare species from the Hajar Mtns (Jongbloed 2003). Fig. 5.3.25.

Misopates orontium (L.) Rafin. Occasional. Up to at least 1500 m. Among rocks.

Nanorrhinum floribundum (Boiss.) Tackh. & Boulos(?)* Rare. Two plants only: gravel wadi environment at 250 m (ID by L. Boulos) and rocky gulley at c.800 m. [Syn. Kickxia floribunda (Boiss.) Tackh. & Boulos]

Nanorrhinum hastatum (R. Br. Ex Benth.) Ghebr. Occasional. Wadi environment and shelter among rocks up to at least 1250 m. [Syn. Kickxia hastata (R. Br. Ex Benth.) Dandy]

Nanorrhinum ramosissimum (Wall.) Betsche Rare. Wadi environment and shelter among rocks up to at least 800 m. [Syn. Kickxia ramosissima (Wall.) Janchen]

Scrophularia arguta Aiton Common. Up to c.1200 m. Often beside fallow fields and in soil among rocks.

Scrophularia deserti Delile Rare but widespread. Up to c.1550 m.

SOLANACEAE

Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult. Occasional. Up to c.1000 m. Heavily grazed.

Solanum incanum L. Occasional. c.500-1600 m. Disturbed ground near habitation. Rare in Hajar Mtns immediately to south, but reportedly common in N. Oman foothills (Ghazanfar 1992a).

Solanum nigrum L. Occasional. Shaded sites among rocks and near habitation or cultivation. Up to at least c.1250 m.

THYMELAEACEAE

Thymelaea mesopotamica (C. Jeffrey) B. Peterson* Locally common. Stony plateaux at 1400-1600 m in N Ru'us al-Jibal. ID by L. Boulos. Fig. 5.3.35.

TILIACEAE

Grewia erythraea Schweinf. Occasional. Up to c.1000 m. Normally heavily grazed to cushion. Rare in Hajar Mtns.

Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori Rare. Two localities. Few plants as quasi-cliff dwellers in Wadi Khabb Shamsi narrows at 250-350 m; record from mtns near Sha'am. Also rare in Hajar Mtns at moderate elevations (700-1000 m). Fig. 5.5.8.

Grewia villosa Willd. Rare. Single locality, few plants as cliff dwellers in Wadi Khabb Shamsi gorge at 250-350 m. Also rare in Hajar Mtns. Found only on carbonate rocks (J. Sumayni, J. Ghaweel, J. Qatar).

Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks. Rare. Two localities at low elevation, one in silt plain behind landslide dam.

URTICACEAE

Forsskaolea tenacissima L. Locally common along Wadi Bih and in S of Ru'us alJibal, up to c.600 m (exceptionally to 1100 m). In shelter of rocks, boulders and cliffs. In most of the Ru'us al-Jibal, the wadi and wadi bank niche of this species seems to be filled by Parietaria alsinifolia. Common in wadi environments in Hajar Mtns.

Forskaolea viridis Ehrenb. Rare. Single location in W. Khabb Shamsi narrows. ID by M. Jongbloed. Locally common in Hajar Mtns.

Parietaria alsinifolia Delile Common. Gravel wadi environment, esp. in shade; abandoned dwellings. Low-medium elevation. To a great extent, this species appears to fill, in the Ru'us al-Jibal, the niche of Forsskaolea tenacissima in the Hajar Mtns.

VALERIANACEAE

Valerianella szovitisiana Fisch. & C.A. Mey* **. Locally common at single locality, c.1250 m. On gentle, stony slope among other annuals (e.g., Zoegea purpurea, Callipeltis cucullaris, Anagallis arvensis, Paracaryum intermedium, Scabiosa olivieri). ID by L. Boulos. Fig. 5.1.17.

VIOLACEAE

Viola cinerea Boiss. Common. All elevations. Wadi and plateau environments.

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

Fagonia bruguieri DC Occasional. Low elevation. [Note: Early field records from higher elevations may be unreliable due to non recognition of F. schimperi.]

Fagonia indica Burm. f. Common, especially in S Ru'us al-Jibal. Up to c.500 m. Predominance may be an indicator of overgrazing. Common in Hajar Mtns.

Fagonia schimperi C. Presl.* Locally common. c.750-1600 m. ID by L. Boulos. Medium to dark green, grooved stem, long spines at widely spaced nodes. Most common Fagonia of the higher Ru'us al-Jibal. Fig. 5.3.15.

Fagonia schweinfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi [Jongbloed (2003)] Rare, but possibly not distinguished from other Fagonia spp. Single record from UAE, Wadi Bih, by Boer & Chaudhary.

Tribulus terrestris L. Rare. S Ru'us al-Jibal only. Low elevation.

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Zander, A. and Bruckner, H. 2005. Chronology and evolution of submerged mangrove swamps buried in the subsoil of Dubai. Tribulus 15.2: 10-16.

Zohary, M. 1963. On the Geobotanical Structure of Iran. Bull. Res. Counc. of Israel, Sec. D Botany, Vol. 11D Suppl. 113 pp.

Zohary, M. 1973. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. 2 vols. 739 pp.

Gary R. Feulner

P.O. Box 9229, Dubai, UAE

email: grfeulner@gmail.com
Table 1: New and overlooked records from the Ru'us al-Jibal: additions
to Jongbloed (2003)--A list of taxa not included in Jongbloed (2003)
that have been recorded or recognised by this study from the Ru'us
al-Jibal. [Citations are given for species recognised from literature
records only and (as "also") for species recorded by this study but
previously published elsewhere.]

Liliaceae
Bellevalia sp. aff. longipes

Poaceae
Aegilops kotschyi
Bromus danthoniae           also Cope (2007)
Bromus fasciculatus         also Cope (2007)
Poa bulbosa
Poa sp. aff. asirensis
Stipa mandavillei           Cope (2007)
Stipa parviflora
Stipagrostis raddiana
Poaceae sp. 1
Poaceae sp. 2

Asteraceae
Crepis kotschyana
Cymbolaena griffithii       Ghazanfar (1992a)
Echinops atrox              N. Kilian, pers. comm.
Garhadiolus hedypnois
Notobasis syriaca
Lactuca orientalis

Berberidaceae
Leontice leontopetalum

Boraginaceae
Asperugo procumbens
Boraginaceae sp. 1
Boraginaceae sp. 2

Brassicaceae
Arabidopsis pumila          Miller & Cope (1996), Ghazanfar
                            (2003)
Erophila verna              Miller & Cope (1996), Ghazanfar
                            (2003)
Hetercaryum szovitsianum    Jongbloed et al. (2000)
Brassicaceae sp. 1

Caryophyllaceae
Arenaria leptoclados        Jongbloed et al. (2000)
Minuartia meyeri            Ghazanfar (2003)
Minuartia picta
Pteranthus dichotomus       Jongbloed et al. (2000)

Crassulaceae
Rosularia adenotricha
  subsp. adenotricha

Dipsacaceae
Pterocephalus brevis        Jongbloed et al. (2000)

Fabaceae
Astragalus sp. 1
Chesneya parviflora         also Focus (Nov. 2009)
                            (newsl. of Emirates Nat.
                            Hist. Group--Abu Dhabi)

Lamiaceae
Teucrium oliverianum
Ziziphora tenuior           also Mandaville (1985)

Ranunculaceae
Adonis dentata              Gazelle (May 2007) (newsl.
                            of Dubai Nat. Hist. Group)

Scrophulariaceae
Chaenorrhinum rubrifolium

Thymeleaceae
Thymelaea mesopotamica      also Ghazanfar (1992a)

Valerianaceae
Valerianella szovitsiana

Table 2: Comparison of plant families best represented (by number of
species) in the Ru'us al-Jibal, UAE, Oman and eastern Saudi Arabia.

Ru'us al-Jibal (this study)   UAE (Jongbloed et al. 2000)

Poaceae            45+        Poaceae            114
Asteraceae         43         Asteraceae         84
Fabaceae           25         Fabaceae           73
Brassicaceae       22         Chenopodiaceae     39
Caryophyllaceae    21         Brassicaceae       37
Boraginaceae       17         Boraginaceae       30
Lamiaceae          11         Caryophyllaceae    27
Euphorbiaceae      10         Euphorbiaceae      27
Scrophulariaceae   10         Zygophyllaceae     19
Rubiaceae          8          Convolvulaceae     17
Capparaceae        7          Lamiaceae          17
Apiaceae           ~6         Scrophulariaceae   17
                              Apiaceae           16

Oman (Ghazanfar 1992b)        Eastern Saudi Arabia (Mandaville 1990)

Poaceae            201        Poaceae            91
Asteraceae         98         Asteraceae         66
Fabaceae           81         Fabaceae           50
Euphorbiaceae      39         Brassicaceae       46
Scrophulariaceae   38         Chenopodiaceae     42
Caryophylaceae     37         Caryophyllaceae    22
Boraginaceae       37         Zygophyllaceae     15
Lamiaceae          35         Boraginaceae       14
Acanthaceae        31
Brassicaceae       31
Malvaceae          31

Table 3: Local endemics of the Ru'us al-Jibal: Species that are are
confined, within Eastern Arabia, exclusively (or very nearly so) to
the Ru'us al-Jibal.

Adonis dentata
Aegilops kotschyi
Althaea ludwigii
Anthemis odontostephana (1)
Arabidopsis pumila
Arenaria serpyllifolia (2)
Artemisia sieberi
Asperugo procumbens (3)
Asplenium ceterach
Asterolinon linum-stellatum
Astragalus fasciculifolius (4)
Bellevalia sp. aff. longipes
Boraginaceae sp.
Bromus danthoniae
Cakile arabica
Carduus pycnocephalus
Centaurea wendelboi
Clypeola aspera
Clypeola jonthlaspi
Convolvulus ulicinus (5)
Commelina albescens
Cordia quercifolia
Crassula alata
Cymbolaena griffithii
Daucus subsessilis
Echinops atrox
Erophila verna
Fagonia schimperi
Galium ceratopodum
Garhadiolus hedypnois
Gastridium phleoides
Geranium biuncinatum
Gladiolus italicus
Helianthemum salicifolium (6)
Heterocaryum szovitsianum
Hippocrepis unisiliquosa
Jurenia berardioides
Jurenia carduiformis
Justicia heterocarpa
Ixiolirion tataricum
Kickxia floribunda
Lactuca dissecta
Lactuca orientalis
Lallemantia royleana
Lamarckia aurea
Leontice leontopetalum
Leopoldia longipes
Minuartia meyeri
Minuartia picta
Matricaria aurea
Moraea sisyrinchium
Notobasis syriaca
Ononis reclinata
Piptatherum holciforme
Pistacia khinjuk
Plantago notata (7)
Poa bulbosa
Poa sinaica
Poa sp. aff. asirensis
Prunus arabica (8)
Pteranthus dichotomus
Roemeria sp(p).
Rosularia adenotricha
Salvia mirzayanii
Scabiosa olivieri (9)
Scandix pecten-veneris (10)
Sedum hispanicum (11)
Stipa parviflora
Teucrium oliverianum
Thymelaea mesopotamica
Torilis nodosa (12)
Umbilicus horizontalis (13)
Valantia hispida
Valerianella szovitsiana
Ziziphora tenuior

Also recorded from:

1 J. Aswad, Eastern Hajar, Oman (JPM)
2 Hatta area, rare (FMK); Khor Fakkan (K&F)
3 Field margins, Wakan, Jebel Akhdar (SAG)
4 J. Aswad, Eastern Hajar, Oman (JPM)
5 Jebel Akhdar, Oman, very rare
6 J.Hafit(?), rare (FMK); J.Hafit & Hatta (K&F)
7 Dhaid, rare (FMK); Al-Ain (K&F)
8 Eastern Hajar (Jebel Bani Jabr), Oman (JPM)
9 N. Oman (SAG)
10 Dhaid, rare (FMK); Masafi, Fujairah, Al-Ain, very rare, (K&F)
11 Northernmost Hajar Mtns (MJ)
12 Ghazanfar (2003) records only T. stocksiana in N. Oman.
13 Hatta area, rare (FMK); Masafi, MJ, K&F

FMK = Karim (2002)
JPM = Mandaville (1985)
K&F = Karim & Fawzi (2007)
MJ = Jongbloed (2003)
SAG = Ghazanfar (1992a)

Records appearing in Karim (2002) but not incorporated in Karim &
Fawzi (2007) have been excluded.

Table 4: Iranian affinities: Some characteristic plant species of
southern and south-western Iran (from Zohary 1963, 1973, supplemented
by Ghazanfar 1999[*]) that are also found in and adjacent to the Hajar
Mountains (wadis, lower slopes, foothills and alluvial plains).

Aerva javanica
Anvillea garcinii
Astragalus fasciculifolius
Blepharis ciliaris
Calotropis procera
Capparis spinosa
Cenchrus ciliaris
Cleome quinquenervia [= possibly C. noeana]
Cometes surattensis
Convolvulus acanthocladus
Convolvulus virgatus
Cymbopogon schoenanthus
Dactyloctenium scindicum
Dichanthium annulatum
Dichanthium foveolatum
Dipterygium glaucum
Dodonaea viscosa
Echiochilon persicum
Ephedra foliata [= E. ciliata]
Euphorbia larica
Fagonia brugueri
Fagonia indica*
Forsskaolea tenacissima
Gaillonia aucheri [= Plocama aucheri]
Geranium trilophum
Glossonema varians
Grewia tenax
Gymnocarpos decandrus
Haloxylon salicornicum
Heliotropium kotschyi
Indigofera intricata
Iphiona aucheri
Lasiurus scindicus
Leptadenia pyrotechnica
Lycium shawii
Monsonia heliotropoides
Nannorrhops ritchieana
Ochradenus aucheri *
Ochradenus baccatus [possibly = O. arabicus]
Parietaria alsinifolia
Pergularia tomentosa
Periploca aphylla
Physorrhynchus chamaerapistrum
Polygala erioptera
Prosopis cineraria
Pseudogaillonia hymenostephana [= Plocama hymenostephana]
Reseda arabica
Rhanterium epapposum
Salvadora persica
Salvia aegyptiaca
Senecio flavus [= S. breviflorus]
Sphaerocoma aucheri
Tamarix aphylla
Taverniera glabra [= T. cuneifolia]
Tecomella undulata
Tephrosia apollinea
Teucrium oliverianum
Tribulus macropterus
Tricholaena teneriffae
Viola cinerea
Ziziphus spina-christi

Table 5: Common Hajar Mountain species that are
absent or very rare(+) in the Ru'us al-Jibal.

Acridocarpus orientalis
Aizoon canariense +
Arundo donax +
Boerhavia elegans +
Chrozophora oblongifolia +
Cleome noeana +
Cleome rupicola +
Cometes surattensis +
Convolvulus virgatus +
Crotalaria aegyptiaca +
Doellia bovei
Ephedra ciliata +
Haplophyllum tuberculatum +
Hibiscus micranthus +
Iphiona aucheri
Iphiona scabra +
Juncus socotranus
Lindenbergia arabica
Lindenbergia indica
Maerua crassifolia +
Morettia parviflora +
Nannorhops ritchieana
Nerium oleander +
Olea europaea
Pentatropis nivalis
Pergularia tomentosa+
Physorrhynchus chamaerapistrum +
Prosopis cineraria +
Pulicaria glutinosa +
Reseda aucheri +
Rhazya stricta +
Saccharum ravennae
Schoenus nigricans+
Taverniera cuneifolia +
Tribulus terrestris +
Trichodesma enetotrichum +

Table 6: Common Hajar Mountain species found in the Ru'us al-Jibal
primarily on the southern margin, in the south-west on the low plateau
above Wadi al-Qaliddi and in the south-east on Hawasina sediments at
Jebel Ayuzah.

Table 6a. Wadi al-Qaliddi

Cleome brachycarpa
Cometes surattensis
Convolvulus virgatus
Crotalaria aegyptiaca (single, low)
Iphiona scabra
Reseda aucheri
Pulicaria glutinosa
Tribulus terrestris

Table 6b. Jebel Ayuzah

Cleome brachycarpa
Convolvulus virgatus
Ephedra ciliata (on Ziziphus spina-christi)
Forsskaolea tenacissima
Iphiona scabra
Pergularia tomentosa
Physorrhynchus chamaerapistrum
Rhyncosia minima
Taverniera cuneifolia

Table 7: Comparison of the vegetation zones of the Ru'us al-Jibal and
the Jebel Akhdar

Ru'us al-Jibal
(this study)

2000m
        High Elevation Zone
        Prunus arabica              Ficus johannis
        Convolvulus acanlhocladus   Ephedra pachyclada
        Artemisia sieberi           Centaurea wendelboi
        Cymbopogon jwarancusa       Teucrium slocksianum
        Dodonaea viscosa            Dianthus crinitus
        Farsetia aegyplia           Ixiolihon tataricum
        Gymnocarpos decandrus       Moraea sisyrhinchium
        Helianthemum lippii         Helianthemum salicifolium
1100m
        Low and Medium Elevation Montane Zone
        Euphorbia larica            Prunus arabica
        Acacia tortilis             Launaea bommuelleri
        Ziziphus spina-christi      Astragalus fasciculilolius
        Lavandula subnuda           Ficus johannis
        Pulicaria edmondsonii       Convolvulus acanthocladus
        Vemonia arabica             Periploca aphylla
        Moringa peregrina           600m
        Plocama aucheri             Mountain Wadi Zone
                                    Tephrosia apollinea
                                    Acacia tortilis
                                    Ficus cordata salicifolia
                                    Ziziphus spina-christi
                                    Moringa peregrina
                                    Ochradenus aucheri
Jebel Akhdar
(Mandaville 1977)

3000m
        Juniper Summit Zone
        Junlperus excelsa ssp polycarpos
        Cymbopogon jwarancusa
        Dodonaea viscosa
        Euryops arabicus
        Teucrium mascatense
2300m
        Reptonia (Sideroxylon)-Olea Woodland
        + Sageretia thea
        Ziziphus hajarensis
        Junipems excelsa ssp. polycarpos
        Clematis orientatis
        Ebenus stellata
        Acacia gerrardii
        Dodonaea viscosa
        Ephedra pachyclada
1350m
        Euphorbia Larica Shrub Slopes
        Euphorbia larica
        + Plocama aucheri
        Pulicaria glulinosa                1050m
        Moringa peregrina                  Mountain Wadi Ass'ns
        Maema crassitolia                  Acacia tortilis
        Lavandula subnuda                  Ziziphus spina-christi
        Convolvulus virgalus               Ficus salicifolia
                                           Acndocarpus orientatis
                                           Prosopis cineraria
                                           Nerium oleander
400m
        Acacia Desert Parkland
        Acacia tortilis/A. ehrenbergiana
        + Z. spina-christi
        Prosopis cineraria
        Pteropynjm scoparium
        Fagonia indica
Jebel Akhdar
(Ghazanfar 1991a, 2003)

3000m
        Juniperus-Ephedra-Teucrium Zone
        + Dionysia mira
        Lonicera aucheri
        Ziziphus hajarensis
        |                                           2500m
        |                                           |
        |                                           |
2100m   |                                           |
                                                    |
                                        Sideroxvlon-Olea-Dodonaea Zone
                                                    |
                                                    |
1500m                                               |
        Euphorbia larica Zone                       |
        + Acacia tortilis                           |
        Acacia gerrardii                            |
        Periploca aphylla                           |
                                                    |
                                                    1100m
1000m
        Acacia-Rhazva-Fagonia Zone
        + Maerua crassitolia
        Lycium shawii
        Pteropynjm scoparium (wadi fans)
        (Typical of gravel plains and foothills)
650m
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Title Annotation:p. 126-153
Author:Feulner, Gary R.
Publication:Tribulus
Article Type:Bibliography
Date:Jan 1, 2011
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