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The etymonic determinatives of wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

IF ONE WERE TO COME ACROSS the character [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in a modern Chinese text, he might note that the phonetic component is immediately apparent: [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wang. And indeed the phonetic values associated with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and correspond neatly both in modern Mandarin and in Old Chinese reconstruction, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wanq < mjang(H) < *mjang(s) and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wang <mjang < *mjang, the only difference being the tone. (1) Yet an earlier form of the graph, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], did not contain, the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. It was composed of three constituents, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] chern < dyzin < *gjin 'eye', [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] yueh < ngjwot < *[ng.sup.w]jat 'moon', and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. tiing < thengx < *hleng? 'courtyard', none of which, in its conventional reading, bears any obvious phonological relationship to *mjang(s). in this paper we shall attempt to determine whether any of these elements can be identified as the phonetic component of the form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and in the process of doing so, will also seek to identify the word (or words) that the graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] represented, as well as their word family affiliations.

THE GRAPHS [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] AND [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] IN INSCRIBED AND MANUSCRIPT TEXTS

In the Western Jou bronze inscriptions the form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [:[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is far more common than [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [:[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. The Jinwen guulin [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (JWGL) cites twenty-three occurrences of the bronze form corresponding to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (entry 8-1118) but only two of the form corresponding to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (entry 12-1621). (2) It is difficult to say which is earlier, based on the dates of the bronzes on which they are inscribed, since in many cases the vessels cannot be dated precisely. (3) We can only note that in the bronze inscriptions the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was predominant.

We can infer from the shell and bone inscriptions (SBI) that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was the earlier form, since the SBI graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] contains [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is a constituent of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] but not of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In other words, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appears to be composed of the SBI graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] added. According to the analysis of Sheu Shenn [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (ca. 55-ca. 149) in the Shuowen jieetzyh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (SWJTz), the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is derived from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which functions in abbreviated form as the phonetic component of the graph (see below for full translation of t he SWJTz entry). All this evidence indicates that is the earlier of the two.

While in terms of its components, the SBI graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] corresponds to the kaeshu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] modern scholars often transcribe it [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In the bone inscriptions this graph is most frequently taken to stand for a proper noun, either the name of a place or of a clan; it has also been understood as a verb meaning "look," though it is uncertain whether or not it should be conceived of as having the connotation "look into the distance" that the word wanq later carried (Shima 1971, 110-11; Matsumaru and Takashima 1994, 249). The graph itself is traditionally explained as a pictograph of an "eye" raised up vertically, as though straining to look, on top of a "person" A standing on a "mound of earth" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (see, e.g., Chyou Shiguei 1995, 150-51, and Jaw Cherng 1 972, 334; this understanding is undoubtedly based on the SWJTz analysis of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as tsorng ren tuu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "derived from [the graphic components] 'person' and 'earth"'). It is possible that the interpretation of the SBI graph as representing a word meaning 'look into the distance' (rather than simply 'look') arose from the meaning of the word wanq in later transmitted texts rather than any contextual evidence in the SBI texts themselves, and even the explanation of the graph's composition may have been influenced by later glosses of the word wanq. Nevertheless, the transcription is as reliable as any transcription of a bone form can be, for the SBI form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] corresponds closely to the bronze form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] found on an early W. Jou vessel, the Bao yeou [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and this graph represents the word wanq 'full moon', wh ich elsewhere throughout the bronzes is written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (4)

The late fourth to early third century B.C. Guodiann (GD) [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MSS, published in the 1998 Guodiann Chuumuh jwujean [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], contain a total of five occurrences of graphs that are transcribed [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with three distinct variants. The graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] corresponds precisely to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and a second form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], is an abbreviated variant of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] lacking the [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] element. These two forms occur twice each. The form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] perhaps the most interesting of the three, occurs only once. All three GD variants contain the components [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] does not appear at all. (5)

Both [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occur in the W. Jou bronzes, but the older form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] does not appear in the GD MSS, and we know that ultimately it fell out of use and was completely replaced by [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which became the standard form. Thus we might expect that in the MS texts found at Maawangduei [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which date to the early second century B.C., the form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] would predominate. This is not the case. An examination of the MSS published in the first and third volume of Maawangduei Hannmuh borshu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (hereafter MWD 1 and MWD 3) reveals a total of nineteen occurrences of the older form (written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and none of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (6) The manuscript texts extant today are but a small sample of those that must have been written during the period from the late fourth to early second century B.C., and we have no way of knowing to what extent the preference for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the MWD MSS or its absence from the earlier GD MSS was representative of contemporary usage. The evidence only allows us to conclude that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] had not completely displaced [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] by the beginning of the W. Hann.

WORDS DEFINED IN THE SHUOWEN JIEETZYH

In the SWJTZ, Sheu Shenn distinguishes the two characters [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as representing different words. His entry for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reads as follows:

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Wanq refers to the moon being full. [The moon] and the sun gaze at each other. [This] resembles paying court to the lord. [The graph] is derived from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] derived from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and derived from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [The element] \\ is the court. (p. 391) (7)

The subsequent entry for the archaic variant reads:

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [The graph] is an archaic form. It is an abbreviation of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wanq. (p. 391)

Compare the entry for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Wanq refers to someone having gone out and disappeared abroad, [the act of] gazing for his return. It is derived from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is abbreviated and serves as the phonetic component. (p. 640)

In short, Sheu Shenn treats the two forms as different characters representing different words, \\ standing for a noun meaning "full moon," and \\ for a verb meaning "look into the distance," rather than understanding them as graphic variants. In a note to the Shuowen entry for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Duann Yuhtsair \\ (1735-1815) further remarks that the two graphs were frequently confused with each other (SWJTz, p. 640), demonstrating that he accepted Sheu Shenn's belief that they were not simply interchangeable allographs. (8)

USAGE IN WESTERN JOU BRONZE INSCRIPTIONS

Evidence from bronze inscriptions shows that the prescriptive distinction made by Sheu Shenn did not apply during the W. Jou, for the two graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] were not and strictly distinguished, but were used interchangeably in reference to the lunar phase "full moon." In the bronzes wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] meaning "full moon" typically occurs in the phrase jih wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'after the full moon', as in the following examples: (9)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... in the fifth month, after the full moon, on the shinyeou day... Chern chem yeou [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ...it was the fifth month, after the full moon, on the jeatzyy day... Juann yeou [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was used in precisely the same way, although it was less common.

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] It was the ninth month, after the full moon, on the jeashiu day... Wu huey diing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

The form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was also employed to represent the homophonous word wanq < mjang(H) < *mjang 'forget', later conventionally written with the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The JWGL entry for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] contains three examples of this sort. (10)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Let not grandchildren and children dare forget the lord's beneficence. Shiaan jii goei [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

In addition to these cases, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] also was used for names. (11)

While the W. Jou bronze evidence shows a wider range of usage for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] than for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], we must keep in mind that in the bronze inscriptions, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs with much greater frequency; JWGL, for example, contains more than ten cases of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for every one of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. What evidence we have shows that the two graphs were interchangeable in the most common usage, "full moon," and it would be a mistake to assume that was more limited in its range of usage, that is, to assume that it could not have been employed to represent proper nouns or the word wanq 'forget'.

None of the examples for either graph listed in JWGL or in Jinwen guulin buu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (JWGLB) suggests the meaning "look into the distance," and the entry in Jinwen charngyonq tzyhdean [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Chern Chu sheng 1992, 794) does not include this as a possible gloss. We ought not interpret this lack of bronze inscription examples as indicating that the meaning "look into the distance" only came to be associated with the graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] much later, particularly since it is accepted as a standard gloss of the SBI graphic equivalent; rather, we should keep in mind that the bronze inscriptions covered a narrow range of topics and employed a limited vocabulary, and it is entirely possible that we have no extant examples of the word wanq meaning "look into the distance" in the bronzes because context rarely if ever required its use. (12)

USAGE IN MANUSCRIPT TEXTS

In contrast with the bronze inscriptions, in the GD and MWD MSS, the word wanq 'full moon' does not occur at all. The GD MSS contain five cases of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or a graphically related variant, and the MWD texts contain twenty-two instances of the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In twelve of the MWD examples and at least one of the GD examples, the word represented means "look into the distance" or "hope."

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]... Neighboring countries gaze at one another. MWD Laotzyy (B MS), line 205a (13)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]... The sun and moon gaze at each other... MWD shyrliow jing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (B Ms), line 86a

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]... The Hundred Surnames have had their hope cut off with regard to their superiors... MWD Jeou juu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (A MS), line 400

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]... I have lost hope... MWD Janngwo tzongherngjia shu 12, line 98

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The master said, "If he serves as the superior, he can be gazed at and understood." GD Tzy'yi [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] strip 03 (14)

In the MWD MSS, there is one instance of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] representing a person's name, Taygong Wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in the received version written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; the GD MSS also contains a single case of a personal name, Leu Wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], traditionally written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (15)

Throughout both MWD Laotzyy MSS, the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is consistently used where the received text has [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hoang < xwangx < */hmang?, (16) in all but one instance in conjunction with the word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hu < xwot < *hmut, written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the B MS version. (17)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] MWD Laotzyy (A MS), Il. 132-33

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], MWD Laotzyy (B MS), 11. 236a/b

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Laotzyy ch. 21, received text

As for the Way constituting a thing, it is c]ear, it is confused. Confused! Clear! within it is an image. Clear! Confused! within it is a thing. (18)

The use of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] where the received text has [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hoang accounts for eight of its twenty-two occurrences in the MWD MSS.

Both the GD and MWD MSS contain cases of graphic interchange based on homophony. In the MWD MS the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] conventionally used for wanq 'forget', is used in place of wanq 'look into the distance':

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] I gazed until I did not see her. MWD Wuu shyng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (A MS), line 225 (19)

Similarly, the GD MS contains at least two cases in which a form transcribed as modem represents the word wang 'lack' now usually written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (synonymous with wu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]): (20)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] All creatures are born of nothingness. GD, Yeutsorng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] I strip 01

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] All creatures are born of nothingness. GD, Yeutsorng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1 strip 104

It is clear, then, that the prescriptive distinction laid out by Sheu Shenn was not strictly observed at any point in pre-Hana China for which manuscript or inscriptional evidence is available. In the bronzes, both forms were used to represent the word meaning "full moon." That the older form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] predominated in W. Jou bronze inscriptions may have been because this form was more closely associated with "full moon," but it could just as easily have been because the newer form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] had not yet gained widespread currency. Similarly, we do not have any evidence indicating when the form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] fell out of regular use, though as we shall see below, it appears that the word "full moon" with which Sheu Shenn associated it was likely obsolete by the Warring States period if not earlier.

USAGE IN RECEIVED VERSIONS OF PRE-HANN TEXTS

The Full Moon

Although the meaning most frequently associated with the graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the bronzes is "full moon," I have been able to locate only four instances of this usage in the concordanced pre-Hann received corpus, one in the Shanq shu and three in the line statements of the Yijjing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

In the bronzes the meaning 'full moon' is limited to the phrase jih wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'after the full moon'; that is, the word wanq is not used by itself in the sense "full moon." While jih wanq and other similar calendrical terms marking lunar phases (such as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] jih sheng poh 'after the growing brightness' or [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] jih syy poh 'after the dying brightness') were used regularly in the date notations of bronze inscriptions, they were not typically used to mark dates in other texts, even historical records that include other types of date notations such as the Chuenchiou [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] the Tzuoo juann [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or the Jwushu jihnian [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (21) The following passage containing the phrase jih wanq, found in the opening line of the "Shaw gaw" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] section of the Shanq shu, is unique.

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. It was the second month, after the full moon. (Shanq shu, p. 133)

The Yihjing occurrences differ from bronze inscription usage in that they are not date notations, but generic references to the moon being full.

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The moon is almost (?) full. Yihjing hexagram 9, 9/6 and Yihjing hexagram 54, 6/5 (22)

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The moon is completely full. Yihjing hexagram 61, 6/4

To Look into the Distance

While I have been unable to find in the bronzes any cases of the word wanq meaning "look into the distance," in the received corpus--as in the MWD MSS--instances of wanq 'look into the distance' and 'hope' far exceed any other type of usage.

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The Marklord of Chyi climbed Mount Wu in order to look into the distance at the Jinn troops. Tzuoo juann Shiang 18, p. 1038

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Our ruler Lord Jung stretched his neck and looked west into the distance. Tzuoo juann Cherng 18, p. 863

In addition to the concrete sense of looking into the distance, the word wanq also has the more abstract sense of "hope" or "expect," that is, to look into the distance of the future.

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. My boy, [you] are the hope of the state of Chuu. Tzuoo juann Jau 12, p. 1340

The wanq Sacrifice

The word wanq also refers to a type of ritual or sacrifice. As far as I have been able to determine, it is used in this sense only in received texts. Traditionally the waq sacrifice is understood as a sacrifice to mountains and rivers. The earliest mentions of the wanq sacrifice appear in the "Yaudean" [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of the Shanq shu:

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Then [Shuenn] made the ley-sacrifice to Shanqdih, he made the ian-sacrifice to the six temples, he made the wanq-sacrifice to the mountains and rivers, and he made the comprehensive sacrifices to the various deities. Shanq shu, "Yaudean," p.30

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In the second month of the year, [Shuenn] made an inspection tour to the east, and arrived at Mount Day. He made a burnt offering, and performed the wanq sacrifice in the appropriate order to mountains and streams. Shanq shu, "Yaudean," p.31

Later texts show that the wanq sacrifice was associated with the mountains and rivers within a specific area:

[CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. At first when King Jau [of Chuu] had a severe illness, they divined about it, and said, "The River God is doing the cursing." The king did not sacrifice to it. The grandees requested to sacrifice to [the River God] on the outskirts. The king said, "The Three Dynasties mandated the offerings; the sacrifices do not exceed wanq. The Jiang, Hann, Suei, and Jang are the wanq of Chuu. The arrival of calamity and good fortune will not go across these. Even though I, the unworthy one, am not virtuous, it is not the River God that I have offended." Consequently they did not sacrifice to it. Tzuoo Ai 6, p. 1636

This passage explicitly states that the wanq are four rivers; according to Takezoe Shin'ichiro (1986, 38) these rivers were at the borders of the state of Chuu [CHINESE CHARACTER NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. "Not exceeding wanq" thus must mean not sacrificing to rivers--such as the Her River--beyond those four rivers mentioned, and wanq here can be understood to refer to the rivers that defined a particular area, i.e., the boundaries of an area, and by extension to the sacrifice offered to the spirits associated with the rivers (and elsewhere, mountains) that marked those boundaries.

In translating a passage from Shi 31 in the Tzuoo juann, Legge renders the phrase [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as "Still he offered the sacrifices to the three objects of Survey." (23) By using the phrase "the three objects of Survey," Legge shows that he understands the wanq sacrifice to be associated with the meaning "look into the distance," and by extension, the sacrifice performed to those things one sees when one looks into the distance. I think that Legge is essentially correct, although since the term "survey" has the literal sense of "overlook" or "look over," I would instead propose the translation "vista," that is, what one sees when one looks to the distant horizon. (24)

It seems best, then, to understand the wanq sacrifice as derived from wanq 'look into the distance', which by the Warring States period had taken on the added meaning of a sacrifice performed to those mountains and streams that demarcated the boundaries of a ruler's dominion. The association between the boundaries of a state and the wanq sacrifice may be a rather late one; I have found no clear evidence of it prior to the received texts dating to the Warring States period, and so we can infer that the understanding of wanq as some sort of a border sacrifice (as opposed to a "vistas" sacrifice to landmarks seen in the distance) was a later, derivative sense not directly related to the original meaning ("look into the distance") of the word. (25)

PHONOLOGICAL EVIDENCE AND OC RECONSTRUCTION

The Goangyunn [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] contains two readings each for the graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], glossed "full moon" and "gaze," respectively, one in the pyng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], or level, tone and one in the chiuh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], or departing, tone. In modern dialects the normal reading is departing tone, as in Mardarin wanq; the level-tone reading has apparently not survived into modern times. By contrast, there is ample evidence in the Shyjing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and in rhyming passages in the MWD MSS for an OC reading that would have been reflected in MC level tone, while evidence for an OC reading that would have resulted in MC departing tone is sparse. That in the bronzes the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was used as a loan for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wanq < mjang(H) < *mjang 'forget', and in the MWD MSS the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was used in place of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'gaze', together with the use of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wang <mjang < *mjang 'lack' in the GD MSS, gives strong evidence that the words conventionally represented by [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] were homophones in OC and provides further support for an OC level-tone reading. It would, of course, be convenient if a one-to-one correspondence could be established between the two distinct readings and the two meanings; unfortunately, the data are insufficient to do so, as the only rhyming evidence is associated with the meaning "to gaze." (26)

While the evidence does not indicate any phonological distinction between the words wanq 'to gaze' and wanq 'full moon', it does suggest that a slightly altered reconstruction [wanq] < mjang < * mjang (where brackets indicate an irregular development) might more accurately reflect the OC evidence. For the present, I have adopted a compromise between this and the standard departing-tone reconstruction, placing in parentheses the OC post-coda *-s which developed into the departing tone: wanq < mjang(H) < * mjang(s).

WORD FAMILIES

The graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] represented at least two words, neither of which was continuously attested during the first millennium B.C. The word glossed "look into the distance" (possibly just "look" in the SBI) is found in the Shang bone inscriptions but is not present in the W. Jou bronzes. It appears again in the GD and MWD MSS, and throughout the received pre-Hann corpus. Despite a hiatus of several centuries for which we have no hard data, it seems reasonable to assume that the word itself did not fall out of use, but merely suffered the misfortune of not being recorded on a non-perishable medium, and that the association between the graph (in some form) and the word was continuous from the Shang dynasty.

By contrast, the word "full moon" is in evidence only in the W. Jou bronzes and in three cases in the received corpus. I have been unable to find any example of jih wanq 'after the full moon' in the E. Jou bronzes. This may be because of a change in the way dates were recorded; it could also be because the term was no longer current. In any event, it seems all but certain that this word was obsolete by the late Warring States period if not earlier. I have summarized the attested forms and the two words most commonly associated with them, *mjang(s) 'look into the distance' and *mjang(s) 'full moon', in Table A.

While it is relatively easy to establish a semantic relationship among "look into the distance," "hope" (a sort of mental looking into the distance of the future), and the wanq "vista" sacrifice, it is quite a bit more difficult to argue that these terms are in any way related to the word for "full moon." (27) And indeed, it appears that words represented by the graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] can be divided into two sets, which are not only unrelated in any superficial way, but which can be linked to completely different word families.

Let us return for a moment to Sheu Shenn's gloss for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] In defining wanq 'look into the distance', he writes:

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] * Wanq refers to someone having gone Out and disappeared abroad, [the act of] gazing for his return.

In other words, wanq is not simply looking into the distance; it is looking far away in order to see something that has gone away or disappeared. When one looks off into the distance, things gradually become dimmer and hazier, and then there is a point at which the sky and horizon appear to meet. The technical term for this is "vanishing point." Thus a semantic relationship can be seen between wanq 'look into the distance' and wang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] 'disappear, perish, vanish'. The line from the Shyjing ("Ian'ian," Mau 28) "I gazed [[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII]] until I did not see her," also suggests the idea of looking into the distance after something that has vanished from sight. Other related words include mang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] 'blind, having lost eyesight' or 'dim, darkened', and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] mang 'distant, hazy', i.e., how things appear as one looks toward the vanishing point, or when in the p rocess of vanishing. The word wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] 'forget, to have vanished from the mind' also belongs to this group of words; perhaps the use of the graph to represent wanq 'forget' in the bronzes and of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] for t 'lack' in the GD MSS occurred not only for phonological reasons, but also because of this semantic link. The common thread among all of these words is "vanish."

The full moon is the brightest object in the night sky, and if I have correctly identified the word family for wanq 'look into the distance' with "vanish" as the fundamental common semantic element, then clearly we must look elsewhere to find the word family to which the word wanq 'full moon' belongs.

There is no shortage of words with the meaning "light" or "bright" that are phonologically similar to 'full moon' wanq < mjang(s). In fact, one of the commonest Classical Chinese words for "bright," ming < *mriang, is nearly homophonous with wanq < * mjang(s). Both had the same initial (* m-) and belonged to the same OC rhyme group (Yang *ang), and both had what became MC Division-III finals. The two words may have differed in tone, and Baxter reconstructs them with different sets of medials to account for the fact that they are reflected in separate MC rhymes (ming in Yang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] and wanq in Geng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII]. Of the several other words that may also belong to this word family listed in Table C, all belong to the OC Yang rhyme group, and all but one have labial or labialized initials. These words have in common the sense "bright." (28)

PHONETIC COMPONENTS

Based on the evidence set forth above, we can identify at least three major stages in the history of the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII]. The earliest attested form, found in the bone inscriptions, was equivalent to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII]; this form also occurs in at least one early bronze inscription. To this graph the element was added, resulting in [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII], the commonest bronze form. At some point after this, the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] was added, ultimately replacing to form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII], the graph most often seen today. While in those graphs containing the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] (including the GD variants equivalent to and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII], and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII], neither of which is reflected in the standardized orthography) it almost certainly served as a phonetic c omplement, that is, as a secondary graphic component added to indicate pronunciation, the phonetic constituent of the earlier form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] is far less obvious. Three possibilities exist: [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII], [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] (~[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII]), and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII]. (29)

Let us first examine the component [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Although this element is conventionally associated with the readings yueh < ngjwot < *[ng.sup.w]jat 'moon' and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shi < zjek < *z(l)jAk 'night', it may also have been used to write the word ming < mjaeng < *mrjang 'bright, brighten' which later came to be written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Karlgren 1957, 219; see also Boltz 1994, 66). (30) In this reading, it is nearly homophonous with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wanq < mjang(H) < *mjang(s).

The graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is first attested in the early W. Jou bronzes, representing a word meaning "full moon." That [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in the SBI associated with the meaning "look," was used for "full moon" on the early W. Jou Bao yeou demonstrates that the older form was polysemous, if only for a brief period. It is likely, then, that the 'moon' ~ 'bright' element was added to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as a semantic determinative, indicating that the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was intended to represent a word with the same pronunciation, *mjang(s), as the word "look into the distance" (or possibly simply "look") written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], but whose meaning was associated with "moon" or "bright." Indeed, the two forms may have co-existed for some time, with the older form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] continuing to represent primarily, though not exclusive ly, the word meaning "look (into the distance)," and the innovative form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] standing for the homophonous word "full moon." The phonological similarity between [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mrjang 'bright' and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mjang(s) 'full moon' cannot have been coincidental, and it is probable that in addition to indicating a semantic association with 'moon ~ brighten', the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] also served as a phonetic complement.

At some point, the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] came to be used in place of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to write the word meaning "look into the distance" in addition to "full moon." Because this word is unattested in the W. Jou bronzes we are unable to say how early this occurred; certainly it was a regular phenomenon by the time the MWD MSS were written in the beginning of the second century B.C.

It is possible to identify a phonetic constituent in the SBI form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]? Both of its components appear to be phonologically quite different from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wanq < mjang(H) < *mjang(s). Boodberg argued that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tiing < tghengX < *hleng?, glossed 'courtyard', for which he gave *t'ieng < *BDeng ~ *BDang or *BSeng ~ *BSang, was the phonetic in [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wanq < *[mi.sup.w]ang 'to look from a distance, to pay homage', and also in [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ting < *t'ieng < *BDeng 'court, hall', which he linked to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tarng < *d'ang < *BDang 'hall'; he moreover suggested that there existed an underlying semantic relationship between tiing 'court' and wanq 'pay homage to' (1937, 348 n. 44).

Boodberg's theory is far from compelling, for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *hleng? and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mjang(s) are in different rhyme groups and have different initial consonants. (31) Furthermore, his gloss 'to pay homage to', apparently based on Sheu Shenn's entry, is at best questionable with regard to the graph as it was used in the early received corpus, and is not supported by bronze and bone evidence. We cannot entirely rule out the possibility that at a much earlier stage of the language, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] played a phonetic role in the SBI graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], but this does not seem very likely.

The component [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], in origin a pictograph of an eye, is traditionally read chern < dzyin < *gjin, and thus we might immediately assume that it should be dismissed from consideration. Yet [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], like [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], may have been associated with multiple pronunciations. In the SBI, the word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shianq < sjang(H) < *sjang(s) 'see' appears to have sometimes been written with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] instead of with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (32) The element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may have functioned as the phonophoric in this graph, which otherwise has no readily identifiable phonetic component. That [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] * sjang (s) and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRO DUCIBLE IN ASCII] mjang(s) had different initials does not exclude the possibility of such a relationship, for there were almost certainly contacts between words with the initials s- and .m; a well-known example is [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] sang < mjang < *mjang 'vanish', 'perish', likely cognate to sang <sang < *smang 'mourn' (Baxter 1992, 224-25). The element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may also have been the original phonophoric in the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tzang < tsang < *tsang 'good'. (33) Although Sheu Shenn took the phonetic component to be [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (SWJTz p. 119), and Karlgren stated that it was [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (GSR entry 207), Yu Shiingwu gives the SBI form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (entry 0656); perhaps [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was the phono-phoric of this graph, which otherwise has no apparent phonetic component. The graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] goanq < kjwangH < *[k.sup.w]jangs 'oppose' and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] goang <kjwangx < *[k.sup.w]jang? 'run away in fright,' the latter attested as SBI [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Yu Shiingwu, entry 0658), also suggest a link between a labialized initial and final *-ang and the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (34)

We might then speculate that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'eye' may have been the etymonic in the bone form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] associating the word with the meaning "look" and a pronunciation in the Yang *-ang rhyme group. We could even tentatively propose that the word meaning "look [into the distance (?)]" found in the SBI belonged to a word family associated with "looking" and also including the word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shianq 'look at'. The word shiing < *sjeng? 'scrutinize' is usually reconstructed with final *-eng, but Sheu Shenn gives the archaic form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (p. 137), suggesting a possible *-ang reading, and so [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]~ [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *sjang? (?) may be a member of this group as well. (35)

At the next stage, first attested in the W. Jou bronzes, the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] associated with the reading ming < mjaeng < *mrjang, was added to form the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] This element too served a dual role, primarily functioning as a semantic determinative linking the graph with the word meaning "full moon" and secondarily as a phonetic complement reinforcing the graph's association with the pronunciation *mjang(s). It may also have distinguished the new graph, used to write the word "full moon," from the older graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] that stood for the homophonous word meaning "look."

A further innovation was the addition of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to form the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] first attested in the W. Jou bronzes, as well as the GD MS variants [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The evidence does not allow us to determine whether the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was originally regarded as distinct from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] representing a different word ("look into the distance" rather than "full moon"), or if it was simply considered a variant of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], as it came to be actually used. With regard to the form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], used for wanq 'look afar', it seems that the element was replaced with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which also had a semantic association with "looking." From this we may infer that by the time the GD MSS were written, at least seven centuries after the earliest attested case of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was no longer polyphonic and thus was no longer understood as a phonetic component. That also does not occur in the variants [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPROD UCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. suggests that it likewise was not an essential graphic component. It was not necessary for semantic reasons, for none of these graphs was used for the word "full moon," and perhaps, like [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the phonetic value of this previously polyphonic element had come to be limited to a single reading. When the association between [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the reading *mrjang became unclear, such that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] had no apparent phonetic component, the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mrjang was then added as a new phonetic complement. Parallel to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mrjang 'brighten', which was both phonologically and semantically related to wanq < *mjang(s) 'full moon', [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mjang 'vanish' was both phonologically and semantically linked to the word wanq < *mjang(s) 'look into the distance'.

In his entry for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Sheu Shenn states that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is abbreviated and functions as the phonophoric, and that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is derived from [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], indicating his belief that the constituent [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] had a semantic, rather than a phonetic, role. In fact, it seems quite likely that it served a dual function as well. While the prescriptive distinction made by Sheu Shenn, according to which the graph was used for the word meaning "look into the distance" and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for "full moon," may not have been strictly observed (and certainly was not in the bronzes or the GD and MWD Mss), the semantic association he observed between "look into the distance" and the graph containing the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was nonetheless sound.

If my conjecture that wanq < [[blank].sup.*]mjang(s) 'look into the distance' was originally cognate with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shianq < [[blank].sup.*]sjang(s) 'look' is accurate, then what of my claim regarding its relationship with the word family associated with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Wang [[blank].sup.*]mjaflg 'vanish'? That the perception of an etymological relationship existed is demonstrated not only by Sheu Shenn's entry, but also by the line from the Shyjing (Mau 28), where the word wanq in the compound [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] janwanq < [[blank].sup.*]tjam-mjang(s) refers to gazing after something that has vanished from sight. It is possible, and in my view, quite likely, that the relationship was no more than a perceived one, and that the two words were not truly cognate. In other words, the semantic link with "vanish" may have been a later development, perhaps because of the phonological similarity between wanq < [[blank].sup .*]mjang(s) and other words in that word family, and the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may have been created as a result of the semantic and phonetic association. Another possibility is that the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was initially employed purely for its phonological similarity to [[blank].sup.*]mjang(s), and that it was the use of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as a phonetic constituent in the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] that led to a semantic association between the word it represented and other words related to "vanish." Regardless of whether this semantic association preceded or followed the creation of the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] can still be understood to have both a phonetic and a semantic function, for despite the possibility that no actual cognate relationship existed, the perception of a semantic link between "vanish " and "look into the distance" was certainly present. (36)

By the first century of the common era, the word [[blank].sup.*]mjang(s) 'full moon' had been obsolete for centuries, and the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was headed in the same direction, if it had not already fallen out of use. Had the word "full moon" still been a current part of the lexicon, it is quite possible that the writing system would have rationalized itself such that instead of having two distinct graphs used interchangeably for two distinct words, a one-to-one correspondence between graph and word would have developed, and the state described in Sheu Shenn's prescriptive entries might have been realized in fact. Instead, two graphs existed and were for a time used interchangeably for a single word, "look into the distance." Not surprisingly, only one of those graphs remained current.

Why is it that the form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] rather than [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] became obsolete? We can only speculate. By the time that Sheu Shenn compiled the SWJTz, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] had no easily discernible phonetic component, in contrast to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Similarly, the semantic significance of the "eye" element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may have already become unclear; note that Sheu Shenn associated the graph, which also contains the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tiing 'court', with "paying court respects to the lord," suggesting that he understood the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as "vassal" rather than "eye." And finally, regardless of its original etymological affiliations, the word [[blank].sup.*]mjang(s) 'look into the distance' had become associated with the "vanish" word family, and thus it made sense to use a gra ph that contained [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [[blank].sup.*]mjang 'vanish' as a constituent.

CONCLUSIONS

According to the conventional understanding of the Chinese writing system, most graphs are shyeshengtzyh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], graphs that share a phonetic constituent, in English usually referred to as phonetic compounds. The shyesheng analysis, first systematically employed by Sheu Shenn, traditionally draws a clear distinction between the "semantic component" and the "phonetic component" of a graph. While Sheu Shenn usually labels graphic elements as one or the other, he occasionally notes that a constituent plays a dual role, stating that a graph is "derived" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tsorng from a particular constituent, which "also serves as the phonetic component" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] yih sheng. Similarly, the term "etymonic" has been used to refer to elements that are both phonetic and semantic in function; specifically, it denotes "a core graphic constituent of a character that has both a phonetic and a semantic relation to the word for which the character stands" (Boltz 1994, 180).

The case I have described in this paper clearly does not fit the standard wisdom, for the distinction between "phonetic" and "semantic" elements is muddy at best, and I have argued that each of the three components [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] had a dual function. Of these constituents, only one, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], might properly be labeled an etymonic, for the other two are secondary elements, not "core graphic constituents." While [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may have functioned as a semantic determinative in the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] when it was used to write the word "full moon," it also had a phonetic function; likewise, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] may have served as a phonetic complement, but it also had a semantic role when the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] stood for the word "look into the distance." In this situation, the terms "phonetic component" and "semantic coml)onent" fail to reflect accurately the complexity of the development of the writing system, for the presence of a "phonetic and semantic relation" between a graphic component and the word it represented was not limited to primary constituents but extended to secondary elements as well. That this should be the case is not surprising, for it follows very naturally from the fact that words that sound alike often have similar meanings, and vice versa. Indeed, it is the relationship between sound and meaning that enables us to identify word families and cognate words. Boodberg (1937, 336) coined the term "etymonic determinative" to refer to secondary determinative elements that had a semantic and phonetic function; perhaps this is the most appropriate term for components such as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mrjang in the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] when it stood for the word *mjang(s) 'full moon', and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mjang in the graph when it represented the word *mjang(s) 'look into the distance'.

Even if the dual role of secondary elements is more widespread than commonly recognized, the case of wanq < *mjang(s) [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is nevertheless a curious one, occurring as it did in an unusual junction of polygraphy and polysemy: two graphs were used interchangeably to stand for two etymologically unrelated words, and of the four constituent elements present in these two graphs, three (and perhaps all four, if we accept Boodbcrg's arguments) bore a semantic and phonetic relationship to one of the words the graph represented.
Table A

Attested forms and associated words

 'look into 'full
 the distance' moon'

SBI [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT --
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
W. Jou Bronzes -- [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]



GD MSS [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT --
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]


MWD MSS [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT --
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]


Shuowen [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
received [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
pre-Hann texts REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (rare)

 phonetic
 loans

SBI ?

W. Jou Bronzes [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for
 [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
 'forget'
GD MSS [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for
 [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'lack'
MWD MSS [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for
 [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT
 REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'gaze'
Shuowen --

received --
pre-Hann texts

Table B

Group 1, 'vanish'


[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] wanq < mjang(H)



[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] wang < mjang

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] wanq < mjang(H)
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] mang < maeng

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] mang < mang


[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < * mjang(s)



[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < * mjang

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < * mjang
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < * mrang

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < * mang


[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] look into the
 distance;
 hope; vista
 sacrifice
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] disappear, perish;
 destroy
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] forget
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] darkened, dim;
 blind
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] distant, hazy

Table C

Group 2, 'bright'


[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] wanq < mjang(H)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] ming < mjaeng

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] hwang < hwang
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] hwang < hwangX
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] guang < kwang
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] lianq < ljangH


[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < *mjang(s)

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < *mrjang

[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < *wang
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < *wang?
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < *[k.sup.w]ang
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] < *C-rjangs


[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] full (= brightest)
 moon
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] brighten,
 luminous
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] glorious, august
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] bright
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] brilliance
[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] light


This is a substantially expanded and revised version of a paper presented at the 210th annual meeting of the American Oriental Society, in March, 2000. I am very grateful to Professors William G. Boltz and Zev Handel for reading multiple drafts and offering me numerous insightful suggestions and corrections. I am also indebted to the Journal's anonymous referees for their helpful comments and criticisms.

(1.) Middle Chinese transcriptions and Old Chinese reconstructions are given according to the system laid out in Baxter 1992. Strictly speaking, OC did not have tone; MC tonal distinctions were likely derived from OC final consonants (or "post-codas," as Baxter calls them). For convenience, I will use the term "tone" in reference to both MC tones and OC post-codas. My reasons for placing the post-coda [*.sup.-s], which developed into a chiuh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (departing) tone, in parentheses, are discussed below in the section on phonological evidence.

(2.) One case of the bronze form corresponding to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appears both in the entry for (8-1118x) and in that for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (12-1621a). I have counted this only once, among the entries for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(3.) The form [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appears on vessels throughout the W. Jou. The two occurrences of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] listed in JWGL appear on the Wu hucy diing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the Shiou parn [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] According to Shirakawa, the Wu huey diing has been assigned dates as early as King Muh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (reg. 956-918 B.C.) and as late as King Shiuan [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (827-782 B.C.) (Shirakawa 26 [153]: 34) and the Shiou parn had been dated to the reign of King Shiuan (Shirakawa 25 [146]: 296). Reign dates follow Shaughnessy 1991, appendix 3, "Absolute Chronology of the Western Zhou."

(4.) Specifically, it is used in the phrase jih wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'after the full moon'. This is precisely the same usage seen with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in other W. Jou bronzes. See JWGL 8-1118a and Shirakawa 4(16): 175.

(5.) Two other graphs appearing on Yeutsorng 2, strip 03, have also been transcribed as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. It is not at all clear from context what word these graphs represent, but because they occur in the initial and final positions on the strip, in a series of strips that begin and end with the same graph, it is almost certain that they are variant forms intended to represent the same word. Although in the Guodiann Chuumuh jwujean they are transcribed wanq (p. 203) not all scholars agree (e.g., they are not included among graphs for in the Guodiann Chuujean wentzyh bian) and in both cases, the top portion does not look like any of the other graphs in the GD MSS that are normally transcribed [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(6.) The bulk of MWD 1 consists of two MS versions of the Laotzyy, Dawder jing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appended to each of these MSS are several smaller texts with no received counterparts. I shall refer to the jea [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] version of the Laotzyy and the texts appended to it as the A MS and the yii [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] version and appended texts as the B MS. MWD 3 contains a group of texts known as the Chuenchiou shyhyeu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] many of which have parallels in the Tzuoo juant, and the Janngwo tzongherngjia shu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] which includes texts with received counterparts in the Janngwo tseh.

(7.) It is worth noting that, while no portion of Sheu Shenn's entries for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs elsewhere in the concordanced Hann or pre-Hann corpus, the line ryh yueh shianq wanq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "The sun and moon gaze at each other," appears in the MWD Ms text known as the Shyrliow jing [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (BMS, line 86a; also B MS line 108a) which has no counterpart in the received tradition. While we cannot argue that Sheu Shenn took this line directly from the Shyrliow jing, the evidence clearly indicates that part of his gloss draws on a textual precedent that predates the SWJTz by at least two and a half centuries. This should not surprise us; indeed, it leaves one wondering just how many of Sheu Shenn's entries were derived from textual material that is no longer extant.

(8.) Duann writes [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] "Now, for the most part people confuse them with each other."

(9.) Transcriptions follow those found in JWGL except that the editors have transcribed both forms ([CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; I have transcribed [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] according to the original graph.

(10.) The other two examples appear on the Jiuh goei [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the Li jiu tzuen [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(11.) Examples of its use as a name are found on the Wanqjyue and the Shy Wanq hwu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. No examples of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as a name appear in the JWGL or JWGLB entries.

(12.) A careful examination of the inscriptions Shirakawa records in his index as containing the graph written as modern [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (he does not distinguish [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) confirms the conclusions outlined in this section: of some forty occurrences, most of which overlap with JWGL, we find twenty-seven cases of jih wanq, eight cases where the graph stands for "forget" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and five where it represents a person's name. There are no clear examples in which the bronze graph containing the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) represents anything other than "full moon," although there are a few cases where the image of the inscription is unclear, and I cannot determine whether the graph in question corresponds to [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(13.) Cf. also the parallel section of the A MS version, on line 65.

(14.) This text corresponds to the Tzy'yi section of the Lii jili [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; the specific line in the received version reads [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

(15.) See MWD, Janngwo izongherngjia shu 23, line 250, which corresponds to Janngwo tseh 17 (Chuu 4), p. 582. For Leu Wanq, see GD, Chyongdar yiishyr [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] strip 04. This line has no transmitted counterpart, but the name Leu Wanq does appear in the received corpus (see, e.g., Shyyjih [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 73.2335, 99.2715) and he is traditionally regarded as identical to Taygong Wanq. Both Shyyjih 4.128 n. 12 and the line in the MWD text describe him as being enfeoffed at Chyi.

(16.) The phonetic constitueat of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] guang < kwang < *[k.sup.w]ang, which had a labiovelar initial. Baxter notes that both and *hm- *hw- are reflected in MC xw- (1992, 189 and 215). Reconstructing a labiolaryngeal (*hw-) might better account for the shyesheng contact with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] but given the interchange with the labial nasal initial in *m- in [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *mjang(s) and the association with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] *hmut, which had a voiceless nasal initial *hm-, the evidence seems to favor reconstructing the initial *hm- for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(17.) See the B MS, line 229b (cf. ch. 14 of the received text of Laotzyy; the corresponding portion of the A MS is damaged); B MS line 234b (cf. ch. 20; the corresponding portion of the A MS 15 damaged); and A MS lines 132-33 and B MS 236a/b (cf. ch. 21). Once each on lines 131 of the A MS and 235b of the B Ms we find [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurring in conjunction with [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hu where the received text (ch. 20) has [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] liau < *C-rjiw 'high wind'. These two instances are not merely cases of graphic variation, for the variants clearly stand for entirely different and non-homophonous words.

(18.) The word hoang is traditionally assigned a gloss such as 'confused' or 'muddled' (see, e.g., Karlgren's GSR entry 706j). Yet there is no apparent etymological basis for this: I have been unable to find any other phonologically similar words that are so understood, and no other words written with the constituent [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] have such a meaning. It seems possible that the gloss 'confused' is derived from the word's association with the better-understood term [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hu, 'confused, mixed up', with which it always occurs in pre-Hann texts. Perhaps, then, instead of being two synonymous terms, hoang and hu may have been opposites, 'clear' and 'confused.' This reading makes sense in the Latozyy passage cited above, and ideally we should be able to find other pre-Hann passages containing this phrase to test whether or not the proposed new reading works; unfortunately I have been unable to locate any other occurrences of hoanghu in the co ncordanced pre-Hann corpus.

(19.) Cf. Mau shy [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 28, "Ian'ian," which contains the line [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Lines 225-26 of the Wuu shyng text contain a sixteen-character section parallel to Mau 28, and again in lines 184-85 there is a twenty-four-character section parallel to Mau 28. In the second of these the word janwanq < *tjam-mjang(s) 'gaze into the distance' is written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], with the conventional graph for wanq rather than [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(20.) See Chyou Shiguei's note, Guodiann Chuumuh jwujean, 200 n. 1.

(21.) The only occurrence of jih sheng poh in the Tzuoo juann does not refer to the lunar phase, but to the changes a person's spirit undergoes after death. See Yang Borjiunn 1991, Jau 7, p. 1292.

(22.) For hexagram 54 see Shaughnessy 1996, 95, and also pp. 302-3, nn. 9 and 10. Shaughnessy notes that for hexagram 54 the received text [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The moon is almost full," differs in two respects from the MWD MS text [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. "The day's moon is completely full" (hexagram 29 in the MS version). First, the MS text contains the word ryh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'day' and second, the MS text has jih 'completed' rather than jii almost'. With respect to the first difference, Shaughnessy argues that the received text is probably correct, since neither of the other occurrences of yueh... wanq contain the word ryh. Shaughnessy does not comment on the discrepancy between jih in the MS and jii in the received version, and we cannot make a judgment as to which is "correct" based on other occurrences in the text, as there is one case each of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] it is not impossible that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]jii < kjij < *kjij was an allograph for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]jih < kjijH < < *kjits

(23.) The passage in full reads [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Legge translates, "In summer, in the fourth month, [the duke] divined a fourth time for [the day of] the border sacrifice. The divination was adverse, and so the victim was let go. Still he offered the sacrifices to the three objects of Survey." See Legge [1872] 1994, 218-19; see also p. 293 for his translation of a similar passage.

(24.) The word "survey" is derived from Latin supervidere: super- 'over' and videre 'to see'.

(25.) Even the Slianq shu passage is likely rather late; Shaughnessy writes that the Yaudean was "composed in the last centuries of the Chou dynasty" (1993, 378), and Martin Kern notes that the order of Shuenn's tours of inspection and the correlation of the four directions with the appropriate seasons according to the Five Phases (wuushyng) cosmology "betrays a rather late date of composition of this portion of the text" (Kern 2000, 110-11 n. 120). Thus there appears to be no early evidence for the existence of the wanq "vista" sacrifice at all.

One might suggest that wanq in the sense of a "border" sacrifice may have been related to the word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] jiang < kjang < *kjang 'boundary', 'limit', which is in the same OC rhyme group (Yang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]), but I think this is unlikely, for *kjang had a velar initial while *mjang had a labial initial.

(26.) In the Shyjing the word wanq 'to gaze' (always written with the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], as is typical in the received corpus (occurs as a rhyme-word four times, in four different odes, Mau 61, 136, 225, and 252. Of the eight words with which it rhymes, seven are level tone: [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] harng < hang < *gang in Mau 61; [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tang < thang < *hlang in Mau 136; [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hwang < hwang < *gwang and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] jang < tsyang < *tjang in Mau 225; [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] arng < ngang < *ngang, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] jang < tsyang < *tjang, and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] gang < kang < *kang in Mau 252. In only one case (136) does it rhyme with a departing-tone word, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shanq < dzyangH < *djangs, and the other rhyme word in this s tanza is the level-tone word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tang. Thus we might conclude that in the Shyjing, the primary (if not the only) reading for wang 'to gaze' was in the level tone. In the MWD MS text Shyrliow jing, while the graph used is [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], it too stands for the word wang 'to gaze', and similar to the Shyjing, it always rhymes with level-tone words: [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] hwang < hwang < *gwang (or possibly *wang, see Baxter 1992, 216), [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] dang < tang < *tang, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [:[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] iang < ?jang < *?jang, [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [shyng] <haeng < *grang, and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kuang < khwjang < *kwhjang. See Shyrliow jing (A MS) lines 108a, h and 86a, b. Further support for a level tone reading lies in the fact that the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT R EPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] was borrowed in the bronzes and in the MWD MS texts to represent the word wang < mjang(x) < *mjang, con ventionally written [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and thus may be presumed to have been homophonous; although wanq 'forget' is reflected in a modern departing tone, in all of its nine occurrences as a rhyme word in the Shyjing it rhymes in level tone.

(27.) To be sure, the SWJTz entry for wanq 'full moon', which as we have seen incorporates a line from a much earlier textual tradition, employs the word wanq 'gaze', yet it does not necessarily follow that the two words were etymologically related. Rather, Sheu Shenn's entry illustrates the tendency, particularly prevalent during the Hann, to employ paronomasia in glosses. While wanq 'gaze' and wanq 'full moon' may not belong to the same word family, the two words were nevertheless closely associated with each other by virtue of graphic interchange and phonological identity; this association combined with the fact that the rising full moon is indeed illuminated by the "gaze" of the setting sun lends itself to the neat pun that appeared at least as early as the early second century B.C. Shyriliow jing and which Sheu Shenn then made explicit in his gloss of wanq 'full moon' in the SWJTz.

(28.) The word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] guang < *[k.sup.w]ang had a labiovelar initial. Baxter proposes to reconstruct the word [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] hwang with a labialized initial *w- on the basis of the phonetic element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] wang < *wjang. He notes that in Middle Chinese non-Division III words, the labialized initial * w- and the labiovelar *[g.sup.w]-merged; thus *[g.sup.w]ang is also a possible reconstruction for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] hwang (Baxter 1992, 216). He writes that [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] ming < *mrjang "is probably cognate to" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE OR ASCII] manq < * C-rjangs but does not elaborate (p.491).

(29.) Some might argue for a fourth possibility, namely, that this graph has no phonetic component at all. Following Boltz 1994, I do not believe this is a viable alternative. Boltz writes, "When characters occur with two or more constituent parts, and none appears to be phonophoric, we must assume that there is a phonetic element in the character somewhere that we have not yet uncovered" (p. 72).

(30.) Boodberg proposed that in the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], an early bronze inscription form of [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] functioned as a "phonetic-etymonic" (1937, 344 and [1940], 412f). His suggestion does not, of course, exclude the possibility that the element also had a phonetic and semantic function.

(31.) It may be possible to identify sets of words that appear to constitute word families and that exhibit potential contacts between the OC Yang *-ang and Geng *-eng rhyme groups, but there is no inter-rhyming between these two groups in the Shyjing. See, e.g., Karlgren 1934, 60-61, in which he proposes groups of phonologically and semantically similar words. Deserving particular attention are groups A1-19 (words related to "brightness"), A73-90 ("frighten"), and A115-117 ("fragrant"), all of which include words from the OC Yang and Geng rhyme groups. Yet Karlgren himself remarks, "I am very far from affirming that all the words in each group are cognate; I only mean to say that they may be suspected of being cognate" (p. 59, emphases original).

(32.) In standard modern Chinese, the graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is usually read shianq when it means "to look at," but according to the Goangyunn both level and departing tone readings are associated with the meaning "look." Unfortunately there is no rhyming evidence in the Shyjing. Thus, I have placed the post-coda *-s and its MC reflex -H in parentheses.

Typically the vertical 'eye' [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is transcribed [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the horizontal 'eye' [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is transcribed [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. See Yu Shiingwu 1996, 1: 633, entry 651 [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Chern Woeijann [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] has shown that there was some degree of interchange between the two forms when they functioned as components of characters, and gives several examples demonstrating the cases of interchange between bone graphs containing both forms. While it has been argued that the two forms [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] should be strictly distinguished, the former equivalent to modern [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the latter to modern [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Chern Woeijann shows that both forms are appropriately transcribed as modern [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Cited in Yu Shiingwu, 1:533-35, entry 601 [[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]: see also entries 648 [[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] and 657 [[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]]. Shima (1971, 111) also transcribes [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and Matsumaru and Takashima place the two SBI forms together in the same entry and list as the commonest transcription (1994, 110, entry 0464).

(33.) Cf. also [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] tsarng < dzangh < *fisrangs or *fitshang 'conceal' and tzanq < dzangH < *fitshangs or *fitsrangs 'treasure'. Note too that Bodman has proposed an initial cluster *st- for shianq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'appearance, quality' *sjangs < *stjangs(?) (cited by Baxter, p. 228).

(34.) See also Boodberg's remarks (1940, 412 n. 1; also 1937, 343 n. 33) in which he suggests some interchange between [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]in the graphs [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a suggestion supported by the bronze and bone forms of these graphs.

(35.) Several signs hint that these words may once have had an initial cluster *sm-. That the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [:[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] was sometimes used to write [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [:[CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] ming < mjaeng < *mrjang in the bronze inscriptions suggests the possibility of a consonant cluster *sm in the word - [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ~ [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]*smjang(?) As for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shianq, the term fang-shianq shyh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]'seer' (fang-shianq < *pjang-sjang(s)) may be a case of dimidiation reflecting an earlier initial cluster containing a labial consonant; see Boltz 1979, 431. The graph [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] with the element [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]it, is also suggestive, for [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] wang < *mjang seems to have been cognate with sang < *smang.

(36.) Similarly, while [[blank].sup.*]mjang(s) meaning "vista" sacrifice probably has no direct etymological relationship with any words meaning "borders," the existence of a rhyming word with a related meaning ([CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] jiang < kjang < [[blank].sup.*]kjang) may have created the perception of such a relationship.

REFERENCES

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Chern Chusheng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], comp. 1992. Jinwen charngyonq tzyhdean [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Gaushyong: Fuhwen twushu chubaansheh.

Chiu Wannlii [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1984. Shanq shu shyhyih [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Taipei: Wenhuab dahshyue chubaan sheh.

Chyou Shiguei [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1995. Wentzyhshyue gayyaw [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Rpt., Taipei: Wannjiuann lou.

Ding Suh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1972. "Shyh jiann" Jonggwo wentzyh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 44:1-3.

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Gwojia wenwuhjyu guuwenshiann yanjioushyh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1980. Maawangduei Hannmuh borshu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] vol. 1. Peking: Wenwuh chubaansheh.

_____. 1983. Maawongduei Hannmuh burshu, vol. 3. Peking: Wenwuh chubaansheh.

Jang Shooujong [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Jang Sheautsang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Hao Jiannwen 2000. Guodiann Chuujean wentzyh bian [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Peking: Wenwuh chubaansheh.

Jaw Cherng [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 1989. "Jeaguuwen shyngwei donqtsyr tann suoo" [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Guuwentzyh yanjiou [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 17: 324-37.

Jingmenshyh borwuhgoan [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1998. Guodiann Chuumuh jwujean [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Peking: Wenwuh chubaansheh.

Jou Faagau [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] et al. 1975. Jinwen guulin buu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 8 vols. Taipei.

_____. 1974. Jimven guulin [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 16 vols. Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press.

Karlgren, Bernhard. 1934. "Word Families in Chinese." Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 5-6: 9-120.

_____. [1957] 1996. Grammata Serica Recensa. Rpt., Taipei: Southern Materials Center Publishing, Inc.

Kern, Martin. 2000. The Stele Inscriptions of Ch'in Shih-huang: Text and Ritual in Early Chinese Imperial Representation. American Oriental Series, no, 85. New Haven: American Oriental Society.

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Lii Shiawdinq comp. [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1965. Jeaguu wentzyh jyishyh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 16 vols. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academic Sinica.

Liou Shianq [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], comp. 1980. Janngwo tseh [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2 vols. Taipei: Liiren shujyu.

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Shaughnessy, Edward L. 1991. Sources of Western Thou History: Inscribed Bronze Vessels. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

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Author:Van Auken, Newell Ann
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jul 1, 2002
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