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The evaluation of different values of phosphorus and sulfur application in yield, yield components and seed quality characteristics of soybean (Glycin Max L.).

Introduction

Generally, all the legumes such as soybean are required enough phosphorus and sulfur in order to nitrogen fixation during their growth steps and the ability of nitrogen fixation is increased by saving enough values of nutrient components, especially phosphorus and sulfur [13]. Phosphorus and sulfur deficiency caused reduction and prevention in the nodule formation process on the roots [13,16]. Also, consuming mentioned fertilizer play an important role in increasing oil and protein of legumes such as soybean [12,17]. In this regard, Kamara et al. [16] revealed that the application of phosphorus fertilizer caused increasing the amount of yield and dry matter of soybean varieties. In this review the maximum percentage of yield increasing (41%) related to the treatment of 40 kg phosphorus fertilizer per hectare. Islam et al. [12] in addition to study the effect of different values of phosphorus fertilizer and inoculation by bacterium on the efficiency of soybean varieties explained that plant height, number of nodule and branch, number of pod, weight of 1000 seeds, and the yield of seed were increased by using the application of different values of phosphorus fertilizer so that the maximum increasing in studied traits related to the 84 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1]. Also, the obtained result by Malik et al. [20] indicated that seed inoculation and different levels of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on leaf area index, the number of pod per plant, the number of seed per pod, weight of 1000 seeds, harvest index and oil and protein concentration of the soybean. Meanwhile, the interaction of 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] and Brady Rhizobium Japonicum had a maximum rate of yield by 1274.2 kg per hectare. Moreover, results of Kachhava et al. [15] research showed that adding sulfur significantly increased the nodulation and result in improving the absorption of the nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur content. After that, Deshbhratar et al. [6] by reviewing the 50 Kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] with 20 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] produced maximum seed yield, biomass and crude protein concentration. Boem et al [5] also understood that using 15 kg aluminum sulfate fertilizer per hectare be more efficient in increasing the number, seed weight and the yield of the soybean in comparison with Gypsum application. Since phosphorus and sulfur application absorbed by soybean in order to biological fixation of nitrogen, growth regulation and performance improvement are necessary. The aim of this paper is to review the interaction of different levels of phosphorus and sulfur fertilizer on the quality and quantity characteristics of the soybean.

Materials and Methods

This experiment conducted in the Mahmoud Abad Agricultural Research Center of Mazandaran Province, Iran, in 2011. Physical and chemical properties of the experimental sites are shown in Table 1. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with four replications (plot size of 2.7 x 5 m). The first factor of experiment was the application of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer from triple super phosphate source in four levels ([P.sub.1]: 0, [P.sub.2]: 30, [P.sub.3]: 60, [P.sub.4]: 90 kg. [ha.sup.-1]) and second factor was the application of different values of sulfur fertilizer from 50% organic sulfur source in three levels ([S.sub.1]: 0, [S.sub.2]: 20, [S.sub.3]: 40 kg. [ha.sup.-1]). Soybeans were planted in May 4 after inoculation of the seeds with Brady Rhizobium Japonicum bacterium.. The number of planting lines per each plot, the distance between the lines, and final density were 6, 45 centimeter and 45 plants per square meter, respectively.

Before planting, sulfur fertilizer in each plot was separately distributed on the soil surface and then was completely combined. In order to, the amount of phosphorus fertilizer in each treatment set under the seeds by strip method based on its application. Herbicides were applied as needed at both locations. In October 16, the final harvest was taken at physiological maturity (R8.0). simultaneously by the harvest, 10 plants per each treatment were selected randomly in order to determine yield components and measure morphological characteristic of plant. Moreover, in order to obtain oil concentration and protein of the seed Soxhlet set and Kjeldal method were used respectively. Finally, data on all observations were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using software SAS. Treatment means were compared by least significant difference (FLSD) test.

Conclusions and discussion:

Plant height:

The application of different values of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on the height of soybean (Table 2) so that the 90 kg.P.[ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 78.67 cm and control treatment by the mean of 56.37 cm were the highest and the lowest height of plant, respectively (Table 3). Totally, increasing in application of phosphorus fertilizer caused increasing in the height of soybean. Since the application of phosphorus play an important role in increasing the vegetative growth of the plant [7,14], so it seems 39.56% and 32.45% increasing in the height of the plant in the 90 and 60 kg.P.[ha.sup.-1], respectively in comparison with control treatment followed this issue.

Moreover, the results of this research indicated that the application of different values of sulfur fertilizer had a significant effect on the height of the soybean (Table 2). Meanwhile, the applications of 40 kg.S.[ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 73 cm and also control treatment by the mean of 67.78 cm had the highest and the lowest height of plant. Moreover, the 20 kg. S.[ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 69.69 cm from the view of mentioned feature stood in the second rank (Table 3). Although from statistical point of view, it didn't show a significant difference with the other studied treatments. Increase in the height of soybean in consequence with the application of sulfur fertilizer may derived from increase in the metabolic activity in plant, and development of leaf area [23]. Other researchers also reported significant increase in the height of the plant in consequence with the application of different values of phosphorus and sulfur fertilizer [18,26,23,5]. The interaction of different values application of phosphorus and sulfur hadn't a significant effect on the mentioned attribute (Table 2).

The number of pod per plant:

The results of this research shows that the number of pod per plant is affected by the application of different values of phosphorus fertilizer (Table 2), so that the 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 66.30 was had the highest and the number of pod per plant. Treatment of 60 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 62.36 from the sight of the mentioned attribute stood in the second rank. Although from the statistical point of view, there was no significant difference between 60 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] and 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] (Table 3). Generally, the phosphorus plays an important role in the increase of the Photosynthesis activities and the crop growth rate [16,18]. Therefore, it seems Increase of the phosphorus application not only increase the photosynthetic potency of the plant but also increase the dry matter in the soybean. In the result, this issue has been provided the preparations to increase the number of pod per plant. Moreover, regarding to the existence of linear relation between application of phosphorus fertilizer and growth improvement of roots of soybean [7,28], it seems increase of the efficiency of soybean root in absorbing nutrient components can acted as another factor for 27.46% and 19.88% increasing of the total pod number in the 90 and 60 kg.P.[ha.sup.-1] in comparison with control treatment. Regarding the significant and positive correlation (r = 0.55 **) between the attribute of the height of the plant and total number of pod per plant (Table 4) we could say that significant increase in the height of the soybean with application of different values of phosphorus fertilizer plays an important role in increasing the number of pod per plant in studied treatment. Other researchers also reported the increase in the total number of soybean pod derived from application of different values of phosphorus fertilizer [12,20,25].

Increasing the application of sulfur fertilizer also had the significant effect on total number of pod per soybean (Table 2). The application of 40 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 60.83 and control treatment by the mean of 56.49 had the highest and the lowest number of pod per plant, respectively (Table 3). Since sulfur deficiency result in reducing the [N.sub.2] fixation efficiency in soybean [13,15], so it seems this issue has an important role in 7.68% increasing in the number of pod in the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] in comparison with control treatment. Moreover, the results of this research indicated that the interaction of different values of phosphorus fertilizer hadn't a significant effect on the number of pod per soybean (Table 2).

The number of seed per plant:

Increasing the application of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect in soybean (Table 2). The results of this research indicated that the 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 129.97 and the control treatment by the mean of 91.71 had the highest and the lowest number of pod per plant, respectively (Table 3). This issue could be due to positive role of phosphorus in more photosynthetic materials production and allocation and its transfer to reproduction organs of soybean [7,16]. As well as, 41.73% and 23.42% increase in the number of seed per plant in the 90 and 60 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] is attributed to the significant effect of phosphorus on the increase the number of root nodules bacterium Brady Rhizobium Japonicum. Generally, the application of phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on increase the number of nodule and improvement the efficiency of nitrogen using in soybean [28,22]. Other researchers also reported the significant increase of number of seed per plant with application of different values of phosphorus fertilizer [12,25]. The application of different values of sulfur fertilizer had a significant effect on the number of seed per plant (Table 2), so that the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 114.12 had the highest number of seed per plant. From the mentioned characteristic point of view, treatment of 20 kg. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 108.52 was on the next priority (Table 3). Since reduction in sulfur consuming causes the significant reduction of leaf size, photosynthetic materials and the number of soybean's branch [10,21], we can attribute 11.19% and 5.74% increase in number of seed per plant in the 40 and 20 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] respectively, to above results. Other researchers also reported increase in the number of seed per plant with the application of different values of sulfur fertilizer [5,26]. Moreover, the interaction of different values of phosphorus and sulfur fertilizer hadn't a significant effect on the number of seed per soybean (Table1).

Weight of 1000 seeds:

The application of different values of phosphorus and sulfur fertilizer and the interaction of mentioned fertilizer hadn't a significant effect on the one thousand seed weight (Table 2). Generally, the speed of Dry matter accumulation of the single seed in the canopy of the up and down pods is different with each other which are caused forming seeds with different size [9]. Although, by reviewing the relation between sink and source of the soybean, some researchers attributed the negative correlation among attributes number of pod characteristics and the weight of the seed to a phenomenon called compensation components existed in the soybean plant [27].

Oil concentration:

The application of different values of phosphorous fertilizer had a significant effect on oil concentration of the soybean (Table 2), so that the 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 17.48% and control treatment by the mean of 16.13% had a highest and the lowest oil concentration, respectively. Also, the 60 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 16.79% stood in the second rank (figure 1-A). Generally, there is the positive and significant correlation between oil concentration of the seed and the number of seed per soybean pod [11]. According to significant effect of application of phosphorous fertilizer on increase in the number of seed per pod, this issue plays an important role in increasing oil concentration of the soybean. As it is pointed, the application of 90 and 60 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] not only result in 7.35% and 2.26% increase in the number of seed per pod in comparison with control treatment, but also has been provided the preparations for 8.44% and 4.16% increase in the amount of seed oil. The results of this research also showed positive and significant correlation (r = 0.66**) between the number of seed per pod and the oil concentration of soybean seed (Table 4). Other researchers' obtained results also confirmed the accuracy of mentioned results [12]. Moreover, the results of this research indicated that increase application of sulfur fertilizer had a significant effect on the oil concentration of the soybean seed (Table 2), so that the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 16.97 and the control treatment by the mean of 16.45 had the highest and the lowest oil concentration of the seed, respectively (figure 1-B). As well as, the mobility of sulfur extending from vegetative tissues of soybean toward the seed is almost 36% to 46% and the soybean's pod is counted as the most important storage resource of sulfur component for the seed [21]. Since, the storage capacity of sulfur in the vegetative tissues is very important and its transformation toward reproductive organs and the increase in its density causes improving the oil concentration [3], it could be said that increasing application of sulfur fertilizer in studied treatments play an important role in increasing the density of sulfur in soybean's organs, especially in the seed and this matter has been provided the preparations for increasing the oil concentration. Moreover, since the absorption direction of sulfur and phosphorous is convergent [2], it seems increase in the application of sulfur fertilizer in the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1], in addition to increase the nitrogen fixation activity in nodules root, has been provided preparations for more increasing in the density of sulfur and phosphorous and this issue has been caused 3.16% increase in the oil concentration of the seed in the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] in comparison with control treatment (figure1-B). Other researchers also reported the significant increasing in the oil concentration of the seed by the application of different values of sulfur fertilizer [17,21]. Also, the results of this research indicated that the interaction in the application of different values of phosphorous and sulfur fertilizer hadn't a significant effect on the mentioned attribute (Table 2).

Protein concentration:

The results of this paper indicated that protein concentration of the seed affected by the application of phosphorous fertilizer (Table 2), so that the 30 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] and the control treatment by the mean of 46.40% and 45.56% had the highest amount of protein of the seed. In contrast, the 90 and 60 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by 41.61% and 42.83% had the lowest amount of seed protein, respectively (figure 2-A). Regarding negative and significant correlation between protein concentration attributes and the oil of soybean seed [11] it seems the change in the seed protein concentration in mentioned treatment followed these results. As well as, the increasing the application of sulfur fertilizer caused improving the oil of the soybean seed, so that the 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] and control treatment had a highest and the lowest oil concentration of the seed, respectively (Figure 2-A).

The result of this research also show the negative and significant correlation between oil and protein concentration (r = 0.52**) of the soybean seed (Table 4). The application of different values of sulfur fertilizer hadn't a significant effect on the protein concentration of the seed (Table 2). In contrast, the results of this research indicated that the interaction of phosphorus and sulfur fertilizer application had a significant effect on the protein concentration of the soybean seed (Table 2). Meanwhile, treatment of [P.sub.30][S.sub.0] by the mean of 48.12 had a highest protein concentration of the seed. Also, the treatment of [P.sub.90][S.sub.40] by the mean of 41.24% had the lowest rate of protein concentration of the seed (Figure 2-B).The results of this research indicated that the increase in the application of different levels of phosphorous and sulfur fertilizer in the treatments of [P.sub.90][S.sub.40] and [P.sub.90][S.sub.20] caused significant reduction in the protein concentration of the seed in comparison with control treatment. In contrast, reduction in the application of phosphorous and sulfur fertilizer, caused significant increase of the protein concentraion of the seed. So that, the application of treating [P.sub.30][S.sub.0], [P.sub.0][S.sub.20], caused 10.83% and 14.24% increase in the protein concentration of the seed, respectively in comparison with control treatment.

Seed yield:

Increasing the application of phosphorous fertilizer had a significant effect on the yield of the soybean seed (Table 2), so that the 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 5158.32 kg. [ha.sup.-1] and control treatment by the mean of 3831.17 kg. [ha.sup.-1] had the highest and the lowest yield of the seed, respectively. Moreover, from the mentioned attribute point of view, treatment of 60 kg. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 4496.50 kg. [ha.sup.-1] stood in the second rank (Table 3). Generally, potential of production in the soybean is determined by the attribute of the number of pod per plant and the number of seed per pod [25,27]. Therefore, we could say that significant increase in the number of pod per plant and number of seed per pod in the 90 kg. P. [ha.sup.-1] had an undeniable role in 34.64% increasing in the yield of the seed in mentioned treatment. These results were true for all the other treatments. Generally, the results of this research showed the positive and significant correlation between the number of pod per plant (r = 0.59**) and the number of seed per pod (r = 0.44**) by the yield of the soybean seed (Table 4). The phosphorous play an important role in increasing the formation of nodule number in the soybean [14,22]. Therefore, it seems the other excellence factor in the yield of the seed in the application treatments of phosphorous fertilizer is the increase in the ability of Brady Rhizobium Japonicum in comparison with the control treatment. Generally, due to genetic attributes of the root and it's symbiotic by Brady Rhizobium Japonicum, there is the positive and significant interaction between Nitrogen and phosphorous in the soybean farm. The consequence of interaction is the production more nodules, longer root and more transmittance in the surface structure of the root. The obtained results confirmed by other researchers' reports [12,19,18,16].

Moreover, the performance of the soybean seed is affected by the application of different values of sulfur fertilizer (Table 2), so that treatment of 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 4653.81 kg. [ha.sup.-1] had the highest yield of the seed. From the yield of the seed point of view, the treatment of 20 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] by the mean of 4274.72 kg. [ha.sup.-1] was on the next priority. From a statistical view, there is no significant difference in the 20 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] with control treatment (Table 3). Also, the increase in the yield components in the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1] in comparison with the control treatment, play an important role in 11.09% increasing the yield of the soybean in the mentioned treatment. Moreover, sulfur has a positive and significant correlation with nitrogen [10]. Generally, in the vegetative growth process, soybean organs can act as a source of aggregation and storing sulfur to produce seed and increase in the quality characteristics of the soybean seed [24]. Therefore, it seems this issue can be counted as another factor for increasing the yield of the seed in the 40 kg. S. [ha.sup.-1].

References

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(1) Behzad Mahmoodi, (2) Amir Abbas Mosavi, (3) Morteza Sam Daliri and (4) M. Namdari

(1) Mse Student, Department of Agriculture, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran.

(2) Assistant professor, Department of Agriculture, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran.

(3) Associate professor, Department of Agriculture, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran.

(4) Post graduate Student, Department of Agriculture, Birjand University, Birjand, Iran.

Behzad Mahmoodi, Amir Abbas Mosavi, Morteza Sam Daliri and M. Namdari; The evaluation of different values of phosphorus and sulfur application in yield, yield components and seed quality characteristics of soybean (Glycin Max L.)

Corresponding Author

Amir Abbas Mosavi, Assistant professor, Department of Agriculture, Chaloos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chaloos, Iran.

Table 1: Location and physical and chemical properties of soils
of experimental sites.

Parameter             Unit                  Mahmoud Abad

Latitude              N                     36[degrees]

Longitude             E                     52[degrees]

Sand                  %                     69

Silt                  %                     21

Clay                  %                     10

Texture               --                    Sandy loam

pH                    --                    7.7

[Ec.sub.e]            dS [m.sup.-1]         0.43

Total organic         mg [g.sup.-1]         2.51
carbon

Total N               %                     0.2

Phosphorus (AB-DTPA   [micro]g [g.sup.-1]   3
extractable)

Sulphate-sulphur      [micro]g [g.sup.-1]   7.3
(CaCl2 extractable)

Table 2: Analysis of variance (mean squares) for yield and yield
components of soybean under effecting of different rate of
phosphorus and sulfur application.

S.O.V.       df   Plant        Number of   Number of    1000 seed
                  Height       pod per     seed per     weight
                  (cm)         plant       plant        (gr)

block        3    11.86        52.53       189.97       22.1
Phosphorus   3    1133.08 **   496.55 **   3434.28 **   65.15 ns
Sulfur       2    111.57 *     84.64 *     528.34 *     15.73 ns
P x S        6    11.24 ns     13.43 ns    35.52 ns     1.44 ns
Error        33   28.62        49.1        143.2        16.55
C.V.         --   7.62         11.85       11.03        12.34

S.O.V.       Seed               Oil          Protein
             yield              percentage   percentage
             (kg.[ha.sup.-1])   (%)          (%)

block        71751.48           0.13         4.86
Phosphorus   4245705.20 **      4.28 **      60.84 **
Sulfur       978497.61 *        1.11 **      4.39 ns
P x S        29029.54 ns        0.11 ns      17 77 **
Error        288224.63          0.18         7.67
C.V.         12.27              2.59         6.06

*, ** and ns: Significant at 0.05, 0.01 probability levels and non
significant respectively.

Table 3: Means comparison of yield and yield components of
soybean under effecting of different rate of phosphorus and
sulfur application.

                        Plant      Number of   Number of
                        Height     pod per     seed per
                        (cm)       plant       plant

Different of       0    56.37 c    52.02 b     91.70 c
Phosphorus         30   70.92 b    55.72 b     98.83 c
levels             60   74.66 ab   62.36 a     113.19 b
(Kg.[ha.sup.-1])   90   78.66 a    66.30 a     129.97 a

Different of       0    67.78 b    56.49 b     102.63 b
Sulfur levels      20   69.68 ab   59.97 ab    108.52 ab
(Kg.[ha.sup.-1])   40   73 a       60.83 a     114.12 a

                        1000 seed   Seed yield
                        weight      (Kg.[ha.sup.-1])
                        (gr)

Different of       0    172.51 a    3831.07 c
Phosphorus         30   168.46 a    4004.44 c
levels             60   167.60 a    4496.50 b
(Kg.[ha.sup.-1])   90   167.20 a    5158.27 a

Different of       0    168.68 a    4189.20 b
Sulfur levels      20   169.51 a    4274.69 b
(Kg.[ha.sup.-1])   40   168.63 a    4653.83 a

Means, in each column, followed by one, similar letter are not
significantly different at the 5% probability level use LSD test.

Table 4: Correlation analysis between agronomy characterize of
soybean.

Parameter    Plant    Number of   Number of   1000 seed   Seed
             Height   pod per     seed per    weight      yield
                      plant       plant

Plant        1        0.54 **     0.65 **     -0.20 ns    0.60 **
Height

Number of             1           0.92 **     -0.09 ns    0.39 *
pod per
plant

Number of                         1           -0.10 ns    0.58 **
seed per
plant

1000 seed                                     1           -0.10 ns
weight

Seed                                                      1
yield

Oil
percentage

Protein
percentage

Parameter    Oil          Protein
             percentage   percentage

Plant        -0.32 ns     0.56 **
Height

Number of    -0.46 **     0.41 **
pod per
plant

Number of    -0.49 **     0.54 **
seed per
plant

1000 seed    0.22 ns      0.25 ns
weight

Seed         -0.52 **     0.64 **
yield

Oil          1            -0.39 *
percentage

Protein                   1
percentage

*, ** and ns: Significant at 0.05, 0.01 probability levels and non
significant respectively.
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Author:Mahmoodi, Behzad; Mosavi, Amir Abbas; Daliri, Morteza Sam; Namdari, M.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jan 1, 2013
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