Printer Friendly

The first five years: public health and the Canadian public health association, 1910-1915: the second in a series of five historical articles to commemorate 100 years of CJPH/La sante publique et la Canadian Public Health Association: les cinq premieres annees, 1910-1915: Deuxieme d'une serie de cinq articles historiques commemorant le centenaire de la RCSP.

The first years of the Canadian Public Health Association, from 1910 through the first year of World War I, were a period of shifting public health challenges and the emergence of a distinctive and cohesive Canadian approach to managing them. Driven by the vision and work of a fairly small group of dedicated public health leaders, this half-decade saw rapid growth of the Association, along with remarkably intense activity in the development of Canada's public health infrastructure, especially at the provincial level.

There had been considerable momentum building in public health management in Canada, especially since the establishment of the first provincial board of health in 1882 in Ontario and with the other provinces following suit over the next two decades. (1) Federally, a Director General of Public Health had been appointed in 1899, (2) but a more significant step was taken in 1906 with the creation of the Commission on Conservation. This was a federal advisory committee focused on the conservation and better utilization of natural resources made up of the ministers of agriculture, mines, and the interior, provincial ministers of natural resources, and university experts. (3) Through the unique expertise of Dr. Peter H. Bryce, Chief Medical Officer of the Department of the Interior, and previously the first secretary of the Provincial Board of Health of Ontario (1882-1903), pressure built for broader federal public health initiatives, though the Commission was careful to tread the provincial jurisdictional line in matters of health. (4) The appointment in 1910 of Dr. Charles Hodgetts to take charge of the Commission's Health Branch, following service as the second Secretary of the Ontario Provincial Board of Health, furthered this momentum in Ottawa. (5) However, for most public health and medical professionals, particularly Bryce, and as had been clear in the Canadian medical press from as early as 1874, nothing short of a separate federal department of health would be satisfactory. (6)

From their positions in the Commission's Public Health Section, Drs. Bryce and Hodgetts exercised their influence to call together the country's leading public health figures to a special conference in Ottawa on October 12, 1910. This group of 16 men formally established the Canadian Public Health Association, as had first been suggested by the publishers of The Public Health Journal, Dr. Duncan M. Anderson and Dr. Lester M. Coulter of Toronto. As of September 22, 1910, Anderson and Coulter were part of a group of five doctors that had been granted an Ontario Charter for such an association. (7) At the Ottawa conference, they offered their Charter to the new Association, which could then apply for federal incorporation--granted in 1912--along with the right to use The Public Health Journal as its official organ. (8)

Among the group attending the Ottawa conference was Dr. John W.S. McCullough, who had shortly before been appointed Secretary of the Provincial Board of Health of Ontario, succeeding Hodgetts. (9) McCullough, along with his counterpart in Saskatchewan, Dr. Maurice M. Seymour, (10) played strong leadership roles in setting the public health agenda during the first years of the Canadian Public Health Association (to be referred to in the remaining text as CPHA). Of particular interest was improving sewage treatment and water supplies, preventing tuberculosis through stronger milk regulations, improving provincial health legislation, taking public health directly to the public with innovative exhibits, and supporting efforts to provide essential biological products, such as smallpox vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin, as a public service.

A major typhoid fever epidemic in the Ottawa area in 1910-11 accelerated local and provincial efforts to improve sanitation systems and water quality. Water contamination by typhoid-infected sewage was clearly responsible for outbreaks, and thus the poor situation in Ottawa, as Canada's capital, proved quite alarming on several levels. (11) While typhoid was clearly preventable, tuberculosis prevention and control remained a far larger challenge, despite major investments in tuberculosis sanatoria. (12) Educating the public about their obligations in preventing the spread of TB was thus the main focus of increasingly elaborate public health exhibits produced by provincial health boards. (13)

The main focus of amendments to Ontario's Public Health Act in 1912 was the division of the province into ten health districts and the appointment of full-time medical officers of health independent of municipal control, provided they pass a post-graduate course at the University of Toronto's Department of Hygiene. (14) A similar creation of health districts in Quebec was enacted in 1910, although the appointment of district health inspectors and their requirement for holding a diploma in public health was not formally written into the Act. (15) A new Public Health Act in Manitoba also included a strengthened focus on the better control of infectious diseases and included provision for free supplies of smallpox vaccine and diphtheria antitoxin. (16)

While the leading resolution of CPHA's first three congresses called for the creation of a federal department of health, (17) at the first congress in December 1911, there was strong emphasis placed on the Canadian supply and the need for federal control of biological products. At the time, almost all such products were imported with no manufacturing or product quality standards applied. (18) Also of increasing concern was their high price and its impact on availability, hence the interest of some provinces in providing for their free distribution. Trying to solve both problems drove calls for a new federal government laboratory to manufacture and distribute public health products, but with little response. (19)

However, in late 1913, confident that a university, in close cooperation with provincial governments, could lead such a selfsupporting enterprise as a public service, Dr. John G. FitzGerald, initially with his own money and a small backyard stable/laboratory, began to prepare diphtheria antitoxin. He received early encouragement from McCullough and a commitment to buy the products for distribution in Ontario at cost. With similar interest expressed from other provinces, on May 1, 1914, the University of Toronto formally launched the Antitoxin Laboratories in the Department of Hygiene. In addition to diphtheria antitoxin, the new laboratories also prepared tetanus antitoxin, anti-meningitis serum and rabies vaccine. FitzGerald was also committed to directing all proceeds into research into public health product improvement and development. (20)

During the years leading up to the start of World War I, several other major public health issues emerged into prominence in Canada that had a strong social dimension, particularly growing medical concerns about the impact of the "hidden plague" of venereal disease and the need for programs of sex hygiene education for school children and their parents. (21) More generally, Canadian public health leaders had long recognized the poor sanitary state of most public schools. (22) However, little could be done until strengthened provincial health legislation provided sufficient authority for implementing the medical inspection of school children through local medical officers of health and the support of public health nurses. (23)

While the sudden onset of World War I in August 1914 had minimal impact on such provincial and local public health initiatives, it did prompt the abrupt cancellation of CPHA's 1914 annual congress (24) and generate considerable anxiety about the future as the expected quick end of the war did not materialize, the war seeming to stretch endlessly into the future. (25) By the time the war did finally end in November 1918, however, public health in Canada had begun a vigorous new period of national expansion and renewal, much of it fuelled by the great influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

Indeed, the evolution of the Canadian public health system has been shaped on many levels by infectious diseases. Cholera, typhoid fever and tuberculosis drove local and provincial developments into the first two decades of the 20th century, while the national and international severity of the influenza pandemic prompted the long-delayed establishment of a federal Department of Health in 1919. In the decades since, new threats, such as polio, AIDS and SARS, have further shaped the development of a distinctive Canadian public health system which today--just as in 1910--is driven by the vision, dedication and leadership of key people in the public health profession.

Guest Editor: Maureen Malowany, PhD

REFERENCES

(1.) Defries, R.D. The Federal and Provincial Health Services in Canada. Toronto, ON: Canadian Public Health Association, 1959.

(2.) Porter, G.D. Pioneers in Public Health. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1949;40:84; The Organizing Committee of the Canadian Public Health Association, 1910: Frederick Montizambert. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1959;50:165.

(3.) Hodgetts, Charles A. The Canadian Commission of Conservation and Public Health. Journal of the American Public Health Association 1911;1:400-05.

(4.) Porter, Pioneers in Public Health, 84-85; Bator, Paul A. with Andrew J. Rhodes. Within Reach of Everyone: A History of the University of Toronto School of Hygiene and the Connaught Laboratories, Volume I, 1927-1955. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Public Health Association, 1990, p. 3.

(5.) W.A.T., Dr. Charles Hodgetts Joins the Federal Service. Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery 1910;28:383; Hodgetts, Charles A. The Importance of Public Health From a National Perspective. The Public Health Journal 1910;1:526-34; Porter, Pioneers in Public Health, pp. 85-86.

(6.) Defries, R.D. Dr. Edward Playter: A Vision Fulfilled. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1959;50:374-75; Editorial. A National Department of Health. Canada Lancet 1910;43:806-07; Bryce, P.H. Scope of a Dominion Health Service. The Canadian Therapeutist and Sanitary Engineer 1910;1:343-46; Bryce, P.H. A Dominion Health Service: Its Necessity and Practicability. The Canadian Therapeutist and Sanitary Engineer 1910;1:393-94.

(7.) September 22, 1910: The Birthdate of the Canadian Public Health Association. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1959;50:120-21.

(8.) The Conference of Public Health Men. Dominion Medical Monthly 1910;35:192-93; Minutes of Meeting for Organization of the Canadian Public Health Association, October 12, 1910. Canadian Public Health Association Archives, Minutes Binder; Editorial. Our Federal Bill. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:131-33.

(9.) Dr. J.W.S. McCullough Succeeds Dr. Hodgetts. Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery 1910;28:184-85; The Organizing Committee of the Canadian Public Health Association: John W.S. McCullough. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1959;50:479.

(10.) The Organizing Committee of the Canadian Public Health Association: Maurice Macdonald Seymour. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1959;50:297.

(11.) Editorial. The Typhoid Epidemic in Ottawa. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:133; Drum, Lorne. Typhoid Fever: Character of the Recent Epidemic at Ottawa, January 1st to March 18th, 1911. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:412-14.

(12.) McCullough, J.W.S. Municipal Sanatoria. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:25359.

(13.) Ontario and the Tuberculosis Exhibit. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:73; McCullough, J.W.S. The Tuberculosis Exhibit of the Ontario Board of Health. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:212-13.

(14.) The Amended Ontario Act. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:218-19; Ontario Health Districts. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:349.

(15.) Hutchinson, John A. Public Health Legislation in the Province of Quebec. The Canada Lancet 1913;46:828-31.

(16.) Wood, E.M. The New Public Health Act as it Affects Provincial Municipalities. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:520-22.

(17.) Second Annual Congress of the Canadian Public Health Association. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:584; The Canadian Public Health Association Third Annual Congress. The Public Health Journal 1913;4:630.

(18.) Editorial. Recommendations from the Canadian Public Health Association to the Various Authorities Controlling the Administration of Public Health Matters in the Dominion. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:267-68; Higgins, Charles H. Biological Products. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:28-31.

(19.) A National Laboratory at Ottawa. Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery 1911;3:111-13.

(20.) University of Toronto Will Distribute Biological Products. Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery 1914;35:374; McCullough, J.W.S. Prices and Methods of Distribution of Diphtheria Antitoxin. The Canada Lancet 1914;47:797-98; Rutty, Christopher J. Personality, Politics and Canadian Public Health: The Origins of Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, University of Toronto, 1888-1917. Figuring the Social: Essays in Honour of Michael Bliss. Heaman, E.A., Li, A., McKellar, S. (Editors) Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008; 273303.

(21.) Sense and the Sex Question. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:495-96; Chicago Board of Education and Sex Hygiene. The Public Health Journal 1912;3:164; Education in Sex Hygiene and Prophylaxis. The Public Health Journal 1913;4:340-41; Venereal Diseases and the Public Health. The Public Health Journal 1913;4:530-31; Newspaper Comments on Sex Hygiene. The Public Health Journal 1914;5:131-35.

(22.) Inter Alia. The Public Health Journal 1911;2:324.

(23.) Editorial. Medical Inspection of Schools. The Public Health Journal 1913;4:469; Struthers, W.E. Medical Inspection of Schools in Toronto. The Public Health Journal 1914;5:67-78; Medical Inspection of Schools in Ontario The Public Health Journal 1914;5:158-62.

(24.) Editorial. Our Annual Congress. The Public Health Journal 1915;6:634.

(25.) Editorial. The Canadian Public Health Association. The Public Health Journal 1915;6:507.

Author Affiliation

Health Heritage Research Services, http://www.healthheritageresearch.com

Les premieres annees de la Canadian Public Health Association *, de 1910 a un an apres le debut de la Premiere Guerre mondiale, sont une periode de defis varies en sante publique, au cours desquelles on voit emerger une approche canadienne distinctive et coherente pour relever ces defis. Grfce a la clairvoyance, au travail et au devouement d'un petit groupe de responsables de la sante publique, l'Association enregistre une croissance rapide pendant ces cinq annees, tout comme les activites de developpement des infrastructures de sante publique du Canada, elles aussi remarquablement intenses (en particulier au palier provincial).

La gestion de la sante publique au Canada a deja pris un elan considerable, surtout depuis la creation du premier conseil de sante provincial en 1882 en Ontario (les autres provinces feront de meme au cours des vingt annees suivantes (1)). Au palier federal, il existe un directeur general de l'hygiene publique depuis 1899 (2), mais un pas decisif est franchi en 1906 lorsqu'on cree la Commission de la conservation. Ce comite consultatif federal compose des ministres de l'Agriculture, des Mines et de l'Interieur, des ministres provinciaux des Ressources naturelles et d'universitaires a pour mandat de conserver et de mieux utiliser les ressources naturelles (3). Grfce au savoir-faire particulier du Dr Peter H. Bryce, medecin-hygieniste en chef au ministere de l'Interieur et, auparavant, le premier secretaire du Provincial Board of Health of Ontario (1882-1903), la Commission fait pression sur l'administration federale pour qu'elle elargisse ses initiatives d'hygiene publique, en se gardant toutefois d'empieter dans les champs de competence des provinces en matiere de sante (4). En 1910, la designation du Dr Charles Hodgetts a la tete de la direction generale des services d'hygiene de la Commission (il a d'abord ete le deuxieme secretaire du Provincial Board of Health of Ontario) alimente ce mouvement a Ottawa (5). Cependant, de l'avis de la plupart des professionnels de l'hygiene publique et de la sante (particulierement le Dr Bryce) et comme le reclame la presse medicale canadienne depuis 1874, rien de moins qu'un ministere federal de la Sante ne sera juge satisfaisant (6).

Les docteurs Bryce et Hodgetts, qui occupent des postes influents a la Section de l'hygiene publique de la Commission, convoquent les grandes figures de la sante publique du pays a une conference extraordinaire

a Ottawa le 12 octobre 1910. Un groupe de 16 hommes cree officiellement la Canadian Public Health Association, comme l'avaient deja suggere les redacteurs du Public Health Journal, les docteurs Duncan M. Anderson et Lester M. Coulter de Toronto. Le 22 septembre 1910, Anderson et Coulter font partie des cinq medecins qui se voient octroyer des statuts de l'Ontario pour former une telle association7. A la conference d'Ottawa, ils conferent ces statuts a la nouvelle association pour la sante publique, laquelle peut des lors demander d'etre constituee sous le regime de la loi federale (ce qui lui est accorde en 1912), et lui donnent le droit de faire du Public Health Journal son organe officiel (8).

Parmi les delegues a la conference d'Ottawa se trouve le Dr JohnW.S. McCullough, qui vient de succeder a Hodgetts au poste de secretaire du Provincial Board of Health of Ontario (9). Lui et son homologue de la Saskatchewan, le Dr Maurice M. Seymour (10), jouent un role directeur dans l'etablissement du plan d'action national pour la sante publique les premieres annees de la Canadian Public Health Association (que nous designerons par l'acronyme CPHA dans le reste de cet article). Au programme, on veut ameliorer l'epuration des eaux d'egout et les reseaux d'alimentation en eau, prevenir la tuberculose en renforcant la reglementation du lait, ameliorer les lois provinciales sur la sante, presenter l'hygiene publique a la population au moyen d'expositions novatrices et appuyer les efforts pour offrir des produits biologiques essentiels, comme le vaccin contre la variole et l'antitoxine diphterique, a titre de services d'utilite publique.

Une vaste epidemie de fievre typhoide qui sevit dans la region d'Ottawa en 1910 et 1911 accelere les mesures locales et provinciales pour ameliorer les reseaux d'assainissement et la qualite de l'eau. Comme il est evident que les eclosions sont causees par la contamination de l'eau par les eaux d'egout, lesquelles sont infectees par la typhoide, la pietre situation a Ottawa, la capitale du Canada, est alarmante a plusieurs titres (11). La typhoide est clairement evitable, mais la prevention et le controle de la tuberculose presentent des difficultes beaucoup plus grandes, malgre les investissements considerables dans les sanatoriums (12). Au moyen d'expositions de plus en plus elaborees sur l'hygiene publique, les conseils de sante provinciaux cherchent donc principalement a informer la population de ce qu'elle doit faire pour prevenir la propagation de la tuberculose (13).

En 1912, on modifie la loi sur l'hygiene publique de l'Ontario, principalement en vue de diviser la province en 10 districts de sante et de designer des medecins-hygienistes a plein temps. Ceux-ci ne seront pas assujettis aux autorites municipales a condition d'avoir reussi un cours superieur au Departement d'hygiene de l'Universite de Toronto (14). Au Quebec, la creation de districts de sante semblables est enterinee en 1910, bien que la designation d'inspecteurs-hygienistes de district et l'exigence qu'ils soient diplomes en hygiene publique ne soient pas officiellement inscrites dans la loi (15). Au Manitoba, une nouvelle loi sur l'hygiene publique prevoit un controle renforce des maladies infectieuses et la gratuite des stocks de vaccin antivariolique et d'antitoxine diphterique (16).

La principale resolution des trois premiers congres de la CPHA vise la creation d'un ministere federal de la Sante (17), mais au premier congres, en decembre 1911, on insiste aussi beaucoup sur l'approvisionnement canadien et sur la necessite d'exercer un controle federal sur les produits biologiques. A l'epoque, presque tous ces produits sont importes sans aucune norme de fabrication ou de qualite (18). On se preoccupe aussi de plus en plus du prix eleve des produits biologiques, qui en restreint la disponibilite, d'oU l'interet de certaines provinces a les distribuer gratuitement. Pour resoudre les deux problemes a la fois, on reclame la creation d'un laboratoire federal pour fabriquer et distribuer les produits de sante publique, mais cet appel reste sans reponse (19).

Vers la fin de 1913 toutefois, le Dr John G. FitzGerald est convaincu qu'une universite, en etroite collaboration avec les gouvernements provinciaux, pourrait diriger une telle entreprise, si elle est financierement independante, a titre de service d'utilite publique. Au debut, il finance lui-meme la preparation de l'antitoxine diphterique dans un petit laboratoire d'arriere-cour flanque d'une ecurie. Il obtient vite les encouragements du Dr McCullough, qui s'engage a acheter le produit au prix co-tant pour le distribuer en Ontario. D'autres provinces se montrent interessees, et le 1er mai 1914, l'Universite de Toronto inaugure officiellement les Antitoxin Laboratories, associes a son Departement d'hygiene. En plus de l'antitoxine diphterique, les nouveaux laboratoires preparent de l'antitoxine tetanique, un serum contre la meningite et un vaccin antirabique. FitzGerald est resolu a investir tous les benefices dans la recherche sur l'amelioration et la mise au point de produits de sante publique (20).

Dans les annees qui precedent la Premiere Guerre mondiale, plusieurs autres graves problemes de sante publique aux dimensions sociales importantes font leur apparition au Canada. Le monde medical se preoccupe particulierement des repercussions croissantes de la << peste cachee >> des maladies veneriennes et du besoin d'instaurer des programmes d'hygiene sexuelle a l'intention des enfants d'fge scolaire et de leurs parents (21). De facon generale, les leaders canadiens en sante publique admettent depuis longtemps l'insalubrite de la plupart des ecoles publiques (22). Cependant, ils auront les mains liees tant que l'on n'aura pas renforce les lois provinciales sur la sante en donnant aux medecins-hygienistes locaux, appuyes par des infirmieres-hygienistes, le pouvoir de mener des inspections medicales dans les ecoles (23).

Le declenchement soudain de la Premiere Guerre mondiale en ao-t 1914 a tres peu d'effet sur de telles initiatives provinciales et locales d'hygiene publique, mais il provoque l'annulation abrupte du congres annuel de 1914 de la CPHA (24) et suscite enormement d'anxiete lorsqu'on se rend compte que la guerre ne prendra pas fin rapidement comme on le pensait, mais semble au contraire vouloir s'eterniser (25). Lorsque la paix est finalement signee en novembre 1918, la sante publique au Canada entre dans une periode dynamique d'expansion nationale et de renouvellement, alimentee en grande partie par la grave pandemie de grippe de 1918-1919.

A vrai dire, l'evolution du reseau canadien de la sante publique est a bien des egards tributaire des maladies infectieuses. Le cholera, la fievre typhoide et la tuberculose sont a l'origine d'amenagements locaux et provinciaux au cours des 20 premieres annees du XXe siecle, tandis que sur la scene nationale et internationale, la gravite de la pandemie de grippe amene la creation longtemps attendue d'un ministere federal de la Sante en 1919. Au cours des decennies suivantes, de nouvelles menaces comme la polio, le sida et le SRAS faconneront l'edification d'un reseau de sante publique typiquement canadien qui aujourd'hui, tout comme en 1910, est alimente par la clairvoyance, le devouement et le leadership des grandes figures de la profession.

* Elle ne portait pas encore son nom francais d'Association canadienne de sante publique.

Directrice scientifique invitee : Maureen Malowany, Ph.D.

REFERENCES

(1.) Defries, R.D. The Federal and Provincial Health Services in Canada, Toronto (Ontario), Canadian Public Health Association, 1959.

(2.) Porter, G.D. << Pioneers in public health >>, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 40 (1949), p. 84; << The Organizing Committee of the Canadian Public Health Association, 1910: Frederick Montizambert >>, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 50 (1959), p. 165.

(3.) Hodgetts, Charles A. << The Canadian Commission of Conservation and public health >>, Journal of the American Public Health Association, vol. 1 (1911), p. 400-405.

(4.) Porter, G.D. << Pioneers in public health >>, p. 84-85; Bator, Paul A., et Andrew J. Rhodes. Within Reach of Everyone: A History of the University of Toronto School of Hygiene and the Connaught Laboratories, Volume I, 1927-1955, Ottawa (Ontario), Association canadienne de sante publique, 1990, p. 3.

(5.) << W.A.T., Dr. Charles Hodgetts joins the federal service >>, Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 28 (1910), p. 383; << Hodgetts, Charles A. The importance of public health from a national perspective >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 1 (1910), p. 526-534; Porter, G.D. << Pioneers in public health >>, p. 85-86.

(6.) Defries, R.D. << Dr. Edward Playter: A vision fulfilled >>, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 50 (1959), p. 374-375; << A national Department of Health >> (editorial), Canada Lancet, vol. 43 (1910), p. 806-807; Bryce, P.H. << Scope of a Dominion Health Service >>, The Canadian Therapeutist and Sanitary Engineer, vol. 1 (1910), p. 343-346; Bryce, P.H. << A Dominion Health Service: Its necessity and practicability >>, The Canadian Therapeutist and Sanitary Engineer, vol. 1, p. 393-394 (1910).

(7.) << September 22, 1910: The birthdate of the Canadian Public Health Association >>, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 50 (1959), p. 120-121.

(8.) << The conference of public health men >>, Dominion Medical Monthly, vol. 35 (1910), p. 192-193; << Minutes of Meeting for Organization of the Canadian Public Health Association, October 12, 1910 >>, archives de l'Association canadienne de sante publique, cahier des proces-verbaux; << Our federal bill >> (editorial), The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 131-133.

(9.) << Dr. J.W.S. McCullough succeeds Dr. Hodgetts >>, Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 28 (1910), p. 184-185; << The Organizing Committee of the Canadian Public Health Association: John W.S. McCullough >>, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 50 (1959), p. 479.

(10.) << The Organizing Committee of the Canadian Public Health Association: Maurice Macdonald Seymour >>, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 50 (1959), p. 297.

(11.) << The typhoid epidemic in Ottawa >> (editorial), The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 133; Drum, Lorne. << Typhoid fever: Character of the recent epidemic at Ottawa, January 1st to March 18th, 1911 >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 412-414.

(12.) McCullough, J.W.S. << Municipal sanatoria >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 253-259.

(13.) << Ontario and the tuberculosis exhibit >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 73; McCullough, J.W.S. << The tuberculosis exhibit of the Ontario Board of Health >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 212-213.

(14.) << The amended Ontario Act >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 218219; << Ontario health districts >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 349.

(15.) Hutchinson, John A. << Public health legislation in the Province of Quebec >>, The Canada Lancet, vol. 46 (1913), p. 828-831.

(16.) Wood, E.M. << The new Public Health Act as it affects provincial municipalities >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 520-522.

(17.) << Second Annual Congress of the Canadian Public Health Association >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 584; << The Canadian Public Health Association Third Annual Congress >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 4 (1913), p. 630.

(18.) << Recommendations from the Canadian Public Health Association to the various authorities controlling the administration of public health matters in the Dominion >> (editorial), The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 267268; Higgins, Charles H. << Biological products >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 28-31.

(19.) << A national laboratory at Ottawa >>, Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 3 (1911), p. 111-113.

(20.) << University of Toronto will distribute biological products >>, Canadian Journal of Medicine and Surgery, vol. 35 (1914), p. 374; McCullough, J.W.S. << Prices and methods of distribution of diphtheria antitoxin >>, The Canada Lancet, vol. 47 (1914), p. 797-798; Rutty, Christopher J. << Personality, politics and Canadian public health: The origins of Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, University of Toronto, 1888-1917 >>, Figuring the Social: Essays in Honour of Michael Bliss, E.A. Heaman, A. Li, et S. McKellar (editeurs), Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 2008, p. 273-303.

(21.) << Sense and the sex question >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 495496; << Chicago Board of Education and sex hygiene >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 3 (1912), p. 164; << Education in sex hygiene and prophylaxis >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 4 (1913), p. 340-341; << Venereal diseases and the public health >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 4 (1913), p. 530-531; << Newspaper comments on sex hygiene >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 5 (1914), p. 131-135.

(22.) << Inter alia >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 2 (1911), p. 324.

(23.) << Medical inspection of schools >> (editorial), The Public Health Journal, vol. 4 (1913), p. 469; Struthers, W.E. << Medical inspection of schools in Toronto >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 5 (1914), p. 67-78; << Medical inspection of schools in Ontario >>, The Public Health Journal, vol. 5 (1914), p. 158-162.

(24.) << Our annual congress >> (editorial), The Public Health Journal, vol. 6 (1915), p. 634.

(25.) << The Canadian Public Health Association >> (editorial), The Public Health Journal, vol. 6 (1915), p. 507.

Affiliation de l'auteur

Health Heritage Research Services, http://www.healthheritageresearch.com

Christopher J. Rutty, PhD
COPYRIGHT 2009 Canadian Public Health Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:100 YEARS OF CJPH: SPECIAL HISTORICAL NOTES/LE CENTENAIRE DE LA RCSP: NOTES HISTORIQUES SPECIALES
Author:Rutty, Christopher J.
Publication:Canadian Journal of Public Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:May 1, 2009
Words:4621
Previous Article:A reflection on public health in Canada: applying lessons learned for the next century of public health practitioners/Reflexions sur la sante...
Next Article:The global financial crisis and health: scaling up our effort.
Topics:


Related Articles
Addressing public health challenges of global climate change/aborder les defis de sante publique poses par les changements climatiques a l'echelle...
Public health nursing in early 20th century Canada/Les services infirmiers de sante publique au debut du 20e siecle au Canada.
Let the celebrations begin!/Que la fete commence!
Social determinants of health: so what?/Determinants sociaux de la sante: et apres?
A reflection on public health in Canada: applying lessons learned for the next century of public health practitioners/Reflexions sur la sante...
Messages d'activite physique et d'alimentation: que nous offrent les medias quebecois?
Charting the future from the past/Le passe est garant de l'avenir.
The birth of a journal: the Canadian Journal of Public Health at the beginning of the XXth century: the first in a series of five historical articles...
Positioning Public Health for future success in Canada/Positionner la sante publique en vue de sa reussite future au Canada.
Building community and public health nursing capacity: a synthesis report of the national community health nursing study/Renforcement de la capacite...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters