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The first record of Hydrometra bifurcata (Heteroptera: Hydrometridae) from the island of Reunion, with distributional notes on other Hydrometra species from Madagascar.

This short paper provides the first record of Hydrometra bifurcate/ from the island of Reunion in the Mascarene Archipelago, accompanied by additional distribution records for H. bifurcata on Madagascar, where it has proven to be widespread. New distribution records are also provided for the endemic Madagascar species H. fanjahira and H. isaka, both of which occasionally co-occur with H. birfurcata on Madagascar.

The Hydrometridae biota of Madagascar as currently understood comprises an assemblage of six regionally endemic species, plus the widespread H. albolineolata Reuter and H. carayoni Poisson, which are also shared with Africa. The status of the latter species in the Madagascar biota is indicated as provisional by J. Polhemus and D. Polhemus (1987). Several species that are allied to H. madagascariensis Hungerford & Evans and display atypical terrestrial ecologies were treated by J. Polhemus and D. Polhemus (1987), but the more typical stream- and pond-dwelling endemic forms have not been dealt with in any detail since their original descriptions based on limited material by Hungerford and Evans (1934).

Collections by the second author and other staff at the Insectarium de La Reunion (IDLR) have now shown that one of these species, H. bifurcata Hungerford & Evans (Fig. 1), is present on the island of Reunion, in the Mascarene Archipelago, which represents a considerable eastward range extension. We discuss this record, provide additional distributional data from the J. T. Polhemus Collection (JTPC), which is currently being transferred to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, to clarify the range of H. bifurcata in Madagascar, and also provide further distributional records for the Madagascar endemic species H. fanjahira Hungerford & Evans and H. isaka Hungerford & Evans, both of which occasionally co-occur with H. bifurcata.

The only other species of Hydrometridae currently known from the Mascarene Islands is H. mameti Hungerford 1951, which is apparently endemic to Mauritius. Due to a lapsus, this species was mistakenly credited to Poisson, 1951 in the checklist of Mauritius aquatic Heteroptera provided by D. Polhemus and J. Polhemus (2008). However, the proper author is Hungerford. A key is provided below to easily distinguish between these two Mascarene species.

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HYDROMETRA IN THE MASCARENE ISLANDS

1. Clypeus bifurcate, bearing a pair (1+1) of pointed process to each side; male abdominal segment VII bearing small, acuminate tufts of dark hairs laterally on each side; length 11.8-13.9 mm; Reunion (also Madagascar and Comores).... H. bifurcata Hungerford & Evans Clypeus truncate, lacking pointed processes; male abdominal segment VII bearing small, pointed, triangular-shaped projections laterally on each side; body length 9.5-11.0 mm; endemic to Mauritius.... H. mameti Hungerford

Hydrometra bifurcata Hungerford & Evans

Figs. 1, 2

Hydrometra bifurcata Hungerford and Evans 1934: 43.

Discussion: This species was described by Hungerford and Evans (1934) from Madagascar material taken in the "Region du Sud-est" (the type locality), the "Region du Sud," and at Diego Suarez. Poisson (1959) later recorded the species from the Comoro Islands, listing specimens from Moheli, Anjouan, and Grand Comore. It seems to be confined to stream margin habitats.

By contrast, H. bifurcata is not listed in Poisson's (1957) treatment of the aquatic Heteroptera fauna of Reunion, so our new record appears to be the first for both this island and for the Mascarene Archipelago, which extends the range of this species considerably to the east. Hydrometra bifurcata is the only species of Hydrometra currently known from Reunion, and based on the new records presented herein occurs in the low altitude dry zone over the entire east coast of the island, in both sheltered ravines and garden ponds (Fig. 2). It is likely even more widespread on the island than current records indicate, because the species is inconspicuous, and local entomologists have not specifically sought it out. Based on other faunal records that accompany the collection locality data for Reunion, H. bifurcata seems to be an ecologically adaptable species on that island, inhabiting anthropogenically altered habitats, such as garden ponds, and co-occurring with various introduced aquatic species, including tadpoles, guppies, and tilapia.

Material Examined: REUNION: 1 macropterous male, 1 macropterous female, 1 submacropterous female, Entre-Deux, in quiet reaches of a small tributary stream to the Sassa River, 350 m, 21[degrees]14'S, 55[degrees]29'E, 26 November 2013, in the quiet areas of a small brook, D. Martire (IDLR); 1 submacropterous female, Ravine des Cabris, small pond in botanical garden, surface covered with duckweed, guppies and tadpoles present, 200 m, 21[degrees] 18'S, 55[degrees]29'E, 29 August 2011. D. Martire (IDLR).

In addition to the record above, the following anecdotal records of this species based on observations, but lacking accompanying voucher specimens, have also been provided by IDLR staff: 1) Le Port, Insectarium de La Reunion, in a small pond on the site of plant nursery, 60 m; 2) Ravine de la Petite Chaloupe, in small ponds with no aquatic vegetation, 160 m, December 2009 IDLR staff; 3) Ravine de Trois Bassins (Bellevue), in small ponds with no aquatic vegetation, 15 m, December 2003. These localities have been included in the distribution map in Fig. 2.

Additional Material Examined: MADAGASCAR: Diego Suarez Prov.: 3 macropterous females, stream 68 km S. of Diego Suarez on Ambilobe road. 425 m, 12[degrees]42'32"S, 49[degrees]14'42"E, water temp. 26[degrees]C, 12 November 1986, CL 2276, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 6 macropterous males, 6 macropterous females, Mt. d'Ambre Forest Reserve, rocky stream at Petite Cascade, nr. headquarters, 990 m, 12[degrees]31'42"S, 49[degrees]10'16"E, water temp. 20[degrees]C, 15 November 1986, CL 2280, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 4 macropterous males, 2 macropterous females, small forest stream 5 km. N. of Joffreyville, 490 m, 12[degrees]28'25"S, 49[degrees]13'27"E, water temp. 20[degrees]C, 16 November 1986, CL 2281, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 2 macropterous males, 2 macropterous females, Ambilobe, drainage ditches, a. h. 136, 4 December 1952, E. S. Brown (JTPC). Fianarantsoa Prov.: 5 macropterous males, Namarona River and slow tribuatury 18 km. NW of Ranomafana, 1,175 m, 21[degrees]10'15"S, 47[degrees]27'19"E, water temp. 22[degrees]C, 30 October 1986, CL 2246, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC). Majunga Prov.: 1 macropterous male, 5 macropterous females, Mamokomita River and tributary, 19 km. SE of Andriba at Majunga Hwy., 655 m, 17[degrees]40'57"S, 46[degrees]59'2"E, water temp. 23.5[degrees]C, 8 November 1988, CL 2270, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 7 macropterous males, 5 macropterous females, stream 2 km E. of Ampijoroa Forest Station, 115 km E. of Majunga, 60 m [200 ft], 16[degrees]19'18"S, 46[degrees]49'33"E, water temp. 25[degrees]C, 22 November 1986, CL 2285, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 1 macropterous female, Ankarafantsika Forest Reserve, near Marovoay, 1 December 1959, E. S. Ross (JTPC). Tamatave Prov.: 1 macropterous male, stream 63 km E. of Moramanga on new Tamatave Hwy., 350 m, 18[degrees]57'52"S, 48[degrees]40'16'E, water temp. 24[degrees]C, 4 November 1986, CL 2257, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 3 macropterous males, 1 macropterous female, streamlet 52 km W. of Brickaville on new Tamatave Hwy., 180 m, 18[degrees]57'37"S, 48[degrees]41"59'E, 4 November 1986, CL 2258, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 6 macropterous males, lake and swift outlet stream at Menagisy Forest Station, 3 km E. of Brickaville, 30 m, 18[degrees]49'32"S, 49[degrees]04"35'E, 5 November 1986, CL 2262, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 2 macropterous males, Ampasimbe River, 80 km E. of Moramanga on new Tamatave Hwy., 198 m, 18[degrees]58'07"S, 48[degrees]44"03'E, water temp. 25[degrees]C, 5 November 1986, CL 2263, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC). Tulear Prov.: 2 macropterous males, 8 macropterous females, sandy river 6 mi N. of Betsimba oil drill site, 65 mi SE of Morondava, 105 m, 20[degrees]49'26"S, 44[degrees]24'52"E, water temp. 28[degrees]C, 25 November 1986, CL 2287, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 2 macropterous females, large, clear spring at Ambohimahavelona, SE of Tulear, 10 m, 23[degrees]26'48"S, 43[degrees]54'36"E, water temp. 28[degrees]C, 29 November 1986, CL 2294, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC).

Hydrometra fanjahira Hungerford & Evans

Hydrometra fanjahira Hungerford and Evans 1934: 53.

Discussion: Described by Hungerford and Evans (1934) from a single male taken in the "Region du Sud-est, Vallee du Fanjahira, Isakaf and not recorded again until now. This species appears to be confined to the western portion of Madagascar, and sometimes co-occurs with H. bifurcata. Although not as commonly encountered as H. bifurcata, it seems to have a wider range of ecological tolerances, having been taken from both lotic and lentic habitats. The ability of H. fanjahira to colonize isolated habitats in dry country is evidenced by the capture by the first author of a male specimen from a hotel swimming pool in Majunga.

Material Examined: MADAGASCAR: Diego Suarez Prov.: 2 macropterous males, 1 macropterous female, Mt. d'Ambre Forest Reserve, rocky stream at Petite Cascade, nr. headquarters, 990 m, 12[degrees]31'42"S, 49[degrees]10'16"E, water temp. 20[degrees]C, 15 November 1986, CL 2280, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 2 macropterous males, 1 macropterous female, Sambirano River, nr. Ambanja, a. h. 127, 29 November 1952, E. S. Brown (JTPC). Majunga Prov.: 1 macropterous male, hotel swimming pool at Majunga, 10 m, 15[degrees]40'06"S, 46[degrees]19'26"E, 21 November 1986, CL 2282, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC). Tulear Prov.: 5 macropterous males, 3 macropterous females, sandy river 6 mi N. of Betsimba oil drill site, 65 mi SE of Morondava, 105 m, 20[degrees]49'26"S, 44[degrees]24'52"E, water temp. 28[degrees]C, 25 November 1986, CL 2287, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 5 macropterous males, 7 macropterous females, ponds 1 mi N. of Betsimba oil drill site, 69 mi S. of Morondava, 180 m, 20[degrees];49'03"S, 44[degrees]25'23"E, 25 November 1986, CL 2288, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 3 macropterous males, 3 macropterous females, ponds and ditches on S. side of Lake Ihotry, 50 m, 22[degrees]02'32"S, 43[degrees]38'14"E, 4 December 1986, CL 2302, J. T. Polhemus (JTPC).

Hydrometra isaka Hungerford & Evans

Hydrometra isaka Hungerford and Evans 1934: 81.

Discussion: Described by Hungerford and Evans (1934) from one male and one female taken in the "Region du Sud-est, Vallee du Fanjahira, Isaka," plus another female from Tamatave, and not recorded since. This seems to be an uncommon species in Madagascar, but occasionally co-occurs with either H. bifurcata or H. fanjahira, although we know of no locality where all three species have been taken together.

Material Examined: MADAGASCAR: Diego Suarez Prov.: 1 macropterous male, Sambirano River, nr. Ambanja, a. h. 127, 29 November 1952, E. S. Brown (JTPC). Tulear Prov.: 3 macropterous males, 2 macropterous females, ponds 1 mi N. of Betsimba oil drill site, 69 mi S. of Morondava, 180 m, 20[degrees]49'03"S, 44[degrees]'25'23"E, 25 November 1986, CL 2288, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC); 4 macropterous males, large, clear spring at Ambohimahavelona, SE of Tulear, 10 m, 23[degrees]26'48"S, 43[degrees]54'36"E, water temp. 28[degrees]C, 29 November 1986, CL 2294, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus (JTPC).--Dan A. Polhemus, Dept, of Natural Sciences, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice St., Honolulu, Hawaii 96817, e-mail: bugman@bishopmuseum. org; Dominique Martire, 32 Rue Leconte Delisle, 97429 Petite-lie, La Reunion, FRANCE; e-mail: guil.martire@ wanadoo.fr

Caption: Fig. 1. Hydrometra bifurcata, submacropterous female. specimen photographed on a small pond at Ravine des Cabris. Reunion (D. Martire photo).

Caption: Fig. 2. Collection localities for Hydrometra bifurcata on the island of Reunion. For further details regarding each locality see text. Site numbering: 1 = Chemin des Anglais, 2 = Le Port, 3 = Bellevue, 4 = Entre Deux, 5 = Ravine des Cabris.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The first author wishes to acknowledge the late Dr. John T. Polhemus, who participated in the field survey work in Madagascar during 1986 which provided the basis for many of the records listed in this paper.

Received 2 May 2014; accepted 2 May 2014

LITERATURE CITED

Hungerford, H. B. 1951. A new Hydrometra from Mauritius. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 24(3): 109-111.

Hungerford. H. B. and N. E. Evans. 1934. The Hydrometridae of the Hungarian National Museum and other studies in the family (Hemiptera). Annales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 28: 31-112.

Poisson, R. 1957. Les hydrocorises de l'Ile de la Reunion. Memoires de l'Institute Scientifique de Madagascar. Serie E 8: 389-398.

Poisson, R. 1959. Contribution a l'etude des hydrocorises des Comores (Missions J. Millot 1953-1954). Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Serie E 10: 199-224.

Polhemus, D. A. and J. T. Polhemus. 2008. A new Indian Ocean species of Ochterus from the island of Mauritius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Ochteridae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 48(2): 281-288.

Polhemus, J. T. and D. A. Polhemus. 1987. Terrestrial Hydrometridae (Heteroptera) from Madagascar, and the remarkable thoracic polymorphism of a closely related species from Southeast Asia. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 95(4): 509-517.

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Title Annotation:SCIENTIFIC NOTE
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6MADA
Date:Jan 1, 2014
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