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The feasibility of applying green manure in Tehran city (municipal) region no.2 based on experts' points of view.

INTRODUCTION

Human beings are one of the biggest causes of pollution, destruction and threats to the environment. Human interventions in nature have resulted in irreparable damages to life on Earth. Reduction in the thickness of the ozone layer, the effect of greenhouse gases, drying of wetlands', desertification, destruction of forests, salinization of fertile soils, decreased freshwater resources and, increased use of pesticides and fertilizers, together with hundreds of other examples, are the results of man's activities [1]. Obviously, one of the major causes of this problem is a lack of human awareness about the deleterious effects of our actions on nature. Thus, in order to avoid the threatened disasters, public knowledge and awareness should be improved, so that by changing attitudes towards the environment, people will become more diligent in protecting it rather than destroying it. In the field, by providing the necessary education, the creation and development of an environmental culture within societies and the authorities that manage them can be encouraged (ibid).

In recent years, concerns have also arisen about soil degradation as the only source for the supply of the world's food, so that in the Universal Food Declaration, soil fertility is cited as one of the key factors for achieving food security and sustainable farming; Therefore, any method that can help to increase and maintain the soil's organic matter, should to be welcomed. For example, applying green manure is one such approach [2]. Green manure means ploughing plants in to soil after sufficient growth and without harvest. Green manure has effects on the physical properties of soil, similar to animal manure, without entailing the negative consequences arising from the use of chemical fertilizers [3].

Green manures also provide a great habitat and food supply for insects that are needed to naturally control pests when the ground is free from vegetation [4]. In fact, due to fertilizers' quick impact, farmers ignore the consequences of such fertilizers and do not use organic fertilizers to improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. This has caused farming soils to become too hard and caused reduced soil permeability as environmental consequences. This situation causes further damage to soil structure and the soil becomes heavy. Therefore, promoting and developing a culture based on the use of organic (green) fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers among farmers is essential, as soil poverty, in terms of trace organics, has in most areas of Iran caused the soil structure to develop conditions un favorable to root growth, leading to declining performance [3]. Worldwide, more than 400 million tons of chemical fertilizer is produced and consumed each year. In our country, every year, more than 4.5 million tons of subsidized fertilizer is distributed among farmers. According to experts, the actual consumption of fertilizers in the country is more than wise the amount reported Due to the cheapness of chemical fertilizers and farmers' lack of information about them; their adverse effects have grown exponentially each year [5]. Unfortunately, many years of the excessive use of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphate materials, compounded by non-compliance with basic principles of agriculture science that require the balancing of nutrients in the soil , has caused irreparable damage to soil, and thus to the country's agriculture.

Currently, despite the fact that the use of chemical fertilizers in Iran is above average in terms of consumption worldwide (110 kg per hectare), and is equivalent to the average consumption in developed countries (116 kg per hectare), production per unit area is much lower than that of the developed countries, mainly due to farmers ' lack of awareness and, lack of understanding of the precise fertilizer needs of agricultural plants, and the unavailability of the fertilizer supplies that are appropriate to their needs [6]. Another disadvantage of the use of chemical fertilizers can be a reduction in the water retention capacity of the soil, increasing soil erosion and decreasing resistance of plants and crops to pests [7].

Tehran, as the capital city and largest metropolitan center, has in past decades, attracted a large population and many, privileges and, facilities; consequently, it also faces a number of problems; they include poor soil management practices and soil erosion in the green spaces in Tehran [7]. The mission of the geology department of parks and green space is managing soil and preventing soil erosion in the green space of Tehran, so that choosing appropriate fertilizer and plant selection can be based on knowledge of the characteristics of soil and water so that the optimal context for plant growth is established and limitations in the plant bed are resolved or overcome, leading to better growing conditions [8].

Dehghani Meshkani et al (2011) showed in a study that the use of bio-fertilizers increases the yield and quality of chamomile, and significantly increases plant height, size and diameter of the Capitol, as well as increasing the quantitative yield of plants, including shoots' dry weight. The use of bio-fertilizers can lead to reduced consumption of chemical fertilizers in the agricultural ecosystem [9].

Ismaili (2007) concludes in his study that there is a significant relationship between variables of age, education level, access to awareness raising resources, and training methods, and variables dependent on citizens' knowledge about building a healthy environment. Also there is a significant relationship between the informative resource variables and the training methods available to citizens to learn about building a healthy environment [10].

Nasiri (2009) also argues in his study that a lack of community involvement is one of the constraints in using green manure. Variables such as community participation in decision- making are also factors that have an influence on the adoption of bio-fertilizers [11]. Anandajayasekeram et al. (2007) believe that holding training courses helps the participants' attitudes and perceptions to improve and facilitates their relationship with researchers and extension agents. This factor also has a significant impact on the adoption of new technologies [12]. Wu et al. (2005) showed in their study that the use of biological fertilizers improves soil's physical structure and the content of organic matter and nitrogen available to the symbiotic plants. Manure management is a key factor in the successful cultivation of medicinal plants [13]. The present study is important since it provides a theoretical framework for the low-input sustainable agriculture in urban green space, the conservation of natural resources and the decrease of soil erosion, leading to improvement in the quality of human life.

Research objectives:

Therefore, identifying and analyzing the factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green spaces in Tehran from the perspective of experts and providing solutions to solve these problems though developing this project are the main objectives of this study. More specific objectives include investigating the personal characteristics of the experts and analyzing factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green space from the experts' perspective.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study is an example of applied research and in terms of research methods is a descriptive survey using factor analysis. The data collection tool is a questionnaire. To develop the questionnaire, the theoretical bases were first evaluated according to the literature then, in order to acquire the results of the study, a preliminary questionnaire was developed. After ensuring reliability and validity, and making revisions, the final questionnaire was designed. To investigate the validity of the study tool, the designed questionnaire was provided to the researchers' supervisor and advisor. This resulted in further necessary reforms and the changing of some of the questions, after which the validity of the questionnaire was confirmed. To test the reliability of the instrument, a total of 25 questionnaires were completed by experts on landscaping, and Cronbach's alpha was calculated (in the range of 0.76%-0.93%). This was an appropriate reliability coefficient for this study. The population of the present study was all experts in District 2 of the Tehran municipality; their total number was 80. Due to the limited number of experts, all of them were included in the sampled census. SPSS16 software was used to analyses the collected data. In terms of descriptive statistics, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation, (CV) were used, and in inferential statistics, exploratory factor analysis was used.

Results Investigation of personal characteristics of experts:

Sex: According to the study results, 47.5% of the experts were women and 51.3% of them were male.

Education: The results shows that 67.1% experts has a bachelor's degree; 27.8% have a master's degree and 5.1% have a Ph.D. Degree of information about green manures (non-chemical): findings of the study suggest that, 1.3% of the experts rated their degree of information green manures (non-chemical) as very little, 12.5% as little, 47.5% as average, 36.3% as much and 2.4% as very much.

Age: Based on information gathered, the mean age of the experts is 34 years; the youngest is 24, and the oldest 54.

Job Experience: Based on the information gathered, the mean job experience of the experts is nine years; the lowest was one year and the highest was 33 years.

In order to understand the experts' perspectives on the factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green space, a, 40-item Likert scale was used. Considering points between very much [5] and very little [1], the minimum and maximum scores for each respondent were 40 = 1 x 40 and 200 = 5 * 40 respectively. Therefore, all items were summed and coded together again, so that scores were classified as 71-40 (very little), 104-72 (little), 137-105 (average) 170-138 (much) and 203-171 (very much). Results of the study indicate that the majority of the experts (46.5%) believe that the factors mentioned have great impact on applying green manure in urban green space.

Rating the perspectives of experts on the factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green space The results of the findings show that the most important factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green space are the prevention of the hardening of arable soil, the maintenance of long-term productivity, and the prevention of environmental pollution and gradual degradation of soil quality, with change coefficients of 0.198, 0.200 and 0.202, respectively. The rest of the items are lower priorities (Table 3).

Factor analysis of the factors affecting the use of green manure according to urban green space professionals

In order to determine the most important factors that influence the application green manure in urban green space from the perspective of experts, factor analysis was used. Calculations given in Table (4) show that for

determining the internal consistency of the data in factor analysis, KMO and Bartlett's tests were used. The calculated rate of KMO (0.779) and the value of its Bartlett (2402.772) were significant (P < 0.001), which shows good correlation of variables for factor analysis. As Figure 1 shows, for determining the factors, a graph (scree plot) of eigenvalues and percentage variance was used. Based on this, eight factors were identified which in total account for, (75.7 percent) of the total variance.

Also, as shown in Table (4), according to the Kaiser criterion, eight factors that had eigenvalues above one for factors affecting green manure in urban green space were obtained. After factor rotation by the varimax method of rotation, variables relating to the factors influencing the use of green manure in urban green space from the perspectives of experts were classified into eight factors.

The first factor with the eigenvalue 5. 286 determines 13.2% of the total variance (Table 4). The first factor had the highest proportion (5.2%), and the eighth factor had the lowest proportion (1.9%).Of all the variables, these eight factors explain 75.7 % of the total variance of the variables, suggesting a high percentage of variance is explained by these factors.

The condition of the variables (40 main variables) in the factors with factor loadings is assumed to be larger than 0.5; after factor rotation by varimax method and the classification of factors it is as shown in Table (5). Therefore, these factors can be summarized in terms of the other variables. Considering the constituent variables of the f actors, the first factor is called the policy making factor, the second factor is educational promotional, the third factor is called the cultural social factor, the fourth factor is called the protective factor, the fifth factor is called the economic factor, the sixth factor is called the collaborative factor, the seventh factor is called the environmental actor and the eighth factor is called the biological factor.

Discussion and conclusion:

By conducting factor analysis of 40 variables, the factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green spaces were divided into eight factors. The factor analysis of the components of the factors affecting the use of green manure in urban green spaces, showed that 75.7% of changes are related to the eight factors of policy making, educational- promotional, cultural--social, protective, economic , collaborative, environmental, and biological. The first factor alone, with eigenvalues of 5.28, explains 13.2% of the total variance; it can be concluded that policy making affects the use of green manure in urban green space more than other factors. In accordance with the present study, Ajoodani (2009) argues that providing cooperation with relevant organizations in the implementation of green manure and the introduction of laws that support bio -fertilizers are political factors affecting the application of green manure [14].

Since, in Ajoodani's (2009) study, the context for the development and promotion of organic farming was been considered, it is similar the present study. Khedri (2010) found in a study that holding training courses, seminars and conferences for landscaping experts on using green manure can be effective in applying green manure [15]. The present study , regarding requirements for the adoption of low-input agriculture from experts' perspectives, is similar. The results of the study by Khorramdel et al (2010) are consistent with the present research [16]. The findings of the study by Taghvai et al (2010) show that there is a significant relationship between a person's sense of belonging to a living place and the extent of their participation in urban management [17].

Since in that study, the factors affecting citizens' participation are taken into consideration, it is similar to the present study. Ismaili (2007) in his study concludes that there is a significant relationship between the variables of awareness raising resources with the dependent variable of citizens' knowledge about building a healthy environment. Also, there is a significant relationship between the variables of informative resources and training methods with the dependent variable of citizens' skills in building a healthy environment [10]. The present study, considering the role of public education in building a safe environment, is similar. Anandajayasekeram et al. (2007) argue that holding training courses has a significant impact on the adoption of new technologies [12]. Sharma et al. (2005) in their study concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between mass education methods and the adoption of farming technology [18]. Wu et al. (2005) showed that the use of biological fertilizers improves the soil's physical structure as well as the content of organic matter and the nitrogen available to the symbiotic plant [13]. Nasiri (2009) also argues in his study that the lack of community involvement is one of preventative factors to using green manure. Variables such as

Community participation in decision making are factors that have an influence on the adoption of biofertilizers [11].

Recommendations:

According to results of the present study and the impact of various factors on use of green manure, the following recommendations are offered:

--Government support through establishing workshops and research centers in the use of green manure in urban green spaces

--Planning at all levels (national, regional and local) in the use of green manure rather than chemical fertilizers

--Providing appropriate management in organizations for the implementation of green manure plants

--Holding appropriate training courses in the use of green manure for green space professionals to increase their knowledge and awareness about this issue

--Experts should visit from successful initiatives in the use of green manure rather than chemical fertilizers

--Extending the culture of using green manure through individual and group media (bio-fertilizer)

--Teaching experts and contractors that green manure decreases the gradual degradation of soil quality, prevents hardening of arable soil, and improves root growth and the soil's protection from erosion.

--Allocating appropriate financial resources and investment to related organizations

--Reducing the price of green (bio) fertilizers for easy use by farmers and experts

--Collaboration between experts, researchers, advocates and policy-makers in planning and implementation decisions

--Building a culture in the field of using green (bio) fertilizers among experts and contractors

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 4 September 2014

Received in revised form 24 November 2014

Accepted 8 December 2014

Available online 16 December 2014

REFERENCES

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[2] Samavat, S., 2011. The role of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture. Written April 1990, available at: http://www.saeedsamavat.blogfa.com//

[3] Sepahvand, H. and Taheri Moghaddam, 2012. Green manure gives life to the agriculture of Iran, Jamejam, 22 April 91.

[4] Seeds, J., G. Road, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffok, 2011. Green Manure: http: //www.Johnsons.trade.com

[5] Abdoli, M.A., 2005. Municipal Solid Wastes Recovery. Edition 1 , Tehran: Tehran University, pp: 12-14.

[6] Malakooti, M.J., 2010. Investigating the balance of nutrients in the soil of Iran, Journal of Water, Land, Cars, 10: 12-17.

[7] Eghbaleh, A., F. Dehdari, 2005. Necessary of Manure Collection and Using it Agriculture .Sonboleh J, 5(172): 40-48.

[8] Samadpoor, P. and S.H. Faryadi, 2008. Determining the ecological footprint in high density and top urban areas; case study: Elahhiat neighborhood of Tehran. Journal of Ecology, Thirty-Fourth Year, 45(87): 7263.

[9] Anonymous, 2012. Content of the daily report on the soil survey, available at: http://www.isfp.ir/

[10] Dehghani meshkani, M., H. Naghdi Badi, M. Dam, A. Mehrafarin, S. Reza Zadeh and Z. Kadkhoda, 2011. Effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on yield and quality of chamomile of Shiraz. Medicinal Plants., Tenth Year., Second Period. No. Thirty-Eight. Spring, pp: 48-35.

[11] Ismaili, S., 2007. The role of public education in the green area of Tehran in building a safe environment: A case Study of flower and plant clinics of Tehran municipality's District 14. MSc. thesis Agricultural Extension and Education. University of Tehran Science and Research.

[12] Nasiri, S., 2009. Sustainable Way of Agricultural Production Increastion. Agriculture & Food, 2(65): 4243.

[13] Anandajayasekeram, P., K.E. Davis, S. Workneh, 2007. Farmer field schools: An alternative to existing extension systems? Experience from eastern and southern Africa. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 14(1): 81-93.

[14] Wu, S., Z. Caob, K. Lib, C. Cheunga and M.H. Wong, 2005. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma, 125: 155-166.

[15] Ajoodani, Z., 2009. Finding context to develop and promote organic farming in the province of Kermanshah from the perspective of agricultural professionals. M.Sc. Thesis, Agricultural Extension and Education. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran.

[16] Khedri, K., 2010. Implications of using low-input agriculture from the perspective of professionals: A case study of Ilam. M.Sc. thesis, Agricultural Promotion and Education. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Science and Research branch.

[17] Khorramdell, S.A., A. Koochaki, M. Nassiri Mahallati and B. Ghorbani, 2010. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of black seed herb. Iranian Crop Research, 8(5): 766-758.

[18] Taghvai, M., B. Babansb and C. Mousavi, 2010. Analysis of factors affecting the measurement of factors affecting citizen participation in urban management. (Case Study: Tabriz District 4). Urban and Regional Studies, First Year, No. 2, Autumn, pp: 36-19.

[19] Sharma, P., Z. Asztalos, C. Ayyub, M. De-Bruyne, A.J. Dornan, A. Gomez-Hernandez, J. Keane, J. Killeen, S. Kramer, M. Madhavan, H. Roe, P.D. Sherkhane, K. Siddiqi, E. Silva, J.R. Carlson, S.F. Goodwin, M. Heisenberg, K. Krishnan, C.P. Kyriacou, L. Partridge, J. Riesgo-Escovar, V. Rodrigues, T. Tully, C.J. O'Kane, 2005. Isogenic autosomes to be appliedin optimal screening for novel mutants with viable phenotypes in Drosophil melanogaster. Jornal of Neurogenet, 19(2): 57-85

(1) Marjan Azadfar, (2) Seyed Jamal F. Hosseini, (2) Maryam Omidi Najafabadi

(1) MSc. Student, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

(2) Ph.D Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding Author: Marjan Azadfar, MSc. Student, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Tel: 09124834885; E-mail: marjanazadfar@yahoo.com

Table 1: Description of the demographic characteristics of the
respondents (n=80)

variable         mean   Standard    median   index   minimum   maximum
                        deviation

age               34      6.05        33      30       24        54
job experience    9       5.83        8        6        1        33

Experts' perspectives on factors affecting the application of green
manure in urban green space

Table 2: Experts' perspectives on the factors affecting the use of
green manure in urban green space. (N =80)

Evaluation spectrum   Frequency   Percent    Valid    Accumulative
                                            percent     percent

Very little (40-71)       1         1.3       1.4         1.4
Little (72-104)           3         3.8       4.2         5.6
Average (105-137)        11        13.8      15.5         21.1
Much (138-170)           33        41.3      46.5         67.6
Very much(171-203)       23        28.8      32.4         100
Without response          9        11.3       --           --
Total                    80         100       100          --

Evaluation spectrum: very little (40-71), little (72-104), average
(105-137), much (138-170), very much (171-203) Median: much index:
much

Table 3: Rating the perspectives of experts on the factors affecting
the use of green manure in urban green space.

Rating   Factors affecting the use of   Mean   Standard      Change
         green manure in green space           deviation   coefficient

1        Prevent hardening of arable    4.08     0.81         0.198
                     soil

2             Maintain long-term         4       0.80         0.200
           productivity and prevent
           environmental pollution

3         No gradual degradation of     4.10     0.83         0.202
                 soil quality

4         Increase the resistance of    3.83     0.92        0.2402
            plants to disease and
                aquatic stress

5           Positive attitudes and      4.03     0.97        0.2406
          beliefs of experts toward
               bio fertilizers

6         Preserving and re-cycling     3.97     0.89        0.2241
               plant nutrients

7            Increasing water use       3.78     0.85        0.2248
             efficiency of plants

8         The collaboration between     4.21     0.95         0.225
            farmers, researchers,
         extension agents and policy
            makers in planning and
                implementation

9          Protecting the soil from     4.03     0.93         0.230
                   erosion

10       Increasing the water holding   3.92     0.91         0.232
           capacity of the soil and
             increasing nutrient
          retention capacity of the
                     soil

11            Having appropriate        4.16     0.97         0.233
              management in the
          organization of parks and
         green space for implementing
          projects related to green
                    manure

12        Increasing food and water     3.96     0.93         0.234
                  absorption

13            Pollution and soil        3.96     0.96         0.242
              degradation due to
            indiscriminate use of
             chemical fertilizers

14       Holding training courses for   4.03     0.98         0.243
         experts in the use of green
            manure in green space

15           Holding conferences,       3.98     0.99         0.248
            seminars and training
          courses for experts in the
         field of landscaping on the
          use of green manure, green
                    manure

16             Private sector's         3.95       1          0.253
          participation in order to
             utilize features and
                 capabilities

17          Experts' visiting from      4.01     1.02         0.254
          successful initiatives in
           the use of green manure
             rather than chemical
                 fertilizers

18           Boosting root growth       3.81     0.98        0.2572

19        Government support through    4.08     1.05        0.2573
          establishing workshops and
               research centers

20        High price of green manure    3.72     0.96         0.258
          compared to animal manures
           and chemical fertilizers

21         Ratification of laws and     3.96     1.03         0.260
           regulations that protect
                 green manure

22         Publication of books and     3.83     1.02         0.266
          articles related to use of
           green manure instead of
           chemical fertilizers in
          urban green spaces by the
            parks and green spaces
           organizations of Tehran

23          Planning at all levels      4.08     1.09         0.267
         (national, local, regional)
          in the use of green manure
             rather than chemical
                 fertilizers

24       Provide cooperation context    3.80     1.02         0.268
          for relevant organizations
           in the implementation of
                 green manure

25        Promotion of agricultural     4.01     1.08         0.269
          technologies by government

26           Economical advantage       3.80     1.04         0.273

27        Government support in the     4.05     1.11         0.274
           use of these fertilizers

28        Giving necessary knowledge    3.82     1.08         0.282
             and expertise to the
          landscaping contractors in
          relation to the advantages
               of green manure

29       Using advertisements on the    3.87     1.13         0.291
             use of green manures

30       Preparing CDs and providing    3.76     1.10         0.292
          training in the use of bio
           fertilizers by the green
              space organization

31       Correct culture in relation    3.71     1.10        0.2964
         to the use of green manures

32        Easy access to biological     3.81     1.13        0.2965
                   factors

33       Familiarity with sustainable   3.70     1.10         0.297
                 agriculture

34           Culture of using bio       3.86     1.20         0.310
            fertilizers in society

35        Sense of responsibility in    3.81     1.22        0.3202
          people towards urban green
                    space

36        Social partnership between    3.71     1.19        0.3207
         experts in landscaping with
           contractors to use green
                    manure

37         Fair and economic trade      3.61     1.19         0.329
          sales in relation to green
                    manure

38          Government support for      3.53     1.28         0.362
            biofuel production as
                  subsidies

39          Allocating appropriate      3.53     1.34         0.379
           financial resources and
            investment to related
                organizations

40        To rely solely on chemical    3.41     1.30         0.381
                   control

Evaluation spectrum: 1 = very little, 2 = little, 3 = average, 4 =
much, 5 = very much

Table 4: Extracted factors, eigenvalue, percentage of variance and
cumulative variance of components affecting use of green manure in
urban green space.

Factors   Eigenvalue   Percent of    Percent of
                       variance of   cumulative
                       eigenvalue.   variance.

First       5.286        13.214        13.214
second      4.495        11.238        24.453
third       4.494        11.235        35.687
fourth      4.078        10.194        45.881
fifth       3.141         7.853        53.734
sixth       2.389         5.973        65.844
seventh     2.004         5.011        70.854
eighth      1.976         4.939        75.793

Source: research findings

Table 5: Variables related to each factor and the coefficients
obtained from the rotated matrix.

Factor name                    Variables                The rate of
                                                        coefficients
                                                          (factor
                                                          loading)

Policy making         Consumer protection laws and         0.801
factor (X1)           regulations of green manure

                     Providing cooperation contexts        0.769
                   with relevant organizations in the
                     implementation of green manure
                                 plans

                       Government support through          0.729
                       establishing workshops and
                            research Centers

                   Planning at all levels (national,       0.721
                     local, regional) in the use of
                   green manure rather than chemical
                              fertilizers

                    Having appropriate management in       0.685
                     the organization of parks and
                      green space for implementing
                    projects related to green manure

                       Promotion of agricultural           0.685
                       technologies by government

                   The private sector's participation      0.559
                    in order to utilize features and
                              capabilities

                   Using advertisements on the use of      0.503
                              green manure

Educational-          Holding training courses for         0.770
promotional        experts on the use of green manure
factor (X2)                  in green space

                   Giving the necessary knowledge and      0.737
                      expertise to the landscaping
                     contractors in relation to the
                       advantages of green manure

                   Holding conferences, seminars and       0.721
                    training courses for experts in
                    the field of landscaping on the
                   use of green manure, green manure

                   Experts' visiting from successful       0.680
                    initiatives in the use of green
                      manure rather than chemical
                              fertilizers

                      Preparing CDs and providing          0.554
                       training in the use of bio
                     fertilizers by the green space
                             organizations

                   Publication of books and articles       0.502
                   related to the use of green manure
                   instead of chemical fertilizers in
                    urban green spaces by the parks
                   and green spaces organizations of
                                 Tehran

Cultural-social    Cculture of using bio fertilizers       0.819
factors (X3)                   in society

                   Easy access to biological factors       0.712

                   Correct culture in relation to the      0.696
                          use of green manures

                   Positive attitudes and beliefs of       0.647
                     experts toward bio fertilizers

                      Familiarity with sustainable         0.589
                              agriculture

                    Government support in the use of       0.558
                           these fertilizers

Protective           No gradual degradation of soil        0.796
factor                          quality
(X4)
                    Prevent hardening of arable soil       0.795

                          Boosting root growth             0.718

                       Increasing food and water           0.710
                               absorption

Economic factor      Government support for biofuel        0.844
(X5)                    production and subsidies           0.816

                          Economical advantage             0.810
                                                           0.737
                    Allocating appropriate financial       0.701
                      resources and investment to
                         related organizations

                       High price of green manure            --
                     compared to animal manures and
                          chemical fertilizers

                    Fair and economic trade sales in         --
                       relation with green manure

Collaborative      The collaboration between farmers,      0.773
factor             researchers, extension agents and
                     policy makers in planning and
                             implementation

                   Social partnership between experts      0.560
                   in landscaping and contractors to
                            use green manure

Bioenvironmental   Pollution and soil degradation due      0.670
factor             to indiscriminate use of chemical
(X7)                          fertilizers

                    Maintain long-term productivity        0.546
                       and prevent environmental
                               pollution

                   Increasing water use efficiency of      0.525
                                 plants

Biological          Increase the resistance of plant       0.764
factor               to disease and aquatic stress
(X8)
                     Increasing nutrient retention         0.745
                          capacity of the soil

Source: research findings
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Author:Azadfar, Marjan; Hosseini, Seyed Jamal F.; Najafabadi, Maryam Omidi
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Oct 1, 2014
Words:4933
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