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The ethno- and Research History of the Lake Louise Field Station, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA.

ABSTRACT

The history of the Lake Louise Field Station, from its 1951 purchase by George Leiby to its acquisition in 2009 by Valdosta State University, provides an interesting and varied look into the stewardship critical to teaching and research and the role played by the station in the development of the fields of paleoecology, paleotempestol-ogy and ethnohistory. During this 58-year period several individuals played critical roles in the development of this 76.9 hectare field station as a natural area for teaching and research. Notable among them were George and Louise Leiby who, working with Leo Lorenzo and Clyde Connell, set aside the station as a natural area for teaching and research. From the 1960s to the present, WA Watts, H Grissino-Mayer, J Tepper, D Hyatt, and J Pascarella and others have conducted research that has provided critical insight into the history and ecology of the area extending to 47,000 BP.

Key Words: Lake Louise Field Station, Valdosta State University, paleoecology, paleotempestology, ethnohistory, education

INTRODUCTION

Lake Louise Field Station (LLFS) (Fig. 1) is a 76.9 hectare (190.1 acre) parcel of land in Lowndes County, Georgia, approximately 15 km south of Valdosta State University (VSU) and 24 km north of the Florida state line. Details of the property and its location can be seen at the Lowndes Co. Assessor's Office (I). The property is bordered on the west by Interstate 75 (I-75), and its most prominent feature is a 5.7 hectare (13 acre) lake formed in a plugged limesink. The remainder of the property contains wetlands, drier forest areas, and a barrow-pit that dates from the construction of I-75 in the early 1960s. The LLFS has been the site of teaching and research in biology and other disciplines for over 50 years. This article describes the history of the LLFS, documents research done at the site, and provides an inventory of the habitat types at the site that are available for study and teaching.

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HISTORY

The VSU Foundation purchased the 76.9 hectare parcel that comprises the LLFS in 1995. Research and teaching at the site had been on-going since the late 1960s; however, the story of how the university finally acquired the land stretches over the intervening decades. Negotiations for the use of the Lake Louise property began in 1965. The parcel had been acquired in 1951 by a Valdosta physician, Dr. George Leiby, Jr., a native of North Carolina. Prior to its purchase, it was used for agriculture and forestry products such as naval stores turpentine distillation (see Research History below). The original parcel was slightly different than the one that comprises the LLFS today and included land that was deeded to the government in 1961 to make way for the construction of I-75 (Fig 2 and 3). Leiby is responsible for renaming the lake (Fig 4) after his wife. It formerly had been known as Little Cat Head Lake. A nearby lake known as Cat Head Lake (Fig 1) is located about 0.8 km to the west on the other side of I-75.

By 1965, George and Louise Leiby had moved back to North Carolina. The Biology Department of then Valdosta State College (VSC), under the leadership of Dr. Clyde Connell, had been looking for a suitable field station site. The county forester, Leo Lorenzo, knew about the property because he had consulted with Lieby about reforesting the land. Lorenzo also knew that Connell was looking for a good site for teaching and research. As Connell's initial proposal to Leiby explains, "Mr. Lorenzo, who is aware of our problem, was so kind as to inform me of the possibility that some arrangement might be worked out with you, especially since he had gained the impression that you wished to have your land serve a useful purpose for some organized and responsible group or institution." Connell had visited the property with Lorenzo and was impressed with its "location, accessibility, and variety of habitat, both aquatic and terrestrial" (II). Leiby agreed to let the department use the land; teaching and research began shortly thereafter. The next stage in the development of the field station was the construction of an outdoor classroom. Leiby gave permission for the project in 1965 (III), and later sent a check to pay for the concrete foundation (IV). In 1966, Connell reported that the slab was finished and that materials for constructing the pavilion roof had been collected (V). He apparently used college workmen for that project, which was completed sometime before November, when he reported again to Leiby on progress at the site (VI).

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The year 1968 started out uneventfully. We find, for example, Leiby complaining to a billboard company about left-over debris from a sign that had been struck by lightning, erosion problems on an access road used by the sign maintenance crew, and non-payment of rent (VII). Dr. Connell provided a brief update in the fourth in a series of summer workshops for teachers held at Lake Louise. The Leibys were especially pleased to hear about these activities and proud that the workshops at their "tree farm" played a role in Connell being named as "Conservation Educator of the Year" in 1966, although by whom remains unclear (VIII). The year 1968 also brought a significant change in the legal status of the Lake Louise property when the Leibys donated the property to their undergraduate alma mater, Mars Hill College, Mars Hill, North Carolina. Leiby explained to Connell the deep connection they both had with the college, including the fact that Mrs. Leiby's parents had both taught there and that the Leibys had met there as undergraduates (IX). Leiby was careful to note, however, that "Louise and I want you to have the use of this property as long as it is useful to you" (X). Within about a month, a biologist from Mars Hill had traveled to Valdosta to see the Lake Louise property, and the beginnings had been established of a relationship between the two institutions. Three-way negotiations involving VSC, Mars Hill College, and the Leibys soon led to a 25-year agreement that allowed Valdosta State to use the property and to act as custodians (XI).

The relationship between Mars Hill and VSC was cordial, but far from satisfactory to either party. The original idea that Mars Hill would be able to use the site for teaching and research turned out to be unrealistic because it was so far away, and they were anxious to sell the property in order to liquidate Leiby's gift. The 25-year easement, however, blocked a potential sale although it seems to have been understood that they could sell to VSC. For its part, VSC appears to have been in two minds about the purchase. The biologists wanted the college to buy the site, while the administration had little incentive to negotiate since VSC enjoyed free access for 25 years and could not easily raise the required funds in any event. This set of motivations and assumptions underlies the entire story from the date of Leiby's gift to Mars Hill in 1968 to the eventual purchase date in 1995.

The idea of purchasing the property from Mars Hill College is first mentioned in 1973, when the president of Mars Hill visited Valdosta in the company of a trustee and Dr. and Mrs. Leiby in late September. No detailed record of the discussions that took place during this visit have survived, but Connell reported to Leiby the next week that joint ownership was impractical, indicating at least one option that was considered (XII). Leiby responded to this news with a characteristically upbeat letter and a pledge of $25,000 to fund the purchase of the property from Mars Hill (XIII). VSC then pursued various ideas for securing other funding, including approaching the Georgia Heritage Trust and appealing to the Board of Regents to consider the purchase as a system-wide initiative. VSC biologist Wayne Faircloth was able to get a resolution passed by the Georgia Academy of Science in favor of the purchase by the state, which led to a response by none other than Governor Jimmy Carter, who advised taking the matter up with the Board of Regents (XIV). As President Martin had made clear, the college had other capital investment priorities in this period, including the purchase of real estate adjacent to the campus which would later be used for a basketball arena, an academic building, and a parking lot (XV).

While negotiations continued between Mars Hill College and VSC, the public of south-central Georgia was made aware of the presence and activities of the field station in an August 8, 1982, article, which appeared in the Valdosta Daily Times (Pg 2-B). Photographs in the article showed images of Lake Louise, Clyde Connell and plant and animal life found at the field station. The article also briefly makes reference to the past geologic and social histories of Lake Louise as well as Clyde Connell's desire that it would someday be purchased by VSC and preserved for research and teaching. Sixteen years later, two articles in the VSU Alumni Bulletin would again provide the public with a glimpse into the value of the station for teaching and research as well as its geologic and anthropological history (XVI, XVII).

Negotiations between VSC and Mars Hill about the purchase of the property resurfaced in 1977 and again in 1984, but went nowhere mainly because of Valdosta State's inability to raise funds. In 1984, the two colleges differed over who should pay for a controlled burn in part of the property. Valdosta State contended that, "Under the terms of the easement such a program is beyond our sphere of responsibilities" (XVIII). President Bentley of Mars Hill responded that it could not finance the controlled burn and again expressed his desire to sell: "My absolute preference in this entire matter would be for Valdosta State to generate the funds necessary to purchase this resource so that we could reinvest those monies in a biological resource closer to our campus" (XIX). The tone of Bentley's response reflects the relationship that had developed between the two schools and the situation in which Mars Hill found itself - sitting on a valuable piece of real estate that it could only sell to a cash-strapped and unmotivated potential buyer. This stalemate would only be broken after the 25-year easement had expired and VSU was faced with the possibility of losing the property to developers. Unfortunately, the full details surrounding VSU's eventual purchase of the property in December 1995 are not well-documented, possibly because of the increasing use of e-mail. It is clear, though, that Mars Hill rejected a proposal for a lease arrangement in 1993 and agreed to split the cost of an appraisal of the property, which came in at $174,000. With this firm goal in mind, the university's foundation closed on the property in December 1995. President Bailey's response to a thank-you note from the Biology Department summarized the eventual result: "Through the years we have made several aborted efforts to acquire the property. Now, at last, victory seems in sight" (XX). The subsequent history of the LLFS includes the creation of an oversight committee and the construction, in 1998, of a new boardwalk and dock. In 2001, the Biology Department joined the Organization of Biological Field Stations (XXI) and added the LLFS to the list of more than 200 sites available for research to members.

Field Station Habitats

The LLFS is a 76.9 hectare (190.1 acre) parcel of mixed upland and wetland habitat in south-central Lowndes County, GA. Terrestrial ecological communities on the site were classified using four primary sources (1), (2), (3), (4). Ecological units at the LLFS are classified in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain (Primary Division) and include one land cover class (Woody wetland) with three terrestrial vegetation ecological systems present: Atlantic Coastal Plain Streamhead Seepage Swamp, Pocosin, and Baygall; Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain Swamp System; and Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Wet Pine Savanna and Flatwoods.

The Atlantic Coastal Plain Streamhead Seepage Swamp, Pocosin, and Baygall system is found immediately around Lake Louise, a spring-fed sinkhole lake that has a direct connection to the Floridian aquifer. The water levels fluctuate due to variation in rainfall, variation in seepage, and activity of beaver dams on the outflow stream. This system is found predominantly to the south and east of Lake Louise and is crossed by the boardwalk that extends from the interior road to the lake shore. Vegetation is dominated by woody plants, with Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum, Pinus serotina, Magnolia virginiana, and Liriodendron tulipfera. The shrub layer is dense, with Cyrilla racemiflora, Leucotheo axillaris, Lyonia lucida, Lyonia ligustrina, Clethra alnifolia, Cliftonia monophylla, Ilex glabra, Persea palustris, Viburnum nudum, and Azalea uiscosum. Large wetland ferns including Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis, Woodwardia uirginica, and Woodwardia areolata are present.

The second system is closely related to the first but does not have a direct connection to the lake. Located in a very small area on the extreme eastern edge of Lake Louise is the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain Swamp System. This system has a high water table and soils are saturated due to rainfall. Both this system and the previous occur on Bayboro Loam soils that have very poor drainage (5). Dominant vegetation is similar to that of the previous system but the presence of pond Cypress, Taxodium distichum, distinguishes it. Soils in these two wetland systems are predominantly organic peat.

The most upland system at Lake Louise is the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Wet Pine Savannah and Flatwoods. This system is also the most heavily modified, having been turpentined, logged, plowed, used in annual cropping for agriculture, and mostly replanted in slash pine plantation. Soils are predominantly sandy soils in the Lakeland Sand and Albany Sand series (5) that are excessively drained. Three distinct ecological units can be distinguished. The largest is the planted slash pine area to the north and east of the main entry road. This area consists of mature slash pine (Pinus elliottii) with a mixed woody understory of mostly wax myrtle (Morella cerifera) and water oak (Quercus hemispherica). Prescribed fires in 1998, 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2010 have reduced the density of the understory vegetation. To the west of this area and bordering 1-75 is an unburned area. Because of the lack of fire, large numbers of oaks have invaded this area, including water oak and live oak (Quercus virginiana). The woody and ground layer vegetation is denser and there are fewer herbs and grasses. To the south and east of the entry road by the front gate is a third area of undisturbed oak/pine woodlands with turkey oak (Quercus laeva), bluejack oak (Quercus incana), and Southern Red Oak (Quercus falcata). This area does not show evidence of being plowed and has an intact native ground understory, such as ground blueberry (Vaccinium myrsinites). It transitions into the swamp system gradually with gallberry (Ilex glabra) and staggerbush (Lyonia ferruginea) serving as a strong indicator of the transition to saturated soils.

Research History

The diverse habitats found on the field station along with their associated ecology, both past and present, have provided for a rich and diverse array of research projects over the past 40 years. Two major fields of research, paleoecology (6) and the more recent field of paleotempestology (7) have benefited from work done at the LLFS. Lake Louise was first recognized in 1969 (8) as a possible research site for studies on post-Wisconsin glacial period pollen studies involving the replacement of oak communities by pine dominated communities. Subsequently, Watts (9) using core samples from Lake Louise and elsewhere was able to develop a detailed chronology of events such that from 8,500 to 5,000 BP sclerophyllus oak dominated not only the field station's surrounding area, but also north Florida and South Georgia. Watts' (9) postglacial sediments also indicated the presence of prairie-like areas of herbaceous species similar to Minnesota prairies. Sediments post 5,000 BP indicated a shift to a long-leaf pine dominated habitat with a developing peripheral bayhead floral community similar to what currently surrounds the lake. Additionally, Watts (9) found in core samples discontinuities between 8,500 and 49,000 BP. Covich and Stuiver (10) conducting paleoclimate studies utilizing [.sup.18]O:[.sup.16]O isotope ratios in cores from Laguna Chichancanab, northern Yucatan, also noted discontinuities in their cores prior to 8,000 years BP; and while not drawing strict correlations between their work and that of Watts', did reference his work at the LLFS and the similarity of results in the existence of the discontinuities.

Wright (11) in his discussion of landscape development, and the need to establish biologically based protocols for wilderness management areas such as the Boundary Water Canoe Areas of Minnesota, drew upon the early work of Watts (9) at the LLFS as part of his arguments for the development of biologically based protocols. Subsequently, Wiens, et al. (12) incorporated Wright's (11) paper in their book on landscape ecology published in 2007, adding to the credence of the early research work done at Lake Louise and how it has helped build a critical knowledge base and a foundation for future research.

Core sediments have also provided evidence via algal and floating leaved aquatic species in the Nymphaea that Lake Louise developed rapidly after 8,500 BP (13), forming first as a mesic lake and then developing into a more oligotrophic lake with productivity being influenced by "brown water" or what is more commonly called "black water" (14, 15). Core sediments prior to 8,500 BP consisted of layers of peat (9) extending back to 49,000 BP with pollens indicating alternations in Pinus and Quercus dominated communities with some evidence of periodic bayhead, tree swamp, and marshland prairies existing nearby. McAndrews and King (16) in a broad landscape analysis of Quaternary pollen, primarily from Holocene deposits, used samples from Lake Louise to delineate six pollen provinces with Lake Louise located within the Southeastern Province. Watts (17), reviewing 96 references, conducted a major review of the Quaternary vegetation of the Southeastern U.S. drawing on data sets from Lake Louise and five other lakes extending from North Carolina to Florida. Delcourt (18), working with core samples from Goshen Springs, southern Alabama, referenced the works of Watts (8), (9) reaffirming and correlating his findings on Quaternary vegetation with those of Watts and his work on Lake Louise. Delcourt (19), in a major study of the East Highland Rim and the Cumberland Plateau, drew correlations with numerous studies to include Watts' (8, 9) early work, noting that while the mid south had a cool moist climate, the Southeastern U.S. had xeric conditions and an oak dominated habitat. Even after the above referenced publications, Wayne Faircloth and William Watts continued to communicate about Lake Louse and other north Florida and South Georgia lakes as Watts continued with his studies in the paleoecology of the region (XXII, XXIII). Watts final work in the region involved Camel Lake (20) in which he examined in detail the climate regimes and sea level changes of the region, noting that Lake Louise had provided an exceptionally rich Holocene record.

Using oxygen isotopes proxies (21), (22) from tree cores taken at the LLFS, Miller, et al. (23) were able to document as many as 47 tropical cyclones or hurricanes that occurred between 1770 and 1940, with confirmation for 31 of the storms existing in historical records. Data also allowed the determination of cycles or periods in which cyclone activity was more intense with greater numbers of storms occurring than in other years.

Looking at the interrelationship between possible biological and physical factors, Zimmerman et al. (24) compared energy exchange in Lake Francis, Lowndes County, Georgia, with the blackwater environment found in Lake Louise. From this study, they concluded that the blackwater environment of Lake Louise trapped insolation energy in the upper aquatic layers of the lake whereas the clear water environment of Lake Francis permitted energy to reach much great depths resulting in a substantially different thermoclines and mixing properties.

Lake Louise has also been used as a control site for the study of methanogenesis in the Okefenokee Swamp. King, et al. (25) compared the highly acid waters of Cooter Lake and Grand Prairie, Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, to the less acid waters of Lake Louise and Grassy Pond, Lowndes Co., Georgia, as they related to methane production. Their findings indicated that acidity was not a major factor in methane production, at least during warm months of the year.

The LLFS has also been a key site for studying and understanding biological diversity in the Southeastern U.S. The field station was one of eight sites Hains and Sebring (26) used as a source of specimens to describe a new species of diatom Synedra planktonica in the Bacillariophyceae, which was later reassigned to the Fragilaria longifusiformis comb. nov. et nom. nov by Siver, et al., (27). Smith and Hendry (28) studied oligochaetes and aphanoneurans in Lake Louise in 1989 using multi-plate samplers suspended above the bottom of the lake. Over a six month period, they identified and documented 20 species. One of particular note was the first North American record for the aphanoneuran, Aeolosoma travancorense. They also documented range extensions into Georgia for six additional species including extensions of two species for which only northerly distributions were known.

Examining terrestrial community ecology, Pascarella conducted a series of studies from 1999 to the present at the field station and surrounding areas in Lowndes Co, GA. Studying foraging preferences in the blueberry bee, Habropoda laboriosa, Pascarella (29) used the field station as rural site in a comparative study looking at foraging preferences for various species of Vaccinium, Gelsemium and Azalea, in rural, suburban, and urban habitats. Through this work, he determined that the blueberry bee, originally thought of as being oligolectic was in South Georgia functioning as a mesolectic species foraging on a wider range of plant species than originally reported in previous studies. Also in 2007, Pascarella (30) reported on a study involving prezygotic isolating mechanisms in the closely allied Jessamine species G. rankinii and G. semperuirens. This work, some of which was carried out at Lake Louise, demonstrated that hybridization between these two species, at least in part, involves temporal isolation in flowering time such that shared pollinators were not able to cross pollinate the two species. Looking at pollination and fruit set in Gelsemium, Pascarella (31) determined that, while blueberry bees carried sufficient pollen to initiate pollination, fruit set was low ranging from 8-36% of flowers on a bush.

Tepper and Hyatt (32) have examined core sediments dating to 9,500 BP from Lake Louise looking at variations in carbon, lead deposition ([.sup.210]Pb), nitrogen, biogenic silica, and diatom communities. From their multipronged analyses, they were able to build upon, document, and support the work of others referenced above. Summarizing their findings and discussion, they found that the lake was initially oligotrophic and moderately productive from the time of its rapid development when sea levels rose at the end of the last glaciation period with a probable concomitant collapse of the sinkhole basin. The lake then experienced a marked increase in productivity resulting in eutrophication around 1790 possibly resulting from the impact of the Great Hurricane of 1780 after which the lake became considerably more eutrophic with a ten-fold increase in sedimentation rates. They attribute much of this major shift in the ecology of the lake to two input sources: 1) the development of an intermittent inflow stream that now runs under I-75 and drains Cathead Lake into Lake Louise, and 2) the development of extensive peripheral wetlands described above. The intermittent stream also drains runoff waters from I-75, and activities involving the building and subsequent modification of the interstate can be seen in the sediments as increased silt and clay in core samples. Core samples (32) also support the findings of Grissino-Mayer in which he identified dry years from 1851-1865 in tree ring cores. Tepper and Hyatt's sediment cores also reflect logging activities which occurred in the surrounding uplands and wetlands starting in the 1930s extending up the 1950s. Finally, Tepper and Hyatt employed the occurrence of [.sup.210]Pb deposition, which began to occur in the 1800s, as evidence of anthropogenic activities in the area, their influence on deposition rates and core layer structure.

Samples from Lake Louise sediments have also been used to conduct comparative analyses for testing organic matter content methodologies. Luke, et al. (33) determined that LOI (loss on ignition) carbon extraction provided an accurate method of measuring carbon content in sediments from the lake, but LOI extraction did not work well for soil sediments giving variable results.

Even before Tepper and Hyatt's (32) contribution to the ethnohistroy of the area discussed above, Grissino-Mayer et al. (34) contributed to our understanding of forest use using data collected at the LLFS. In their work they examined tree core samples from boxed or chipped trees used to extract sap for turpentine production as a way to understand forest use. From this they learned that the turpentine industry at the LLFS was active in 1925 and 1954-1956. Grissino-Mayer et al. (35) studying the Ximenez-Fatio House, St. Augustine, Florida, used tree ring cores as out samples to estimate the age of the trees used to construct the domicile. Faught and Carter (36) in a review of human occupation and its relation to environmental change in Northwest Florida from the late Pleistocene to 5,000 BP drew on the works of Watts to include his 1971 (9) work so as to better understand environmental changes taking place during this time period.

DISCUSSION

The history of the LLFS in combination with its varied habitats reinforces the value and need to maintain long-term commitments to field stations and natural areas for research and teaching. Ongoing research at the LLFS over more than 40 years has contributed substantially to our broader understanding of key geochemical, biological, and ethnohistory processes and their interrelatedness as they pertain to the disciplines of paleoecology, paleotem-pestology, and human history. In addition, multiple studies (37) using tree and sediment core samples from the LLFS as well as elsewhere have allowed researchers to reconstruct a detailed natural history involving the Pleistocene and Holocene climates and assorted floral regimes of the Southeastern U.S. for a time period extending back approximately 49,000 BP. As with all good research, work done at the LLFS has permitted researchers to tie in events occurring at the field station to greater regional and global events such as changes in eusatic sea levels, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico hurricanes, and anthropogenic activities dating back to the occupation of the area by Native American Indians and early European settlers. The current data base provided through past research and publications has laid the foundation for yet further studies that can continue to broaden our knowledge base as evidenced by the work of Delcourt (19), the recent work of Tepper and Hyatt (32), and Grissino-Mayer and his colleagues (34), (35). Furthermore, the understanding of such processes and events, their interrelatedness and complexity provide for the development of educational resources such as textbooks and fieldtrips that educate the public in the values of science. Such resources in turn are critical for the education of the public as to the value of natural resources and their role in our understanding of the world we live in.

The history of the LLFS also points out the importance of philanthropic activities by individuals such as George and Louise Leiby who generously donated their land to Mars Hill College, and the importance of the roles played by individuals such as Clyde Connell, Leo Lorenzo, and Wayne Faircloth as they moved to secure the land for VSU. Yet the history of the land transfer from the Leibys to Mars Hill College, its final sale to the Valdosta State University Foundation under the leadership of then VSU president Hugh Bailey with subsequent transfer to the State of Georgia in 2009 also points out the complexities associated with such activities and the difficulties and efforts encountered by those involved.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Emily Cantonwine and Marilyn Bechler are thanked for reviewing a copy of this manuscript.

FOOTNOTES

Footnotes that follow are web pages related to the LLFS, letters, related documents held by Valdosta State University and published newspaper and newsletter articles. See Archives & Special Collections, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, Ga., Biology Department Papers, 1966-2008, UA/8/006, Box 1, Folders 7 and 8.

I. http://qpublic4.qpublic.net/ga_display.php?county=ga_lowndes&KEY=0169%20%20006

II. Letter, Connell to Leiby, February 8, 1965.

III. Letter, Leiby to Connell, July 23, 1965.

IV. Letter, Leiby to Connell, May 5, 1966.

V. Letter, Connell to Leiby, October 4, 1966.

VI. Letter, Connell to Leiby, November 10, 1966.

VII. Letter, Leiby to National Advertising Company, April 8, 1968.

VIII. Letter, Leiby to Connell, October 15, 1966.

IX. Letter, Leiby to Connell, July 22, 1968.

X. Letter, Leiby to Connell, July 23, 1968.

XI. Letter, Connell to Outten, August 12, 1968.

XII. Letter, Connell to Leiby, October 3, 1973.

XIII. Letter, Leiby to Connell, October 12, 1973.

XIV. Letter, Carter to Faircloth, January 7, 1975.

XV Letter, Martin to Bentley, May 16, 1974.

XVI. Gunder, Bernadette, 1998. An Outdoor Laboratory. VSU Alumni Bulletin (Summer): 6-7.

XVII. Tepper, J.H., 1998. A window into South Georgia environmental history. VSU Alumni Bulletin (Summer): 8-11.

XVIII. Letter, Bailey to Bentley, November 21, 1984.

XIX. Letter, Bentley to Bailey, December 14, 1984.

XX. Letter, Bailey to Bechler, October 24, 1995.

XXI. S. http://www.obfs.org/

XXII. Letter, Watts to Faircloth, February 6, 1986.

XXIII. Letter, Faircloth to Watts, February 24, 1986.

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Paul T Riggs (1)

John B Pascarella (2)

David L Bechler (3)

(1) Department of History

Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698

(2) Office of the Dean, College of Science and Technology

Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460

(3) Department of Biology

Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA

Corresponding author

David L. Bechler

E-mail: dbechler@valdosta.edu

Phone: 229-293-6063
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Author:Riggs, Paul T.; Pascarella, John B.; Bechler, David L.
Publication:Georgia Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2010
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