The evolution of cooperative threat reduction: issues for Congress.
Securing and Eliminating Nuclear Weapons
Strategic Offensive Arms Elimination
When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, it had more than 11,000 warheads deployed on nearly 1,400 land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), 940 submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and 162 heavy bombers. These weapons were deployed in four of the former Soviet republics--Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. In 1994, Russia agreed to reduce its nuclear forces to the limits outlined in the original Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), while the other three all agreed to eliminate all the nuclear weapons on their territories. Promises of U.S. financial and technical assistance through DOD's CTR program helped win this agreement. (54) The United States has provided these nations with technology and expertise needed to deactivate and dismantle missiles, launchers, submarines, and bombers. More than half of the CTR funding in the program's early years served this purpose, although that proportion declined in recent years as the work was completed in Belarus and Kazakhstan and as the level of effort declined in Russia and Ukraine.
According to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the CTR program had, as of January 31, 2013, helped deactivate 7,613 warheads, 910 ICBMs, and nearly 692 ICBM launchers; 695 SLBMs and 492 SLBM launch tubes; and 155 heavy bombers. (55) Much of the work is now completed, however, as the Memorandum of Understanding governing these projects has expired. According to DOD, the United States is no longer supporting strategic launcher and missile elimination in Russia.
In Russia, the United States has helped eliminate and dismantle SS-18 and SS-19 ICBMs, disassemble and eliminate components of the SS-N-20 SLBM, eliminate SS-25 ICBMs and their road-mobile launchers, and destroy rail-mobile SS-24 ICBMs and their launchers. Funding in this project area has also supported efforts to assist Russia in eliminating SS-19 and SS-25 ICBMs and their launchers, and in completing the dismantlement of Russian Delta-III and Typhoon submarines. These are partnership programs, with the United States responsible for some of the dismantlement activities, and Russia responsible for others. (56)
In Ukraine, the United States and Ukraine have been working on a method to eliminate rocket motors from SS-24 ICBMs. DOD did not request any more funding for this project area in FY2006 and, at that time, planned to complete ongoing work with prior year funds, because the two nations could not agree on a method to eliminate these rocket motors. However, a low level of funding has resumed in recent years, with $1 million requested for FY2015, as the United States now funds the safe storage of 160 rocket motors from SS-24 missiles and plans to buy the casings from Ukraine after Ukraine has removed the propellant. Ukraine has been financing, on its own, the construction and operation of a water washout facility for this purpose. The United States has purchased the empty motor cases, and has helped Ukraine begin construction of an elimination facility for them. According to recent reports, the facility opened in late May 2013. (57) According to DOD, the United States will help Ukraine maintain this facility, but will cease its support after the last of the motors has been washed-out and eliminated.
Over the past decade, Congress routinely appropriated $50 million-$70 million per year for strategic offensive arms elimination. In recent years, the Obama Administration requested, and Congress appropriated, $60 million-$70 million per year. The Obama Administration requested $23.3 million for this project area in FY2013. This amount included funding for both strategic offensive arms elimination activities in Russia and those in Ukraine. The Administration requested $10 million for this project area in FY2014, noting that the amount of funding needed in this program area had declined sharply because most elimination activities necessitated by the New START Treaty were complete.
Because these programs were governed by the MOU that expired in June 2013, they ceased operations in June 2013. As a result, in its version of the FY2014 Defense Authorization Bill (S. 1197, [section]1302), the Senate Armed Services Committee reduced funding for this program area to $5.7 million. The committee noted in its report that it would transfer $75 million from programs that will end in Russia "to CTR nonproliferation efforts in the Middle East, particularly related to Syrian chemical weapons." (58)
Table 1 summarizes the amount of funding appropriated by Congress for strategic offensive arms elimination projects.
Global Nuclear Security
DOD altered the structure of its CTR program areas in the FY2012 budget, creating a new program area, Global Nuclear Security. This combined the program areas that had funded the secure transport of nuclear warheads and other qualifying nuclear material to secure storage facilities and dismantlement facilities, security enhancements for storage areas for nuclear warheads, weapons-usable nuclear material, and efforts to establish Centers of Excellence with partner countries to enhance training for nuclear security, material control, and inventory management. According to DOD, this program supports not only efforts to secure nuclear weapons and materials in the former Soviet states, but also "new initiatives to secure nuclear materials across the globe."
When funded separately in FY2011, Congress appropriated $164.5 million for the programs captured by GNS. In FY2012, this funding declined to $151 million. The Obama Administration requested $72.3 million for FY2013 and $86.5 million for FY2014. The budget documents did not provide details on how the money would be divided among the constituent programs. However, it is likely that the focus of these programs is shifting to nations outside the former Soviet Union, given the Administration's added emphasis on global cooperation and the completion of many projects in Russia. In addition, many of the projects funded concluded in mid-2013, as a result of the expiration of the MOU with Russia. As a result, Congress appropriated only $$19.4 million for this program area in FY2014.
DOD has requested $20.7 million for this program area in the CTR budget for FY2015. Within this total, $3 million is allocated to projects in Russia. One is designed to transport highly enriched spent nuclear reactor fuel to safe storage or to a facility that will bled it down into a lower-enriched product. The other is a project that will provide Russia with assistance in dismantling the launch tubes and reactor on a ballistic missile submarine. Most of the remaining funds in this program area will support the nuclear security centers of excellence; provide equipment and training for partner countries to secure vulnerable nuclear material; and provide equipment and training to enhance nuclear security capabilities of partner countries to perform key security functions such as secure transportation, inventory management, and emergency response.
When the Soviet Union collapsed in late 1991, thousands of nuclear weapons were spread among four states (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan), and, within each state, the weapons were dispersed among hundreds of deployment and storage areas. The governments in these states agreed to remove the nuclear warheads from non-Russian republics and to store them in a smaller number of facilities in Russia. The United States has helped Russia improve the safety and security of nuclear weapons in transit after they have been removed from deployment.
In its early years, the program provided armored blankets to protect warheads in transit from potential attacks, storage containers to hold the warheads during transit, and assistance to enhance the safety and security of rail cars used to transport warheads from deployment to storage or dismantlement facilities. Transportation security projects also provided Russia with emergency response vehicles, training, and support equipment that it might need to respond to a nuclear weapons transportation accident. The funding for these programs, through 2012 when they were aggregated in the GNS program area, appears on Table 2.
According to DOD's budget request for FY2014, the United States has, in recent years, supported the transportation of "approximately 48 trainloads of deactivated nuclear warheads (1,000 to 1,500 warheads) from deployed locations to enhanced security storage sites or dismantlement and from storage to dismantlement facilities." According to DOD, remaining transportation security projects transitioned to the Russian Ministry of Defense in June 2013.
Nuclear Security Enhancements
Over the years, the CTR program has helped Russia improve security at storage facilities for strategic and tactical nuclear warheads, a program initially referred to as "Weapons Storage Security." DOD now refers to this program as "Nuclear Security Enhancements." Russia has three types of storage sites--operational sites, storage sites for weapons removed from deployment, and rail transfer points. The United States does not provide assistance at operational sites. Under the CTR program, DOD has enhanced security at both large "national stockpile storage sites" and smaller storage sites at Navy, Air Force, and Strategic Rocket Force (SRF) bases. (59) DOD provided perimeter fencing as a "quick fix" for vulnerable sites, and more comprehensive upgrades, including alarm systems and inventory control and management equipment to keep track of warheads in storage. The Department of Energy has also addressed security needs at rail transfer points that store warheads from the Russian Navy, and storage sites for warheads belonging to the Strategic Rocket Forces.
For several years, this effort was slowed by Russia's reluctance to provide the United States with information about the precise number of sites in need of security upgrades and its refusal to allow the United States access to sites to design appropriate upgrades. (60) The United States and Russia completed agreements in February 2003 that provided the United States with a degree of access to these sites so that U.S. personnel could begin to plan the installation of physical security upgrades. (61) In 2005, Presidents Bush and Putin pledged to accelerate work on weapons storage security. After Russia identified all the sites in need of upgrades, the United States agreed to provide assistance at 15 sites, 8 with funding from the CTR program and 7 with funding from the DOE nonproliferation budget. With the accelerated effort, both DOD and DOE reported that they completed the installation of security upgrades by the end of 2008. DOD then shifted funding towards sustainment activities, rather than further upgrades.
In a complementary effort, DOD is establishing a Security Assistance Training Center that will train Russian students to use and maintain the physical security upgrades that the CTR program provided at nuclear weapons storage sites. DOD has noted that this project will also serve as a model for the Nuclear Security Centers of Excellence discussed below. DOD is using funds appropriated prior to FY2011 for this Center, and has not requested additional funding since that time.
Between FY1995 and FY2011, before this program was combined with others in the GN S account, Congress appropriated around $840 million for weapons storage security. (62) Funding for this program peaked in FY2006, when the Bush Administration requested $74.1 million for weapons storage security, added $10 million more in a reprogramming from the strategic offensive arms elimination account, and requested an additional $44.5 million in the FY2006 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations package. This funding was intended to accelerate the program, in response to agreements that President Bush reached with Russia's President Putin. As Table 3 below indicates, funding has declined to $10 million-$20 million per year in recent years, after DOD completed many of the projects that had been accelerated earlier. In its FY2014 budget request for the CTR programs, DOD indicated that it would continue to help Russia "build capacity to sustain security at 18 nuclear weapons storage sites and 5 rail transfer points." However, this effort transitioned to the Russian Ministry of Defense in June 2013 after the MOU governing the CTR program expired.
Warhead Security and the Department of Energy
Through its International Materials Protection and Cooperation program, the Department of Energy has implemented programs that "secure nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials by upgrading security at nuclear sites, by consolidating these materials to sites where installation of enhanced security systems have already been completed...." (63) This effort is known as the Materials Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC&A). (64) Through this program, DOE installed security upgrades in two phases. First, it installed rapid upgrades that were designed to delay unauthorized access to the storage facilities. These could include the installation of hardened doors and windows, locks and keys to control access, perimeter fences, and moveable barriers at entry points. The second phase provided comprehensive upgrades that were tailored to meet the security needs at each individual facility. These could include monitoring and detection systems, the relocation of guard forces, the consolidation of materials, central alarm systems, and electronic access control systems.
The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) identified 105 nuclear sites, with 243 buildings, that needed assistance in improving their security systems. These include nuclear warhead and nuclear material storage sites run by the Russian Navy and nuclear warhead storage sites run by Russia's Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF) and 12th Main Directorate, the branch of Russia's Ministry of Defense responsible for warhead security and maintenance. The MPC&A program has also supported security enhancements at sites in Russia's nuclear weapons complex operated by Rosatom and civilian sites that store nuclear material in Russia; these two efforts are addressed below.
DOE provided assistance to Russia's Navy by improving security at 39 naval nuclear warhead storage sites and 11 nuclear fuel storage sites. These sites house approximately 60 metric tons of weapons-useable nuclear materials and 4,000 nuclear warheads. According to DOE, it had completed rapid and comprehensive upgrades at all naval nuclear fuel storage sites by the end of 2004, and had completed the comprehensive upgrades at warhead sites by 2009. DOE continued to work at these sites through June 2013, providing assistance with sustainability support. This included training and site level maintenance on the equipment at the sites, so that the security will remain in place in the future.
DOE also worked with Russia to install security upgrades at 25 sites on 11 SRF bases; work on these sites was completed in late October 2007, nearly two years ahead of schedule. (65) Through these projects, DOE also upgraded security at nine sites under the command of the 12th Main Directorate. DOE completed the work on upgrades at these sites in FY2009. According to DOE, the process for working at these sites was based on the process agreed with Russia's Navy, with the installation of rapid upgrades to address immediate security concerns followed by the installation of comprehensive upgrades. As with the naval sites, DOE supported sustainment activities at these facilities through June 2013.
Congress appropriated $367.6 million for security upgrades at Russian Navy sites and $675 million for security upgrades at SRF sites between FY2002 and FY2012. Funding for the naval sites declined in the mid-2000s, after much of the work was completed, but, as Table 3 below indicates, it increased towards the end of the decade in support of the sustainment activities. The Obama Administration requested $39.9 million in FY2013 to support sustainability and training programs and the replacement of outdated equipment at eight sites. Funding for the SRF sites peaked at $152.8 million in FY2007, in response to the agreement between President Bush and President Putin to accelerate security upgrades at warhead storage facilities. It then declined to $34.4 million in FY2009. The decline reflects the completion of most of the work on upgrades and a shift to sustainment.
As with the budget for naval sites, the budget for SRF sites increased in FY2010-FY2012 to support the expanded sustainment program and training programs at 23 SRF sites and 3 sites of the 12th Main Directorate. The Obama Administration requested only $8.3 million for these projects in FY2013, but funding remained at the FY2012 level of $59.5 million under the Consolidated Further Appropriations Act, 2013 (P.L. 113-6). The decline in requested funding reflected the completion of most of the security efforts and a shift to sustainment programs. The Administration planned to use this funding to support three training and maintenance centers and to replace outdated security equipment at up to 11 sites.
In its FY2014 budget request, DOE combined the funding for these two program areas in a new category called "Nuclear Warhead Protection." The budget requested $23.2 million for FY2014 to provide training and workshops and to continue upgrades and sustainability initiatives. The decline in funding in recent years reflected the completion of most of the security projects and a shift to sustainment efforts. DOE has not requested any additional funding for this project area in FY2015 because Russia's MOD will no longer participate in threat reduction activities.
Securing and Eliminating Nuclear Materials
CTR Fissile Materials Storage
According to unclassified estimates, Russia inherited more than 30,000 nuclear warheads from the Soviet Union. Russia is dismantling thousands of these warheads and DOD's CTR program has provided Russia with assistance in improving the long-term security of the fissile materials removed from these weapons. The program helped Russia design and build a highly secure storage facility at Mayak that is intended to provide long-term safe and secure storage for these materials, and it has provided Russia with more than 26,000 containers to hold the fissile materials. This facility is designed to hold the equivalent of fissile material from 25,000 nuclear warheads. The first wing of this building was completed and certified for use in December 2003 (66) and the facility began to accept nuclear materials for storage in July 2006.
DOE Nuclear Materials Security Programs
Russia also inherited enough plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) for possible use in thousands more warheads. DOE has helped Russia improve security at sites that house considerably more than half of the former Soviet Union's 600 metric tons of weapons-usable nuclear materials. (67) These include 11 sites that are a part of the Rosatom weapons complex and 31 civilian sites. Rosatom, like the Department of Energy in the United States, operates and manages Russia's nuclear weapons complex. More than 80% of these materials are located at the Rosatom sites. (68) As was the case at naval sites and SRF sites, DOE installed security upgrades in two phases at these sites.
The facilities managed by Rosatom house around 500 metric tons of "highly attractive" weapons-useable materials. (69) The pace of work at these facilities accelerated, during the past decade, with increased funding and increased cooperation from Russia. DOE has also assisted with the installation of security upgrades at 18 civilian nuclear sites throughout the former Soviet Union. These are mainly research facilities that operate nuclear reactors. According to DOE, these sites contain around 40 metric tons of weapons-useable materials. DOE had stated that it has completed rapid and comprehensive upgrades at most of these facilities.
Congress appropriated more than $765 million for security upgrades at Rosatom sites and $447 million for security upgrades at civilian sites between FY2002 and FY2012. Table 5, below, shows the amount of funds appropriated since FY2007 and the amount requested in FY2015 for these two programs. The Administration has requested $$17.1 million for the Rosatom sites in FY2014, which represents a reduction of nearly 55% from the amount appropriated in FY2014. According to DOE, this funding will support the completion of comprehensive MPC&A upgrades at additional buildings that store and process weapons-usable nuclear materials and allow it to continue to implement a comprehensive sustainability effort at five Russian sites. The reduction in funding from FY2014 is due to the completion of sustainability efforts at two sites in the
Russian weapons complex and completed upgrades work in Belarus and sustainability activities in Kazakhstan.
The Obama Administration did not request any additional funds for the civilian sites program in FY2014 and FY2015, as it now considers the work to be a part of the Materials Consolidation and Civilian Sites program area.
Material Consolidation and Conversion
DOE's Materials Consolidation and Conversion Program supports efforts to consolidate Russian nuclear materials at sites where installation of enhanced security systems have already been completed. It has also funded efforts to convert these materials to forms that might be less attractive to nations seeking materials for nuclear weapons. Congress appropriated $243.4 million for this program area between FY2002 and FY2012. The Obama Administration requested an additional $17 million in FY2013.
In FY2014, DOE combined this program with MPC&A efforts at civilian sites program in a new Materials Consolidation and Civilian Sites program. It requested $132.3 million for this new, combined program in FY2014. This represents a significant increase of $58.9 million from the combined level of around $73 million in FY2013. It also requested $138.5 million in FY2014. In its budget request, DOE noted that it had combined the programs to reflect better how they were managed within DOE. According to the budget request, the added funding will allow DOE to expand the scope of its efforts in Russia and to support MPC&A activities with countries of concern outside Russia. The increase in funding will also allow DOE to provide additional support projects in former Soviet states outside Russia.
National Programs and Sustainability
The MPC&A budget has also supported an effort to build an infrastructure within Russia that can operate effectively and be sustained after the initial and comprehensive upgrades are complete. These efforts include developing regulations, inspection capabilities, site safeguards, security programs, and other accounting capabilities. The program operates regional technical support facilities that can repair and maintain equipment and develop training programs for participants.
Congress appropriated $586.7 million for this program area between FY2002 and FY2012. The Administration requested, and Congress appropriated $37.8 million for this program area for FY2014. The Administration has also requested $32.3 million for FY2015. According to DOE, this funding will support projects that develop the necessary training and maintenance infrastructure for sustaining long-term MPC&A operations in Russia and other countries.
Nuclear Security Centers of Excellence
The DOD CTR program, DOE International Material Protection and Cooperation (IMPC) program, and the State Department are coordinating efforts to help establish Nuclear Security Centers of Excellence (COEs) around the world. This initiative was part of the commitments made by several countries at the 2010, 2012, and 2014 Nuclear Security Summits. These centers are designed to enhance a country's ability to train personnel, consistent with "international best practices, for nuclear security, material control, inventory management, transport security, and other activities important to improving nuclear material security." (70) DOE has provided technical support to Nuclear Security Centers of Excellence in Japan and South Korea. The United States is also supporting the establishment of the Center of Excellence on Nuclear Security in Beijing, China, and nuclear security engagement with India, "with the goal of developing a partnership through India's planned Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership." (71) Both of these countries had not previously engaged in bilateral nuclear security efforts with the United States. Current activities emphasize nuclear material security best practices through workshops and training.
No specific funding amounts were provided in FY2015 congressional budget documents. However, Congress in the past has requested additional information on these programs and limited funding amounts. Section 1304 of the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act limits the use of FY2012 DOD CTR funds for Centers of Excellence in non-former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. Not more than $500,000 may be obligated or expended in establishing such Centers in non-FSU countries until Congress receives a report on the location, purpose, and funding plan for the center. This limitation was renewed for FY2013, but not FY2014. The DOD Global Nuclear Security request totaled was $20.7 million for FY2015. The DOE request for the IMPC program, of which COE work is a part, was $138,6 million, but agency budget requests do not provide specific funding estimates for the COEs within those larger programs.
Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)
Since it was established in 2004, DOE/NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has worked to secure, protect, and in some cases, remove vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials at civilian facilities worldwide. The United States established this program primarily to address the threat of terrorists obtaining nuclear material that could be used in a nuclear or radiological device.
Research reactors all over the world have used weapons-usable nuclear material for fuel as a legacy of U.S. and Soviet technology transfers from the Cold War era. GTRI repatriates U.S. and Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent and fresh nuclear fuel from these research reactors located in third countries. In some cases, the United States converts those reactors to operate with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, which is not useful for a nuclear weapon. In addition, GTRI installs physical security upgrades at nuclear and radiological sites, and recovers disused and unwanted radioactive sources at home and abroad.
The GTRI budget increased from a request of $131.2 million in FY2008 to $424 million in FY2014, before declining to a request of $333.8 million for FY2015. The early increases were partly due to congressional support for the program, agreements from other countries on material removal and reactor conversion, and high-level emphasis on this work by the Bush Administration's Bratislava Initiatives--which sped up work with the Russians--and the Obama Administration's global nuclear security agenda--which spurred more countries to remove and secure material. Overall, the FY2015 request, like the FY2014 request, represents a decrease in funding. Within that budget, funding for conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU)-fueled reactors saw a proposed decrease in the FY2015 request to develop fuel for medical isotope production without the use of HEU. The "Nuclear and Radiological Material Removal" and "Nuclear and Radiological Material Protection" subprograms also saw decreases from the FY2013 levels, although in FY2014 these programs were organized differently than in previous years, divided into domestic and foreign work. The FY2015 request returns to the original formulation of protection or removal. The Administration has explained the program decrease by saying that the program is accomplishing its goals, and therefore there is less material to be removed. Critics view the decrease as a sign that the Administration is giving this program a lower priority. Other critics urge additional funds be given for radiological security projects in the United States. International donors have contributed to GTRI activities in the past.
According to the Department of Energy, GTRI accomplishments since May 2004 include the following: (72)
* Successfully converted to LEU fuel or verified the shutdown of 49 HEU research reactors in 25 countries, including Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Libya, the Netherlands, Portugal, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam; and verified the cessation of the use of HEU targets for isotope production in Indonesia.
* Accelerated the establishment of a reliable supply of the medical isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) produced without HEU by establishing partnerships with South Africa, Belgium, and the Netherlands to convert Mo-99 production from HEU targets to LEU targets, and with four domestic commercial entities to produce Mo-99 in the United States with non-HEU technologies;
* Removal of 4,100 kg of highly enriched uranium and plutonium.
* Complete removal of HEU from 23 countries: Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, Latvia, Libya, Mexico, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Ukraine.
* Recovery of more than 32,000 disused and unwanted radiological sources domestically; and
* Recovery of more than 750 radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) internationally.
Securing Borders and Improving Export Controls
Preventing the smuggling or illegal export of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons-related materials and technology is a key proliferation challenge. Several U.S. threat reduction and nonproliferation programs seek to strengthen border controls and improve export control systems. Originally, such programs were established in response to concerns over the collapse of political control along the Soviet-era borders. Today, the Departments of State, Defense, Energy, and Homeland Security all manage cooperative programs with countries worldwide to prevent the illicit transfer of WMD technology.
Export Control and Related Border Security Assistance
The State Department's Export Control and Related Border Security Assistance (EXBS) program helps nations improve their ability to interdict nuclear smuggling and stop the illicit trafficking of all materials for weapons of mass destruction, along with dual use goods and technologies. According to the State Department, the program "builds capacity to ensure that transfer authorizations support only legitimate trade, and to detect and interdict illicit transfers at borders." (73)
When designing a nation-specific plan for border control assistance, the United States seeks to address four key areas. First, if needed, it helps the recipient nation establish the legal and regulatory basis for effective export controls. It then helps the nation develop appropriate export licensing procedures and practices. Third, the United States helps the recipient establish and enhance effective enforcement capabilities. When needed, it provides the recipient with detection and interdiction equipment and training. Finally, the United States helps establish procedures that promote effective interaction between government and industry so that business entities in the recipient nation will abide by the laws and regulations of the new export control regime.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, most of the funding for the EXBS program went to projects along the periphery of the former Soviet Union. However, in the past decade, this pattern has changed as the EXBS program has expanded its reach around the globe. (74) For example, in FY2005, approximately half of the $38 million spent on EXBS was allocated to projects in the former Soviet states, with the rest going to other nations around the world. By FY2010, when the Obama Administration requested $55 million for EXBS, less than $4 million was allocated to projects in the former Soviet Union. The same is true of the budget for FY2011 and FY2012; the State Department requested $61 million in each year, but allocated only a fraction to the former Soviet Union. The FY2013 budget request sought $55 million for EXBS, but the continuing resolution held the funding at the FY2012 level of $60.1 million. The Obama Administration has sought $54 million for FY2014 and $57 million for FY2015.
Nuclear Smuggling Outreach Initiative (NSOI)
The Nuclear Smuggling Outreach Initiative is a State Department-led initiative meant to strengthen a country's capacity to detect, interdict, and prosecute any nuclear trafficking incidents. This program had originally focused primarily on the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, but its partner countries now include a wide range of states, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Algeria, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Afghanistan. (75) The NSOI also partners with other donor countries and organizations, including Canada, the Czech Republic, the European Union, Finland, France, Germany, International Atomic Energy Agency, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, South Korea, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime. This program is funded through the State Department's WMD Terrorism program, which manages projects that are designed "to improve international capacities to prepare for and respond to a terrorist attack involving weapons of mass destruction." The Obama Administration has requested $5 million for the WMD Terrorism program area for FY2013 and FY2014, and $4.8 million for FY2015. This includes funding for NSOI and a related activity, the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.
In 2003, the Bush Administration added a border security effort to DOD's CTR program. Through the Proliferation Prevention Program, the United States has cooperated with the military establishments, internal security forces, border guards, and custom forces in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Moldova to improve their border controls, with a focus on the Black Sea region. DOD also helped Ukraine establish a comprehensive WMD monitoring and interdiction capability along its border with Moldova. CTR completed the radiation portal monitoring program in Uzbekistan in 2008. The program also assisted Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan to develop a comprehensive capability for WMD surveillance and interdiction along their Caspian Sea borders.
These programs are intended to help these nations deter, detect, and interrupt the unauthorized movement of weapons or related materials across their borders. While the original focus was non-Russian FSU states, the program began in FY2012 to partner with countries in Southeast Asia, along the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea. In FY2013, the Proliferation Prevention program began to work with states in the Middle East by training and equipping border security staff in Jordan, Iraq, Turkey, and other countries. DOD plans to continue to work with these countries in FY2014 to prevent proliferation of WMD across borders shared with Syria. In addition, Secretary Hagel told the Senate Armed Services Committee at a hearing on April 17, 2013, that approximately $70 million was being spent on projects in Jordan to prevent the transfer of weapons of mass destruction across its 256-kilometer border with Syria.
The George W. Bush Administration requested, and Congress appropriated between $40 million and $60 million for this program each year through FY2009. In addition, in FY2008, Congress added $10 million to the Administration's request, which the Bush Administration used to expand the reach of the Proliferation Prevention Program to nations outside the former Soviet Union. As a result of this expansion, the budget for the WMD proliferation prevention program grew to between $80 million and $120 million per year in recent years. Funding for the Proliferation Prevention Program decreased to $87.3 million in FY2013, but increased to $110.4 million in FY2014, in part to support the project in Jordan mentioned above. With the completion of this project, the request for FY2015 has declined again, to $40.7 million.
Second Line of Defense
The Second Line of Defense (SLD) program seeks to improve nuclear smuggling detection capabilities at international borders. This program has two parts, the Second Line of Defense Core Program and the Megaports Program. While the SLD Core program began with projects at the borders of the former Soviet Union, both of these programs now work with partner countries around the world, at the invitation of the partner country.
Under the SLD Core program, DOE places detection equipment at ports of entry, international border crossings, and other designated points of entry and exit, to detect illicit transport of nuclear materials at international borders. After installation, DOE works with the country on sustainability, then, ultimately, transfers responsibility for upkeep to the host country. SLD "strengthens the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system." It also helps train law enforcement officials in the use of the equipment installed at borders. According to DOE, the SLD Core program has signed agreements with 24 countries under which it will provide fixed and mobile radiation detection systems at borders. By the beginning of 2013, it had "completed over 449 priority sites and deployed 34 mobile systems to 11 countries." (76)
In FY2004, Congress added $28 million to the Second Line of Defense program for a project known as the Megaports initiative. This project is developing and deploying radiation detectors for use at the largest foreign seaports that handle about 70% of the container traffic headed for the United States. (77) Megaports is designed "to detect the trafficking of nuclear or radioactive materials in the world's busiest seaports." According to DOE, the Megaports Initiative has signed agreements with 35 partner countries.
DOE conducted a strategic review of the SLD program in FY2013 to determine the most effective approach to closing key gaps in the global nuclear detection architecture and to increase the impact of detection and deterrence using fixed and mobile deployments. According to DOE, the review recommended a plan to address remaining fixed detection gaps, expand mobile detection, and fully fund sustainability. The review also resulted in the reorganization of SLD Core and Megaports Programs under a joint implementation program and sustainability effort funded in one SLD subprogram.
The funding appropriated for the SLD Core Program and Megaports appears in Table 7. The funding requested for these two programs declined from $271 million in FY2013 to $190 million in FY2014. The request declines again in FY2015, to $117.7 million. According to DOE, the decline in funding between FY2014 and FY2015 is due to both a one-time funding increase in FY2014 to support a key detection program and adjustments that were made in FY2015 due to the need to fund higher NNSA priorities.
Container Security Initiative and Secure Freight Initiative
Two overarching Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiatives, the Container Security Initiative and the Secure Freight Initiative, work to increase the likelihood that nuclear material or a nuclear weapon would be identified and interdicted during shipping. DHS works closely with the DOE Megaports Initiative.
The Department of Homeland Security Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) implements the Container Security Initiative (CSI), which works with foreign customs authorities "to target and examine U.S.-bound high-risk cargo while it is still at foreign ports." (78) CSI is operational in 58 ports worldwide, screening over 80% of the maritime cargo bound for the United States, according to the program's website. DHS funded this program at $81 million in FY2012 and $75 million in FY2013. It requested an additional $72 million for FY2014, but received only $67.5 million. It has requested an additional $69.2 million for FY2015.
The Secure Freight Initiative is jointly implemented with the Department of Energy. It gives additional capacity to select CSI ports. SFI installs detection and communications equipment at foreign seaports. DOE and DHS share the costs for this program. DHS installs communications infrastructure at the partner port that would transmit any alarm data to the United States, and cooperates with local authorities to resolve any alarms.
Chemical Weapons Destruction
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union amassed the largest stockpile of chemical weapons in the world. After becoming a party to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Russia declared that this stockpile contained 40,000 metric tons of chemical weapons. Russia has stored these weapons at seven sites--five sites contain nerve agents in bombs and artillery shells while three of these sites and two additional sites house bulk stocks of blister agents. (79) Under the CWC, Russia committed to eliminate the stocks by 2012, but it has not met that deadline and has contended that it lacks the financial resources to do so. (80) As a result, the international community has provided Russia with a significant amount of assistance in eliminating its chemical weapons. A European consortium, led by Germany, has constructed a destruction facility at Gorny to destroy the blister agent stored there. (81) Russia now plans to complete destruction by December 2015.
The United States, with funding provided by DOD's CTR program, assisted Russia with the design and construction of a chemical weapons destruction facility at Shchuch'ye until July 2013. The chemical weapons storage facility at Shchuch'ye contains nearly half of Russia's stockpile of artillery shells filled with nerve agent. (82) The CTR-financed destruction facility is intended to destroy these stocks and those stored at the other four storage sites, an amount estimated to be around 5,450 metric tons.
The majority of DOD's roughly $1 billion in Russian chemical weapons destruction CTR funding has supported the design and construction of the destruction facility at Shchuch'ye, as well as the installation of equipment and training of operating personnel at the facility. Construction on the Shchuch'ye facility began in March 2003. The United States and Russia had hoped that construction would be completed and the facility would begin operations by the end of 2008. Because it would then take around 3.5 years to destroy the stocks of nerve agent, this schedule would have allowed Russia to meet the 2012 deadline. This schedule slipped, however, and the process has been slower than planned. The facility began operations in March 2009.
Although major construction projects have been completed in recent years, DOD requested funding for "technical and procurement advice and assistance support" at Shchuch'ye until July 2013. The CTR program also provided technical support and design advice to Russia's chemical weapons destruction facility at Kizner. This facility began operations in late 2013 and will destroy 5,645 metric tons of nerve agent. The FY2015 budget request does not ask for any funds for chemical weapons destruction technical support in Russia.
In addition, the CTR program has helped Albania destroy all its chemical weapons stocks and is now assisting the government of Libya with the elimination of legacy chemical weapons and agents from the Qadhafi era. According to the FY2015 budget estimate, CTR is "providing safety and security improvements to the Ruwagha Chemical Weapons Storage Facility in the form of physical upgrades, and ongoing destruction operations." The CTR program partners with the German government on these efforts.
The most significant new activity for the CWD program in FY2014 was preparations for the destruction of Syrian chemical weapons and in-kind assistance to international inspectors. The largest contribution to the international effort has come from the DOD CTR program. On April 8, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Rebecca K.C. Hersman said that the CTR program had allocated $160 million to support the CW elimination effort. Since the bulk of this funding was spent preparing the MV Cape Ray and equipping inspectors, the budget request for FY2015 is less than what was spent this past year--$15.7 million for technical expertise and resources to support the U.N.-OPCW Joint Mission in FY2015, as well as continuing efforts in Libya. According to DOD, the decrease compared to FY2014 is due to the expiration of the Umbrella Agreement, which means there is no longer any cooperation between the U.S. and Russia on chemical weapons destruction activities. The bulk of spending that is expected for efforts in Syria was paid for in FY2013 and FY2014.
Cooperative Biological Engagement
The DOD CTR biological threat reduction program has evolved over the past 20 years. It has expanded financially, growing from less than 10% of the CTR budget in the late 1990s to over 60% in the FY2015 budget request. It also has expanded geographically. It began as a program focused on dismantling the vast biological weapons complex that Russia inherited from the Soviet Union, but has now become a tool that the United States uses to promote "best practices" in physical security and safety at biological laboratories with dangerous pathogens, and to develop disease surveillance systems on several continents, particularly Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The name has also changed, from Biological Threat Reduction (BTR) to Cooperative Biological Engagement (CBE), to reflect the sensitivity of new partner countries to being termed a "threat." The Department of State also funds bio-security programs, managing those that address scientist training, best practices, and industry partnerships under the Global Threat Reduction's Biosecurity Engagement Program (see "Securing Knowledge and Expertise" section, below). Congress has also been concerned about measuring the effectiveness of these programs in reducing threats. Section 1303 of the FY2012 NDAA set a limitation on funds for the Cooperative Biological Engagement (CBE) Program--"not more than 80 percent may be obligated or expended"--until certifications by the Secretary of Defense are sent to Congress regarding the effectiveness of the CBE program.
The shift in CTR's biological weapons programs mirrors a similar shift in focus for CTR programs overall, from a focus on threat reduction in the former Soviet Union to the prevention of WMD terrorism from any source world-wide. The Obama Administration has stated that the goal of the CBE program is to counter the "threat of state and non-state actors acquiring biological materials and expertise that could be used to develop or deploy a biological weapon." The program does this by destroying or securing biological agents ("Select Agents") at their source and building the capacity to detect, diagnose, and report a disease outbreak. (83) The 2009 National Strategy for Combating Biological Threats emphasized the need for global health security and best practices. As a result, DOD's CTR program works with several federal agencies, other donor countries, international organizations, and the private sector to implement this approach.
Biological Threat Reduction (BTR) in Russia
Since CTR's inception, Congress and the executive branch have sought to address the challenges posed by the potential proliferation of biological weapons and materials from Russia. (84) This was a particular concern because the Soviet Union reportedly developed the world's largest biological weapons program, employing, at its peak, an estimated 60,000 people at more than 50 sites. This weapons complex developed a broad range of biological pathogens for use against plants, animals, and humans. (85) Russia reportedly continued to pursue research and development of biological agents into the 1990s, even as the security systems and supporting infrastructure at its facilities began to deteriorate. The United States began to provide Russia with CTR assistance to improve safety and security at its biological weapons sites and to help employ biological weapons scientists during the late 1990s, even though Russia had not provided a complete inventory of the sites or people involved in biological weapons work. (86) The problem was aggravated by the fact that Russia reduced the size of its complex in the mid-1990s, leaving many scientists potentially unemployed or underemployed. Biological pathogens are easily transported, further increasing the proliferation risk. (87)
The CTR program supported four separate BTR programs in Russia, working at dozens of sites that include many weapons facilities: the Biological Weapons Infrastructure Elimination program, the Biosecurity and Biosafety program, the BW Threat Agent Detection and Response program, and Cooperative Biodefense Research. DOD has funded physical security upgrades at a small number of facilities. Russia has not agreed to allow access or joint work at several key military biological facilities, which has limited the scope of these programs. Many projects, such as cooperative biodefense research, have been implemented through the International Science and Technology Centers (ISTC), because DOD had been unable to conclude implementing agreements with the relevant ministries in Russia. (88) The Russian government has closed the Moscow ISTC, so no new projects in Russia are now planned through that mechanism.
The FY2014 CTR budget request says that "activities are limited in Russia and Uzbekistan due to both countries' reluctance to cooperate with the DoD Cooperative Biological Engagement (CBE) Program." This appears to still be a priority for the Obama Administration, and officials have said they will continue to make attempts to cooperate on these issues, particularly through the Russian Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health. The CTR program is planning to spend $2.4 million in FY2015 on CBE programs in Russia.
Central Asia and the Caucuses
The non-Russian states of the former Soviet Union have been willing partners in dismantling the Soviet biological weapons legacy and securing pathogen collections and laboratories. Facilities in these countries were abandoned by the Russian military when the republics became independent states, and in many cases local governments were not aware of their existence or the dangers they housed.
Of particular note, over time the United States learned of dangerous pathogen collections dispersed throughout the region as part of the Soviet Anti-Plague System consisting of institutes in 11 republics. A decade after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, these facilities lacked security and safety measures, they had lost expert staff due to economic conditions, and many were in a state of disrepair. The United States accelerated its assistance to these facilities starting in the late 1990s. The CTR Biological Threat Reduction program (now CBE) has supported activities in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Armenia, and Kazakhstan, where the Soviet Union housed much of its biological weapons production complex. For example, CTR funding helped destroy the large-scale biological weapons production facility in Stepnogorsk, Kazakhstan, and assisted in decontaminating the open-air BW testing site at Vozrozhdeniye Island in the Aral Sea, Uzbekistan.
The CTR program has built a secure Central Reference Laboratories (CRL) for pathogen collections in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, and is constructing a CRL in Azerbaijan. Currently, the CTR program has completed upgrades at 39 "Secured Labs" in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. DOD continues to support upgrades and training at these facilities. (89)
CTR will continue to work in this region to improve security and disease surveillance. Central Asia is a region that experiences natural disease outbreaks, such as plague, brucellosis, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, as well as zoonotic diseases. As many of the scientists from the Soviet era retire, a new generation of experts will need to step up to manage the public health and biosecurity programs in these states, which have limited resources. In addition, the region around the former Soviet Union has experienced an increase in militant Islamic groups, raising concerns about terrorist access to biological pathogens at facilities in the FSU.
According to the FY2015 DOD CTR budget request, DOD plans to continue bio-engagement efforts in the former Soviet Union as follows (FY2015 funds executed over three years, a breakdown of budget numbers by region is not given).
In the biosafety and biosecurity field:
* continue biosafety and security (BS&S) upgrades to human and veterinary laboratories in Armenia and Ukraine;
* complete construction of the CRL in Kazakhstan;
* continue oversight on construction of CRL in Azerbaijan and installation of BS&S systems and equipment;
* continue the development and implementation of BS&S Standard Operating Procedures across the region; and
* continue the provision of Biorisk Management training in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.
In the field of disease surveillance:
* continue human and veterinary training in epidemiology, laboratory management, and disease diagnosis in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine;
* continue research activities in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine;
* continue support for security upgrades at laboratories in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine; and
* complete Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) implementation, training and upgrades in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Kazakhstan.
Global Cooperative Biological Engagement (CBE)
DOD has also expanded the reach of its CBE program to Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East in recent years. While the majority of CBE partner countries are not and have never been biological weapons producers, they do maintain dangerous pathogen collections for study or have naturally occurring rare infectious or other diseases. Therefore, DOD CTR assesses security and safety at specific facilities; provides training to improve clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological safety and security for specific to dangerous pathogens; and helps countries build a disease surveillance system for early detection of an outbreak. U.S. officials have stressed that this is useful not only for public health reasons but to protect U.S. troops deployed overseas. CBE works with the State Department, USAID, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and U.S. Combatant Commands.
According to Defense Threat Reduction Agency Director Kenneth Myers:
The threat has changed. Because of our success in eliminating access to materials in the former Soviet Union, groups and states seeking WMD have shifted their attention to other geographic areas and potential WMD sources. We are evolving to address these threats and expanding our areas of cooperation to stay one step ahead. In most cases, our new partners have no WMD aspirations. But, pathogens for endemic diseases can be weaponized and are not constrained by geographic or political boundaries. Pathogens for deadly diseases like Ebola, Marburg, and Anthrax that have been used to make biological weapons are being safely secured as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program. (90)
According to the FY2014 DOD CTR budget request, DOD plans to initiate bio-engagement efforts in "select areas of Africa, Middle East, and Southeast Asia to include regional engagements." This is to include
* securing 12 Labs in Afghanistan, Armenia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Pakistan, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ukraine;
* beginning construction and equipment installation of secure pathogen repositories to include construction of the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) in Afghanistan;
* conducting facility-specific bio-risk assessments and providing bio-security and bio-safety upgrades as required;
* initiating projects in Africa, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, and other countries; and
* continuing to build an outbreak surveillance network in Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
Between FY1997 and FY2014, Congress appropriated to DOD around $2.1 billion for biological threat reduction projects, with large increases in the amount of both the request and the appropriation in recent years. Table 9 below displays the funding levels since FY2007. The increase in funding was largest between FY2007 and FY2008, when DOD planned to expand U.S. bio-safety and bio-security assistance at facilities in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Georgia. This request reflected growing concerns about the threat of biological weapons proliferation. But some believed this increase would not be sufficient. Senator Richard Lugar sought to add $100 million for the CTR program in FY2008, with the express purpose of expanding and accelerating biological weapons nonproliferation programs. (91) The Senate reduced this amount but still added $50 million to the program for FY2008.
The requests and authorizations for CBE funding grew steadily since FY2008, with a slight decrease in the FY2015 request. Some in Congress have expressed concern over whether DOD was the appropriate actor to be carrying out these tasks, and whether biological engagement was being pursued at the expense of other programs. The House Armed Services Committee, for example, in its report on the FY2010 Defense Authorization Bill (H.Rept. 111-166) called on DOD to continue its efforts to strengthen the biological threat reduction programs and to pursue more interagency coordination, but also "to maintain a strong focus on ... other threat reduction challenges, including preventing the proliferation of chemical and nuclear weapons and weapons-related materials, technologies, and expertise."
Securing Knowledge and Expertise
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many experts feared that scientists from Russia's nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs might sell their knowledge to other nations seeking these weapons. Many of the nuclear weapons scientists had worked in the Soviet Union's "closed" nuclear cities, where they had enjoyed relatively high salaries and prestige, but their jobs evaporated during Russia's economic and political crises in the early 1990s. Biological weapons scientists, who were employed at both military and civilian facilities, were left unemployed after the closing of many large BW facilities in the former Soviet republics, while those in Russia saw drastic budget cuts to civilian research science programs. Even those scientists who retained their jobs saw their incomes decline sharply as Russia was unable to pay their salaries for months at a time.
Both the State Department and the Department of Energy developed programs that were designed to reduce the risk that the weapons scientists would sell their knowledge to the highest bidder. For the first decade or more, these were through short-term grants that were meant to aid scientists into transitioning to civilian scientific research or the private sector. Today, this suite of programs is aimed at preventing terrorists from exploiting scientists, personnel, or materials to develop these weapons. Because of increased attention to the terrorism threat in the past decade, the programs have developed to emphasize "engagement"--shared best practices for physical and personnel security, safety, joint R&D, and exchange of information. The programs also now train not only scientists, but other lab personnel about international security standards and improve personnel reliability programs to address the "insider threat."
The State Department's Global Threat Reduction Program supports the international science centers (described below) and several separate scientist engagement programs: the Biosecurity Engagement Program, the Chemical Security Engagement Program, and the Partnership for Nuclear Security. In the past, these separate programs have worked primarily through the international science centers. These programs have focused on redirecting former weapons scientists to civilian work through grants or industry partnerships. For example, the State Department's Bio Industry Initiative (BII), which began in 2002, helped Russia reconfigure former BW-related facilities for peaceful research and production, such as work on vaccines, in partnership with U.S. biotech and pharmaceutical companies. (92) The current State Department Global Threat Reduction programs as well as the Department of Energy suite of scientist support programs now are focused on security training programs for scientists, and less on grants for scientific or commercial projects, although these types of projects are still funded through the science centers. In recent years, these programs have also shifted grant funding away from
Russia's nuclear scientists to biological and chemical weapons scientists and expanded assistance to scientists from other former Soviet states. The State and DOE programs have, at the same time, expanded beyond the borders of the former Soviet Union, with programs designed to engage scientists in Iraq and Libya in a more traditional CTR format for those countries' former weapon scientists; and in other countries such as Indonesia, Yemen, Egypt, and Pakistan emphasizing best practices and security training. The section below provides more detail about the evolution of these programs.
The Science Centers
In late 1992, the United States, Japan, the European Union, and Russia established the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) in Moscow. Several other former Soviet states joined the center during the 1990s, and other nations, including Norway and South Korea, added their financial support. In late 1993, the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Ukraine established the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU). Several former Soviet states have also joined this center, and Japan has joined to provide financial support. By early 2010, 39 countries were participating in the centers.
Since its inception, the ISTC has funded 2,702 proposals and awarded grants totaling $836.5 million, with the United States providing about $220 million of this total. The funds have supported the work of more than 70,000 former weapons scientists. However, support for the center in Russia has waned. (93) In August 2010, Russia's President Medvedev announced that Russia was withdrawing from participation in the center. Preparations to move the ISTC headquarters to Almaty, Kazakhstan, are underway. No current grants were canceled, but no new grants will be awarded in Russia. Work will continue with the other recipient countries. (94) The United States provides support through the ISTC to the Biological Weapons Redirection Program. (95) As was noted above, this program provides research grants to Russian biotechnology institutes to redirect scientists to commercial, agricultural, and public health projects. The State Department collaborates with several other U.S. agencies on this program. (96)
The STCU gives grants to scientists in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. While originally focused on just former weapon scientists, the STCU has broadened its eligibility requirements in recent years. Currently, at least 30%-50% of the work force assigned to projects that receive STCU funding must be former weapon scientists. This is partially because so much time has passed since the end of the Cold War, and a decreased number of current scientists have been involved in weapons-related projects.
Iraq and Libya Scientist Engagement Programs
Both Iraq and Libya experienced a dramatic change in government while also possessing nuclear and chemical weapons programs, and in the case of Iraq, biological weapons. According to the State Department the Iraq Scientist Engagement Program "engages Iraqi scientists, technicians, and engineers with WMD and weapons-applicable skills to promote Iraqi scientific and technological development." The Libya Scientist Engagement Program "supports the transition of former Libyan WMD scientists to civilian careers through technological partnerships." These programs provide "training, travel grants, research and development grants, and technical expertise" to redirect these people away from weapons work and towards peaceful, civilian pursuits. The United States spent a total of $31 million on both of these programs between FY2002 and FY2010. (97)
The Iraq Scientist Engagement program grew out of the U.S. effort to eliminate Iraq's WMD capabilities after the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003. At that time, State Department officials began mobilizing an effort to establish a science center in Iraq like those in the former Soviet Union to help "redirect" former WMD scientists in the country. The purpose was to both prevent the proliferation of expertise at a time of great instability, and to channel their technical expertise to reconstruction efforts. This center had great difficulty matching scientists to civilian work, and was phased out along with stipends for scientists.  As a result, in 2009, the State Department established the Iraqi Scientist Engagement Program. According to the State Department's FY2013 congressional budget justification, this program is working to train scientists and improve security at facilities that house potentially dangerous biological and chemical materials.
From 2004 to 2010, the State Department Global Threat Reduction program also managed a scientist redirection program in Libya, following Qaddafi's decision to rid the country of WMD. The Libya Scientist Engagement Program (LSEP) was to support the transition of former WMD scientists in Libya, especially from the Tajoura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC), to civilian work through technological partnerships. From 2004 to 2010, $8 million was spent on LSEP projects. The program paused during the civil war, but the State Department resumed its engagement with Libyan scientists, "with new projects prioritized by threat and coordinated with the new Libyan government and Libyan researchers." No funds were spent in FY2011; $240,281 were spent in FY2012; and approximately $484,000 was spent on the program in FY2013. According to the State Department, this allows the program to promote a nuclear security culture at TNRC and
enable work with public and animal health laboratories to improve Libyan biorisk management and bolster Libya's ability to detect and respond to intentional and naturally-occurring disease outbreaks caused by potential bioterrorism agents.
Department of Energy Programs
During the 1990s, the Department of Energy initiated programs to help retrain and redirect scientists and engineers who had worked in the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons enterprise. With these programs, DOE sought to stop the leakage of knowledge out of Russia's nuclear weapons complex to states or groups seeking their own nuclear weapons. The programs were designed to help Russia reduce the size of its nuclear weapons complex, by removing functions and equipment, and to create "sustainable non-weapons-related work" for scientists through technology projects that have "commercially-viable market opportunities." (99)
These programs have evolved over time, expanding beyond the borders of the former Soviet Union and beyond the nuclear enterprise to address concerns about scientists working with all types of CBRN materials. The name of the program has also changed numerous times over the years. DOE initially established two programs in the 1990s--the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) and the Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI)--to meet these objectives. In late 2003, the Bush Administration cancelled NCI, and DOE renamed its remaining program the Russian Transition Initiative. The name changed again in DOE's budget request for FY2006, to the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP). This change demonstrated that the program would begin to provide assistance to scientists outside the former Soviet Union. Then, in FY2013, to reflect the overall shift in emphasis away from assistance and towards global engagement, DOE renamed the program Global Security through Science Partnerships (GSSP). This section briefly reviews the history of these programs, and highlights some of the issues that have come up during their implementation.
Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention and the Nuclear Cities Initiative
The Department of Energy began to fund the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) Program in 1994. IPP matched U.S. weapons labs and U.S. industry with Russian weapons scientists and engineers in cooperative research projects with "high commercial potential." DOE hoped that the focus on commercialization would help make the projects self-sustaining in the long term. The IPP program received $35 million in the FY1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act, before its funding moved to the Department of Energy. This initial funding helped establish nearly 200 research projects by 1995.
The IPP Program was the subject of several critical GAO reports. (100) A study released in February 1999 noted that nearly half of the appropriated funds for IPP had been spent at the U.S. nuclear weapons labs and that, after subtracting the taxes, fees, and other charges removed by Russian officials, the Russian institutes had received only around one-third of the funds. The report also questioned DOE's oversight of the programs, noting that program officials did not always know how many scientists were receiving IPP funding. The report also noted that the projects had not yet produced any commercial successes. Congress responded to this criticism by reducing funding for the program and specifying that no more than 35% of the funds be spent at the U.S. labs. It also mandated that the United States negotiate agreements with Russia to ensure that funds provided under this program are not subject to taxes in Russia. Furthermore, it requested that the Secretary of Energy review IPP programs for their commercialization potential. A subsequent GAO report published in 2007 asserted that DOE had overstated the number of weapons scientists receiving support from this program by counting both weapons and nonweapons scientists in its totals and that it had overstated the number of long-term private sector jobs created as a result of this program. Further, DOE did not have an exit strategy for the program, or a way to "graduate" institutes once they were self-sustaining or no longer posed a proliferation threat. (101) Partially as a result of these criticisms, the program was reorganized, projects with commercialization potential were given greater priority, work in Russia over time became channeled primarily through the ISTC, and the program was broadened to a global level.
The Nuclear Cities Initiative (NCI), which began in 1999, was designed to bring commercial enterprises to Russia's closed nuclear cities, so that Russia could reduce the size of its weapons complex and scientists and engineers would not be tempted to sell their knowledge to nations seeking nuclear weapons. Throughout its brief history, Administration officials, Members of Congress, and others raised questions about the value and effectiveness of the NCI program. The program reportedly made limited progress in addressing the employment problems at Russia's closed nuclear cities. The NCI program received a total of nearly $87 million between FY1999 and FY2003, before it was absorbed into the Russian Transition Initiative.
Russian Transition Initiatives (RTI), Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and the Global Security for Science Engagement (GSSP) Programs
These programs were renamed the Russian Transition Initiatives--to reflect emphasis on commercial partnerships--and Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention--to reflect partnership with states outside the former Soviet Union--and then changed to the Global Security for Science Engagement (GSSP) program to reflect partnerships with civilian institutions The Bush Administration requested around $40 million per year for the RTI/GIPP program between in FY2005 and FY2006. In FY2006, the Bush Administration indicated that it planned to phase out the last of the NCI programs in Russia's closed cities.
The funding levels for the GIPP/GSSP programs have declined in recent years, from a level of around $40 million per year during the last years of the Bush Administration, to around $20 million per year at the beginning of the Obama Administration, to around $15 million per year in recent years. The Administration requested $13 million for FY2014, but no funds were appropriated. This decline has occurred as DOE has begun to shift resources from this program to nations outside the former Soviet Union. As some experts have noted, "the dramatically changed Russian economy creates a very different threat environment; for many former weapons scientists, the risk of desperation-driven proliferation that motivated the U.S. government to establish these programs is much less than it was before." (102)
At the same time, concerns have grown about scientists in other nations. In a review conducted in 2010, the Department of Energy determined the "WMD expertise proliferation threat" is not limited to the former Soviet Union or to scientists who were directly involved in weapons programs. As a result, in FY2013, DOE changed the name of the program to Global Security for Science Engagement (GSSP) and initiated a new a global effort, using a new model, to address the expertise proliferation threat. With this change, the program has increased its level of activity in non-Russian states of the former Soviet Union and continued activities in Iraq. DOE plans to engage these countries to build partnerships and share "collective responsibility for scientific best practices." (103)
In Iraq, GIPP/GSSP worked to engage "former WMD scientists, technicians and engineers ... on R&D projects to support global priorities including national security, energy efficiency, and the advancement of medical science." The program has engaged over 200 Iraqi scientists and engineers (60% of them were former WMD) in more than 30 R&D projects in areas such as public health, environment and water, food safety, and material science. The program expended approximately $7 million to engage Iraq scientists between FY2006 and FY2012.
The DOE FY2014 funding request asked for $13 million for the GSSP program. Congress did not appropriate any funds for this program in FY2014, and no funding was requested for FY2015. The NNSA FY015 budget request says that Global Security through Science Partnerships (GSSP) program was not established, but the "knowledge security curriculum and approaches developed for GSSP" will be incorporated into other existing programs.
Appendix A. Funding Requests, by Agency
Table A-1. Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Program ($ millions) FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 Program Estimate Request Strategic Offensive Arms $28.2 $14.8 $5.7 $1.0 Elimination Chemical Weapons $9.8 $69 $83 $15.7 Destruction Global Nuclear Security $151.1 $39.3 $19.4 $20.7 Cooperative Biological $229.5 $21 1 $260 $256.8 Engagement Proliferation Prevention $63.1 $87.3 $110.4 $40.7 Threat Reduction Engagement $2.5 $2.8 $1.5 $2.4 Other Assessments/ $24.0 $22 $20.4 $27.8 Administrative Support Total $508.2 $519.1 $500.5 365.1 Table A-2. Department of State Programs ($ millions) Program FY2012 FY2013 FY2013 Request Actual Nonproliferation and $30.0 $30.0 $27 Disarmament Fund Export Control and Border Related $61.0 $55.0 $55.6 Security (EXBS) Global Threat Reduction $69.0 $63.6 $64.5 Weapons of Mass Destruction $5.0 $5.0 $5.5 Terrorism (includes Nuclear Smuggling Outreach Initiative) Total $165.0 $153.6 $ 165.9 Program FY2014 FY2014 FY2015 Request Estimate Request Nonproliferation and $25.0 $30.0 $25.0 Disarmament Fund Export Control and Border Related $54.0 $64.0 $56.7 Security (EXBS) Global Threat Reduction $63.5 $77.4 $65.1 Weapons of Mass Destruction $5.0 $5.0 $4.8 Terrorism (includes Nuclear Smuggling Outreach Initiative) Total $147.5 $ 176.4 $151.6 Table A-3. Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs ($ millions) FY2013 FY2012 FY2013 Annualized Program Request CR International Nuclear Materials Protection and Cooperation Navy Complex $33.7 $39.9 $33.7 Strategic Rocket Forces/12th $59.1 $8.3 $59.1 Main Directorate Nuclear Warhead Protection na na na Weapons Material Protrection $80.7 $47.0 $81.2 Civilian Nuclear Sites $59.1 $60.1 $59.5 Material Consolidation and $14.3 $17.0 $14.4 Conversion Material Consolidation and na na na Civilian Sites National Infrastructure and $60.9 $46.2 $61.3 Sustainability Second Line of Defense $262.1 $92.6 $263.8 INMPC Total $569.9 $311.1 $573.0 Global Threat Reduction Initiative HEU Reactor Conversion $139.5 $161.0 $148.3 Nuclear and Radiological $221.1 $200.0 $200.0 Material Removal Nuclear and Radiological $ 137.4 $105.0 $140.1 Material Protection International Nuclear and na na na Radiological Material Removal and Protection Domestic Radiological Material Removal and Protection GTRI Total $498.0 $466.0 $488.4 Global Inititiatives for $14.9 $15.1 $15.1 Proliferation Prevention/ Global Security Through Science Partnerships FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 Program Request International Nuclear Materials Protection and Cooperation Navy Complex na na Strategic Rocket Forces/12th na na Main Directorate Nuclear Warhead Protection $23.2 $0 Weapons Material Protrection $36.4 $17.1 Civilian Nuclear Sites na na Material Consolidation and na na Conversion Material Consolidation and $132.3 $138.6 Civilian Sites National Infrastructure and $37.8 $32.3 Sustainability Second Line of Defense $190.0 $1 17.7 INMPC Total $419.7 $305.5 Global Threat Reduction Initiative HEU Reactor Conversion $162.0 $122.4 Nuclear and Radiological na $101.8 Material Removal Nuclear and Radiological na $109.3 Material Protection International Nuclear and $200.1 na Radiological Material Removal and Protection Domestic Radiological Material $80 na Removal and Protection GTRI Total $424.5 $333.5 Global Inititiatives for $0 $0 Proliferation Prevention/ Global Security Through Science Partnerships Table A-4. Department of Homeland Security Programs ($millions) Program FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2014 FY2015 Request Enacted Request International $81.3 $70.4 $72.3 $67.5 $69.2 Cargo Screening (CSI)
Appendix B. Major Provisions in Cooperative Threat Reduction Legislation
Table B-1. Title XIII, National Defense Authorization Acts FY2001-FY2013 Year Public Law Title XIII Notable Provisions No. Section FY2001 P.L. 106-398 1308 Annual reporting requirements FY2004 P.L. 108-136 1304 Limitation on BW Defense joint research until Secretary of Defense certifies facility not used for BW development and site is secure 1306 Temporary authority to waive CWD funding limitation 1308 Authority to use CTR funds outside the former Soviet Union in response to emerging threats and not to exceed $50 million FY2005 P.L. 108-375 1303 Extension of CWD funding waiver authority FY2006 P.L. 109-163 1303 Permanent Waiver of restrictions on use of funds in the FSU 1304 Report on impediments to CTR required FY2007 P.L. 109-364 1303 Extension of CWD funding waiver authority 1304 NAS Study commissioned FY2008 P.L. 110-181 1303 Specification of use of funds for programs outside the FSU 1304 Repeal of restrictions on assistance to states of the former Soviet Union for Cooperative Threat Reduction 1305 Authorization for use of funds outside the FSU (removal of funding limit), Secretary of Defense determination with concurrence of Secretary of State 1306 Sense of Congress on new initiatives for CTR: continue work in Russia and the FSU; expand to Asia and the Middle East, DPRK; NAS study; Secretary of Defense report on new CTR initiatives 1307 Reporting requirement on Shchuch'ye, Russia CWD facility 1308 NAS Study on Prevention of Proliferation of Biological Weapons FY2010 P.L. 111-84 1303 Terms for accepting contributions to CTR programs from foreign government, international organizations or any entity 1304 Report on CTR Metrics by Secretary of Defense and NAS 1305 CTR Authority for urgent threat reduction activities: determination by Secretaries of Defense and State; notification to Congress FY2011 P.L. 111-383 1303 Limitation on use of FY11 CTR funds for Centers of Excellence in non-FSU countries-not more than $500,000 until report to Congress on purpose, funding plan for center 1304 Secretaries of Defense and Energy joint plan on nonproliferation and CTR activities with the P.R. China FY11-16 FY2012 P.L. 112-81 1303 Limitation on Availability of Funds for Cooperative Biological Engagement Program to 80% of appropriation until certifications sent to Congress 1304 Limitation on use of FY12 CTR funds for Centers of Excellence in non-FSU countries-not more than $500,000 until report to Congress on purpose, funding plan for center FY2013 P.L. 112-239 1303 Report on CTR programs in Russia by Secretary of Defense with State, Energy, DNI FY2014 P.L. 113-66 1302 Percentage limitations shall not apply to FY14 and FY15 activities related to Syria FY2014 P.L. 113-66 1302 Quarterly briefings to include comprehensive assessment of Syria chemical weapons stockpile, destruction status and plan; accounting of funds expended FY2014 P.L. 113-66 1303 FY10 authority for urgent threat reduction activities extended to December 3 1, 2018 FY2014 P.L. 113-66 1304 Requires development of a strategy to modernize CTR and prevent WMD proliferation in the Middle East and North Africa to be submitted by March 31,2014 Year Category (Authorization, Limitation, Waiver, Reporting, Study) FY2001 Reporting FY2004 Limitation, Reporting Waiver Authorization FY2005 Waiver FY2006 Waiver Reporting FY2007 Waiver Study FY2008 Authorization Repeal of limitations and waivers Authorization Study, Reporting Reporting Study FY2010 Authorization Reporting, Study Authorization FY2011 Limitation, Reporting Reporting FY2012 Limitation, Reporting Limitation , Reporting (extension of FY2011, [section]1303) FY2013 Reporting FY2014 Authorization FY2014 Reporting FY2014 Authorization FY2014 Reporting Source: CRS compilation.
Author Contact Information
Mary Beth D. Nikitin
Specialist in Nonproliferation
Amy F. Woolf
Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy
(1) The White House, National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction, Washington, D.C., December 2002, p. 1, http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd-wmd.pdf.
(2) The White House, National Security Strategy, Washington, D.C., May, 2010, p. 4, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/ default/files/rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf.
(3) The agreement expired on June 16, 2013. A new agreement covers a more narrow set of programs, and is likely to exclude most projects funded by DOD. See Jordana Mishory, "Creedon: New Agreement with Russia Needed to Preserve CTR Programs," Inside the Pentagon, May 22, 2013, pp. http://insidedefense.com/Inside-the-Pentagon/Insidethe- Pentagon-05/23/2013/creedon-new-agreement-with-russia-needed-to-preserve-ctr-programs/menu-id-80.html.
(4) For more information on this legislation, see CRS Report 94-985, The Nunn-Lugar Program for Soviet Weapons Dismantlement: Background and Implementation, by Theodor Galdi. (Available from Amy F. Woolf, on request.)
(5) See the comments of Senator Richard Lugar in the Congressional Record, November 25, 1991. p. S18005.
(6) Ibid., p. S18004.
(7) See, for example, U.S. Department of Defense. Cooperative Threat Reduction. April 1995. Washington, DC, p. 1.
(8) The March 1995 nerve agent attack in the Tokyo subway system by the Aum Shinryo cult raised the profile of this type of threat.
(9) The report went on to state that "unless protected from theft of diversion, the former Soviet arsenal of weapons of mass destruction threatens to become a goldmine for would-be proliferators the world over." Baker, Howard and Lloyd Cutler, Co-Chairs, Russia Task Force. A Report Card on the Department of Energy's Nonproliferation Programs with Russia. The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, United States Department of Energy. January 10, 2001. p. 1.
(10) Senator Sam Nunn has stated that "Preventing the spread and use of nuclear biological, and chemical weapons and materials should be the central organizing principle on security for the 21st century." Remarks by Former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, Chairman, Nuclear Threat Initiative. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. International Nonproliferation Conference. November 14 , 2002.
(11) U.S. Department of Defense. Fiscal Year 2004/2005 Biennial Budget Estimates. Former Soviet Union Threat Reduction Appropriation. February 2003. p. 1.
(12) Many analysts believe that this type of weapon, which could disperse radioactive materials across a wide area, might be particularly attractive to terrorists. For details see CRS Report R41891, "Dirty Bombs": Background in Brief, by Jonathan E. Medalia.
(13) U.S. Congress, Senate Armed Services, Emerging Threats and Capabilities, Proliferation Prevention Programs, Hearing, 113th Cong., 1st sess., April 23, 2013. Testimony of Madelyn R. Creedon, Assistant Secretary of Defense, Global Strategic Affairs.
(15) S. 2026, H.R. 4546, [section]1203.
(16) Warrick, Joby. Albania's Chemical Cache Raises Fears About Others. Washington Post. January 10, 2005. p. A1.
(17) National Academy of Sciences, Global Security Engagement: A New Model for Cooperative Threat Reduction, Washington, DC, April 2009.
(18) Douglas Birch, "Letting Go of "Loose Nukes," Foreign Policy, October 31,2012.
(19) Jordana Mishory, "Creedon: New Agreement with Russia Needed to Preserve CTR Programs," Inside the Pentagon, May 22, 2013, pp. http://insidedefense.com/Inside-the-Pentagon/Inside-the-Pentagon-05/23/2013/creedon-new-agreement- with-russia-needed-to-preserve-ctr-programs/menu-id-80.html.
(20) MNEPR instruments of ratifications are managed by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. http://www.oecd-nea.org/ law/mnepr-ratification.html
(21) U.S. Department of State, A New Legal Framework for U.S.-Russian Cooperation in Nuclear Nonproliferation Security, Fact Sheet, Washington, D.C., June 19, 2013, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2013/06/210913.htm.
(22) The largest of these projects, the construction of a chemical weapons destruction facility at Shchuch'ye is described on page 26, below.
(23) The OPCW was established by the Chemical Weapons Convention, and is tasked with assisting countries with the elimination of chemical weapons stockpiles and chemical weapons production facilities subject to the verification measures provided for in the Convention.
(24) In testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee on March 7, 2012, Secretary of Defense Panetta said, "It's 100 times worse than what we dealt in with in Libya. And for that reason, that's why it's raised even greater concerns about our ability to address how we can secure those sites."
(25) CRS Report R42848, Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress, coordinated by Mary Beth D. Nikitin.
(27) Appendix A at the end of this report contains tables that detail recent appropriations and the FY2014 budget request for threat reduction and nonproliferation programs in each of these agencies.
(28) U.S. Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Estimates: Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, March 2014, p. 1137, http://comptroller.defense.gov/Portals/45/Documents/defbudget/fy2015/budget_justification/pdfs/ 01_Operation_and_Maintenance/O_M_VOL_1_PART_2/CTR_PB15.pdf.
(30) Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, FY2014 Budget Request, Washington, D.C, April 2013, pp. DN-80, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/Volume1.pdf.
(31) The FY2013 appropriation for DOE programs also does adjust for potential sequestration reductions.
(32) NDF has "notwithstanding authority" to use funds regardless of the restraints of any other law, and was originally authorized for the former Soviet Union states. Since 1994, Congress, through annual appropriations, has given NDF the authority to use funds anywhere in the world and carry forward unspent balances as needed. For a list of past projects, see http://www.state. gov/t/isn/58382 .htm.
(33) This program includes both the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and the Secure Freight Initiative (SFI). Prior to FY2009, this program area was called "Container Security Initiative."
(34) For example, the George W. Bush Administration said that it coordinated these programs through a committee chaired by a National Security Council senior director, with assistant secretary-level representatives from State, Defense, Energy and other concerned agencies. U.S. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services. Hearing. Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) with Non-proliferation Programs: Non-proliferation Assistance Coordination Act of 2001. Statement of Vann Van Diepen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Nonproliferation. November 29, 2001.
(35) Ibid. Statement of Marshall Billingslea, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Negotiations.
(36) For example, Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee Hearing, "Nuclear Terrorism: Strengthening Our Domestic Defenses, Part I", June 30, 2010, and Part II on September 15, 2010.
(37) See, for example, the testimony of Madelyn R. Creedon, Assistant Secretary of Defense, Global Strategic Affairs, U.S. Congress, Senate Armed Services, Emerging Threats and Capabilities, Proliferation Prevention Programs, Hearing, 113th Cong., 1st sess., April 23, 2013.
(38) See CRS Report RL34574, The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture: Issues for Congress, by Dana A. Shea.
(40) CRS has not independently confirmed this number.
(41) The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Remarks by the President at the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Symposium, Washington, D.C., December 3, 2012, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/12/03/ remarks-president-nunn-lugar-cooperative-threat-reduction-symposium.
(42) Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Nunn-Lugar CTR Scorecard, February 2013. http://www.dtra.mil/docs/defaultdocument-library/20130101_fy13_ctr-scorecard_slides_jan13.pdf?sfvrsn=0.
(43) National Academy of Sciences, Improving Metrics for the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs, Washington, D.C., 2012. p. 3. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13289.
(44) National Academy of Sciences, Improving Metrics for the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs, Washington, D.C., 2012, http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13289.
(45) National Academy of Sciences, Improving Metrics for the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs, Washington, D.C., 2012. p. 5. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13289.
(46) "Russia Scours Budget for Funds to Replace U.S. Disarmament Assistance," Global Security Newswire, October 19, 2012.
(47) See, for example, William Tobey, "Boost Phase," Foreign Policy, October 19, 2012. See, also, Douglas Birch, "Letting Go of "Loose Nukes," Foreign Policy, October 31, 2012.
(48) "The G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction." Statement by the Group of Eight Leaders. Kananaskis, Canada. June 27, 2002.
(49) "The G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction." Statement by the Group of Eight Leaders. Kananaskis, Canada. June 27, 2002.
(50) For more information on the project areas funded by participating nations, see U.S. Department of State, Consolidated Report Data, 2012, Global Parntership Working Group Annual Report, , Washington, D.C., http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/208032.pdf.
(51) "Global Partnership 2012," State Department website, http://www.state.gov/t/isn/c12743.htm.
(52) "G-7 Leaders Statement," The White House, March 2, 2014, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/03/ 02/g-7-leaders-statement.
(53) G-7 Brussels, 2014, "Declaration on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament for 2014," http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/143120.pdf.
(54) U.S. Department of Defense. Cooperative Threat Reduction. April 1995. Washington, DC. p. 1.
(55) For the full CTR scorecard, see Defense Threat Reduction Agency, http://www.dtra.mil/docs/default- documentlibrary/20130101_fy13_ctr-scorecard_slides_jan13.pdf?sfvrsn=0.
(56) Department of Defense, Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, Annual Report to Congress Fiscal Year 2013, Washington, D.C, March 2013, pp. 13-14.
(57) "Ukraine, U.S. Jointly Pursue Missile Destruction," Worldwise News Ukraine, May 21, 2013.
(58) U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, Senate Committee on Armed Services Completes Markup of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014, Press Release, Washington, D.C., June 14, 2013, p. 21, http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/press/.
(59) The total number of sites remains classified. For details on DOD's plans, see U.S. General Accounting Office. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Additional Russian Cooperation Needed to Facilitate U.S. Efforts to Improve Security at Russian Sites. GAO-02-482. March 2003. p. 34.
(60) Ibid., p. 36.
(61) U.S. House. Committee on Armed Services. Statement of Dr. J.D. Crouch, Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy. March 4, 2003.
(62) Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan, by Matthew Bunn, et al. Project on Managing the Atom. March 2003.
(63) U.S. Department of Energy. FY2004 Congressional Budget Request. Detailed Budget Justifications. February 2003. p. 623.
(64) The MPC&A program also includes efforts to improve "nuclear smuggling detection capabilities at international borders." To do this, DOE funds the Second Line of Defense Program, which is described below.
(65) Chivers, C.J. Securing Russian Nuclear Missiles? U.S. Is Set to Say "Done." New York Times, October 31, 2007.
(66) The United States and Russia no longer plan to construct an expected second wing. U.S. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. Testimony of Lisa Bronson, Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Technology Security Policy and Counterproliferation. March 10, 2004.
(67) U.S. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Statement of Ambassador Linton Brooks. Administrator, NNSA. June 15, 2004. See also, U.S. General Accounting Office. Weapons of Mass Destruction. Additional Russian Cooperation Needed to Facilitate U.S. Efforts to Improve Security at Russian Sites. GA)-03-482. Washington, March 2003. p. 4. See also, U.S. Senate, Committee on Armed Services. Statement of Paul M. Longsworth. Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation. March 10, 2004.
(68) U.S. Department of Energy. FY2004 Congressional Budget Request. Detailed Budget Justifications. February 2003. p. 625.
(69) Ibid., p. 639.
(70) U.S. Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Estimates, Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, Washington, D.C., April 2013, pp. 103-105, http://comptroller.defense.gov/defbudget/fy2014/budget_justification/pdfs/ 01_Operation_and_Maintenance/O_M_VOL_1_PART_2/CTR_OP-5.pdf.
(71) Department of Defense, Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, Annual Report to Congress Fiscal Year 2013, Washington, D.C, March 2013, pp. 17-18.
(72) "GTRI: Removing Vulnerable Civilian Nuclear and Radiological Material," Fact Sheet, April 12, 2013, http://nnsa.energy.gov/mediaroom/factsheets/gtri-remove; "GTRI: Reducing Nuclear Threats," Fact Sheet, May 29, 2014, http://nnsa.energy.gov/mediaroom/factsheets/reducingthreats.
(73) U.S. Department of State, Function 150 and Other International Programs, Executive Budget Summary, Washington, D.C., April 2013, p. 115, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/207305.pdf.
(74) U.S. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Testimony of John S. Wolf. Assistant Secretary of State for Nonproliferation. March 19, 2003.
(75) See also http://www.nsoi-state.net/.
(76) Department of Energy, FY2014 Budget Request, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C., April 2013, pp. DN-107, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/Volume1.pdf.
(77) Hoehn, William. Update on Legislation Affecting U.S-Former Soviet Union Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction. RANSAC. November 17, 2003.
(79) U.S. General Accounting Office. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Additional Russian Cooperation Needed to Facilitate U.S. Efforts to Improve Security at Russian Sites. GAO-02-482. March 2003. pp. 58-59.
(80) The United States also has not met its destruction deadlines under the CWC. The OPCW has extended the deadline for both nations.
(81) For a description of this facility and program see Glasser, Susan B. "Cloud Over Russia's Poison Gas Disposal." Washington Post. August 24, 2002. p. 1
(82) The Department of Defense estimates this to be 5,460 metric tons of agent in nearly 2 million rocket and artillery warheads. See U.S. Department of Defense. Fiscal Year 2004/2005 Biennial Budget Estimates. Former Soviet Union Threat Reduction Appropriation. February 2003. p. 4
(83) Select Agents are determined by the Center for Disease Control, and defined by law as biological agents or toxins "which have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal or plant health." For more information, see http://www.selectagents.gov and the White House page on Biosecurity, http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ ostp/nstc/biosecurity.
(84) "The security of existing pathogen libraries, the past scope of work, the current whereabouts of BW and BW-related experts, and the future disposition of the FSU biological weapons capability are all critical concerns within the threat reduction agenda." Reshaping U.S.-Russian Threat Reduction: New Approaches for the Second Decade. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Russian American Nuclear Security Advisory Council. November 2002. p. 2.
(85) For background on the BWPP programs, see CRS Report RL31368, Preventing Proliferation of Biological Weapons: U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet States, by Michelle Stem Cook and Amy F. Woolf.
(86) U.S. General Accounting Office. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Additional Russian Cooperation Needed to Facilitate U.S. Efforts to Improve Security at Russian Sites. GAO-02-482. March 2003. pp. 48-49.
(87) U.S. General Accounting Office. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Additional Russian Cooperation Needed to Facilitate U.S. Efforts to Improve Security at Russian Sites. GAO-02-482. March 2003. pp. 44-46.
(88) Ibid., p. 54.
(89) Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Estimates Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, April 2013.
(90) Statement of Mr. Kenneth A. Myers III on Proliferation Prevention Programs, Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommitee, Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, April 1, 2014.
(91) Lugar Wants $100 Million Nunn-Lugar Budget Increase. Press Release. Office of Senator Richard Lugar. February 5, 2007.
(92) The State Department conducted this program in cooperation with the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
(93) "Budget Cuts Threaten Support Program for Former Soviet Weapons Experts," Global Security Newswire, June 19, 2009.
(94) Statement of the 56th Governing Board of the International Science and Technology Center, December 7, 2012, http://www.istc.ru/istc/istc.nsf/va_WebPages/56GB_StatementEng.
(96) For more details, see CRS Report RL31368, Preventing Proliferation of Biological Weapons: U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet States, by Michelle Stem Cook and Amy F. Woolf.
(99) U.S. Department of Energy. FY2004 Congressional Budget Request. Detailed Budget Justifications. February 2003. p. 663.
(100) U.S. Government Accountability Office, Nuclear Nonproliferation: Concerns With DOE's Efforts to Reduce the Risks Posed by Russia's Unemployed Weapons Scientists, GAO Report RCED-99-54, February 19, 1999; U.S. Government Accountability Office. DOE's Program to Assist Weapons Scientists in the Russia and Other Countries needs to be Reassessed. GAO-08-189, December 2007.
(102) Matthew Bunn, Securing the Bomb, 2008, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C., November 2008, p. 121, http://www.nti.org/media/pdfs/Securing_The_Bomb_2008.pdf7_M317161155.
(103) Department of Energy, FY2014 Budget Request, Washington, D.C., April 2013, pp. DN-65, http://energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/2013/04/f0/Volume1 .pdf.
Table 1. CTR Funding for Strategic Offensive Arms Elimination (SOAE) ($ millions) Nation Fiscal years Total appropriation Russia FY1993-FY2014 $1,774.4 Ukraine FY1993-FY2014 $593 Kazahkstan FY1994-FY1996 $64.6 Belarus FY1994-FY1996 $3.3 Source: CRS Estimates. Table 2. CTR Funding for Transportation Security ($ millions) Project Fiscal years Total appropriation Armored Blankets FY1992-FY1993 $3.1 Emergency Response FY1992-FY1996 $29.2 Railcar security enhancements FY1992-FY1994 $21.5 Weapons Transportation Security FY1995-FY2011 $355.4 Source: Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan, by Matthew Bunn, et al. Project on Managing the Atom. March 2003; Updated Funding Analysis of FY09 International WMD Security Programs, by Michelle Marchesano. Partnership for Global Security. July 2009. Table 3. DOD and DOE Authorizations for Warhead Storage Security Programs (in $ millions) Program FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 Nuclear $74.1 $47.6 $24.1 $15.1 $9.6 Security Enhancement (a) Navy $17.3 $13.2 $22.7 $33.9 $34.3 Complex (b) Strategic $152.8 $121.9 $34.4 $48.6 $51.4 Rocket Forcesb Nuclear na na na na na Warhead Protection Program FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 Request Nuclear na na na na Security Enhancement (a) Navy $33.6 $21.8 na na Complex (b) Strategic $59.1 $13.8 na na Rocket Forcesb Nuclear na na $23.2 0 Warhead Protection Source: DOD and DOE budget documents. (a.) In FY2012, DOD began to fund this project through the Global Nuclear Security program area, without specifying the amount allocated to weapons storage security. Estimates indicate the amount remains below $10 million. (b.) In FY2014, DOE combined these two program areas into a single Nuclear Warhead Protection Program. Table 4. CTR Authorizations for Fissile Materials Storage ($ millions) Project Fiscal years Total Fissile Material Containers FY1992-FY2000 $82.2 Storage Facility Design FY1993 $15 Storage Facility Construction FY1994-FY2001 $387 Source: Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan, by Matthew Bunn, et al. Project on Managing the Atom. March 2003. Table 5. DOE Authorizations for Nuclear Materials Security Programs (in $ millions) Program FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 Rosatom $94.0 $79.0 $56.1 $71.5 $93.3 (Minatom) Weapons Complex/ Weapons Material Protection Civilian $52.7 $54.2 $35.5 $63.5 $53 Nuclear Sites Material $23.8 $19.5 $21.6 $13.6 $13.9 Consolidation and Conversion Material na na na na na Consolidation and Civilian Sites National $65.1 $69.6 $54.9 $68.5 $60.9 Programs and Sustainability Program FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 Request Rosatom $80.7 $36.4 $36.4 $17.2 (Minatom) Weapons Complex/ Weapons Material Protection Civilian $59.1 $60.1 na na Nuclear Sites Material $14.3 $17 na na Consolidation and Conversion Material na na $132.3 $138.6 Consolidation and Civilian Sites National $60.9 $50.7 $37.8 $32.2 Programs and Sustainability Source: U.S. Department of Energy. FY2004, FY2005, FY2006, FY2007, FY2008, FY2009, FY2010, FY2011, FY2012, FY2013, FY2014 Congressional Budget Requests. Detailed Budget Justifications. Table 6. DOE Authorizations for Global Threat Reduction Initiative (in $ millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 Global $131.23 $193.22 $404.64 $333.5 $444.69 Threat Reduction HEU Reactor $32.09 $33.82 $76.71 $102.77 $100.97 Conversion Nuclear and $51.49 $67.76 $182.76 $144.83 $221.30 Radiological Material Removal Nuclear and $45.91 $91.65 $135.53 $85.89 $113.72 Radiological Material Protection International na na na na na Nuclear and Radiological Material Removal and Protection Domestic na na na na na Radiological Material Removal and Protection Funds from $1.74 0 $9.64 0 $8.71 International Contributions FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Enacted Request Global $503.45 $462.89 $442.1 $333.49 Threat Reduction HEU Reactor $139.54 $146 $162 $122.4 Conversion Nuclear and $221.05 $172 na $101.8 Radiological Material Removal Nuclear and $137.41 $142.6 na $109.3 Radiological Material Protection International na na $200.1 na Nuclear and Radiological Material Removal and Protection Domestic na na $80 na Radiological Material Removal and Protection Funds from $5.45 $0.65 0 0 International Contributions Source: DOE Congressional Budget Justifications. Table 7. DOE Funding for Second Line of Defense and Megaports Program FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 Second Line $75.8 $136.0 $71.9 $78.4 $140.3 of Defense Core Program Megaports $116.1 $130.8 $102.9 $194 $194 Total: SLD $191.9 $266.8 $174.8 $272.4 $334.3 Program FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 Request Second Line $129.4 na na na of Defense Core Program Megaports 134.4 na na na Total: SLD $263.8 $272 $190 $117.7 Source: DOE budget documents. Note: The FY2013-FY2015 budgets include a single line for both the SLD core program and Megaports. Table 8. CTR Funding for Chemical Weapons Destruction (in $ millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Request 47,700 $1 $28 $8 $12 $9.8 $69 $83 $15.7 Source: DOD Congressional Budget Estimates. Table 9. CTR Funding for Cooperative Biological Engagement (in $ millions) FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY1 1 $72.36 $174.5 $177.46 $169.13 $209.03 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 Request $229.47 $241.01 $260 $256.76 Source: DOD Congressional Budget Estimates.
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|Title Annotation:||pp. 1-20|
|Author:||Nikitin, Mary Beth D.; Woolf, Amy F.|
|Publication:||Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports and Issue Briefs|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2014|
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